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SEISMIC ANALYSIS

Seismic Loads

The philippines falls within one of the most active earthquake zones in the world. In fact, it
straddles the so-called Circum-Pacific Belt which extends from the Aleutian islands in the Northern hemi-
sphere to Australia in the Sourthern Hemisphere. In these areas, it is necessary to consider seismic forces
in the design of buildings, bridges and other structures.
An earthquake causes an acceleration of the ground surfaces. This acceleration has both
vertical and horizontal components. The vertical component is usually assumed to be negligible, but the
horizontal component is the one that can cause considerable damage and destruction. Hence seismic
forces may come from any horizontal direction.

The total design base shear ( VStatic ), Shall be determined


from the following formula:

Eq. 1 VStatic = (Cv) (I) (WT) / (R)(T)


Eq. 2 VStatic = 2.5 (Ca) (I) (WT) / R
Eq. 3 VStatic = 0.11 (Ca) (I) (WT)
Eq. 4 VStatic = 0.8 (Z) (Nv) (I) (WT) / R
Note:
The total Design Base shear Eq.1 shall not exceed result from Eq.2 and shall not be less than from
the result of Eq.3.
For Seismic zone 4, the Total Base shear Eq.1 shall not be less than the result from Eq.4

Fundamental time of Vibration, T


T = Ct (HN)3/4

Where: Ct = 0.0853 for steel moment resisting space frame


= 0.0731 for reinforced concrete moment resisting frames.
= 0.050 for all other structures.
HN = Height of structures in meters, above the base to level n.

Seismic Zone factor, Z


Z = 0.40 , usual value of Z, for Philippine being in Zone 4

Numerical Coefficient, R
Refer to NSCP7th edition, Table 208-11

Seismic Importance Factor, I


Refer to NSCP7th edition, Table 208-1

Near Source Factor , Na & Nv


Refer to NSCP 7th edition, Table 208-4 & 208-5

Seismic Coefficients , Ca & Cv


Refer to NSCP7th edition, Table 208-7 & 208-8

VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF FORCES

The total force shall be distributed over the height of the structure using the following formula in
the absence of a more rigorous procedure;
n
V = Ft + Σ Fi
i=1
The concentrated forces Ft, at the top, which is in addition to Fn, shall be determined from the
formula;
Ft = 0.070 TV
The value of T used for the purpose of calculating Ft maybe the period that corresponds with the
design base shear as computed. Ft need not exceed 0.25V and maybe considered as zero where T is 0.70
second or less. The remaining portion of the base shear shall be distributed over the height of the structure
including the level n, according to the following equation.

Fx = ( V – Ft ) Wx hx
n
Σ Wi hi
i=1
At each level designated as n, the force Fx , shall be applied over the area of the building in
occurrence with the mass distribution at that level. Stresses in each structural element shall be computed as
the effect of forces Fx and Ft applied at the appropriate level n above the base.

HORIZONTAL DISTRIBUTION OF SHEAR

Shear shall be distributed as follows:


a. The design storey shear , Vx , in any storey is the sum of the forces Fx and Ft above that
storey. Vx shall be distributed to the various elements of the vertical lateral force resisting
system in proportion to their stiffness of the diaphragm.
b. To account for the uncertainties on locations of loads, the mass of each level shall be assumed
to be displaced from the calculated center of mass in each direction a distance equal to 5% of
the building dimension at that level perpendicular to the direction of the force under
consideration. The effect of this displacement on the storey shear distribution shall be
considered.

S.P Seismic Analysis


For the rigid frame shown, determine storey forces @ each level. ( longitudinal and transverse
analysis )
Seismic load computations:
Storey weight
6th floor - 10586.64 KN Total Weight = 71790.58 KN
5th – 2nd - 47951.04 KN
1st floor - 11987.76 KN
HN ( Total height of structure ) - 21.00m ( 7 X 7 FRAMES @ 5 meters each )
Seismic Factors
Ct - 0.0731 ( For Reinforced concrete moment resisting frames )
Near source factor
Na - 1.200 ( for type A Seismic source )
Nv - 1.600 ( for type A Seismic source )
Zone factor
Z - 0.40 ( for site located at Seismic Zone 4 )
Importance Factor
I - 1.00 ( for standard occupancy structures )
Numerical Coefficient
R - 8.50 ( Special moment resisting Frame )
Soil Profile
SD - Stiff Soil Profile

Gravity loads: ( Typical assumptions )

Floor finish = 0.80 Kpa


Ceiling = 0.50 Kpa
Service loads = 0.50 Kpa
Partitions = 2.00 Kpa
Unit wt of concrete = 24.00 KN/m3

Liveload on Floor = 4.80 Kpa


Liveload on roof = 3.20 Kpa

Slab thickness = Perimeter / 180


Solution:

FUNDAMENTAL TIME OF VIBRATION , T ( Method A ) NSCP 5th edition Sec. 208.5.2.2 , Eq. 208-8

T = Ct (HN)3/4 ; Ct = 0.0731
( for reinforced concrete moment resisting frames)

T = 0.0731 ( 21 )3/4
= 0.7171 > 0.70 Secs

Ft = 0.70TV

SEISMIC RESPONSE COEFFICIENTS , Ca , Cv


( NSCP 5th edition Table 208-7 to 208-8 )

Ca = 0.44 Na ( For SD Soil profile @ Seismic zone 4 )


= 0.44 ( 1.20 )
= 0.528

Cv = 0.64 Nv ( For SD Soil profile @ Seismic zone 4 )


= 0.64 ( 1.60 )
= 1.024

DESIGN BASE SHEAR , VStatic ( STATIC FORCE PROCEDURE ) NSCP 5th edition Sec. 208.5.2.1

VStatic = (Cv) (I) (WT) / (R)(T) ( Equation 1.0 )


= 12061 KN

VStatic = 2.5 (Ca) (I) (WT) / R ( Equation 2.0 )


= 11149 KN PREVAILS!!!

VStatic = 0.11 (Ca) (I) (WT) ( Equation 3.0 )


= 4170 KN

VStatic = 0.8 (Z) (Nv) (I) (WT) / R ( Equation 4.0 )


= 4325 KN

Note:
The total Design Base shear Eq.1 shall not exceed result from Eq.2 and shall not be less than from
the result of Eq.3.
For Seismic zone 4, the Total Base shear Eq.1 shall not be less than the result from Eq.4

VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION

Fx = ( Veffective - Ft ) [ Wxhx / ∑Wxhx ]

Ft = 0.07VeffectiveT
= 79.96 Say 80 KN

STOREY Height Weight Wxhx Fx


∆h Wxhx
LEVEL ( hx ) ( Wx ) ∑Wxhx ( KN )
Roof 21.00 3.00 10586.64 222319.44 0.2342 2592.36
5th 18.00 3.00 11987.76 215779.68 0.2273 2515.98
4th 15.00 3.00 11987.76 179816.4 0.1894 2096.47
3rd 12.00 3.00 11987.76 143853.12 0.1516 1678.06
2nd 9.00 3.00 11987.76 107889.84 0.1137 1258.55
Ground 6.00 6.00 13252.9 79517.4 0.0838 927.58
Total = 71790.58 949175.88 1.0000 11072
HORIZONTAL DISTRIBUTION

To account for the uncertainties on locations of loads, the mass of each level shall be assumed to be
displaced from the calculated center of mass in each direction a distance equal to 5% of the building
dimension at that level perpendicular to the direction of the force under consideration. The effect of this
displacement on the storey shear distribution shall be considered

e = 0.05 ( 35.00 )
= 1.75

R e Rd² Total
Frame R / ΣR d d² Rd²
(rel. rig) d ΣRd² Coefficients
1 8 0.125 17.50 306.25 2450.00 0.0292 0.15417
2 8 0.125 12.50 156.25 1250.00 0.0208 0.14583
3 8 0.125 7.50 56.25 450.00 0.0125 0.13750
4 8 0.125 2.50 6.25 50.00 0.0042 0.12917
5 8 0.125 2.50 6.25 50.00 0.0042 0.12917
6 8 0.125 7.50 56.25 450.00 0.0125 0.13750
7 8 0.125 12.50 156.25 1250.00 0.0208 0.14583
8 8 0.125 17.50 306.25 2450.00 0.0292 0.15417
Total 64 1.00 8400.00

**** Note: Assume rigidity = 1.0 for each column