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Day 1 : Q.1 to Q. 25 : General Aptitude

Q.1 Choose the correct set of words to complete the sentence:

Politicians must be _____ for the people, but they should never be_____for public welfare.

(a) disinterested, uninterested (b) disinterested, disinterested

(c) uninterested, uninterested (d) uninterested, disinterested

Q.2 How many numbers between 1 to 300 are divisible by only 11 or only 13 but not by both?

(a) 45 (b) 46

(c) 48 (d) 50

Q.3 Triangles ABC and CDE have a common vertex C with side AB of triangle ABC being parallel

to side DE of triangle CDE. If length of side AB = 4 cm and length of side DE = 10 cm and

perpendicular distance between sides AB and DE is 9.8 cm, then the sum of areas of triangle

ABC and triangle CDE is _________ cm2.

Q.4 A and B will participate in a sack race (In a sack race, people hop to reach the finish line). In the

time that A takes 3 hops, B takes 4 hops but the distance covered by A in 4 hops is equal to

distance covered by B in 5 hops. What is the ratio of A's speed: B's speed?

(a) 3 : 5 (b) 12 : 20

(c) 15 : 16 (d) 1 : 1

Q.5 In the sentence given below, a part of sentence is underlined, choose the correct alternative of

the phrasing of the underlined part:

While their ostrich like attitude is aggravating, what is very serious is loss of wealth and loss

of business.

(a) their refusal to face facts (b) their heavy handedness

(c) their annoying behaviour (d) their big ego

(a) –1 (b) 6

(c) 7 (d) 12

Q.7 A lizard is crawling up a minaret to reach the top. The top of the minaret is 1800 cm from its

position. After every minute of crawling it halts for half a minute. In every halt it slides down

by 30 cm from its position. Time the lizard will take to reach the top of the minaret if it can

crawl 150 cm per minute is

(a) 21 minutes 48 seconds (b) 25 minutes

(c) 20 minutes (d) 32 minutes 40 seconds

Q.8 How many 5 letter words (with or without meaning) can be formed using all the following

5 letters A, B, C, D and E so that letter A is to the left of letter B?

(a) 120 (b) 60

(c) 48 (d) 24

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Q.9 Choose the option that best substitutes the underlined part of the sentence :

TCS is edging closer to become the country’s first 100 bn $ company. The company is fortunate

to have excellent relationships among its employees : they each have a relationship of respect

(a) they each have a relationship of respect for all the others.

(b) they have respect for one another.

(c) each one has respect for one another.

(d) they each have a relationship of respect for each other.

(a) 0 (b) 1

(c) 5 (d) 9

Q.11 The percentage profit earned by selling an article for `1920 is equal in the percentage loss

incurred by selling the same article for `1280. At what price (in `) should the article be sold to

make 25% profit?

Q.12 A faulty wall clock is known to gain 15 minutes every 24 hours. It is synchronized to the

correct time at 9 AM on 14th August. What will be the correct time to the nearest minute when

the clock shows 2 PM on 18th August of the same year?

(a) 12:45 PM (b) 12:58 PM

(c) 1:00 PM (d) 2:00 PM

Q.13 As shown in the figure below, two sides of triangle BCD are each 9 feet long. Triangle BCD

shares side BD with square ABDE, and angle CBD measures 45°. What is the total area of

figure ABCDE in square feet? (Note: Figure not drawn to scale.)

C

9 9

B D

A E

(c) 202.5 (d) 221

Q.14 A farmer can plow his wheat field in 12 days. After working for 5 days, his daughter joins him

and together they finish plowing the field in 4 days. How many days would it take the daughter

to plow the wheat field alone?

Q.15 A series of numbers are written using digits 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 in the following pattern:

1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, 4, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, (six 1’s) and so on. Which of the following

digits will come at the 100th position in this sequence?

(a) 1 (b) 2

(c) 3 (d) 4

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Q.16 A part has been omitted from the sentence given below and it is to be filled with idiom(s), to

make the sentences grammatically meaningfully correct. Mark the answer accordingly.

Although Mr. Naipaul was __________, he never boasted about anything or try to use the

resources available to him in an unethical way.

1. An armchair traveller

2. Born with a silver spoon

3. A big fish in a small pond

(a) Only 2 (b) Both 2 and 3

(c) Both 1 and 3 (d) None of these

Q.17 In the given question, a set of conclusions is given. There are four options comprising of three

or more statements. You need to choose the option that contains the set of statements from

which the given conclusions logically follow.

(a) Some glances are horses. Some horses are blemishes. No blemish is a cottage.

(b) No horse is a blemish. All cottages are blemishes. All glances are horses.

(c) Some horses are blemishes. All glances are blemishes. Some cottages are not blemishes.

(d) All horses are blemishes. Some blemishes are not cottages. No blemish is a glance.

Q.18 Vessel A contains six green and four red balls and vessel B contains four green and six red

balls. One ball is drawn at random from vessel A and placed in vessel B. Then one ball is

transferred at random from vessel B to vessel A. If one ball is now drawn at random from

vessel A, the probability that it is green is

23 32

(a) (b)

55 65

33 32

(c) (d)

65 55

Q.19 Four runners started running the race in the same direction along a circular path of 7 km. Their

speed are 4, 3, 9, 3.5 km/hr. individually. If they started their race at 6 AM then at what time

they all will be at the starting point?

(a) 2 PM (b) 8 PM

(c) 8 AM (d) 6 PM

Q.20 The average number of goals scored per match by Sunil Chhetri in matches where he was in

the team of starting 11 is 1.5 and the average number of goals scored by him in matches where

he came on as a substitute is 0.5. He scored 390 goals more in matches where he was in the

team of starting 11 than in matches in which he came on as a substitute. If he played 388

matches in total, the average number of goals scored by him per match is

Q.21 In a family of 4 members, the eldest member expires after 5 years at the age of 88 and 10 years

after that a baby is born in the family such that the difference of family’s eldest to youngest

member alive after 20 years from present is 57. At present, the age of youngest member is

14 years and the average age of remaining member is 54. The age of the two eldest members

alive after 5 years would be

(a) 88, 47 (b) 42, 19

(c) 47, 42 (d) 37, 42

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Q.22 Which of phrases given below should replace the phrase printed in bold type to make the

sentence grammatically correct?

The crime has growth rapidly in Russia since the disintegration of the communist system.

(a) rapid crime has grown

(b) crime has grown rapidly

(c) crimes grow rapidly

(d) crimes have been rapidly grown

Q.23 A sphere is inscribed in a cube with an edge of 10 units. What is the shortest possible distance

in units from one of the vertices of the cube to the surface of the sphere?

(a) 10 ( 3 −1 ) (b) 5

(c) 10 ( 2 − 1) (d) 5 ( 3 −1 )

Q.24 Based on the given statements, select the most appropriate option to solve the question.

Sheetal wants to sell her bicycle at either a profit of K% or a loss of K%. What is the value of K?

Statement 1: Difference between the amount Sheetal gets in the 2 cases is `2560.

Statement 2: If Sheetal’s profit is ` K, her profit in percentage is 7.5%.

(a) Statement 1 alone is sufficient, but statement 2 alone is NOT sufficient.

(b) Statement 2 alone is sufficient, but statement 1 alone is NOT sufficient.

(c) Both statements together are sufficient, but neither statement alone is sufficient.

(d) Statement 1 and 2 together are NOT sufficient.

Q.25 Select the pair which has the same relationship as the two words

IMPLAUSIBLE : ABSURD :: ?

(a) shadowy : illuminated (b) flamboyant : public

(c) surprising : shocking (d) superfluous : truncated

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Detailed Explanations

1. (a)

‘Disinterested’ means ‘free from bias, free from personal/selfish motives’.

‘Uninterested’ means ‘lacking interest’.

2. (b)

Between 1 to 300:

There are 27 multiples of 11.

There are 23 multiples of 13.

There are 2 multiples of 143 (of both 11 and 13).

So, there are 27 – 2 = 25 numbers divisible by 11 only.

And, there are 23 – 2 = 21 numbers divisible by 13 only.

In all, there are 25 + 21 = 46 numbers divisible by 11 or 13 but not by both.

A 4 cm B

Given AB || DE

⇒ ∠B = ∠D (Alternate angles) h1

h2

h1 AB 4 2

⇒ = = =

h2 DE 10 5

D E

and h1 + h2 = 9.8 cm (given) 10 cm

∴ h1 = 2.8 cm and h2 = 7 cm

1

Area of ∆ABC = × 4 × 2.8 = 5.6 cm 2

2

1

Area of ∆EDC = × 10 × 7 = 35 cm 2

2

∴ Sum of areas of ∆ABC and ∆EDC = 40.6 cm2

4. (c)

Let time taken by A and B to complete 3 and 4 hops respectively be 't'

t t

Therefore time taken by A and B to do 1 hop is and respectively

3 4

Let distance covered in A and B's 4 and 5 hops respectively be 'd'

d d

Therefore distance covered by A and B in 1 hop is and respectively

4 5

d d

4 5 3 d 4 d

A's speed: B's speed = : = × : × = 15 : 16

t t 4 t 5 t

3 4

5. (a)

‘Ostrich like attitude’ means ‘when you overlook or ignore a problem’.

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6. (b)

First of all |x – 3|2 = (x – 3)2, so we have: (x – 3)2 + |x – 3| = 20.

when x < 3, x – 3 is negative, thus |x – 3| = –(x – 3). In this case we will have (x – 3)2 – (x – 3)

= 20

⇒ x = –1 or x = 8.

Discard x = 8 because it’s not in the range we consider (< 3).

when x >= 3, x – 3 is non-negative, thus |x – 3| = x – 3. In this case we will have

(x – 3)2 + (x – 3) = 20

⇒ x = –2 or x = 7.

Discard x = –2 because it’s not in the range we consider (> = 3).

Thus there the two solutions: x = –1 and x = 7

⇒ The sum = 6.

7. (a)

1800 1800

Number of trials = = = 15

150 − 30 120

Let us take 14 trials of sliding up

For every trial of these 14 trials, its effective upward movement is (150 – 30) = 120 cm

1

The time taken for this = 14 × 1 + 14 × = 21 minutes

2

Total distance = (14 × 120) = 1680 cm

Remaining = 1800 – 1680 = 120 cm

( 60 × 120 ) = 48 seconds

Remaining 120 cm it can reach in

150

Total time = 21 minutes 48 seconds

8. (b)

Total ways of arranging 5 letters in any possible order = 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 × 1 = 5! = 120

In half of the cases A will be to the left of B and in other half A will be to the right of B

Hence, desired outcome

9. (b)

This is a situation in which there is the same relationship, respect, between any possible pair of

people in the group. This is a saturation that calls for the structure “each other” or “one another”.

Choice (a) doesn’t use this, and what is used is very wordy and awkward, so it is incorrect.

These structures, “each other” and “one another”, demand a plural subject. Choices (c) and (d)

make the mistake of using a singular subject, so these are incorrect.

Option (b) is the right answer.

10. (d)

Factorial of the positive integers greater than 5 is divisible by 18.

So, we have to find out the remainder when 1!+2!+3!+4!+5!(= 153)is divided by 18. (All other

terms yield zero remainder)

So, Remainder = 9.

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11. (2000)

Let Percentage Profit/Loss = x and Cost Price = C

Now, C + xC = 1920

C – xC = 1280

Solving for C ⇒ 2C = 3200 ⇒ C = 1600

Sale Price with 25% profit ⇒ 1.25 × 1600 = 2000.

12. (b)

9 AM of 14th August to 2 PM on 18th August = 101 hours

15

24 + hours of incorrect clock = 24 hours of correct clock

60

96

1 hour of incorrect clock = hours of correct clock

97

96

101 hours of incorrect clock = × 101 hours of correct clock

97

= 99 hours and approx 58 minutes

So, correct time will be

2 PM, 14th August + (99 hours and 58 minutes) = 12:58 PM on 18th August

13. (c)

The length of the hypotenuse of the triangle is the length of one of the sides multiplied by 2,

i.e. 9 2 feet. Therefore the area of the square is 9 2 × 9 2 = 81 × 2 = 162 sq. feet.

The area of the triangle must be exactly one quarter of the area of the square. If you don’t see

that directly, imagine the triangle being flipped down into the square. Therefore, the total

162

area is 162 + sq. feet = 202.5 sq feet.

4

14. (16)

Farmer works for 5 + 4 = 9 days

9 3

If he completes entire work in 12 days, he will finish or th work in 9 days.

12 4

3 1

Remaining work, 1 − = , is done by daughter in 4 days..

4 4

1

So if daughter does work in 4 days, she will complete the whole work in 4 × 4 = 16 days.

4

15. (d)

n ( n + 1) n ( n + 1)

We will be required to get the value of n such that = 100. If n = 13, = 91 which

2 2

means that 100th digit will be occupied by 14th set of digits or it will be equal to 4.

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16. (b)

‘Armchair traveller’ = Someone who reads books or watches TV programmes about other

places and countries, but doesn’t actually travel anywhere. “Born with a silver spoon” = born

into a very rich family. “A big fish in a small pond” = an important or highly-ranked person in

a small group or organisation. Since, the sentence does not contain any reference about

travelling, (1) cannot be true here.

17. (b)

The statements given in option (b) lead to the required conclusions.

Cottages

Horses Blemish

(a) Glances Horses

Blemishes

In this scenario conclusion II does not follow In this scenario both the conclusions are true

Cottages

Blemishes

(c) Cottages

In this case we see that neither of the conclusions is true In this scenario conclusion I does not follow

18. (d)

The probability that a green ball is transferred from A to B and a green ball is transferred from

6 5 30

.

vessel B to vessel A, Pgreen, green = × =

10 11 110

6 6 36

.

Similarly other cases, Pgreen, red = × =

10 11 110

4 4 16

Pred, green = × =

10 11 110

4 7 28

Pred, red = × =

10 11 110

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Probability of drawing a green ball from vessel A after the transfers in these four cases are

6 5 7 6

, , , respectively.

10 10 10 10

Therefore the required probability

30 6 5 36 7 16 6 28 32

= × + × + × + × =

110 10 10 110 10 110 10 110 55

19. (b)

The time required by individual to complete one revolution is

7 7 7 7

, , , hours

4 3 9 3.5

7 7 7 2

To reach at starting point, the time required is LCM of , , and hours.

4 3 9 1

LCM (7, 7, 7, 2)

= HCF(4,3,9,1) = 14 hours

After 14 hours, all 4 will be at starting point.

or, 6 + 14 = 20 = 8 PM

all will be at starting point.

Let the number of matches in which he was in the team of starting 11 be x and the matches in

which he came on as a substitute be y.

Thus, x + y = 388 ...(i)

Number of goals scored in matches in which he was in the team of starting 11 = Average ×

number of matches = 1.5x

Number of goals scored in matches in which he came on as a substitute = 0.5y

Thus, 1.5x = 0.5y + 390 ...(ii)

Solving both equations for x and y, we have x = 292 and y = 96

So, the total number of goals scored by him = 1.5 × 292 + 0.5 × 96 = 486 goals

Therefore, average number of goals scored per match = 486 ÷ 388 = 1.253

21. (c)

At present,

Let the members be M, N, O and P

Where age of P > O > N > M

Since P died after 5 years at the age of 88. So, present age of P = 88 – 5 = 83

Youngest member = M = 14 years

N + O + P = 54 × 3

N + O = 162 – 83 = 79 ...(i) (O > N)

10 years after the death of P means 15 years hence from present, let Q be born.

20 years from present means at that time Q = 5 years and is youngest.

Eldest member at that time = O (age = O + 20)

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(O + 20) – 5 = 57

O = 57 – 15 = 42 years

So, N = 79 – 42 = 37 years

After 5 years, members alive are = M, N, O

M = 14 + 5 = 19 years

N = 37 + 5 = 42 years

O = 42 + 5 = 47 years

Required ages of N and O are 42 and 47.

22. (b)

23. (d)

It would be easier if we visualize this problem. As sphere is inscribed in cube then the edges

of the cube equal to the diameter of sphere,

Diameter = 10 units

Now, half of (Diagonal minus Diameter) is the gap between the vertex of cube and surface

of the sphere, which will be the shortest distance:

x =

Diagonal − Diameter 10 3 − 10

2

=

2

=5 ( 3 −1 )

24. (c)

K

Let us assume k = and the cost price = C

100

K K

Based on S1, we can write C × 1 + − C × 1 − = 2560

100 100

2CK

i.e. = 2560 or Ck = 1280 which does not give the value of k or K. Hence Statement 1 is NOT

100

sufficient.

Based on S2, C × 0.075 = K which gives C = 40K/3 = 4000k/3 which will NOT give the value of

k or K.

When we combine the information given in both the statements, we will be able to find C as

well as k or K. Hence option (c) is the correct option.

25. (c)

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Day 2 : Q.26 to Q.50 : Communications and Electronic Devices

Q.26 An amplitude modulated signal is given by,

s(t) = [20 + 2cos(3000πt) + 10cos(6000πt)]cos(2π fc t) V

The ratio of the power in sidebands to the power in carrier component is

(a) 0.065 (b) 0.13

(c) 0.26 (d) 0.52

Q.27 A message signal m(t) is applied to an ideal FM modulator and the resultant FM signal is

applied to an ideal demodulator (based on PLL) as shown in the figure below.

FM FM y (t )

m(t)

Modulator Demodulator

c(t ) = cos(2πfct )

The frequency sensitivity of the FM modulator (kf ) is 5 Hz/V and the frequency sensitivity of

the VCO (kv ) used in the PLL is 10 Hz/V. If the average power of the message signal m(t) is

20 W, then the average power of the signal y(t) will be equal to

(a) 5 W (b) 10 W

(c) 20 W (d) 40 W

Q.28 In an FM system, If both amplitude and frequency of the single-tone message signal are doubled,

then the bandwidth (according to Carson’s rule) of the resultant FM signal will be

(a) Halved (b) Doubled

(c) Unchanged (d) Eight-times

Q.29 A 1 Mbps data is to be transmitted through a baseband channel, whose bandwidth is 600 kHz.

If the raised cosine pulse shaping is used for baseband modelling of the data, then the maximum

allowed value of the roll-off factor of the filter will be _________ .

C = {11001, 00111, 10010, 01010}

The minimum distance of the code (dmin) is ____________.

Q.31 Consider the following statements with reference to PCM and DPCM systems having same

sampling frequency:

S 1: For same BW requirement, DPCM provides better SQNR than that of PCM.

S 2: For same SQNR, DPCM requires less BW than that of PCM.

Select the correct statement(s) using the codes given below:

(a) S1 only (b) S2 only

(c) Both S1 and S2 (d) Neither S1 nor S2

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Q.32 A BPSK signal, with equiprobable bits, is transmitted through an AWGN channel and received

by a correlator receiver. The two-sided power spectral density of the channel noise is 1 nW/Hz

and the average bit energy transmitted is 10 µJ. If there is no phase mismatch between the

carrier signals used in the transmitter and receiver, then the probability of error of the system

will be

(a) Q(10) (b) Q(10 2 )

(c) Q(100) (d) Q(100 2 )

Q.33 A 100 kbps data is transmitted using a DS-CDMA system with a chip rate of 7.2 Mcps. The

processing gain achieved by the CDMA system is

(a) 3.6 (b) 36

(c) 7.2 (d) 72

Q.34 A White noise process with a two-sided power spectral density of unity is passed through an

ideal low-pass filter, whose cut-off frequency is 5 kHz. The resultant process is sampled with

a sampling interval of Ts . For which of the following values of Ts , the adjacent samples will be

correlated?

(a) 100 µsec (b) 150 µsec

(c) 300 µsec (d) 600 µsec

Q.35 A binary source X = {x0, x1} is connected to the channel shown in the figure below.

0.6

x0 y0

0.4

ye

x1 y1

1

If the source emits the symbol x0 with a probability of 0.4, then the entropy at the output of the

channel will be _________ bits/symbol

Q.36 The generator matrix of a (5, 2) linear block code is given by,

1 0 1 0 0

G=

0 1 1 1 1

The minimum distance of the code (dmin) is ________.

1 1 1 1

Q.37 A discrete memoryless source emits 4 symbols with probabilities , , , . The entropy of

8 8 4 2

the 2nd order extension of this source will be

(a) 0.875 bits/block (b) 1.75 bits/block

(c) 3.50 bits/block (d) 3.0625 bits/block

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Q.38 The message bit sequence to a DPSK modulator is “1, 0, 1, 1, 0”. This data is differentially

encoded with unknown logic gate (EX-OR/EX-NOR) and unknown starting reference bit.

Carrier phase of “π” is assigned to logic - 0 and carrier phase of “0” is assigned to logic - 1 after

encoding the data. If the carrier phase corresponding to the first two message bits (from left

side) are π, 0 respectively, then the carrier phases corresponding to the for remaining three

message bits will be respectively

(a) π, π, 0 (b) π, 0, 0

(c) 0, 0, π (d) 0, π, π

1 2

Q.39 In a digital communication system, bits 0 and 1 are transmitted with probabilities and

3 3

respectively. The receiver decides for either 0 or 1 based on the received value R. The conditional

probability density functions of R are as follows:

fR(r |0) fR(r |1)

1 1

When ‘0’ is transmitted When ‘1’ is transmitted

r r

–1 0 1 0 1 2

Decision is made in favour of 0 if r < rth and in favour of 1 if r > rth. If the threshold value rth is

decided in an optimum way according to MAP criteria, then the value of rth will be

1 1

(a) (b)

2 3

2 3

(c) (d)

3 4

Q.40 The probability density function of the amplitude of a message signal is shown in the figure

below:

fX(x)

x

–b –a 0 a b

The samples of this message signal are applied to a quantizer, for which the boundaries of the

quantization regions are set at ±a, ±b. For which one of the following combinations of ‘a’ and

‘b’, the entropy at the quantizer output will be maximum?

(a) a = 2 and b = 1 (b) a = 3 and b = 1

(c) a = 4 and b = 8 (d) a = 1 and b = 3

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Q.41 Two continuous random variables X and Y are related as, Y = aX + b. If ‘a’ and ‘b’ are positive

constants, then the correct relation between the differential entropies of the two random

variables will be

a a

(a) H (Y ) = H ( X ) + log 2 (b) H ( X ) = H (Y ) + log 2

b b

(c) H (Y ) = H (X ) + log2(a) (d) H (X ) = H (Y) + log2(a)

Q.42 A discrete memoryless source produces five symbols with probabilities 0.50, 0.20, 0.15, 0.10

and 0.05. If these symbols are encoded into binary format using Huffman coding algorithm,

then the average code word length of the resultant binary code words will be equal to ________

bits/symbol.

Q.43 The intermediate frequency of an AM superheterodyne receiver is 450 kHz. The local oscillator

frequency of the mixer is set at higher of the two possible values. The receiver is tuned to a

station carrier frequency of 700 kHz. The RF amplifier is failed to reject the image frequency

and the loaded quality factor of RF amplifier is 100. The image rejection ratio of the receiver at

the selected station frequency will be ______ dB.

Q.44 A bipolar junction transistor has ICBO = 0.5 mA, common base current gain α = 0.98 and emitter

current IE = 2 mA. Then the transconductance of the transistor is __________ m.

(Assume VT = 26 mV and η = 1)

Q.45 An n-channel EMOSFET operating in saturation region has threshold voltage Vth = 1 V, gate

oxide capacitance Cox = 4 × 10–8 F/cm2, mobility of electrons µn = 1250 cm2/V-sec, channel

width W = 20 µm and channel length modulation parameter λ = 0. If the drain current ID = 1 mA

for VGS = 3 V, then the channel length of the MOSFET will be _______ µm.

Q.46 In a silicon p -n junction, the variation of the hole concentration in the space charge region is

shown in the figure below, where the hole concentration changes from ppo to pno over the space

charge layer width.

p(x)

18 –3

10 cm ppo

pno 15 –3

2.25 × 10 cm

–1 0 2 x (µm)

(–xp) (xn )

The hole diffusion constant in the space-charge region is 6.5 cm2/sec. Then the hole diffusion

current density Jp is __________ kA/cm2.

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Q.47 A step-graded silicon pn junction is doped with Na = Nd = 1017 cm–3. When the magnitude of

reverse biasing voltage is 5.5 V, the peak electric field across the junction reaches 106 V/cm. If

the magnitude of reverse biasing voltage across junction is increased to 8 V, then the peak

electric field appears across the junction is

(Assume VT = 26 mV, ni = 1.5 × 1010 cm–3)

(a) 1.18 × 106 V/cm (b) 1.42 × 105 V/cm

6

(c) 1.56 × 10 V/cm (d) 1.62 × 104 V/cm

Q.48 A Si BJT shown in the figure below has β = 100, base to emitter voltage of 0.7 V. The value of

collector to emitter voltage (VCE) is ____________ V.

+12 V

1 kΩ

40 kΩ +

+4 V VCE

–

1 kΩ

Q.49 A step graded silicon PN junction diode at room temperature under equilibrium conditions

has a p-side doping of NA = 2 × 1015/cm3 and built in potential across the junction is 0.6 V. Then

doping concentration on n-side (ND) is ______ × 1015/cm3.

(Assume VT = 26 mV, intrinsic carrier concentration of Si is ni = 1.5 × 1010 cm–3 at room

temperature).

Q.50 For a Ge sample, the electric field of 150 V/cm is applied across it and the mobility of holes

is µp = 1800 cm2/V-sec. Then the average time taken by holes to travel a distance of 0.5 µm in

this Ge sample is

(a) 0.65 ns (b) 6.5 ns

(c) 0.185 ns (d) 1.85 ns

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Detailed Explanations

26. (b)

2 1 10 1

µ1 = = and µ2 = =

20 10 20 2

µ = µ 12 + µ 22

2 2

1 1 1 1 26

µ2 = + = + = = 0.26

10 2 100 4 100

µ2

PSB = Pc

2

PSB µ 2 0.26

= = 0.13

Pc = 2 2

27. (a)

For properly designed PLL based demodulator,

kf 5 1

y(t) = m(t ) = m(t ) = m(t )

kv 10 2

2

1 1

P y = Pm = (20) W = 5 W

2 4

28. (b)

Am k f

(BW)FM = (1 + β) (2fm) = 1 + f (2 f m )

m

Am 1 k f

Let, B 1 = 1 + f (2 f m 1 )

m1

Given, f m 2 = 2fm1

Am2 = 2Am1

Am 2 k f Am 1 k f

Now, B2 = 1 + (2 f m 2 ) = 1 + (2 × 2 f m 1 ) = 2 B1

fm 2 fm 1

Bandwidth of the baseband signal with raised cosine pulse shaping will be,

Rb 1000

(BW)signal = (1 + α ) = (1 + α ) = 500(1 + α ) kHz

2 2

For proper transmission of the data,

(BW)signal ≤ (BW)channel

500(1 + α) ≤ 600

(1 + α) ≤ 1.20

α ≤ 0.20

α max = 0.20

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30. (2)

Let the codewords are named as,

c1 : (11001)

c2 : (00111)

c3 : (10010)

c4 : (01010)

Codewords pair Hamming distance

c1 , c 2 4

c1 , c 3 3

c1 , c 4 3

c2 , c3 3

c2 , c4 3

c3 , c4 2

So, the minimum distance (dmin) of the given linear block code is 2.

31. (c)

Both the given statements are correct.

32. (c)

For coherent BPSK,

2 Eb Eb

P e = Q N = Q

0 ( N 0 /2)

( 10 ) = Q(100)

10 × 10 −6

=Q 4

= Q

1 × 10−9

33. (d)

Bit rate, Rb = 100 kbps

Chip rate, Rc = 7.2 Mcps

Rc 7.2 × 1000

Processing gain = R = 100

= 72

b

34. (b)

X(t ) Ideal LPF Y(t)

B = 5 kHz

SX( f ) SY( f )

1

1

0 f –B 0 B f

f

S Y( f ) = rect

2B

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CTFT

RY(τ) ← → S Y( f )

So, RY(τ) = 2Bsinc (2Bτ)

For sampling interval Ts , if the adjacent samples are to be correlated, then

RY(Ts ) ≠ 0

2Bsinc(2BTs) ≠ 0

So, 2BTs ≠ n ; n = 1, 2, 3 ......

n

Ts ≠; n = 1, 2, 3 ......

2B

1 1

= msec = 100 µ sec

2B 2(5)

So, Ts should not be the integer multiple of 100 µsec.

Only option (b) satisfies this.

P( y0) = P(x0) (0.6) = (0.4) (0.6) = 0.24

P( ye) = P(x0) (0.4) = (0.4) (0.4) = 0.16

P( y1) = P(x1) (1) = (0.6) (1) = 0.60

Entropy at the output of the channel is,

H(y) = –[0.24log2(0.24) + 0.16log2(0.16) + 0.60log2(0.60)] bits/symbol

= 1.36 bits/symbol

36. (2)

The code words corresponding to the message words can be given as,

c = mG

1 0 1 0 0

For m = [0 0], c = 0 0 = 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 1 1 1

1 0 1 0 0

For m = [0 1], c = 0 1 = [ 01111]

0 1 1 1 1

1 0 1 0 0

For m = [1 0], c = 1 0 = [ 10100 ]

0 1 1 1 1

1 0 1 0 0

For m = [1 1], c = 1 1 = [11011]

0 1 1 1 1

Code Word Hamming weight

00000 0

01111 4

10100 2

11011 4

Note : In the problems related to linear block codes, use EX-OR operation whenever there is

an addition operation of bits.

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37. (c)

Entropy of the source,

2 1 1

H(X) = log 2 (8) + log 2 4 + log 2 2 bits/symbol

8 4 2

6 2 1 14

= + + = = 1.75 bits/symbol

8 4 2 8

The entropy of the 2nd order extension of the source will be,

H(X 2) = 2H(X) = 2(1.75) = 3.50 bits/block

38. (c)

It is given that the carrier phase for first two encoded bits are π, 0. So first two encoded bits

are 0, 1.

The logic diagram of DPSK encoder can be given as,

bk

Logic gate dk

Delay Tb

b0 b1 b2 b3 b4

1 0 1 1 0

gic

gic

Lo

Lo

bref

0 1

d0 d1

If we observe clearly,

d0 (logic) b1 = d1

0 (logic) 0 = 1

So, the possible logic is , EX- NOR.

So, the complete encoding can be given as,

bk 1 0 1 1 0

dk 0 1 1 1 0

Carrier phase π 0 0 0 π

So, the carrier phases corresponding to the remaining three bits are 0, 0, π.

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39. (b)

The rule to decide an optimum threshold value using MAP criteria is as follows:

H0

>

f R ( r | 0)P(0) < f R (r | 1)P(1)

H1

It means,

If fR(r | 0)P (0) > fR(r | 1)P (1), decision must made in favour of ‘0’.

If fR(r | 0)P (0) < fR(r | 1)P (1), decision must made in favour of ‘1’.

Optimum threshold can be decided by plotting fR(r | 0)P (0) and fR(r | 1)P (1) on same axis as

follows:

Slope = 2/3

2

3

1 fR(r |1) P(1)

fR(r |0) P(0) 3

r

–1 0 rth 1 2

Slope = –1/3

At optimum threshold, intersection exists between fR(r | 0)P (0) and fR(r | 1)P (1).

1 1 2

So, − rth + = rth

3 3 3

2 1 1

rth + rth =

3 3 3

1

rth =

3

40. (c)

Considering the given PDF of the message signal,

fX(x)

1 2 3

x

–b –a 0 a b

P (y1) = Area of region – 1 = k(b – a)

1

P (y2) = Area of region – 2 = 2 × × a × k = ka

2

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For the entropy to be maximum,

1

P (y1) = P (y2) = P (y3) =

3

1

So, ka = ... (i)

3

1

kb – ka =

3

1 2

kb = + ka = ... (ii)

3 3

From equations (i) and (ii),

ka a 1

= =

kb b 2

Only the values of a and b given in option (c) satisfy the above ratio.

41. (c)

Y = aX + b

y−b

x =

a

dy

= a

dx

1 y − b

fX

a a

So, f Y (y) =

Differential entropy of Y,

∞

H (Y ) = − ∫ fY ( y )log 2 fY ( y )dy

−∞

∞

1 y − b 1 y − b

= − ∫ a

fX

a

log 2 f X

a a

dy

−∞

y−b

Let, = u ⇒ dy = adu

a

∞

1

So, H (Y ) = − ∫ f X ( u)log 2 f X ( u ) du

−∞

a

∞ ∞

= − ∫ f X ( u)log 2 f X ( u ) du + ∫ f X ( u)log 2 ( a) du

−∞ −∞

∞

= H ( X ) + log 2 ( a) ∫ f X ( x )dx

−∞

H (Y ) = H (X ) + log2(a)

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42. 1.95 (1.92 to 1.98)

Huffman code construction:

0

x0 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50

0

x1 0.20 0.20 0.30

0 0.50

x2 0.15 0.15 1

0 0.20

0.10 0.15 1

x3

1

x4 0.05

1

x0 0.50 1 1

x1 0.20 01 2

x2 0.15 001 3

x3 0.10 0000 4

x4 0.05 0001 4

4 4

H (L) = ∑ li P(li ) = ∑ li P(xi ) = 1(0.50) + 2(0.20) + 3(0.15) + 4(0.10) + 4(0.05)

i=0 i=0

Q = 100

f i = fc + 2fIF = 700 + 2(450) = 1600 kHz

f i fc 16 7 207

ρ = − = − =

fc f i 7 16 112

2

207

Image rejection ratio, α = 1 + ρ2Q 2 = 1 + × 100 = 184.82

112

In decilogs, [α ] = 20 log10 (α) = 45.33 dB

Given,

Emitter current, IE = 2 mA

Common base current gain,

α = 0.98

ICBO = 0.5 mA

Collector current, I C = αIE + ICBO

∴ = 0.98 (2 × 10–3) + 0.5 × 10 –3

= 2.46 mA

Transconductance of the transistor,

IC 2.46 × 10 −3

gm = = = 94.62 m

VT 26 × 10 −3

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45. 2 (1.90 to 2.10)

kn′ W

Device transconductance parameter, kn =

2 L

1 W 1 W

So, kn = µn C ox = × 1250 × 4 × 10 −8 × A/V 2

2 L 2 L

W

= 0.025 mA/V 2

L

Drain current, I D = kn(VGS – Vth)2 = 1 mA

W

0.025 (3 − 1)2 = 1

L

Given,

Depletion width in the p-side, xp = 1 µm

Depletion width in the n-side, xn = 2 µm

Total depletion width, W = xn + xp = 3 µm

The diffusion constant of holes, Dp = 6.5 cm2/sec

dp

The diffusion current density of holes is Jp = −qDp

dx

dp

The concentration gradient across the space charge region is ,

dx

dp ppo − pno 1018 − 2.25 × 1015

∴ = − = −

dx W 3 × 10 −4

dp

= –3.33 × 1021 cm–4

dx

∴ The diffusion current density of holes Jp is,

dp

J p = −qDp

dx

= –1.6 × 10–19 × 6.5 × (–3.33 × 1021)

J p = 3.46 kA/cm2

47. (a)

Given, Na = Nd = 1017 cm –3

Reverse voltage, VR 1 = 5.5 V

VR 2 = 8 V

Peak electric field, Emax1 = 106 V/cm

2(Vbi + VR )

Peak electric field, Emax =

Wdep

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Where, Wdep ∝ Vbi + VR

Vbi + VR

∴ Emax ∝ ∝ Vbi + VR

Vbi + VR

Emax 1 Vbi + VR 1

=

Emax 2 Vbi + VR 2

N N

∴ Vbi = VT ln a d

2

ni

10 34

Vbi = 26 × 10 −3 ln 10 2

= 0.817 V

(1.5 × 10 )

∴ =

Emax 2 0.817 + 8

+12 V

1 kΩ

IC

40 kΩ +

+4 V VCE

+

–

0.7 V

–

IB 1 kΩ

4 – 40k × ΙB – 0.7 V – IE × 1k= 0

3.3 – 40k ΙB – (1 + β)IB × 1k = 0

3.3

∴ ΙB = = 23.4 µA

40 k + (101) 1 k

ΙE = Ι B + Ι C = (23.4 × 10–3 + 2.34 ) mA = 2.36 mA

By applying KVL in C-E loop :

12 – 2.34 × 10–3 × 1k – VCE – 2.36 × 10–3 × 1k = 0

∴ VCE = 12 – 4.7 = 7.3 V

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49. 1.184 (1.10 to 1.30)

Given,

p-side doping concentration, NA ⇒ 2 × 1015/cm3

Barrier potential, Vbi = 0.6 V

N N

But, Vbi = VT ln A 2 D

ni

N N

0.6 = 0.026 ln A 2 D

ni

N D = 1.184 × 1015/cm3

50. (c)

Given,

Electric field applied across the Ge sample is,

E = 150 V/cm

Mobility of holes, µp = 1800 cm2/V-sec

Drift Velocity, vd = µp E

vd = 1800 × 150 = 2.7 × 105 cm/sec = 2.7 × 103 m/sec

The average time taken by holes is,

L 0.5 × 10 −6

t = = = 0.185 nsec

vd 2.7 × 10 3

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Day 3 of 8

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NPCIL, DDA, Electricity Boards and many more . . .

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Research Courses

Microprocessors

Network Theory 0.75% Reasoning, Aptitude

5.75% & English Engineering Mathematics 13.75%

15.00%

Electromagnetics

8.25% Analog Electronics 10.75%

Engineering

Control Systems

8.50% Mathematics

13.75% Electronic Devices 9.75%

Communications

8.75% Communications 8.75%

Analog

Electronics Control Systems 8.50%

10.70%

9.00%

Signals & Systems

Electronic Devices 9.75% Network Theory 5.75%

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Day 3 : Q.51 to Q.75 : Electronic Devices and Analog Circuits

Q.51 In a solar cell, the maximum power obtained when sun light is illuminated on it is 65 mW. The

fill factor of the solar cell is 0.65. Which of the following I-V characteristics will represents the

above solar cell?

I I

100 mA 100 mA

(a) (b)

I

I

40 mA

40 mA

(c) (d)

(0, 0) 2.5 V V

(0, 0) 2V V

Q.52 Consider a p-type semiconductor having uniform doping is biased as shown below:

V

P-type semiconductor

If Ec is the lowest energy level of the conduction band, Ev is the highest energy level of the

valance band and EF is the fermi level, which one of the following represents the energy band

diagram for the biased p-type semiconductor.

EC EC

(a) EF (b)

EV EV

EC

EC

(c) EF (d)

EV

EF

EV

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Q.53 It is given that in a MOS capacitor with p-type semiconductor substrate the metal-semiconductor

work function φms = –1.1 V and the oxide thickness tox = 500 A°. If there are trapped charged

located in the oxide directly adjacent to the oxide-semiconductor interface with equivalent

trapped charge per unit area Q′ss equal to 1011 electrons/cm2, the magnitude of flat-band voltage

of the MOS capacitor will be _____ V.

Assuming (εox = 3.9 ε0 , ε0 = 8.85 × 10–12 F/m, charge on an electron = 1.6 × 10–19 C).

Q.54 An abrupt silicon p - n junction has dopant concentration of N A = 2 × 10 16 cm –3 and

ND = 2 × 1015 cm–3 at T = 300°K. The maximum electric field in the space charge region when the

reverse bias voltage VR = 0 will be

(εSi = 11.7 × 8.85 × 10–14 F/cm, VT = 25.9 mV, ni = 1.5 × 1010 /cm3)

(a) 1.94 × 104 V/cm (b) 2.94 × 104 V/cm

(c) 0.69 × 104 V/cm (d) 2.31 × 104 V/cm

Q.55 When a p -n junction is formed it gives rise to formation of a built in voltage at the junction. If

it is given that the difference in the energy level of the conduction band at the p side and n side

is 1.12 eV then the built in potential is _______ V.

{Given NA = 1016 cm–3, ni = 1.5 × 1015 cm–3, ε0 = 8.85 × 10 –12 F/m, q = 1.6 × 10 –19 C}

Q.56 An abrupt p-n junction under thermal equilibrium shows the electric field distribution with

peak electric field at the junction of –15 × 104 V/m is shown below. Then the magnitude of the

diffusion potential is _______________ V.

E

–WP 0 WN

x

WP = 1 µm

WN = 3 µm

4

–15 × 10 V/m

Where WP, WN are depletion widths on p, n sides. (Assume thermal voltage as 26 mV).

Q.57 The ratio of hole diffusion current to the electron diffusion current crossing the junction of an

infinitely long p -n diode is 4. If conductivity on p -side is 1.4 S/cm and on n -side is 2.8 S/cm,

then the ratio of diffusion lengths Ln and Lp i.e. (Ln /Lp) is _______.

Q.58 The figure given below represents the energy-band diagram in the p -type semiconductor of a

MOS capacitor, indicating surface potential as 0.254 V and the space charge width is 0.30 µm.

Then the acceptor doping concentration is __________ × 1015 cm–3.

(Assume εSi = 11.7 ε0, ε0 = 8.85 × 10–14 F/cm).

Ec

EFi

φs = 0.254 V

EF

Ev

oxide xd p-type

0.30 µm

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Q.59 In a MOS capacitor, the gate voltage exceeds the threshold voltage by 1 V. If the oxide thickness

is 25 nm, then the inversion charge density of the channel is ________× 10–8 C/cm2.

(Assume εox = 3.9 ε0, ε0 = 8.85 × 10 –14 F/cm)

Q.60 Consider a p -n -p bipolar junction transistor, the device is biased in forward active mode thus

the Emitter -base junction is forward biased and base-collector junction is reverse biased. The

emitter injects holes into the base region and the holes variation in n - type base region is

illustrated in figure. The base doping is NB = 1017 cm–3. The minority carrier lifetime and the

hole mobility in base region is 10–4 s and 640 cm2/V- s respectively. The cross section area of

the device is 10–4 cm2. The recombination current inside the base region will be

B

E p n p C

x

0 2 µm

–3

P (x) (cm )

14

5 x 10

x (µm)

x=0 x=2

(a) 8 nA (b) 40 pA

(c) 2.6 nA (d) 80 pA

x

p = 1016 1 − cm −3 for 0 ≤ x ≤ L

L

Where length of the sample L = 10 µm. If the hole diffusion coefficient is 10 cm2/s, then the

magnitude of the hole diffusion current density at x = 5 µm is __________ A/cm2 .

Q.62 Y 2

p-type

semiconductor bar

I

w

X

1

B

Z

Consider the Hall effect experimental set up shown in the figure. Assume the bar resistivity

is 2 × 105Ω-cm, the magnetic field B = 0.1 Tesla, and d = w = 3 mm. The measured values of the

current and Hall voltage are 20 µA and 100 mV, respectively. The value of mobility µp is

________ cm2/V-s.

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Q.63 Consider a silicon sample at T = 300 K, with a uniform donor density Nd = 5 × 1016 cm–3,

illuminated uniformly such that the optical generation rate is Gopt = 1.5 × 1020 cm–3 s–1 throughout

the sample. The incident radiation is turned off at t = 0. Assume low-level injection to be valid

and ignore surface effects. The carrier lifetimes are τp0 = 0.1 µs and τn0 = 0.5 µs.

n-type Si

The hole concentration at t = 0 and the hole concentration at t = 0.3 µs, respectively, are

(a) 1.5 × 1013 cm–3 and 7.47 × 1011 cm–3

(b) 1.5 × 1013 cm–3 and 8.23 × 1011 cm–3

(c) 7.5 × 1013 cm–3 and 3.73 × 1011 cm–3

(d) 7.5 × 1013 cm–3 and 4.12 × 1011 cm–3

Q.64 As shown, a uniformly doped Silicon (Si) bar of length L = 0.1 µm with a donor concentration

ND = 1016 cm–3 is illuminated at x = 0 such that electron and hole pairs are generated at the rate of

x

GL = GL 0 1 − , 0 ≤ x ≤ L,

L

where GL0 = 1017 cm–3 s–1. Hole lifetime is 10–4 s, electronic charge q = 1.6 × 10–19 C, hole diffusion

coefficient Dp = 100 cm2/s and low level injection condition prevails. Assuming a linearly decaying

steady state excess hole concentration that goes to 0 at x = L, the magnitude of the diffusion

current density at x = L/2, in A/cm2, is ________.

Light

16 –3

Si (ND = 10 cm )

x=0 L = 0.1 µm

D1

1:1

+ –

vin(t ) C1

–

V0

C2

D2

If the input voltage vin(t) is a sinusoidal signal with a maximum value of Vm, then the steady

state output voltage V0 of the circuit will be equal to (Assume that the diodes are ideal)

(a) 2Vm (b) Vm

(c) –2Vm (d) –Vm

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Q.66 Consider the diode circuit shown in the figure below:

D2

D1

+ +

D3

Vin R Vout

– –

If the diodes are ideal and the input voltage is a 1 kHz sine wave with a peak value of 10 V,

then the output waveform can be represented as

Vout Vout

(a) 10 V (b) 10 V

Vout

Vout

5V

0.5 10 V

(c) (d)

0 1 1.5 t(ms)

–5 V 0 0.5 1 1.5 t (ms)

Q.67 The MOSFET based circuit shown in the figure below is used for the purpose of small signal

analysis. If Vsig and V0 are small signal input and output voltages respectively, then the circuit

represents

RG

Vsig +

–

–

R V0

+

(c) Common drain amplifier (d) Common gate amplifier

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Q.68 Consider the circuit shown in the figure below:

+ R +

Vin Vout

– R –

If the diode D is ideal, then the transfer characteristic curve of the circuit can be represented as

Vout Vout

1

1

(a) (b)

Vin Vin

1 –1 1

Vout

Vout

1

1

1

–1

Vin

1

–1 –0.5

Q.69 The figure shown below represents two equivalent small signal models of a BJT. The first

figure is voltage controlled current source representation and the second figure is the current

controlled current source representation. If both the models were constructed for the same

transistor, then the value of α is ________.

C C

ic ic

0.01vbe αie

ib ib

B + B

re = 98 Ω re = 98 Ω

vbe

ie ie

–

E E

Fig. 1 Fig. 2

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Q.70 A p-n-p transistor based circuit is shown in the figure below with dual DC supply voltages.

The value of VBE = 0.7 V and the collector voltage of the transistor is VC = 0 V. If the

transistor is in active region, then the value of supply voltage VEE is equal to ________ V.

VCC

RB

10.1 mA

100 µA

VC

1 kΩ

VEE

Q.71 An enhancement type NMOS transistor is connected as a load device in the circuit with another

MOSFET as shown in the figure below.

VDD

T1

Vout

Vin T2

The supply voltage VDD in fixed at 5 V and the input voltage Vin is varied from 0 to 5 V. If both

the transistors have negligible effect of channel length modulation and a threshold voltage

VT = 1 V, then which one of the following figures represents the transfer characteristic of the

circuit in a better way?

Vout Vout

5V 5V

(a) (b)

Vin Vin

Vout Vout

4V 4V

(c) (d)

Vin Vin

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Q.72 The below figure shows a scheme for coupling and amplifying a high-frequency pulse signal.

The circuit utilized two MOSFETs (whose bias details are not shown for simplicity) and a 50 Ω

co-axial cable. Transistor Q1 operates as a CS amplifier and Q2 as a CG amplifier. For ideal

matching Q2 is required to present a 50 Ω resistance to the cable. Assuming that the upper

cut-off frequency of both the MOSFETs is very large than the operating frequency, the value

of gm 2 for which Q2 will be matched to the co-axial cable is _________ m.

Coaxial line

VD1 Q2 Vo

Z0 = 50 Ω

RD

Vi Q1

Rin = 50 Ω

VDD

+

V

IDQ = 0.5 mA

RD = 7 kΩ

R1 = 165 kΩ

V0

Vin +

– R2 = 35 kΩ

RS = 0.5 kΩ

–

V

µnCox W

If the transistor parameters are VTN = 0.8 V, = 1 mA/V2 and λ = 0, then the small-signal

2L

voltage gain of the amplifier circuit will be

(a) –1.48 (b) –5.80

(c) –6.63 (d) –4.73

1 kΩ Iin IL

+

IZ

50 V VZ = 10 V RL

IZ(max) = 20 mA

–

The Zener diode has a Zener breakdown voltage of VZ = 10 V and has the maximum amount of

Zener current IZ(max) = 20 mA. The Zener diode turns on when the voltage of 10 V is applied

over it with nearly zero knee current, then the value of load resistance RL, for proper regulation,

should be in the range

(a) 100 Ω < RL < 250 Ω (b) 10 Ω < RL < 100 Ω

(c) 250 Ω < RL < 500 Ω (d) 500 Ω < RL < 2500 Ω

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Q.75 Consider the circuit shown in the figure below:

10 kΩ

10 kΩ

+

Vout

–

10 kΩ

+ Vin

–

If the op-amp is ideal with the output saturation voltage Vsat = ±10 V, then the transfer

characteristic curve of the circuit can be drawn as

Vout

Vout

10 V

5V

Vin

–5 V 0 5V

–5 V

–10 V

Vout

10 V

(c) –5 V 0 5V

Vin (d) None of these

–10 V

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Detailed Explanations

51. (c)

Fill factor of solar cell is,

Maximum power obtained

F.F. =

Voc × I sc

65 × 10−3

0.65 =

Voc × I sc

65 × 10−3

∴ Voc × Isc = = 100 mW

0.65

∴ Option (c) satisfies the result (Voc × Isc = 40 mA × 2.5 V = 100 mW)

52. (c)

ε ox (3.9)(8.85 × 10−14 )

Cox = = = 6.9 × 10–8 F/cm2

tox −8

500 × 10

now, equivalent oxide surface charge density

Q′ss = (1011) (1.6 × 10–19) = 1.6 × 10–8 F/cm2

′

Qss 1.6 × 10−8

∴ VFB = φms − = −1.1 − −8

= –1.33 V

C ox 6.9 × 10

VFB = 1.33 V

54. (a)

N A ND 2 × 1016 × 2 × 1015

Now, V b i = VT ln = (0.0259)ln

2 (1.5 × 1010 )2 = 0.671 V

ni

1

2ε(Vbi + VR ) 1 1 2

W = +

q N A N D

1

2(11.7) × (8.85 × 10−14 )(0.671) 1 1 2

= −19

⋅ 16

+

1.6 × 10 2 × 10 2 × 1015

W = 0.691 × 10–4 cm

2(Vbi ) 2 × 0.671

now, E max = = = 1.94 × 104 V/cm

W 0.691 × 10−4

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55. 1.12 (1.00 to 1.50)

EC p

qVb

n EC

EF

Given q Vb = 1.12 eV

1 eV = 1.6 × 10–19 V

1.12 × 1.6 × 10 −19

∴ Vb = = 1.12 V

1.6 × 10 −19

56. 0.3 (0.25 to 0.35)

Diffusion potential (or) built in potential,

Vbi = Area under the electric field distribution curve

= Area under given curve (which resembles triangle)

1 1

× Base × height = × ( WP + WN ) × ( −E)

Vbi =

2 2

magnitude of diffusion potential

1

Vbi = × ( WP + WN ) × ( −E)

2

1

= × 4 µm × 15 × 10 4 V/m

2

Vbi = 0.3 V

dp

I pn (0) qDp ⋅

dx

= dn

I np (0) qDn ⋅

dx

( ) µ V ⋅N q L

qDp

Pno eV /VT − 1

Lp p T A n

= qD = ×

n

n

Ln po

(eV /VT

− 1)

µ V N q L

n T D p

µ p N A q Ln σ p Ln

= µ N qL = σ × L

n D p n p

I pn (0) σ p ⋅ Ln

=

I np (0) σ n ⋅ Lp

1.4 Ln

4 = ×

2.8 Lp

Ln

⇒ Lp = 8

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58. 3.65 (3.50 to 3.80)

1

2ε φ 2

xd = s s

qN a

Given that x d = 0.30 µm = 0.3 × 10–4 cm

φ s = 0.254 V

1

2 × 11.7 × 8.85 × 10 −14 × 0.254 2

0.3 × 10–4 =

1.6 × 10 −19 × N a

Na = 3.65 × 1015 cm–3

′ (V − V )

Q ′ = C ox GS TN

ε ox

=

tox

(VGS − VTN )

= × 1 = 1.38 × 10 –7

25 × 10 −7

= 13.8 × 10 –8 C/cm2

60. (a)

The recombination current= (Number of recombinations per sec) × charge

p

∴Number of recombinations per sec R = τ

p

1

p = Area under the curve = × 2 × 10 −4 × 5 × 1014

2

p = 5 × 1010 /cm 2

5 × 1010

now, R = −4

= 5 × 1014 /cm 2 /s

10

recombination current = R × A × q = 5 × 1014 /cm2/s × 10–4 cm2 × 1.6 × 10–19 C

= 8 × 10–9 A = 8 nA

61. (16)

dp

J = − e Dp ⋅

dx

d 16 x

= − e Dp 10 1 −

dx L

= =

L 10 × 10 −4

J = 16 A/cm2

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62. (750)

J = σE

ρI

⇒ E = ...(i)

dw

v×B = E

VH

⇒ v⋅B = ...(ii)

d

now, v = µE

v

= µ ...(iii)

E

from equation (i), (ii) and (iii),

VH w 100 × 10 −3 × 3 × 10 −3

µ = × =

B ρI 0.1 × 2 × 103 × 20 × 10 −6

= 750 cm2/V-s

63. (a)

Given Gopt = 1.5 × 1020/ cm3/sec

NA

Gopt = R =

τP

NA

⇒ 1.5 × 102 =

0.1 × 10 −6

∴ NA = 1.5 × 1013/cm3

−t /τ p

P (t) = Pn0 e

−0.3

= 7.47 × 1011/cm3

64. (16)

Net hole density varying in the direction of x is,

pn(x) = pno + ∆p = pno + GLτp

x

= pno + GLo τ p 1 −

L

dp − GLo τ p

Jp, diff = − eDp = − eDp

dx L

= A/cm 2

0.1 × 10 −4

= 16 A/cm2

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65. (c)

(i) For the diode D1 to conduct vin(t) > 0 (i.e. vin(t) for positive half-cycle)

D1

+

+

vin(t ) Vm

–

–

(ii) For the diode D2 to conduct vin(t) < 0 (i.e. vin(t) for negative half-cycle)

– –

vin(t )

+ +

+

Vm

–

D2

Thus at steady state the output voltage can be represented as,

D1

+ –

+

vin(t ) Vm

–

–

V0

+

Vm

–

+

D2

∴ V0 = –2Vm

66. (d)

(i) For Vin > 0 V, diode D1 and D2 will conduct and Vout = Vin.

(ii) For Vin < 0 V, diode D1 will be in OFF state. Hence no signal will pass further and V0 = 0 V.

67. (d)

68. (d)

Case I: when Vin(t) > 0

The diode will conduct, thus the equivalent circuit can be given as,

Vin Vout

∴ Vout = Vin

Case II: when the input voltage Vin < 0, The diode will not conduct, thus the equivalent circuit

can be given as,

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Vin Vout

R

R

R V

∴ Vout = Vin = in = 0.5Vin

R+R 2

From figure, the equivalent current sources can be written as,

ic = 0.01vbe = αi e

vbe

⇒ ie = ; re = 98 Ω

re

v

So, α be = 0.01v

re be

α = (0.01) re = 0.98

In a BJT, IC + IB = IE

∴ I C = IE – IB

= 10.1 – 0.1 = 10 mA

Given that, VC = 0 V

By applying KVL, we get,

–VC + IC × 1 × 103 + VEE = 0

∴ VEE = –10 × 10–3 × 1 × 103 = –10 V

71. (d)

Since the configuration represents an invertor MOSFET with an active load, the output will be

high for low values of input signal and low for high values of input signal.

Now, since the load transistor T1 has shorted drain and gate,

V DS > VGS – VT

0 > –VT

Which is always true hence the transistor T1 will always work in saturation region.

When Vin = 0 V, I D = 0.

Hence, I D = Kn (VGS1 – VT )

0 = (VGS1 – VT )

VG1 – VS1 – VT = 0

For transistor T1, VS1 = V0 and VGS1 = VDD = 5 V

Thus, VG1 – V0 – VT = 0

5 – V0 – 1 = 0

–V0 = –4 V

V0 = 4 V

Hence maximum value of output = 4 V.

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72. (20)

For the transmission line to be matched the input resistance of the circuit Q2 must be equal to 50 Ω.

Drawing the small signal equivalent of Q2, we have

now, I = –gm Vgs

Vo

from the circuit it is clear that, +

Vgs = –V Vgs gmVgs RD

∴ I = gm V –

I I Ri

= gm

V V

V 1

or, Ri = I = g

m

∴ Rin = 50 Ω for match condition

1

thus, Rin =

gm 2

1

∴ gm = = 20 m

2 50

73. (b)

µ nC ox W

gm = 2 (VGS − VTN )

2L

µ nC ox W

or gm = 2 × I DQ = 2 1 × 10 −3 × 0.5 × 10 −3 = 1.414 mA/ V

2L

Thus, considering small signal model, we get,

G D

V0

+

Vin +

– R1R2 Vgs gm Vgs RD

–

S

RS

Vin = Vgs + (gm Vgs) RS

Vin = Vgs (1 + gm RS )

V0 − gm RD − (1.414) (7)

Av = = = = − 5.80

Vin 1 + gm RS 1 + (1.414)(0.5)

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74. (c)

The minimum value of load resistance can be calculated when maximum current flows through

the load.

Thus, IL (max) = Iin – IZ (min)

Now, IZ (min) = 0 ∵ knee current nearly equal to

zero

∴ IL (max) = I i n

50 − 10

I in = = 40 mA

1 kΩ

10 1

∴ × 103 = × 103 = 250 Ω

RL (min) =

40 4

Now, for maximum value of load resistance, there should be minimum value of current through

the load

∴ IL (min) = Iin – IZ (max)

IL (min) = (40 – 20) × 10–3 = 20 mA

10

∴ RL (max) = × 103 = 500 Ω

20

75. (a)

For the positive values of Vin, the transfer characteristic curve can be given as,

Vout

10 V

VTH

Vin

–10 V

Vsat 10

Where, =

VT H = = 5V

2 2

For negative values of input, the transfer characteristic curve can be given as,

Vout

10 V

Vin

VTL

–10 V

−Vsat −10

Where, VT L = = = −5 V

2 2

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Day 4 of 8

NLC, HPCL, OIL, PGCIL, HAL, NMDC, NALCO, MDL, AAI,

NPCIL, DDA, Electricity Boards and many more . . .

PGDIE/PGDM/PGDMM from NITIE

GATE

Gateway for

Engineers

Higher Studies Higher Studies

Foreign Universities Indian Universities

NUS (Singapore), NTU (Singapore), M.Tech/M.S from IISC, IITs, NITs, IIITs

TUM (Munich), RWTH (Germany)

Research Courses

Microprocessors

Network Theory 0.75% Reasoning, Aptitude

5.75% & English Engineering Mathematics 13.75%

15.00%

Electromagnetics

8.25% Analog Electronics 10.75%

Engineering

Control Systems

8.50% Mathematics

13.75% Electronic Devices 9.75%

Communications

8.75% Communications 8.75%

Analog

Electronics Control Systems 8.50%

10.70%

9.00%

Signals & Systems

Electronic Devices 9.75% Network Theory 5.75%

9.75%

Microprocessors 0.75%

Total 100%

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Day 4 : Q.76 to Q.100 : Engineering Mathematics

Q.76 A vector F = ( y 2 − z2 + 3yz − 2 x )iˆ + (3xz + 2 xy ) ˆj + (2 xy − axz + 2 z )kˆ is known to be solenoidal. The

value of “a” is

(a) 2 (b) –3

(c) –2 (d) Can’t be determined

Q.77 The area bounded by the straight line y = x – 2 and the parabola y2 = 2x + 4 is ________ unit2.

t2 t3

Q.78 The coordinates of a particle moving in a plane are given by, x = 4t − and y = 3 + 6t − . Here

2 6

t is time in seconds and x and y are in meters. The magnitude of the velocity of the particle at

t = 2 sec is ______ m/s.

1 dx

Q.79 The value of the integral ∫0 (1 + x 2 )3/2 will be ________.

e ax − e − ax

Q.80 The value of lim is

x→0 ln(1 + bx )

a 2a

(a) (b)

b b

b

(c) (d) does not exists

a

Q.81 A function is defined by f(x) = 2x3 – 3x2 – 12x + 5 for –2 ≤ x ≤ 3. Which one of the following

statements is true about this function?

(a) function is decreasing for (–2, –1).

(b) function has a minima for x = –1.

(c) function has a maxima for x = 2.

(d) function is decreasing for (–1, 2).

1 2

Q.82 Consider the 2 × 2 matrix p 5 . The range of possible values of p, for which both the eigen

values of the matrix are real and positive, is

5 5 5

(a) − ≤ p≤ (b) 2 ≤ p ≤

2 2 2

5 5

(c) −2 ≤ p ≤ (d) − ≤p≤2

2 2

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Q.83 Consider the system of linear equations given below:

–2x + y + z = l

x – 2y + z = m

x + y – 2z = n

If l + m + n = 0, then the system of equations has

(a) no solution (b) trivial solutions

(c) unique solution (d) infinitely many solutions

1 4

Q.84 The matrix A = satisfies the following polynomial: A5 – 4A4 – 7A3 + 11A2 – 2A + kI = 0.

2 3

The value of k is ________.

Q.85 Let AX = B represents a system of equations where A is 2 × 3 real matrix. The system is known

to be inconsistent. The highest possible rank of A is

(a) 1 (b) 2

(c) 3 (d) can’t be determined

1 − e pz 4

Q.86 If the residue of the function 4 at its pole is − , then the value of p is ______.

z 3

1 e2 z

Q.87 The value of the integral ∫ z dz is evaluated along the circle C, defined as z = 1. The

2 πi

C 1− e

sin −1

x − cos −1

x d2 y

Q.88 If y = e and z = e , then the value of will be

dz2 x =1/ 2

1

(a) 0 (b)

ln 2

1 1

(c) (d)

(ln 2)2 2

Q.89 The particular integral of the differential equation D 2(D 2 + 4)y = 96x2 for x = 2 will be

(a) 8 (b) 5

(c) 9 (d) 2

Q.90 The rate at which a body cools is proportional to the difference between the temperature of

the body and that of surrounding air. If the body cools from initial temperature of 100°C to

75°C in 1 minute, then temperature of the body after 5 minutes will be ________°C.

(Assume the temperature of surrounding air is 25°C)

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Q.91 The solution of differential equation (1 + xy )yd x + (1 – xy )xd y = 0 is

x 1 x 1

(a) ln − =C (b) ln − =C

y x + y y xy

x 1 x 1

(c) ln + =C (d) ln + =C

y xy y x + y

Q.92 An urn A contains 2 white and 4 black balls. Another urn B contains 5 white and 7 black balls.

A ball is transferred from urn A to urn B, then a ball is drawn from urn B. The probability, that

the drawn ball is white, is

2 10

(a) (b)

13 39

16 12

(c) (d)

39 39

Q.93 The probability density function of a continuous random variable is given by,

x ; 0≤x≤1

f ( x ) = 2 − x ; 1≤ x≤ 2

0 ; Otherwise

The mean value of the random variable is

(a) 1 (b) 1.5

(c) 1.67 (d) 0

Q.94 Potential function φ is given as φ = x 2 – y2. What will be the stream function (ψ) with the

condition ψ = 0 at x = y = 0?

(a) 2 xy (b) x2 + y2

(c) x 2 – y 2 (d) 2x 2y 2

Q.95 A and B throw alternatively a pair of dice. A wins if he throws 6 before B throws 7 and B wins

if he throws 7 before A throws 6. If A starts the game, then the probability that B wins the

game is

5 31

(a) (b)

6 61

30 36

(c) (d)

61 71

Q.96 If the probability of a bad reaction from a certain injection is 0.001, then the probability that

out of 2000 individuals more than two will get a bad reaction is

5 5

(a) 1 − 2

(b) 1 −

e e3

5 5

(c) (d)

2

e e3

Q.97 The real root of the equation x3 – 3x2 + 3x – 5 = 0 is calculated using Newton-Raphson method.

The number of different values of x0 for which the Newton-Raphson method fails for the

equation is _________.

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dy

Q.98 For the differential equation = x + 2 y , Euler’s method is used to find the value of y. If y = 1

dx

corresponding to x = 1, then for x = 1.5, y will be equal to

(a) 4.56 (b) 3.35

(c) 6.24 (d) 3.94

2s(3a2 − s 2 ) 2s(s 2 − 3a2 )

(a) (b)

(s 2 + a2 )3 (s 2 + a2 )3

2 a(3s 2 − a2 ) 2 a( a 2 − 3s 2 )

(c) (d)

(s 2 + a2 )3 ( s 2 + a2 )3

∂f ∂ 2 f

Q.100 The type of the partial differential equation = is

∂t ∂x 2

(a) Parabolic (b) Elliptic

(c) Hyperbolic (d) Non-linear

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Detailed Explanations

76. (a)

∇⋅F = 0 [For solenoidal vector]

+ + =0

∂x ∂y ∂z

–2 + 2x – ax + 2 = 0

From here, a = 2

77. (18)

The point of intersection of line and parabolic are (0, –2) and (6, 4).

y

y=x–2

(6, 4)

x

0

(0, – 2)

y2 = 2x + 4

4 y+2 4

y +2

Area = ∫ ∫ dxdy = ∫ x y 2 − 4 dy

−2 y 2 − 4 −2

2

2

4 4

y2 y2 y3

= ∫ y + 2 − + 2 dy = + 4y − = 18

2 2 6

−2 −2

2 3

= 4t − t iˆ + 3 + 6t − t ˆj

r 2 6

ˆ ˆ

2

dr t

v = dt = (4 − t )i + 6 − 2 j

v t = 2 = 2iˆ + 4 ˆj

v t =2 = 2 2 + 4 2 = 4.47 m/s

79. 0.707 (0.65 to 0.75)

Let, x = tanθ

d x = sec2θdθ

π

When x = 0, θ = 0 when x =1, θ = .

4

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π/4 sec2 θdθ π/4 sec2 θdθ

So, I = ∫0 (1 + tan θ)2 3/2

=∫

0 sec θ3

= ∫0 sec θ

dθ = ∫

0

cos θdθ = + sin θ 0

1

I = = 0.707

2

80. (b)

e ax − e − ax ( e ax − e − ax ) × 2 ax × b

lim = lim

x→0 ln(1 + bx ) x → 0 2 a x × b × ln(1 + bx )

e ax − e − ax bx 2a

= xlim × lim

→0 2 a x x → 0 ln(1 + bx ) b

sinh ax bx 2a

= lim lim

x→0 a x x → 0 ln(1 + bx ) b

2a

= 1×1×

b

2a

=

b

81. (d)

f(x) = 2x3 – 3x2 –12x + 5

f ′(x) = 6x2 – 6x – 12 y

For minima/maxima, f ′(x) = 0

6x2 – 6x – 12 = 0

(2, 0) (3, 0)

x

x2

–x–2 = 0

(–2, 0) (–1, 0)

(x + 1) (x – 2) = 0

x = –1, 2

f ′′(x) = 12x – 6

f ′′(–1) = –12 – 6 = –18 < 0 ⇒ maxima

f ′′(2) = 24 – 6 = 18 > 0 ⇒ minima

The function has maxima at x = –1 and minima at x = 2.

The function is decreasing between –1 and 2.

82. (c)

1−λ 2

p 5−λ = 0

(1 – λ) (5 – λ) – 2p = 0

λ2 – 6λ + 5 – 2p = 0

Let the roots are λ1 and λ2.

From the characteristic equation,

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λ1 + λ2 = 6

λ1λ2 = 5 – 2p ≥ 0 [For roots to be positive]

5

p ≤ ... (i)

2

For roots to be real,

62 – 4(5 – 2p) ≥ 0

36 – 20 + 8p ≥ 0

p ≥ –2 ... (ii)

From equations (i) and (ii),

5

–2 ≤ p ≤

2

83. (d)

AX = B

−2 1 1 : l

1 −2 1 : m

Augmented matrix, [A : B] =

1 1 −2 : n

R3 → R3 + R2 + R1:

−2 1 1 : l

1 −2 1 : m

A : B =

0 0 0 : l+m+n

Since, l+m+n = 0

Rank of [A : B] = 2

Rank of [A] = Rank of [A : B] = 2 < 3 (Number of variables)

⇒ Infinitely many solutions are possible.

84. (–15)

The characteristic equation of matrix A is

A − λI = 0

1−λ 4

2 3−λ = 0

λ2 – 4λ – 5 = 0

or A2 – 4A – 5I = 0

Now the given polynomial can be written as,

A5 – 4A4 – 7A3 + 11A2 – 2A + kI = (A3 – 2A + 3I) (A2 – 4A – 5I) + (k + 15)I

Since, A2 – 4A – 5I = 0

For the given polynomial to be zero,

k + 15 = 0

k = –15

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85. (a)

minimum (2, 3) ⇒ highest possible rank = 2

if rank of A = 2, it will consistent. In order to be inconsistent, maximum rank of A is ‘1’.

86. (2)

1 − e pz

f (z) = , then f (z) has a pole at z = 0 of order 4

z4

Residue of f(z) at z = 0

1 d n −1

= lim ( z − z0 )n ⋅ f ( z ) ; Here n = 4, z0 = 0

(n − 1)! z → z0 dzn− 1

1 d 3 z 4 ⋅ (1 − e pz ) 1 3 pz

= lim 3 = (− p ⋅ e )

3! z → 0 dz z 4 6

z=0

4 1 3

− = − ⋅p

3 6

4×6

= p3

3

p3 = 8

p = 2

87. (–1)

1 – ez = 0

ez = 1

z = 2nπi ; n = 0, ±1, ±2...

The poles lie inside the circle is at z = 0 only

2 z (2 z)2

z1 + + + ...

ze 2 z 1! 2!

Residue at (z = 0) = lim = lim

z→0 1 − e z z→0 2

z z

1−1− − − ...

1! 2!

2 z (2 z)2

z1 + + + ...

1! 2!

lim = −1

= z →0 z

− z 1 + ...

2!

1 e2 z

∫ 1 − ez dz = –1

The value of 2 πi

c

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88. (a)

ln y = sin–1x, ln z = –cos–1x

ln y – ln z = sin–1x + cos–1x

y π

ln =

z

2

y = ze π/2

dy

= e π/2

dz

d2 y

= 0

dz 2

89. (a)

For particular integral,

D2 2

1− x

96x 2 1 2 96 4

PI = 2 2

= 96 x =

D ( D + 4) D2 4 D2

4D2 1 +

4

2 1

x −

2

= 24 2

D

x4 x2 2 2

PI = 24 4 × 3 − 4 = 2 x ( x − 3)

PI x = 2 = 2 × 22(4 – 3) = 8

dT

= k (T – 25)

dt

T = Temperature of the body in °C and t = time in minutes.

dT

= kdt

T − 25

ln(T – 25) = kt + C1

T – 25 = Cekt

At t = 0, T = 100°C and at t = 1 minute, T = 75°C.

(100 – 25) = Ce0

⇒ C = 75

2

50 = 75 ek ⇒ ek =

3

At t = 5 minutes, T – 25 = 75 ek × 5

5

2

T = 25 + 75 × ≈ 34.88°C

3

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91. (b)

M = (1 + xy)y

and N = (1 – xy)x

∂M ∂N

− = 4xy ≠ 0

∂y ∂x

Mx – Ny = 2 x2 y 2 ≠ 0

1 1

=

Mx − Ny 2x 2 y 2

1

IF (Integrating factor) =

2x 2 y 2

1 1 1 1

2 + dx + 2 − dy = 0 ...(i)

x y x xy y

equation (i) is exact

1 1 1 1

∫

y x 2

dx + ∫ dx − ∫ dy = C

x y

−1

+ ln x − ln y = C

xy

x 1

or ln − = C

y xy

92. (c)

Case-I: White ball is transferred from urn A to urn B

2 6 2

Probability of drawing white ball from B = × =

2 + 4 13 13

Case-II: Black ball is transferred from A to B

4 5 10

Probability of drawing black ball from B = × =

2 + 4 13 39

2 10 16

Required probability = + =

13 39 39

93. (a)

∞ 1 2

Mean = ∫ xf ( x ) dx = ∫ x 2 dx + ∫ (2 − x )x dx

−∞ 0 1

1 2

x3 x3 1 8−1

= + x2 − = + 4 − 1 − =1

3 3 3 3

0 1

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94. (a)

∂φ ∂ψ

=

∂x ∂y

∂ψ

2x =

∂y

ψ = 2xy + c

ψ(0, 0) = 0 + c = 0

and ψ = 2 xy

95. (b)

Number of ways of throwing 6 is five ⇒ (1 + 5), (2 + 4), (3 + 3), (4 + 2), (5 + 1)

Number of ways of throwing 7 is six ⇒ (1 + 6), (2 + 5), (3 + 4), (4 + 3), (5 + 2), (6 + 1)

5

Probability of throwing 6, p1 =

36

5 31

Probability of failing to throw 6, p2 = 1 − =

36 36

6

Probability of throwing 7, q1 =

36

6 30

Probability of failing to throw 7, q2 = 1 − =

36 36

Probability of B winning = p2q1 + p2q2 p2q1 + p2q2p2q2p2q1 + ....

31 6

×

p2 q 1 31 × 6 31

= = 36 36 = =

(1 − p2 q2 ) 1 − 31 × 30 366 61

36 36

96. (a)

Since the probability of occurrence is very small, this follows Poisson distribution

mean = m = np

= 2000 × 0.001

= 2

Probability that more than 2 will get a bad reaction

= 1 – p (0) – p (1) – p(2)

− m e − m ⋅ m1 e − m ⋅ m 2

= 1 − e + +

1! 2!

−2 e −2 ⋅ 2 2 2 ⋅ e −2 1 2 2

= 1 − e + + = 1− 2 + 2 + 2

1 2 e e e

5

= 1−

e2

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97. (1)

Newton Raphson fails iff′(x) = 0

f′(x) = 3x2 – 6x + 3 = 0

3(x2 – 2x + 1) = 0

(x – 1)2 = 0

x = 1

For only one value, Newton-Raphson method fails.

98. (b)

xn yn f ( xn , y n ) = xn + 2 y n y n+1 = y n + 0.1f ( xn , y n )

1 1 3 1 + 0.1 × 3 = 1.3

1.1 1.3 3.7 1.3 + 0.1 × 3.7 = 1.67

1.2 1.67 4.54 1.67 + 0.1 × (4.54) = 2.124

1.3 2.124 5.548 2.124 + 0.1 × 5.548 = 2.6788

1.4 2.6788 6.7576 2.6788 + 0.1 × 6.7576 = 3.354

1.5 3.354

y = 3.35

99. (b)

s

L(cosat) =

s + a2

2

2 d2 s d 1 s × 2s

L(t2cosat) = ( −1) = ds 2 −

ds 2 s 2 + a 2 s + a

2

(s 2 + a2 )2

d s 2 + a2 − 2s 2 d a 2 − s 2 −2 s ( a 2 − s 2 ) × 2s

= 2 = = − 2

ds ( s + a2 )2 ds ( s 2 + a2 )2 ( s 2 + a2 )2 ( s 2 + a 2 )3

−2s 3 − 2 a2 s − 4 a2 s + 4s 3 2 s( s 2 − 3 a2 )

= =

(s 2 + a2 )3 (s 2 + a2 )3

100. (a)

General form of second order partial differential equation

aUxx + bUxy + cUyy = 0

∂f ∂2 f

=

∂t ∂x 2

It has coefficients, a = 1, b = 0, c = 0

b2 – 4ac = 0 the equation is called parabolic.

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through Questions ELECTRONICS ENGG.

out of 200 Questions

Day 5 of 8

NLC, HPCL, OIL, PGCIL, HAL, NMDC, NALCO, MDL, AAI,

NPCIL, DDA, Electricity Boards and many more . . .

PGDIE/PGDM/PGDMM from NITIE

GATE

Gateway for

Engineers

Higher Studies Higher Studies

Foreign Universities Indian Universities

NUS (Singapore), NTU (Singapore), M.Tech/M.S from IISC, IITs, NITs, IIITs

TUM (Munich), RWTH (Germany)

Research Courses

Microprocessors

Network Theory 0.75% Reasoning, Aptitude

5.75% & English Engineering Mathematics 13.75%

15.00%

Electromagnetics

8.25% Analog Electronics 10.75%

Engineering

Control Systems

8.50% Mathematics

13.75% Electronic Devices 9.75%

Communications

8.75% Communications 8.75%

Analog

Electronics Control Systems 8.50%

10.70%

9.00%

Signals & Systems

Electronic Devices 9.75% Network Theory 5.75%

9.75%

Microprocessors 0.75%

Total 100%

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Day 5 : Q.101 to Q.125 : Analog Circuits and Network Theory

Q.101 Consider the waveform shown below:

Vo

100 V

25 V

t Circuit t

–100 V –175 V

If the input is a 100 V peak square wave with a period of 20 ms. The output of the wave is so

designed that it has a maximum value of 25 and minimum of –175 V at the steady state, then

the circuit which can perform this function can be represented as

C C

+ + + +

R R

Vin Vo Vin Vo

(a) (b)

25 V –25 V

– – – –

C

+ + + +

R R

(c) Vin Vo (d) Vin Vo

25 V –25 V

– – – –

Q.102 At IC = 1 mA and VCE = 10 V, the high frequency parameters at cutoff frequency fT = 500 MHz

was measured at Cµ = 10 pF. Then the value of capacitance Cπ will be equal to

(Assume VT = 25 mV)

(a) 1.6 pF (b) 2.1 pF

(c) 2.7 pF (d) 3.4 pF

Q.103 For a n - channel MOSFET biased in the saturation region, the parameter

µ nCo x W

= 0.5 mA/V 2 , VTN = 0.8 V and λ = 0.01 V–1. If the value of the drain current flowing

2L

inside the MOS transistor is ID = 0.75 mA, then the value of intrinsic gain Ao = gmro of the

MOSFET is equal to

(a) 201.21 (b) 115.46

(c) 143.34 (d) 163.3

Q.104 An amplifier with open loop gain of A = 2000 ±150 is available for operation but for a particular

operation it is necessary to have the amplifier whose voltage gain varies by not more than

0.2%. The close loop feedback gain of the circuit is equal to ____________.

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Q.105 Consider the MOS transistor circuit as shown in the figure below:

5V

M1

Vo

5V M2

The two transistors have VT = 0.8 V, µnCox = 40 µA/V2 and λ = 0, but different values of width

W

to length ratio. The input to the transistor M2 of 5 V creates an output voltage to V0 = 0.1 V.

L

W W

If the value of = 1 , then the value of is equal to

L 1 L 2

(c) 17.413 (d) 20.253

VCC

T2

R1

Vo

Vin T1

The biasing circuit is omitted which ensures that the circuit operates in active region. Neglecting

Vo

the early effect the value of voltage gain i.e. is equal to

Vin

1

(a) –gm R1 –gm (b) − gm1 R1 + gm2 +

1 2

rπ1

1

(c) − gm1 R1 + rπ2 (d) –gm R1 rπ

gm 2

1 2

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Q.107 Consider the op-amp circuit shown in the figure below:

100 kΩ

20 kΩ

–

60 kΩ V0

10 V +

15 V

20 kΩ

30 kΩ

Vin VC

+ –

+

C

10 V

I M1 D1 R V0

5V Vin

t –

T

The complete biasing of the MOSFET is not shown for simplicity but it can be taken as a fact

that M1 is switched ON for positive value of Vin greater than 3.2 V with rds(on) = 0 Ω. When M1

is switched OFF then the value of rds = ∞. A D.C. current source I is also connected across the

MOS transistor. Assuming Vc has negligible ripple voltage . If the source Vin has a duty cycle of

D, then the value of Vc after 5 input pulse will be (Assuming Resistance R to be very large)

5I 5I

(a) DT (b) − DT

C C

5I −5 I

(c) (1 − D)T (d) (1 − D)T

C C

Q.109 Consider the circuit shown in the figure below:

Q1

R1

–

Vreff = 5 V Q2

+

+

R0 V

–

Assuming the input voltage applied to the circuit is Vreff. Then the reading of ideal voltmeter

connected across R0 is equal to (Assume β to be very-large) ________V.

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Q.110 Consider the circuit shown in the figure below.

VCC

Ireff

I0

T1 T3

T2 RE

Assume all the three transistors are perfectly matched with saturation current Is = 120 mA,

VT = 25 mV, Ireff = 25 mA. If the output current I0 is to be set at 10 µA, then the value of RE is

equal to (Assuming negligible leakage current)

(a) 12.25 kΩ (b) 15.638 kΩ

(c) 5.63 kΩ (d) 22.11 kΩ

5 kΩ

5 kΩ D1

Vin –

V0

+ D2

10 kΩ

5 kΩ

–15 V

Assume the op-amp and the diode D1 and D2 to be ideal, then the transfer characteristic of the

circuit can be given as

V0

V0

5

–10 V

Vin

(a) (b) –20 V

Vi

5

–10 V

V0

V0

–10 V –5 V

Vin Vin

(c) (d)

–20 V

–10 V –10 V

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Q.112 Consider the circuit shown in the figure below:

VCC

I

500 Ω

+

C1 C2

Vs D1 V0

–

Assume that D1 is a silicon diode with η = 1 and VT = 25 mV, the capacitors C1 and C2 on

V0

sufficiently large and do not incure any drop across, then the value of I for which = 0.5 is

Vs

_________ µA.

Q.113 Consider the circuit shown in the figure below:

2A 4Ω

+

1Ω V0

– + 4V0

1Ω –

10 V –+

2Ω

5A 6Ω 6Ω 15 A

+

V 1Ω

–

(a) –5 V (b) –20 V

(c) –6.67 V (d) 10 V

3Ω

iR(t)

2H 1F

iC(t)

iL(t)

At steady state, the current through resistor is given by 15cost and the voltage across the

inductor is 2sint. The RMS value of the current through the capacitor is

15

(a) A (b) 12 2 A

2

(c) 7 2 A (d) 8 2 A

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Q.116 Consider the circuit shown in the figure below,

10 Ω 30 Ω

80 V –+ 3F 2i 50 Ω

Q.117 For the circuit shown in the figure below, the maximum power delivered to the load RL is

i1

5Ω 10 Ω

RL

4i1 + + 20 V

– –

(c) 9.25 W (d) 3.09 W

Q.118 Two identical networks are connected in cascade as shown in the below figure:

I1 I2

+ +

V1 N1 N2 V2

– –

4 3

If the transmission parameter of one network is , then the value of h12 is

2 1

(a) 2.2 (b) 1.5

(c) 0.57 (d) 0.46

S

i1 i2

R R

V0sinωt +

–

C L

di1

The switch get closed at t = 0, then the value of in (A/s) is

dt (t = 0+ )

− ωV0 ωV0

(a) (b)

R R

ωV0 V0

(c) (d)

RC C

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Q.120 A two port network is characterized by the following equations:

ix 10 Ω

Vx

3A

4 5Ω

50 V +

Vx 2Ω 4ix

–

(a) Vx = 4 V, ix = 2.105 A (b) Vx = –4 V, ix = 4.105 A

(c) Vx = 4 V, ix = 4.105 A (d) Vx = –4 V, ix = 2.105 A

2Ω ix

2A

ix /2

–+

3Ω

1Ω

4Ω

5A

16 A

Q.123 In the circuit shown below, the initial current through the inductor is i (0–) = 6 A.

i(t) 6H

10 Ω 0.5i 40 Ω

If the switch is closed at t = 0, then the time domain expression of the current i(t) for t > 0 will

be

(a) 6e –1.33t u(t) A (b) 6e –5t u(t) A

(c) 12e –1.33t u(t) A (d) 12e –5t u(t) A

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Q.124 Consider the circuit shown in the figure below:

6Ω 7A

12 Ω

8A 4Ω

(a) 2.5 A (b) 4 A

(c) 7.5 A (d) 12 A

i1 R1

iR

i2 R2 i

is

+

+ V β1 i1 β2 i2 VL RL

– s

–

VL

If R1 = R2 = 2 Ω, RL = 5 Ω and β1 = β2 = 2, then the ratio of will be equal to ______.

Vs

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Detailed Explanations

101. (c)

Since the output is reproduced in the negative cycle, i.e., the clamper used is to add a negative

D.C. level to the circuit, hence it is a negative clamper. Thus diode must be S.C. for a positive

voltage applied at the input.

Now, after deciding the polarity of the diode we have to make sure that the diode is forward

biased if the input is lower than 25 V.

Thus, the circuit will look like the one shown in the figure below.

C

+ +

R D

Vin Vout

V = 25 V

– –

102. (c)

gm

fT =

2 π (Cµ + C π )

IC 1 × 10 −3

gm = = = 40 mS

VT 25 × 10 −3

40 × 10 −3

∴ Cµ + Cπ = = 12.7 pF

2 π × 500 × 106

Now, Cπ = (12.7 – 10) pF = 2.7 pF

103. (d)

2 µ nC ox W

gm = I D = 4 × 0.5 × 0.75 × 10 −6

L

gm = 1.225 m

1 100

now, ro = = × 10 3 = 133.33 kΩ

λI D 0.75

∴ Ao = gm ro = 163.3

dA f 0.2

= 0.2% =

Af 100

dA = 150, A = 2000

dA f 1 dA

∴ = ⋅

Af 1 + Aβ A

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0.2 1 150

= ⋅

100 1 + Aβ 2000

1 + Aβ = 37.5

36.5

β = = 0.01825

2000

2000

Thus, Af = = 53.33

1 + 0.01825 × 2000

105. (d)

∵ The drain and gate of transistor T1 is shorted, thus the transistor will always remain in

saturation region, and VGS = VDS – Vo = 5 – 0.1 = 4.9 V.

For transistor M2

VGS = 5 V

VDS = 0.1 V

VT = 0.8 V

Thus, VDS < VGS – VT and VGS < VT

Hence, the transistor will be working in linear region.

The current flowing through the two transistors must be equal because they are connected in

series to each other. Thus, current flowing through transistor M1 is equal to

µ n C ox W1

ID 1 = (VGS 1 − VT )2

2 L1

and current flowing through transistor M2 is equal to

µ n C ox W2

2

VDS 2

ID 2 = (VGS 2 − VT )VDS 2 −

L2 2

thus, ID 1 = ID 2

2

( )

W VDS 2 1W 2

(VGS 2 − VT )VDS 2 − = VGS 1 − VT

L 2 2 2 L 1

W (0.1)2 1 2

(5 − 0.8)(0.1) − = 2 × 1 × (5 − 0.1 − 0.8)

L 2 2

W

∴ = 20.253

L 2

106. (c)

Drawing the small signal model of the above circuit, we get

R1

+ +

Vin rπ1 gm1Vin R′ rπ2 Vπ2 gm Vπ2

–

– A

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Let R′ be the input resistance as seen in from point A.

Thus, to calculate R′ we can draw the diagram separately

+

rπ2 Vπ2 gm Vπ2

V

–

V 1

∴ R′ = = rπ 2

I gm2

Vo = –gm Vin (R1 + R′)

1

Vo 1

= − gm1 R1 + rπ 2

Vin gm 2

107. (55)

Applying KCL at node V +, we get, 100 kΩ

V + − 10 V + − 15 V+ 20 kΩ

V

–

+ + = 0 –

60 kΩ 20 kΩ 30 kΩ 60 kΩ

V

+ V0

10 V +

V+ 1 3 15 V

∴ = +

10 kΩ 6 kΩ 4 kΩ 20 kΩ

30 kΩ

55

∴ V+ =

6

R2 + 55

∴ V0 = 1 + V = (1 + 5) ×

R1 6

V0 = 55 V

108. (c)

For negative cycle Vin < 3.2 V always, thus the MOSFET M1 will be OFF and diode D1 will be

ON

C

+ –

VC

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I

∴ VC = .t

C

I I

⇒ VC = .Toff = (1 − D)T

C C

Now, when Vin > 3.2 V, thus the MOSFET transistor will be switched ON and hence

VC

+ –

I I R

Now, since R is very large, thus, Vc will not reduce substantially and thus, VC will not change

during the positive going pulse.

Hence, after 5 clock pulse value of Vc

5I

Vc = (1 − D)T

C

109. (–10)

I1 = IC1 Q1

–

VBE1

+

5 kΩ

Vreff – IE2 IC2

I1 Q2

+ + –

V – +

VBE2

+ 10 kΩ V

+ –

IC2

Vreff 5

Now, I1 = = × 10 −3 = 1 mA

R1 5

Now, I 1 = I C1

and VBE1 = VBE2

V

∴ I C2 = I 0 exp BE = IC1 = 1 mA

VT

∴ V0 = –10 × IC = –10 × 1 × 103 × 10–3

2

= –10 V

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110. (b)

Applying KVL in the circuit shown below, we get,

2VBE1 = VBE3 + I0RE

(∵ both the transistor are matched with negligible base current thus VBE1 = VBE2 for same Ireff ).

I reff VCC

Now, VBE1 = VT ln

Is

Ireff

I0 I0

VBE3 = VT ln

Is T1 T3

+ +

I reff I0 – VBE1 VBE3 –

2VT ln − VT ln = I0RE I0

Is Is

T2 RE

I2 +

VT ln reff = I0RE – VBE2

I I

0 s

VT I reff

2

ln 625

RE = = 0.208 ln −3

= 15.638 kΩ

I 0 I 0 I s 10 × 120 × 10

111. (b)

Case -I : When Vin > –10 V, then the voltage across diode D1 is positive so diode D1 is in ON

state, and therefore the equivalent circuit can be drawn as

5 kΩ

5 kΩ V

–

Vin –

+

V V0

+

10 kΩ

5 kΩ

–15 V

10

V + = −15 ×

= – 10 V

15

Due to virtual ground, V + = V – = – 10 V

and V0 = V – = – 10 V

∴ V0 = –10 V

Case -II : When Vin < –10 V

V0 = +Vsat

Thus,

5 kΩ

5 kΩ –

Vin V

–

+

V V0

+

10 kΩ

5 kΩ

–15 V

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5

∴ V0 = − × Vin = −Vin (for Vin < –10 V)

5

Alternately, we can write the equation of the graph by applying KCL at node V–

∵ V– = V + = –10 V

+ = 0

5 kΩ 5 kΩ

–20 – Vin – V0 = 0

V0 = –Vin – 20

V0

–10 V

Vin

–20 V

–10 V

112. (50)

V0

Given = 0.5

Vs

Vs

V0 =

2

∴ For small signal analysis we can replace the diode D1 by its A.C. resistance.

Rs = 500 Ω

Vs rd V0

thus,

–

rd

∴ V0 = ⋅ Vs

Rs + rd

V0

for = 0.5, Rs = rd

Vs

VT

now, rd = = Rs = 500 Ω

I DC

25 × 10 −3

∴ I DC = = 50 µA

500

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113. (1152)

Redrawing the given circuit, we get,

2A 4Ω

a b c

+

V0

1Ω

– + 4V0

1Ω –

+ i

10 V –

f e d

In loop bcdeb,

–10 – V0 + 4i + 4V0 = 0

3V0 + 4i = 10 ...(i)

But, V0 = –(i + 2)1 = –i – 2 ...(ii)

Using the above relation, we get,

3(–i – 2) + 4i = 10

–3i + 4i = 16

i = 16 A

∴ V0 = –i – 2 = –16 – 2 = –18 V

∴ Power absorbed by dependent source = 4V0 × i = 4(–18) × (16) = –1152 W

(Here negative sign indicates that the dependent source deliveres the power)

114. (a)

(a )

2Ω

5A 3Ω 15 A

+

V 1Ω

–

Va Va

+ = 5 – 15

3 3

6Va = –90 ⇒ Va = –15 V

Va 15

∵ The current through 1 Ω resistor is =− =−5A

3 3

∴ The voltage across 1 Ω resistor is –5 V.

115. (c)

We know that,

diL (t )

vL (t) = L

dt

1 1

or, i L(t) =

L ∫ vL (t ) dt = ∫ 2 sin t dt

2

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i L(t) = –cost A

also, iR (t) = 15cost A

By KCL,

iR (t) – iC(t) + iL(t) = 0

or, i C(t) = iL(t) + iR(t)

= 15cost – cost = 14cost A

14

RMS value of iC (t) = =7 2 A

2

For t < 0, the switch was closed and the capacitor will act as an open circuit,

(a)

8A 10 Ω 2i 80 Ω

Va Va

+ = 8 + 2i

10 80

Va Va V Va

+ = 8 + 2 a ∵ i = 80

10 80 80

Va Va Va

+ − = 8

10 80 40

or 8Va + Va – 2Va = 640

640

or Va = V

7

640 8

∴ i = = A

7 × 80 7

= 1.142 A

117. (b)

For maximum power transfer, let us calculate the Thevenin’s equivalent resistance,

A i1

i

5Ω

+

– V 10 Ω

4i1 +

–

B

Using KCL at node A, we get,

V − 4 i1 V

+ = i

5 10

2V – 8i1 + V = 10i

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V

2 V − 8 + V = 10i

10

(20 + 10 – 8)V = 100i

V 100

or RTh = = Ω = 4.545 Ω

i 22

Finding VTh:

A i1

5Ω 10 Ω

+

VTh

–

4i1 + +

– – 20 V

B

Using KCL at node A, we get,

VTh − 4i1 VTh − 20

+ = 0

5 10

2VTh + VTh – 20 = 8i1

VTh − 20

3VTh = 8 + 20

10

8VTh 160

3VTh – 20 = −

10 10

3VTh – 0.8VTh = 4

4

= 1.818 V

VTh =

2.2

∴ Maximum power transferred will be,

2

VTh V2 (1.818)2

P = = Th = = 181.81 mW

4 RTh 4 RTh 4 × 4.545

118. (c)

For cascade connection individual T-parameters are multiplied.

∴ [T] = [T1] × [T2]

4 3 4 3 16 + 6 12 + 3 22 15

= 2 1 × 2 1 = 8 + 2 6 + 1 = 10 7

V1 22 15 V2

or, [T] = I = 10 7 − I

1 2

∴ V1 = 22V2 – 15I2 ...(i)

I 1 = 10V2 – 7I2 ...(ii)

V1

∵ h12 =

V2 I1 = 0

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From equation (ii), keeping I1 = 0, we get,

10V2 = 7I2

∴ From equation (i),

15 × 10

V1 = 22 V2 − V2

7

150 154 − 150

V1 = 22 − V2 = V2

7 7

V1 4

or, h12 = = = 0.571

V2 7

119. (b)

Before t = 0, the circuit is a source free circuit.

Thus, vC (0–) = vC (0+) = 0 V

and iL(0 –) = iL(0+) = 0 A

+

at t = 0 , the circuit can be redrawn as

R

V0sinωt +

– i1

t

1

V0 sinωt = Ri1 (t ) + C ∫ i1 (t ) dt

0

di1 (t ) i1 (t )

or ωV0 cos ωt = R +

dt C

di1 i1 (t ) 1

= ωV0 cos ωt − ×

dt C R

di1 + ωV0 cos ωt i1 (t )

(0 ) = −

dt R t = 0+ RC t = 0+

di1 + ωV0

(0 ) = A/s

dt R

Given equations,

3V1 = I1 – 4I2 ...(i)

and 5V2 = 4I1 + 2I2 – 6V1 ...(ii)

From equation (i), putting the value of V1 in equation (ii), we get,

6

5V2 = 4 I 1 + 2 I 2 − ( I 1 − 4 I 2 )

3

= 4I1 + 2I2 – 2I1 + 8I2

= 2I1 + 10I2

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1/3 − 4/3

∴ z =

2/5 10/5

z21 − 2/5 1

where y21 = − = =−

∆z 1 10 2 4 3

× + ×

3 5 5 3

= –0.33

121. (d)

Redrawing the given circuit, we get,

ix 10 Ω A B

Vx

3A

4 5Ω

50 V

i1 + i2

Vx 2Ω 4ix

–

–50 + 10i1 + 5i2 + 4ix = 0

∵ i x = i1

–50 + 14i1 + 5i2 = 0 ...(i)

at node A,

V

i1 + 3 + x = i

4 2

∴ i1 = i2 – 2 ...(ii)

from equation (i) and (ii), we get,

i1 = ix = 2.105 A and i2 = 4.105 A

and Vx = 2(i1 – i2) = –4 V

Redrawing the given circuit, we get,

2Ω ix

2A + 2ix –

ix /2

3Ω C

A –+ B

– i + i1

31

1Ω

4Ω

5A

16 A

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By KCL at node A, we get,

i1 = 2 + 5 + ix = 7 + ix

By KVL in ABCA, we get,

ix

2 ix + + 3i1 = 0

2

5i x

+ 3(7 + ix ) = 0

2

5ix

+ 21 + 3 ix = 0

2

11 ix

= –21

2

42

ix = − = − 3.818 A

11

123. (b)

Given that, i (0 – ) = 6 A

So, the circuit in Laplace domain for t > 0 can be given as,

6/s

I(s)

6s

I(s)

10 Ω 40 Ω

2

36 20I(s)

I(s) 6s 40 Ω

–+ –+

10 Ω

36 + 20 I (s )

So, I(s) =

6s + 50

I(s)[6s + 50 – 20] = 36

36 6

I(s) = =

6s + 30 s + 5

By applying inverse Laplace transform, we get,

i(t ) = 6e –5tu(t) A

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124. (c)

The circuit can be redrawn as

V1

6Ω 7A i

12 Ω

≡ 6Ω 8A 4Ω 7A

V1 12 Ω

8A 4Ω

i G

G

Using KCL at V1, we get,

V1 V1 V1

+ + = 8 + 7 = 15

4 12 6

3V1 + V1 + 2V1 = 15 × 12

or 6V1 = 15 × 12 ⇒ V1 = 30 V

V1 30

∴ i= = = 7.5 A

4 4

By redrawing the circuit, we get,

i1 2Ω

is VL iR

i2 2Ω i

is

+

Vs + 2 i1 2 i2 VL 5Ω

–

–

∵ is = i1 + i2

V L = (3is ) 5 Ω ...(i)

Vs − VL V − VL

is = = s

(2 Ω || 2 Ω) 1Ω

3(Vs − VL )

VL = (5 Ω) = 15 Vs − 15 VL

1Ω

VL 15

= = 0.9375 ≈ 0.94

Vs 16

Revision EC

through Questions ELECTRONICS ENGG.

out of 200 Questions

Day 6 of 8

NLC, HPCL, OIL, PGCIL, HAL, NMDC, NALCO, MDL, AAI,

NPCIL, DDA, Electricity Boards and many more . . .

PGDIE/PGDM/PGDMM from NITIE

GATE

Gateway for

Engineers

Higher Studies Higher Studies

Foreign Universities Indian Universities

TUM (Munich), RWTH (Germany)

Research Courses

Microprocessors

Network Theory 0.75% Reasoning, Aptitude

5.75% & English Engineering Mathematics 13.75%

15.00%

Electromagnetics

8.25% Analog Electronics 10.75%

Engineering

Control Systems

8.50% Mathematics

13.75% Electronic Devices 9.75%

Communications

8.75% Communications 8.75%

Analog

Electronics Control Systems 8.50%

10.70%

9.00%

Signals & Systems

Electronic Devices 9.75% Network Theory 5.75%

9.75%

Microprocessors 0.75%

Total 100%

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Day 6 : Q.126 to Q.150 : Digital Electronics and EMT

Q.126 Consider a 3-bit number A and 2 bit number B are given to a multiplier. The output of multiplier

is realized using AND gate and one bit full adders. If minimum number of AND gates required

are X and one bit full adders required are Y, then X + Y = _____.

A C

Multiplier

B

Q.127 Let X = X2X1X0 and Y = Y1Y0 be unsigned positive 3-digit and 2-digit numbers respectively.

The output function ‘f ’ = 1 only when X > Y otherwise ‘0’. Then the value of output f is equal

to

(a) ( X2 + Y1 + Y0 ) ( X2 + X1 + Y0 )( X2 + X1 + Y1 )( X2 + X1 + X0 ) ( X2 + X0 + Y1 )

(b) ( X2 + Y1 + Y0 ) ( X2 + X1 + Y0 )( X2 + X1 + Y1 )( X2 + X1 + X0 ) ( X2 + X0 + Y1 )

(c) ( X2 + Y1 + Y0 ) ( X2 + X1 + Y0 )( X2 + X1 + Y1 )( X2 + X1 + X0 ) ( X2 + X0 + Y1 )

(d) ( X2 + Y1 + Y0 ) ( X2 + X1 + Y0 )( X2 + X1 + Y1 )( X2 + X1 + X0 ) ( X2 + X0 + Y1 )

Q.128 The minimum number of 2 × 1 MUX required to implement a half-subtracter circuit when only

basic inputs 0, 1, A and B are available is

(a) 2 (b) 4

(c) 5 (d) 6

(a) X (b) X + Y

(c) 1 (d) 0

Q.130 A Mealy system produces an output 1 if the input has been ‘0’ for atleast two consecutive

clocks followed immediately by 1 for two or more consecutive clock. The minimum number of

states required to design this system is ____________.

Q.131 Out of the given state diagram of a Moore type sequence detector, which one of the following

state diagram represents a “110” sequence detector?

1

0 0

A 1 B 1 C 0 D

(a) 0 (b) 0 A 1 B 1 C 0 D

0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1

1

0 1 1

0

1

0

A 1 B 1 C 0 D

(c) 0 0 0 0 1

(d) none of the above

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Q.132 Consider the circuit shown in the figure below:

Y

1 J0 Q0 1 J1 Q1 1 J2 Q2

1 K0 Q0 1 K1 Q1 1 K2 Q2

The value of output Q0Q1Q2 and the value of output Y after the 5th clock pulse is

(Assume that initially all the flip-flops are reseted.)

(a) Output = 001 and Y = 1 (b) Output = 101 and Y = 0

(c) Output = 100 and Y = 1 (d) Output = 010 and Y = 1

J0 Q0 1 J1 Q1 1 J2 Q2

F0 F1 F2

K0 Q0 K1 Q1 K2 Q2

Clock

3 4 6 7

The counter is designed such that it counts the states ,

(a) The counter enters into a lockout state if the counter starts from (5)10

(b) The counter enters into a lockout state if the counter starts from (2)10

(c) The counter enters into a lockout state if the counter starts from (3)10

(d) The counter do not enters into a lockout state.

B

1/0 0/0 0/0

0/1

E A 1/0 0/1 C 0/0

1/0 1/1

D

1/0

(a) The machine produces an output 1 when exactly two 0’s are followed by 1.

(b) The machine produces an output 1 when exactly two 1’s are followed by 0.

(c) The reduced state table will contain only five states.

(d) The minimum number of flip-flop required to implement this machine is equal to four.

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Q.135 Consider the following analog to digital converter, monitoring the DC voltage of a 12 V storage

battery. The converter’s output is a four bit binary number, ABCD, corresponding to the battery

voltage in steps of 1 V, with A as the MSB. The converter’s binary outputs are fed to a logic

circuit that is to produce a high output as long as the binary value is greater than (0110)2 = (6)10;

that is, the battery voltage is greater than 6 V.

A

A/D B

conventor Logic

f

C Circuit

Battery

D

Which one of the following circuits best describes the logic circuit shown in the above figure?

A

A B

f

(a) (b) f

B

C C

D

D

A

C

f A

D f

(c) (d) B

C

D

B

Q.136 The digital circuit converts a stream of input pulses into a single pulse as shown in the figure.

Input (X) Output (Y)

Digital circuit

t t

t0 t1 t2 t3 t4 t0 t1

Then which of the following circuit can be used as a “Digital Circuit” as mentioned in the

figure.

(Assuming for t < t0, Q1 = Q2 = 0)

1 D1 Q1 D2 Q2 Y

1 1

D1 Q1 D2 Q2 Y

X

(a) X (b) Q1 Q2

Q1 Q2

1 D1 Q1 1 D2 Q2 Y 1 D1 Q1 D2 Q2 Y

X X

(c) Q1 Q2 (d) Q1 Q2

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Q.137 Consider the circuit shown below, which is an n-bit DAC.

R

bn – 1

2R R

bn – 2 –

4R Vout

bn – 3 +

8R

bn – 4 R

n–1

2 R

b0

The input bits 0 and 1 are represented by 0 and 5 V respectively. If the op-amp is ideal and the

maximum value ofVout is 9.375 V, then the value of n will be _________.

0/0

a

0/0

0/0

1/0

0/0 0/0

b c

1/0 1/0

0/0

g 1/1 d e

1/1

1/1

0/0 f

1/1

The minimum number of states required to implement the circuit corresponding to the above

state diagram is ______.

Q.139 Consider the CMOS logic circuit shown in the figure below:

VDD VDD

Clk

M3 M5

Input M1 Output

M4 M6

M2

Clk

The above circuit represents

(a) a positive level triggered latch (b) a MUX circuit

(c) a clocked T-flip-flop (d) a multi-vibrator

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Q.140 Consider the figure shown below. The four counters are connected in cascade. The number of

flip-flops used to construct the third block which is a Johnson counter is ______.

fin = 1.6 GHz fout = 1 MHz

Ring counter counter counter ripple counter

R R R

2R 2R 2R 2R 2R

R IR

10 V 1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0

–

Vout

+

D3 D2 D1 D0

If the value of R = 5 kΩ and the digital input signal (D3D2D1D0) is (1101)2, then the value of

current IR is

(a) 1.25 mA (b) 1.625 A

(c) 1.25 A (d) 1.625 mA

Q.142 Consider the CMOS logic circuit shown in the figure below:

VDD

M4

M3

V2 Y

M2

M1

V1

(a) positive NOR logic (b) negative NOR logic

(c) positive AND logic (d) negative EX-OR logic

Q.143 A 1-bit full adder takes 10 ns to generate output carry bit and 20 ns to generate the output sum

bit. If four such full adders are cascaded to form a 4-bit parallel adder, then the maximum

number of 4-bit additions per second that can be performed by the parallel adder is

_________ × 106.

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Q.144 A current sheet, K = 8 aˆ y A/m at x = 0 separates region-1, x < 0 from region-2, x > 0. If

H1 = 10 aˆ z A/m , H 2 will be

(a) 8 aˆ y (b) −10 aˆ z

(c) 2 aˆ z (d) − 2 aˆ x

Q.145 Surface x = 0 separates two perfect dielectric with relative permittivities εr = 2 and εr = 8. If

1 2

E1 = (100 aˆ x + 200 aˆ y − 50 aˆ z ) V/m for x > 0. Then E2 is

(c) 25 aˆ x + 200 aˆ y − 50 aˆ z (d) 100 aˆ x + 800 aˆ y − 200 aˆ z

Q.146 In a non magnetic medium, the peak value of electric field is given as 24 V/m. If the relative

360

permittivity is given as εr = 2 , then the time average power per m2 is

π

12 45.5

(a) 2

W (b) W

π π2

91 227

(c) 2

W (d) W

π π2

Q.147 Inside a rectangular waveguide for a particular mode, the phase velocity is three times the

group velocity at 5 GHz. The cut-off frequency of the waveguide is __________ GHz.

Q.148 A uniform plane wave with 25 V/m electric field is normally incident on an infinitely thick slab

of a material of dielectric constant 5. The electric field just inside the slab surface is

(a) 5 V/m (b) 15.45 V/m

(c) 125 V/m (d) 625 V/m

Q.149 In a conductor, the electromagnetic wave with conductivity 54 S/m penetrates to a depth of

10 µm. The wavelength of electromagnetic wave is

(a) 48.80 µm (b) 24.2 µm

(c) 12.56 µm (d) 6.39 µm

Hi = 40 cos(108 t − β z) aˆ x A/m

is incident normally on a lossless medium (ε = 2ε0 and µ = 5µ0) in region z ≥ 0. The reflected

electric field component is

8 1 8 1

(a) − 40 η0 cos 10 − z aˆ y V/m (b) − 9 η0 cos 10 t + z aˆ y V/m

3 3

8 4 8 4

(c) − 1.6 η0 cos 10 t + z aˆ y V/m (d) − 9 η0 cos 10 t − z aˆ y V/m

3 3

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Detailed Explanations

126. (9)

Let

A= a2 a1 a0

B= b1 b0

A×B= a2b0 a1b0 a0b0

b1a2 b1a1 b1a0

b1a2 (a2b0 + a1b1) (a1b0 + b1a0) a0b0

C3 C2 C1 C0

Number of one bit full adders required Y = 3

X+Y = 6+3=9

127. (c)

Now, X > Y if

(a) X2 = 1

(b) X2 = 0 and X1X0 > Y1Y0

Y1Y0 Y1Y0

X1X0 00 01 11 10 X1X0 00 01 11 10

( X2 + X1 + X0 )

00 0 0 0 0 00 1 1 1 1

( X 2 + X 1 + Y1 )

01 1 0 0 0 01 1 1 1 1

11 1 1 0 1 11 1 1 1 1

( X 2 + Y1 + Y0 )

10 1 1 0 0 (X2 + X0 + Y1 ) 10 1 1 1 1

( X 2 + X 1 + Y0 )

X2 = 0 X2 = 1

128. (a)

AB

B I0 A I0

Sum = A + B

0 I1 S 0 I1 S 0

A B

Borrow = A B

129. (b)

X ⊕ Y = X Y = XY + XY

= ( XY ) ( XY )

= (X + Y ) (X + Y )

= X +Y (∵ X + Y = 1 which is given)

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130. (4)

The state diagram can be drawn as

0/0

1/0

1/1

1/0

A B C D

0/0 0/0 1/0

0/0

Hence, minimum number of states = 4.

131. (c)

132. (b)

The given circuit represents a 3-bit counter. So the count can be represented as

Clk Q2 Q1 Q0

Initially 0 0 0

1 0 0 1

2 0 1 0

3 0 1 1

4 1 0 0

5 1 0 1 ⇒ 5th clock pulse

6 1 1 0

7 1 1 1

∴ Y = Q 2 ⊕ Q1 ⊕ Q0

= 1⊕0⊕1 = 0

133. (d)

Test for Lockout

Present State Present Input Next State

0 1

Q2 Q1 Q0 J2 K2 J1 K1 J0 K0 Q2 Q1 Q0 2

0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0

0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 5

3 4 6 7

0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1

1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1

134. (d)

The machine can identify two different sequence.

I=0 I=0 1

A B C D ⇒ 001

Output = 1

I=1 I=1 I=0

A D E A ⇒ 110

and

Output = 1

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now, drawing the state table, we get,

x=0 x=1 x=0 x=1

A B D 0 0

B C D 0 0

C C D 0 1

D B E 0 0

E A E 1 0

Hence, minimum number of state = 5

Thus minimum number of flip flop required = log 2 5 = 2.321 = 3

135. (d)

The truth table can be drawn as,

A B C D f

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 1 0

0 0 1 0 0

0 0 1 1 0

0 1 0 0 0

0 1 0 1 0

CD

0 1 1 0 0 AB 00 01 11 10

0 1 1 1 1 00 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 1

01 0 0 1 0

1 0 0 1 1

1 0 1 0 1 11 1 1 1 1

1 0 1 1 1

10 1 1 1 1

1 1 0 0 1

1 1 0 1 1

1 1 1 0 1

1 1 1 1 1

f = A + BCD

f = f = A + BCD

= f = A ⋅ BCD

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136. (b)

The easiest way to solve such question is to place the values in the circuit, for option (b) the

timing diagram can be drawn as

X

A

Q1

t

Q1

t

Q2

137. (4)

Since its an inverting amplifier,

Vout = –9.375 V when Vout = 9.375 V

maximum output means all bits are 1

i.e., b0b1b2 ..... bn = 1111 ...... 1

R R R R R

Vout = −V bn − 1 + bn − 2 + bn − 3 + bn − 4 .. .. + n − 1 b0

R 2R 4R 8R 2 R

1 1 1 1

–9.375 = −5 1 + + + + .. .. + n − 1

2 4 8 2

1

n

1 −

2

1.875 = 1

1−

2

n

1 1

× 1.875 = 1 −

2 2

n

1 1 1

= 1− × 1.875 = 0.0625 =

2 2 16

so, 2 n = 16

n = 4

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138. (5)

State Table

State X=0 X=1 X=0 X=1

a a b 0 0

b c d 0 0

c a d 0 0

d e f 0 1

e a f 0 1

f g f 0 1

g a f 0 1

State X=0 X=1 X=0 X=1

a a b 0 0

b c d 0 0

c a d 0 0

d e d 0 1

e a d 0 1

139. (a)

The circuit can be seen in two parts as

Clk

Vin Vout

Clk

Vin Vout

Vout = Vin

When clock is inactive (low),

Vin Vout

So, it works as a positive level triggered latch.

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140. (4)

f in

fout =

MOD (total)

f in

∴ MOD = = 5 × 10 × 2x × 4

f out

x= × =

400 1 × 106 400

x = 4 flip-flops

141. (d)

I R = I3 + I2 + I0

E E E 10 10 10

= reff + reff + reff = + +

2R 4 R 16 R 10 20 80

130 13

= = = 1.625 mA

80 8

142. (a)

V1 V2 Y M1 M2 M3 M 4

0 0 VDD OFF OFF ON ON

0 VDD 0 OFF ON OFF ON

VDD 0 0 ON OFF ON OFF

VDD VDD 0 ON ON OFF OFF

143. (20)

The 4-bit parallel adder can be analyzed as follows:

C2 C1 C0

F.A F.A F.A F.A Cin

(10 nsec) (10 nsec) (10 nsec)

S3 S2 S1 S0

(50 nsec) (40 nsec) (30 nsec) (20 nsec)

Thus, the maximum rate of 4-bit additions possible is,

1 109

/sec = /sec = 20 × 106 /sec

50 × 10 − 9 50

144. (c)

Here H 1 is completely tangential, therefore a change in permeability would have no effect.

∵ Bn1 = 0

∴ Bn2 = 0 and hence Hn2 = 0

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Using boundary condition, we get,

( Ht1 − Ht2 ) × aˆn12 = K

(10 aˆ z − Ht2 ) × aˆ x = 8 aˆ y

10 aˆ y − Ht2 aˆx = 8 aˆ y

Ht2 aˆ x = 2 aˆ y

H 2 = H t2 = 2 aˆ z

145. (c)

From boundary condition of dielectric - dielectric medium.

Et 1 = Et 2

and Dn1 = Dn 2

εr1 En1 = εr2 En2

εr1

or En 2 = En1

εr 2

2

= × 100 = 25

8

∴ E2 = 25 aˆ x + 200 aˆ y − 50 aˆ z

146. (b)

The time average poynting vector,

1 E2

P =

2 η

µ 1 π2

Where, η = = 120 π ε = 120 π

ε r 360

η = 6.32π2 Ω

1 24 × 24 45.5

∴ P = × = 2 W

2 6.32 π2 π

The group velocity and the phase velocity are related as,

vg × vgc = v02

where

vg = phase velocity, vgc = group velocity, v0 = free space velocity

vg

∵ vgc = (given)

3

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v0

∴ vgc = ...(i)

3

v0

also, vg = ...(ii)

1 − ( f c /f )

2

v0

3vgc =

1 − ( f c /f )

2

v0

3v0 =

1 − ( f c /f )

2

2

1 fc

= 1−

3 5

⇒ fc = 4.082 GHz

148. (b)

The wave incident from air to the dielectric material. Hence, we have,

η1 = η0

η0

and η2 =

5

∴ The transmission coefficient,

2 η2 2/ 5

Τ = = = 0.618

η2 + η 1 1 + 1

5

∴ The electric field inside the slab,

Et = ΤEi = 0.618 × 25 = 15.45 V/m

149. (d)

Depth of penetration,

1

δ = 10 µm =

π f µσ

1

10 × 10–6 =

π × 54 × 4π × 10 −7 × f

1019

f = = 46.911 × 1012 Hz

π2 × 100 × 54 × 4

c 3 × 108

∴ Wavelength, λ = = = 6.39 µm

f 46.911 × 1012

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150. (b)

η 1 = η 0 = 120π

µr 5

η 2 = η0 = 120 π

εr 2

E i = − 40 η1 cos(ωt − β z) aˆ y V/m

Er η2 − η1 (1.58 − 1)η0

now, = Γ= = = 0.225

Ei η2 + η1 (1.58 + 1)η0

∴ E r = 0.225 Ei

ω 108 1

where, β1 = = =

c 3 × 108 3

1

E r = − 9 η0 cos 108 t + z aˆ y V/m

3

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8.25% Analog Electronics 10.75%

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Day 7 : Q.151 to Q.175 : EMT and Control Systems

Q.151 An air filled square waveguide with a = 1.2 cm has,

2 πy

Ex = −10 sin sin(ωt − 80 z) V/m

a

The cutoff frequency fc is

(a) 12.5 GHz (b) 25 GHz

(c) 40 GHz (d) 80 GHz

Q.152 A uniform plane wave in free space has electric field vector given by,

E = 10 e − jβ x aˆ z + 15 e − jβ x aˆ y V/m

The wave is said to be

(a) linearly polarized (b) Right hand circularly polarized

(c) Left hand circularly polarized (d) Left hand elliptically polarized

λ/4 λ/4

Zin′′ Zin′

Zin 100 Ω

100 Ω

λ/4

Here two identical antennas each of input impedance 100 Ω are fed with 50 Ω lossless

transmission line as above. The input impedance at the source end is __________ Ω.

λ

Q.154 In a uniform linear array, four isotropic radiating elements are spaced apart. The progressive

4

phase shift required for forming the main beam at 30° off the end fire array is

π π

(a) − rad (b) − rad

2 4

3π 3π

(c) − rad (d) − rad

4 2

Q.155 The electric field intensity at a distance of 10 km from an antenna having a directive gain of 3

dB and radiating a total power of 30 kW is

(a) 4.5 V/m (b) 0.189 V/m

(c) 0.75 V/m (d) 18 V/m

Q.156 A 300 Ω lossless air transmission line is connected to a load ZL = (600 + j628) Ω. The distance

from load to the nearest voltage maximum is __________ m.

(Assume line is operating at f = 5 MHz)

Q.157 A 2 m long center fed dipole antenna operates at 1 MHz. The dipole is made of copper wire

(σ = 5.8 × 10 7 S/m) with a radius of 1 mm. The radiation efficiency of the antenna is

___________%.

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Q.158 The normalized radiation intensity of an antenna is given by,

1 ; 0 ≤ θ ≤ π /3 and 0 ≤ φ ≤ 2π

U (θ , φ ) =

0 ; otherwise

The directivity of the antenna is

(a) 4 dB (b) 6 dB

(c) 8 dB (d) 12 dB

Q.159 The input impedance Z in of the transmission line connection shown below is

Lossless Lossless

ZL ZL = 50 + j100 Ω

Zin

3λ/4 λ/8

(a) (5.88 – j1.47) Ω (b) (–1.47 + j5.88) Ω

(c) (5.88 + j1.47) Ω (d) (–5.88 – j1.47) Ω

Q.160 The plane wave with H i = 50 sin(ωt − βz) aˆ y mA/m in a lossless medium (ε r = 4, µr = 1)

encounters free space at z = 0. The reflected electric field Er is

(a) π sin (ωt + βz ) aˆ x mV/m (b) π sin (ωt + βz ) aˆ x V/m

(c) − π sin ( ωt + βz) aˆ x V/m (d) 3 π sin ( ωt + βz ) aˆ x V/m

Q.161 A plane (2x + y) = 5 carries charge ρs = 6 nC/m2. The electric field intensity E at point (–1, 0,

1) in V/m is

(a) (151.529 aˆ x + 303.05 aˆ y ) (b) ( −303.05 aˆ x − 151.529 aˆ y )

Q.162 The state variable representation of a system is given by the following equations.

x 1 0 −2 x1 1

x = 1 a x + 1 u

2 2

x1

y = 0 1

x2

If the given system is said to be uncontrollable, the value of ‘a’ should be _____.

1 + sτ

G c (s) = ; α>1

1 + αsτ

The frequency at which the system phase angle will be maximum is

1 1

(a) ω = rad/sec (b) ω = rad/sec

τ α ατ

1 1

(c) ω = rad/sec (d) ω = rad/sec

T α τ

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Q.164 A Bode magnitude plot for a minimum phase system is given below.

M (dB)

–12 dB/octave

1 20 40

0 logω

–6 dB/octave

–12

+6 dB/octave

(a) (b)

s 2 (s + 40)2 s 2 (0.025s + 1)2

(c) 2

(d)

s (s + 40) (s + 20) s 2 (0.025s + 1)2

–

KB

C ( s)

If the closed loop transfer function is T ( s) = , then the sensitivity of T(s) for variations in

R( s)

KA is

1

(a) 1 (b) 1 + K K

A B

− G( s ) G( s ) K B

(c) (d)

1 + G( s )K B KA

4 µF

+ +

3 kΩ

Vi 2 kΩ Vo

– –

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x5

Q.167 For the signal flow graph shown in the figure below, the transfer function gain will be

x1

_________.

–3

5

1 2 3 4

x1 x2 x3 x4 x5

Q.168 Consider the polar plot of a control system shown in the figure below:

Img

ω= ∞

Re

ω= 0

An addition of a simple pole to the system will change the plot as

Img Img

ω= ∞ ω= ∞

(a) Re (b) Re

ω= 0 ω= 0

Img Img

ω= 0

ω= 0

(c) (d)

ω= ∞ ω= ∞ Re

Re

0.3

D(s) =

s

4 +

R(s) = 0 + K + C(s)

– (2s + 1)

(a) K = 0 (b) K = 0.3

(c) K = 2 (d) K = ∞

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Q.170 The Bode magnitude plot of a lag compensator is given in the figure below:

M

0 dB 2 7

ω (rad/sec)

–5 dB

The angular frequency at which the phase lag provided by this compensator will be

maximum is ________ rad/sec.

Q.171 The response of a system shown in figure (a), to an input of r(t) = 5u(t), is shown in figure (b).

The time constant ‘τ’ of the system is equal to

c(t)

4.2

1

r(t) c (t )

1 + sτ

0.35 t (msec)

(a) (b)

(a) 0.35 msec (b) 0.29 msec

(c) 0.19 msec (d) 0.083 msec

Q.172 The step response of a system is shown below, the forward path gain is _____.

c(t)

5 0.12

4

3

2

2.5

1

0 1 2 3 t(sec)

Q.173 Using the Routh criterion, the frequency of sustained oscillations for the given system:

s4 + 2s3 + 6s2 + 8s + 8 = 0 is _______ rad/s.

Q.174 Consider the block diagram of a system shown in the figure below:

X(s) 4 Y(s )

+– K = 10 +– s(s + 1)

αs

The value of ‘α’ such that the settling time of the system for 2% tolerance is 0.8 sec

will be ________.

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Q.175 The asymptotic log-magnitude curve for open loop transfer function is sketched below,

T(jω)

a

–40 dB/dec

b –20 dB/dec

16 dB

0 dB/dec

c –20 dB/dec

d

e

ω(rad/sec)

0 dB ω1 4 8 16

(a) T(s) = 2

s (s + 1.268) (b) T(s) = s 2 (s + 8)

(c) T(s) = 2

s ( s + 4) (d) T(s) = s 2 ( s + 4)

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Detailed Explanations

151. (b)

∵ m = 0 and n = 2 ; TE02 mode.

For square waveguide, a = b,

νp 3 × 1010

∴ fc = = = 25 GHz

a 1.2

152. (a)

Since the two components have a fixed phase difference with respect to time and position, the

wave has linear polarization.

153. (200)

For quarter wave transmission line,

Z02 50 × 50

′ =

Zin = ′′

= 25 Ω = Zin

ZL 100

As the two quarter wave lines are connected in parallel,

′ ′′

∴ ZL′ = Zin Zin = 12.5 Ω

Z02 50 × 50

Hence, Zin = = = 200 Ω

Z′L

12.5

154. (c)

ψ = βdcosφ + α

Here, φ = 30°

λ

d =

4

2π

β =

λ

and ψ = 0 (for end fire array)

∴ α = –β dcosφ

2π λ π 3π

= − × × cos 30° = − × cos 30° = − rad

λ 4 2 4

155. (b)

Given, Gd (dB) = 3 = 10 log10 Gd

or Gd = (10) 0.3 = 1.995

2

Gd × Prad E

∵ P avg = =

4πR 2 2η

η× Gd × Prad 120 π × 1.995 × 30 × 10 3

or E

2

= =

2 πR2 2 π × (10 × 103 )2

60 × 1.995 × 30 × 103

= = 0.03591

108

E = 0.189 V/m

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156. 2.46 (2.35 to 2.55)

ZL − Z0 600 + j 628 − 300

ΓL = = = 0.63 e j 29.56°

ZL + Z0 600 + j 628 + 300

λ 29.56° 60 3 × 108

l max = θΓ × = π × = 2.46 m λ = 6

= 60 m

4 π 180° 4 π 5 × 10

c 3 × 108

λ = = = 300 m

f 1 × 106

l 2 1

= = ⇒ short dipole

λ 300 150

2 2

2 l 2 1

Rrad = 80 π = 80 π = 35 m Ω

λ 150

l πf µ 2 π × 106 × µ 0

Rloss = = = 83 mΩ

2 πa σ 2 π × 10 −3 5.8 × 107

Rrad 35

η = = = 29.7%

Rrad + Rloss 35 + 83

158. (b)

4π 4π

D = =

∫ ∫ U (θ , φ ) d Ω 2π 60°

∫ ∫ sin θ dθ dφ

φ =0 θ =0

4π 2

= 0°

= =4

2 π × (cos θ)60° 1

1−

2

D (dB) = 10log 4 = 6 dB

159. (c)

ZL + jZ0 B tan βl (50 + j 200)

Zin(B ) = Z0 B = 100 × = (400 − j 100) Ω

Z0 B + jZL tan βl βl =

π j 50

4

Z02A 50 × 50 25

Zin = = = (4 + j ) = 5.88 + j 1.47 Ω

400 − j 100 100(4 − j ) 17

160. (b)

H i = 50 sin( ωt − βz) aˆ y mA/m

Ei = E0 sin(ωt − βz) aˆEi

120π

where, E0 = 50 × mV/m = 50 × 60 π mV/m = 3π V/m and aˆEi = aˆ H i × aˆ k = aˆ y × aˆ z = aˆ x

εr

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Ei = 3π sin(ωt − βz) aˆ x V/m

η2 − η1 120π − 60π 1

Reflection coefficient, Γ = = =

η2 + η1 120π + 60π 3

Er = Γ Ei = π sin(ωt + βz ) aˆ x V/m

161. (b)

y

an

x

Let, f (x, y) = 2x + y – 5

∴ ∇ f = 2 aˆ x + aˆ y

∇f 2 aˆ x + aˆ y

The unit vector aˆ n = ± =±

∇f 5

2 aˆ x + aˆ y

aˆ n = −

5

ρs 6 × 10 −9 −2 aˆ x − aˆ y

ˆ

a

E = 2ε n = ×

2 × 8.854 × 10−12 5

= −303.058 aˆ x − 151.529 aˆ y V/m

162. (–3)

For controllability:

Qc = B : AB ≠ 0

Also, Rank of [Qc ] = Rank of [A ]

0 −2 1

Here, A = 1 a and B = 1

0 −2 1 −2

and AB = 1 a 1 = 1 + a

∵ The given system is said to be uncontrollable,

1 −2

∴ Qc = 1 1 + a = 0

⇒ 1 (1 + a) + 2 = 0

2+1+a =0

or a = –3

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163. (a)

1 + sτ

Gc (s) = ;α>1

1 + αsτ

The phase angle is given by,

φ = tan–1 ωτ – tan–1 αωτ

The phase will be maximum when

dφ

=0

dω

τ ατ

or, 2 2

− =0

1+ω τ 1 + α2 ω2 τ2

α 1

⇒ 2 2 2 =

1+ α ω τ 1 + ω 2 τ2

α(1 + ω2 τ 2) = 1 + α2 ω2 τ 2

⇒ ω2(α2 τ2 – ατ2) = (α – 1)

α−1 1

or, ω2 = 2

=

( α − 1) ατ ατ 2

1

⇒ ω= rad/sec

τ α

164. (b)

The given Bode plot is

M (dB)

–12 dB/octave

1 20 40

0 logω

–6 dB/octave

–12

+6 dB/octave

It can be seen that the initial slope is –12 dB/oct. Hence this is a type-2 system and it indicates

K

the term 2 in open loop transfer function.

s

At ω = 1,

20logK – 40log1 = –12 dB

20log K = –12 dB

12

or logK = −

20

or K = 10(–12/20) = 0.25

• At ω = 1 rad/sec, slope changes from –12 dB/oct to 0 dB/oct, indicating the term (1 + s)2 in

numerator.

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• At ω = 20 rad/sec, slope changes from 0 dB/oct to 6dB/oct thereby indicating the term

(s/20 + 1) in numerator.

• At ω = 40 rad/sec, slope changes from 6 dB/oct to –6dB/oct thereby indicating the term

(s/40 + 1)2 in denominator.

Thus, the open loop transfer function is,

0.25( s / 1 + 1)2 ( s / 20 + 1) 0.25( s + 1)2 (0.05s + 1)

G(s) H(s) = =

s 2 ( s / 40 + 1)2 s 2 (0.025s + 1)2

165. (a)

The closed loop transfer function,

C (s ) G(s ) ⋅ K A

T(s) = R( s) = 1 + G( s ) K

B

The sensitivity of T(s) with respect to KA can be calculated as,

∂T ( s ) / T ( s ) ∂T ( s ) K A

SKT A = = ⋅

∂K A / K A ∂K A T ( s )

∂ G(s ) K A K A (1 + G( s)K B )

or, = ⋅

∂K A 1 + K B G(s ) G( s ) ( K A )

G( s ) KA

= ⋅ (1 + G(s )K B )

1 + K B G( s ) G( s ) ⋅ K A

=1

166. 0.4 (0.35 to 0.45)

The given figure represents the phase lead compensator having lead constant ‘α’ given by,

R2

α =

R1 + R2

Here, R2 = 2 kΩ and R1 = 3 kΩ

2 2

∴ α = = = 0.4

2 + 3 5

According to the Mason’s gain formula,

P1 ∆ 1 + P2 ∆ 2

T(s) =

1 − L1 − L2

Here, P1 = Gain of forward path-1 = 2 × 3 × 4 = 24

P2 = Gain of forward path-2 = 5 × 4 = 20

∆1 = 1 = ∆2

Simple loops: L1 = 5

L2 = 3 × 4 × (–3) = –36

x5 24 + 20 44

T(s) = = = = 1.375

x1 1 + 36 − 5 32

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168. (b)

From the given polar plot, it can be assumed that the system has 2 poles and no zeros with one

pole at origin. By adding one more pole the plot will shift by –90°.

1

Let, G(s) H(s) =

s( s + sT1 )

For ω = 0, G(jω) H( jω) = ∞ ∠–90°

For ω = ∞, G(jω) H( jω) = 0 ∠–180°

Now after adding one simple pole,

1

G′(s) H′(s) =

s(1 + sT1 ) (1 + sT2 )

For ω = ∞, G′(jω) H′(jω) = 0 ∠–270°

∴ The new polar plot will be as follows:

Img

ω= ∞

Re

ω= 0

169. (d)

The steady state offset is given by,

eoff = lim sC (s )

s→0

R( s ) = 0

4K

When R(s) = 0, C(s) = D( s) − C ( s)

(2s + 1)

D( s)

C(s) =

4K

1+

(2s + 1)

0.3

s⋅(2s + 1)

lim s

∴ eoff =

s → 0 (2 s + 1) + 4K

0.3

or eoff =

4K + 1

For eoff = 0, K=∞

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170. 3.74 (3.60 to 3.90)

For lag compensator,

M

1 1

0 dB ατ τ

ω (rad/sec)

–5 dB

1

∴ =7

τ

1

and =2

ατ

The maximum phase lag will occur at,

1 1

ωm =

ατ τ

171. (c)

C(s) = 1

R(s) 1 + sτ

The response of the system,

1

C(s) = × R(s )

1 + sτ

1 5

C(s) = ×

1 + sτ s

Taking inverse Laplace transform, we get,

c (t ) = 5(1 – e –t/τ) u(t)

Now, c (t ) = 4.2 at t = 0.35 msec

By putting these values, we get,

4.2 = 5(1 – e–0.35/τ)

0.16 = e–0.35/τ

or τ = 0.19 msec

The steady state error for step input

A 5

ess = = = 0.12

1 + Kp 1 + Kp

∵ r(t) = 5 u(t)

5

or 1 + Kp = = 41.66

0.12

Hence, Kp = 41.66 – 1 = 40.66

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173. 2.0 (1.5 to 2.8)

s4 + 2s3 + 6s2 + 8s + 8 = 0

The Routh table is formulated as follows:

s4 1 6 8

3

s 2 8

s2 2 8

1

s 0

All the elements in the s1 row are zeros. That means, there are symmetrically located roots of

the characteristics equation with respect to the origin of the s-plane.

A(s) = 2s2 + 8 = 0

dA(s )

= 4s + 0

ds

Replace the row of zeros with the coefficients of the first derivative of the auxiliary equation

and complete the formation of the Routh table:

s4 1 6 8

3

s 2 8

s2 2 8

s1 4 0

0

s 8

The auxiliary equation:

2s2 + 8 = 0

⇒ s = ± j2

Therefore the system oscillates at ω = 2 rad/sec

The closed loop transfer function of the system becomes

C ( s) 4×K 40

R(s ) = s( s + 1) + 4αs + 4K = s 2 + s(1 + 4α ) + 40

on comparing with standard transfer function, we get,

2ξωn = 1 + 4α

1 + 4α

ξωn =

2

4

⇒ settling time for 2% tolerance = = 0.8 or ξωn = 4

ξωn 0.8

4 ( 1 + 4α )

∴ =

0.8 2

8 = 0.8 + 3.2α

7.2

or α = = 2.25

3.2

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175. (b)

From the above Bode plot,

For section de, slope is –20 dB/dec

y−0

∴ –20 = log 8 − log 16

y = 6.02 dB

Now, for section bc, slope is –20 dB/dec

16 − 6.02

∴ –20 = log ω − log 4

1

ω1 = 1.268 rad/sec

To find value of gain K

y = mx + c

16 = –40 log 1.268 + 20 log K

K = 10.14

From all the result, transfer function is,

s s

10.14 + 1 + 1

1.268 4

T(s) =

s

s 2 + 1

8

16( s + 1.268)( s + 4)

T(s) = s 2 (s + 8)

Revision EC

through Questions ELECTRONICS ENGG.

out of 200 Questions

Day 8 of 8

NLC, HPCL, OIL, PGCIL, HAL, NMDC, NALCO, MDL, AAI,

NPCIL, DDA, Electricity Boards and many more . . .

PGDIE/PGDM/PGDMM from NITIE

GATE

Gateway for

Engineers

Higher Studies Higher Studies

Foreign Universities Indian Universities

TUM (Munich), RWTH (Germany)

Research Courses

Microprocessors

Network Theory 0.75% Reasoning, Aptitude

5.75% & English Engineering Mathematics 13.75%

15.00%

Electromagnetics

8.25% Analog Electronics 10.75%

Engineering

Control Systems

8.50% Mathematics

13.75% Electronic Devices 9.75%

Communications

8.75% Communications 8.75%

Analog

Electronics Control Systems 8.50%

10.70%

9.00%

Signals & Systems

Electronic Devices 9.75% Network Theory 5.75%

9.75%

Microprocessors 0.75%

Total 100%

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Day 8 : Q.176 to Q.200 : Signals and Microprocessors

Q.176 The block diagram representation of a system is shown in figure below.

x(t) h(t) 2 y(t )

+ +

1

s

1

1

s

–3

(a) = − − 3 y (t ) (b) = + − 3 y (t )

dt 2 dt dt 2 dt 2 dt dt 2

(c) = − + 3 y (t ) (d) = + + 3 y (t )

dt 2 dt dt 2 dt 2 dt dt 2

f(t)

t

1 2 3 4

The Laplace transform of f(t) is

1 2 1 2

(a) 1 − e −2 s (b) 1 − e − s

1−e −s s 1−e −2 s s

1 2 1 2

(c) 1 − e − s (d) 1 − e−s

1−e 2s s 1 − es s

z −2 z −2

(a) , z <1 (b) , z >1

1+ z 1−z

z z −1

(c) 2

, z <1 (d) , z <1

z−z z − z2

Q.179 The system function of a discrete system is given by,

2

H ( z) =

1 + 2 z −1

If the ROC of H(z) includes unit circle, then the impulse response of the system h[n] can be

given by

(a) 2(–2)n u[–n – 1] (b) (2)n+1 u[– n –1]

n

(c) 2(–2) u[n] (d) (–2)n+1 u[– n –1]

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Q.180 The output sequence y [n] and the impulse response h[n] of a discrete system are given by,

y[n] = { 1 , 1, 2, –1, 3}

↑

h[n] = { 1 , 2, 3}

↑

The input sequence x[n] is

(a) { 1 , –1, 1} (b) { 1 , 1, –1}

↑ ↑

↑ ↑

Q.181 An input x(t) = e –2tu(t) is applied to an LTI system whose impulse response is h(t) = t 2e –tu(t).

P + Q + R + S is _____.

1 1024 − z −10

H(z) = −1

, z >0

1024 1 − 0.5z

∞

The value of ∑ h(n) is _________.

n=0

(a) {1, 2 + j5, –1, 2 – j 5} (b) {–1, 2 – j5, 1, 2 + j5}

(c) {1, 2 – j5, –1, 2 + j5} (d) {–1, 2 + j5, 1, 2 – j5}

Q.184 The unit impulse response of an initially relaxed two port network is (e–2t + e–3t ) u(t) volts. If

the zero state response of the network is (te –2t ) u(t) volts, then the corresponding excitation of

the network will be

−3t 1 −2 t

(a) e − e u (t ) volts

2 (

−2 t

(b) e − e

−3t

)

u (t ) volts

1 −2 t −2.5 t −2 t 1 −2.5 t

(c) e − e u (t ) volts (d) e − e u (t ) volts

2 2

Q.185 DFT of x(n) is given as X(k). If x(n) = {6, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0,1, 2} , then X(4) is ________. (Assume 8 point

↑

DFT)

Q.186 The input x(n) and output y(n) relation of a discrete time system is given by

y(n) = y(n – 1) + n x(n)

1

if y(–1) = 1, x(3) = , y(3) = 0, then the value of x(1) + 2 x (2) is ________.

3

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Q.187 The discrete time Fourier transform of y (n) is Y (e jω ) given as

7ω

sin

1 2

Y ( e jω ) = + 5πδ(ω ) . Then value of y(0) is ________ .

1 − e − jω ω

sin

2

Q.188 When input x(t) = 2sin (2t + 54°) is passed through a system H(s), the output is 3cos2t. If

magnitude H ( jω) is independent of ω and ∠H(jω) is a linear function of ‘ω’ defined as

∠H ( j ω )

= k , where k is positive, then the output for input cos5t will be

ω

3 3

(a) − sin(5t + 72°) (b) − cos(5t + 72°)

2 2

3 3

(c) cos 5t (d) − sin 5t

2 2

(a) Eigen function of LTI system (b) Not an eigen function of LTI system

(c) May or may not be eigen function (d) Eigen function for positive value of ω

1, 0 ≤ n ≤ 7

Q.190 Consider a discrete-time periodic signal x[ n] = with period of N = 10. A function

0, 8 ≤ n ≤ 9

y[n] is defined as y[n] = x[n] – x[n – 1], then y[n] is periodic with period _______.

N −1 2π

−j nk

Q.191 If DFT of signal x(n) is defined as X(k) = ∑ x ( n )e N

, k = 0, 1, 2, N – 1. If signal y(n) is

n =0

2π

1 N −1 − j nk

defined as y( n) = ∑

N k =0

X( k )e N ; n = 0, N – 1, then which of the following is true.

N −1 N −1 N −1 N −1

(a) ∑ x( n ) ⋅ ∑ y ( n ) = 0 (b) ∑ x( n ) + ∑ y ( n ) = 0

n =0 n =0 n =0 n =0

N −1 N −1 N −1

1 N −1

(c) ∑ x( n ) − ∑ y( n ) = 0 (d) ∑ x( n ) = ∑ y( n ) = 0

N n =0

n =0 n =0 n =0

Q.192 Let x[n] be a discrete time signal whose 4-point DFT is X[k] = {6, –2 + 2 j, –2, –2 – 2 j}, then the

value of x[2] is __________ .

sin(10 πt )

Q.193 Let x(t) = be the continuous time signal, the condition on the sampling interval ‘Ts’

πt

so that x(t) is uniquely represented by the discrete-time sequence x[n] = x[nTs] is

1 1

(a) Ts > (b) Ts <

10 10

1

(c) Ts > 10π (d) Ts <

5π

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1

Q.194 Consider a causal LTI system with frequency response H ( jω) = for a particular input

3 + jω

x(t), this system is observed to produce the output as y(t) = e –3t u(t) – e –4t u(t). Then the input

x(t) is

(a) e –3t u(t) (b) e –t u(t)

(c) e –4t u(t) (d) e 4t u(t)

Q.195 The Fourier transform of the complex sinusoidal pulse shown below is

e

j 10 t

; t <π

z(t ) =

0 ; t >π

2 1

(a) sin (( ω − 10) π ) (b) sin ((ω − 10) π )

ω ω − 10

2 1

(c) sin (( ω − 10) π ) (d) 2 ω sin (( ω − 10) π )

ω − 10

π π 1

Q.196 The period of the signal x[n] = cos n + sin n + is ____________.

4 3 2

MVI A, 17 H

LOOP : ORA A

RRC

JNC LOOP

HLT

In the above program, the “LOOP” will execute for ___________ times.

Q.198 An 8085 microprocessor operates with a clock period of 0.5 µsec. This microprocessor executes

a program to provide 2 msec delay and the program contains a loop which takes 2400 T-states

to execute it. Then the time required to execute instructions outside the loop is _____________

µsec.

Q.199 In the 3-to-8 decoder shown below, the output line that goes low when the input (A7 A6 .... A0)

to the decoder is (11110111) will be

A7

A6

A2

A1

A0

G1 7

G2

MSB 6

A5 D2

5

3-to-8 4

A4 D1

Decoder 3

LSB 2

A3 D0 1

0

(a) 6 (b) 4

(c) 3 (d) 1

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Q.200 Consider the following 8085 assembly language program:

MVI A, 8F H

MVI B, 68 H

SUB B

ANI 0F H

STA 2070 H

HLT

After executing the above program, the value stored in the memory location 2070 H is

(a) 27 H (b) 07 H

(c) 17 H (d) 18 H

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Detailed Explanations

176. (b)

3H ( s)

X (s ) − = H(s)

s2

3

⇒ X(s) = 1 + 2 H ( s)

s

H (s )

⇒ 2 H ( s) + = Y(s)

s

1

⇒ 2 + H ( s) = Y(s)

s

1 X( s)

2 +

⇒ s 3 = Y(s)

1 + 2

s

1

2+ 2

Y (s ) s = s + 2s

⇒ = 3 2

X(s )

2

+1 3+s

s

d 2 y( t ) d x (t ) d 2 x( t )

⇒ + 3 y( t ) = +2

dt 2 dt dt 2

177. (b)

1

F (s) = F1 ( s)

1 − e −Ts

Where T = 2 and F 1(s) = L {2 [ u(t ) − u(t − 1)]}

1 e−s 2 −s

= 2 − = 1 − e

s s s

1 2

⇒ F (s) = −2 s 1 − e − s

1−e s

178. (d)

1

u[n] ↔ , z >1

1 − z −1

z2

u[n + 2] ↔ , z >1

1 − z −1

−1

z −2 z

u[–n + 2] ↔ , z <1 = , z <1

1−z z − z2

179. (d)

Pole is at r = 2 ⇒ h(n) should be a left sided signal to include unit circle in the ROC of H(z).

⇒ h(n) = –(2) (–2)n u[–n – 1]

= (–2)n+1 u[– n –1]

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180. (a)

H(z ) = 1 + 2z –1 + 3z –2

Y(z ) = 1 + z –1 + 2z –2 – z –3 + 3z –4

Y ( z)

= H(z)

X ( z)

Y ( z)

⇒ = X(z)

H ( z)

1 + z − 1 + 2z − 2 − z − 3 + 3 z − 4 1 − z − + z −

1 2

1 + 2z − 1 + 3z − 2

1 + 2z − 1 + 3 z − 2

−z −1 − z −2 − z −3 + 3z −4

−z −1 − 2z −2 − 3 z−3

z − 2 + 2z − 3 + 3z − 4

z − 2 + 2z − 3 + 3z − 4

0

So, X(z) = 1 – z –1 + z –2

x[n] = { 1 , –1, 1}

↑

181. (– 1)

1

X(s) =

s+2

2

H(s) =

(s + 1)3

2

Y(s) = X(s ) H (s ) =

3

(s + 1) (s + 2)

2 2 2 −2

Y(s) = − + +

s + 1 ( s + 1)2 ( s + 1)3 (s + 2)

−t −t 2 −t −2 t

⇒ Y(t) = 2 e − 2te + t e − 2 e u(t )

−t −t 2 −t −2 t

= Pe + Qte + Rt e + Se u(t )

⇒ P = 2, Q = –2, R = 1, S = –2

⇒ P + Q + R + S = 2 – 2 + 1 – 2 = –1

z −10

1−

H(z) = 2 10 ; z > 0

1

1 − z −1

2

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z −10

2

1 –1 1 −1 1 −2

1– z 1− 10

1+ z + z +⋅⋅⋅

2 2 2 2

1 −1

1− z

2

10

1 −1 1

z − z −10

2 2

2

1 −1 1 −2

z − z

2 2

2 10

1 −2 1 − 10

z − z

2 2

2 3

1 − 2 1 −3

2 z − 2 z

3 10

1 −3 1

z − z− 10

2 2

2 9

1 1 1

H (z) = 1 + z −1 + z −2 + ....... + z −9

2 2 2

n

h[n] =

1

⇒ ; 0≤n≤9

2

=0 ; otherwise

10

1

9 n 1−

1 2 1023 × 2

⇒ ∑ 2 =

1

=

1024

= 1.998

n=0 1−

2

183. (c)

3 2π

j kn

X (k) = ∑ x( n)e 4

n=0

3 π

j kn

= ∑ x(n)e 2 ; k = 0, 1 , 2 , 3

n=0

X (0) = x(0) + x(1) + x(2) + x(3) = 1

π 3π

−j − jπ −j

X (1) = x(0) + x(1) e 2 + x(2)e + x(n)e 2 = 2 – j5

− jπ − j2π − j3π

X (2) = x(0) + x(1)e + x(2) e + x(3)e = −1

3π 9π

−j − j 3π −j

X (3) = x(0) + x(1)e 2 + x(2)e + x(3)e 2 = 2 + j5

184. (d)

Let vin (t) be the input voltage while vout (t) be the output voltage

h(t) = (e–2t + e –3t ) u(t) V

Vout ( s ) 1 1 2s + 5

∴ H(s) = = + =

Vin (s ) s + 2 s + 3 ( s + 2 )( s + 3)

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1

Vout (s) =

(s + 2 )2

2s + 5 Vout ( s)

However, H(s) = =

( s + 2 )(s + 3) Vin (s )

Vout ( s )

∴ Vi n(s) =

H ( s)

1

×

(s + 2 )(s + 3) 1 2 1

or Vi n(s) = = −

(s + 2 ) 2 ( 2 s + 5) 2 s + 2 s + 2.5

−2 t 1 −2.5 t

vi n(t) = e − e u (t ) volts

2

185. (3)

For a 8 point DFT

− j π kn

7 2

X (k) = ∑ x( n) e N

n= 0

X (4) = ∑ x(n) e − j πn

n= 0

7

X (4) = ∑ ( −1)n x(n)

n= 0

X (4) = [6 –4 + 3 – 2 + 1 – 0 + 1 – 2]

X (4) = 3

186. (– 2)

y (n) = y(n – 1) + nx(n)

y(0) = y(–1) + 0

y(1) = y(0) + 1 ⋅ x(1)

y(1) = y(–1) + 0 ⋅ x(0) + 1 ⋅ x(1)

y(2) = y(–1) + 0 ⋅ x(0) + 1⋅ x(1) + 2 ⋅ x(2)

y(3) = y(–1) + 0 + x(1) + 2x(2) + 3x(3)

1

0 = 1 + x(1) + 2 x(2) + 3 ⋅

3

x(1) + 2x (2) = –2

187. (3)

Y(e jω) can be rewritten as

ω ω

sin 7 sin 7

1 2 + πδ(ω ) ⋅ 2 − 2 πδ(ω )

Y(e j ω) = ⋅

1 − e − jω ω ω

sin sin

2 2

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ω

sin 7

Y(e j ω) = 2 1

+ πδ(ω ) − 2 πδ(ω )

ω 1 − e − jω

sin

2

Y(e j ω) = Y 1(e j ω) ⋅ Y 2(e j ω) – 2πδ(ω)

y(n) = [ y1 ( n) ⊗ y 2 ( n)] − 1

1 −3 ≤ n ≤ 3

y2(n) = u (n), y 1 (n) =

0 Otherwise

y(n) = y′(n) – 1

y(0) = y′(0) – 1

∞

y′(n) = ∑ y 2 ( k ) ⋅ y1 (n − k )

k = −∞

∞

y′(0) = ∑ y 2 ( k ) ⋅ y1 ( − k )

k = −∞

y2(k) y1(–k)

k k

0 1 2 3 4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3

y2(k) y1(–k)

k

0 1 2 3

y′(0) = 4

y(0) = y′(0) – 1 = 3

188. (d)

On comparison

2H ( jω0) = 3

3

⇒ H ( jω0) =

2

54 + ∠H(jω0) = 90°

ω0 = 2

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Since, ∠H ( j ω) = 36°

⇒ k = 18 degree/sec

∠H( jω)

90°

36°

ω

2 5

cos 5t

2

H( jω)

–3 sin 5t

2

3

= − sin 5 t

2

189. (b)

The output of the given LTI system is,

+∞ +∞

y[n] = ∑ h [ k ] e jω( n − k ) + ∑ h [ k ] e j2 ω( n − k )

k = −∞ k = −∞

+∞ +∞

= e

j ωn

∑ h [ k ] e − jωk + e j2 ωn ∑ h [ k ] e− j2 ω k

k = −∞ k = −∞

jωn

= e H ( e jω ) + e j 2 ωn H ( e j 2 ω )

190. (10)

x (n)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 n

x (n – 1)

1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 n

y[n]

1

8 9

n

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10 ⇒ N = 10

–1

191. (c)

N −1 2π

−j ⋅nk

X(k) = ∑ x( n ) e N

n =0

Considering a four point DFT

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Let x(n) = {a, b, c, d }

N = 4

The twiddle matrix is given as

[X(k)] = W4 [x(n)]

nk

1 nk

[y(n)] = W 4 [ X ( k )]

4

1 nk nk

4 [

[y(n)] = W4 W x ( n )]

4

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 a

1 1 − j −1 j 1 − j −1 j b

[y(n)] =

4 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 c

1 j −1 − j 1 j −1 − j d

4 0 0 0 a 1 0 0 0 a

1 0 0 0 4 b 0 0 0 1 b

[y(n)] = =

4 0 0 4 0 c 0 0 1 0 c

0 4 0 0 d 0 1 0 0 d

[y (n)] = {a, d, c, b}

3

∑ x(n) = a+b+c+d

n=0

3

∑ y( n ) = a+d+c+b

n=0

3 3

∑ x(n) − ∑ y(n) = 0

n=0 n=0

192. (2)

Given, 4-point DFT signal is

X[k] = {6, –2 + 2 j, –2, –2 – 2 j}

x[0] 1 1 1 1 6

x[1]

= 1 1 j −1 − j −2 + 2 j

x[2] 4 1 −1 1 −1 −2

x[3] 1 − j −1 j −2 − 2 j

∴ x[n] = [0 1 2 3]

∴ x[2] = 2

193. (b)

sin(10 πt )

Given, x(t) =

πt

Taking Fourier transform

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1 ; ω ≤ 10 π

X( jω) =

0 ; ω > 10 π

or

∴ The maximum frequency ‘ωm’ present in x(t) is ωm = 10π X( jω)

Hence we require,

1

2π

Ts > 2 ωm

2π

Ts > 20π –10π 0 10π ω

1

∴ Ts <

10

194. (c)

Given, the Causal LTI system,

1

H( jω) =

3 + jω

and output, y(t) = e –3t u(t) – e –4t u(t)

Y ( jω)

We know that, H( jω) =

X( jω)

1 1 1

Y( jω) = − =

3 + jω 4 + jω (3 + jω)(4 + jω)

Y ( jω) 1

∴ X( jω) = =

H ( jω) 4 + jω

By inverse Fourier transform of X( jω), we have,

x(t) = e –4t u(t)

195. (c)

Given, sinusoidal pulse

e

j 10 t

; t <π

z(t) =

0 ; t >π

We may express z(t) as the product of a complex sinusoid e j10t and a rectangular pulse x(t).

1 ; t <π

Let, x(t) =

0 ; t >π

Fourier transform of x(t) is X( jω)

∞ π π

− j ωt − jωt e − jωt

∴ X( jω) = ∫ x(t ) e dt = ∫ 1⋅ e dt =

−∞ −π − jω −π

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1 − j πω + j ωπ e jωπ − e − j ωπ 2 e jωπ − e − jωπ

= − e −e = =

jω jω ω 2j

2

∴ sin( ωπ)

X( jω) =

ω

By using frequency shift property of Fourier transform, we get,

z(t) = e j 10t ⋅ x(t ) ←

FT

→ X( j(ω – 10))

2

∴ FT

z(t) ← → sin (( ω − 10 )π )

ω − 10

196. (24)

π π 1

Given, x[n] = cos n + sin n +

4 3 2

Let x[n] = x1[n] + x2[n]

Let N1 be the period of x1[n].

π/4 m

=

2π N1

⇒ N1 = 8

Let N2 be the period of x2[n].

π/3 m

=

2π N2

⇒ N2 = 6

Overall time period, N = LCM(N1, N2) = LCM(6, 8)

∴ N = 24

197. (1)

MVI A, 17 H ; A = 17 H

LOOP : ORA A ; A (or) A = A = 17 H ; Carry flag = 0

0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0

RRC ;

Before RRC

1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1

After RRC

HLT

Hence, the LOOP will execute only one time.

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198. (800)

Given, Clock period = 0.5 µsec

For execution of main program to provide delay it take 2 msec.

Total time 2 × 10 −3

∴ The number of T-states = = = 4000

Clock period 0.5 × 10 −6

Given that loop requires 2400 T-states to execute it.

∴ The number of T-states required to execute instructions outside the loop is 4000 – 2400 = 1600

T-states.

∴ The time required to execute 1600 T-states is 1600 × 0.5 µsec = 800 µsec.

199. (a)

Since, the NAND gate have inputs A0 A1 A2 A6 all are 1s, output of NAND GATE is logic - 0.

Hence the 3 × 8 decoder is ON.

Inputs to decoder “A5 A4 A3” are given as “110”. Hence output line ‘6’ is selected.

200. (b)

MVI A, 8F H → A = 8F H

MVI B, 68 H → B = 68 H

SUB B → A = 8F H – 68 H = 27 H

ANI 0F H → A = 07 H

HLT

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