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PEMP- EMM2512

Polymers: General Properties and


Applications

Session – 9
Session Speaker
Mr. Harsha. G . Patil
Asst. Professor
AAE, Department

 M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore 1


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Session Objectives

• By the end of the session the delegate


should have understood the following:
– Structure of polymers
– Different type of polymers
– Properties of polymers
– Applications of polymers

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Advantages of Polymers
• Resistance to corrosion and chemicals
• Low electrical and thermal conductivity, Can be made
conducting!
• Low density, high strength-to-weight ratio
• Noise reduction
• Wide choice of colors and transparencies
• Ease of manufacturing and complexity of design possibilities
• Relatively low cost

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Drawbacks and Remedies
Drawbacks
• Comparatively low strength and low dimensional stability
•Coefficient of Thermal expansion and have low heat resistance
•High performance plastics have very high cost
•They are softer than metals and are more susceptible to
deformation under load
•Go brittle at low temperature and are flammable
Remedies
•Additives are used to to improve mechanical properties, reduce cost,
improve moldability, impart colour

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Polymers

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Polymers+Additives = Plastics
Additives

• Antistatic agents: Attract moisture from air to


plastic surface improving surface conductivity
• Coupling agents: Improves bonding of the plastic
• Fillers : Some fillers such as flakes/short fiber of
inorganic materials
• Stabilizers: Prevents deterioration of the plastics
due to environmental factors

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• Flame Retardants: Organic materials-flammable
Additives containing Cl, Br, etc / metallic salts
reduce combustion
• Lubricant: When added reduce viscosity and
improves forming characteristics
• Pigments: Color to the plastics
• Reinforcement: Increases the Strength and stiffness
of polymers. (fibers of Glass etc)
• Plasticizers: Low molecular weight materials which
alter the properties and forming characteristics
( flexible grades of PVC ).

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Polymer Nomenclature
Three main groups
• Thermoplastics (linear or branched chains)
• Thermosets (cross linked chains)
• Elastomers
Thermoplastics: Certain polymers - temperature raised above
Tg or Tm – easier to form or mold into desired shapes. Eg.:
Polythylene, PVC etc.
Thermosets: Cross linked. Thermosetting plastics (thermo sets)
are polymer materials that cure, through the addition of
energy, to a stronger form. Do not have Tg. Eg. Bakelite
Elastomers: Have a wide range of applications – high friction
and non-skid surfaces, protection against corrosion and
abrasion, electrical insulation and shock and vibration
insulation
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Polymer behavior as a function of temperate (a) degree of crystallinity and
(b) cross-linking. The combined elastic and viscous behavior of polymers
is known as viscoelastic

Tg Tm Tm

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Mechanical Properties

Stress-strain curve for for polymer below, at and above Tg

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New Polymers
1. Polyarylethers & Polyacrythioethers
• Polyarylethersulphones (PES)
• Polyphenylene suphide (PPS)
• Polyehthernitrile (PEN)
• Polyehtherketones (PEEK)
2. Polyimides & Polybenzimidazole
• Polyehtherimide (PEI)
• Thermoplastic polyimide (PI)
• Polyamideimide (PAI)
3. Flouropolymers
• Flourinated ethylene propylene (FEP)
• Perfluoroalkoxy (PFA)
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General Properties and Applications of Thermoplastics


– Acetals
– Acrylics - PMMA
– Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene - ABS
– Cellulosics
– Fluoropolymers - PTFE , Teflon
– Polyamides (PA) - Nylons, Kevlar
– Polysters - PET
– Polyethylene (PE) - HDPE, LDPE
– Polypropylene (PP)
– Polystyrene (PS)
– Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
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Acetals

• Good strength and stiffness


• Good resistance to creep, Gears
abrasion, moisture, heat
and chemicals
• Mechanical parts and
components from which
high performance is
required over a long period Switch
– bearings, cams, gears, components
bushings, rollers; wear
surfaces, pipes, valves,
housing etc.
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Acrylics (PMMA)
• Posses moderate strength
• Good optical properties
• Resistance to wear and
chemicals
• Transparent ( Opaque ) and
have good electrical Magnifying glass
resistance
• E.g.: Lenses, lighted signs,
displays, window glazing,
automotive lenses, wind-
shields, lightning fixtures
and furniture
Roof skylight cover
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Acrylic Components

Car headlight cover Desk top displays

PMMA- PCB

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Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS)

• Dimensionally stable and rigid


• Good impact, abrasion and
chemical resistance
• Good strength,toughness and
high electrical resistance
• Low temperature resistance
• Cabinets for consumer and ABS switches
electronic goods, automotive
components (wheel covers,head
light bezels), boat hulls,
telephones, refrigerator liners,
helmets, tool handles, pipes,
fittings, decorative panels etc.
Screwdriver handle
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ABS Components

Vacuum cleaner
housing

Television front panel


Washing machine
housing
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ABS Components

Luggage box housing


Car tail lamp housing

Cassette player
Car wheel cover front panel
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Flouro-carbons
• Good resistance to high
temperature, chemicals, weather
and electricity
• Unique non-adhesive properties
and low friction
• Linings for chemical process Teflon coated cookware
equipment, nonstick coatings for
cookware, electrical insulation
for high temperature wire and
cables, gaskets, low-friction
surfaces, bearings and seals

Teflon tapes
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Flouro-carbons Components

Teflon gaskets
Teflon insulated wires

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Polyamides (poly, amine, carboxyl acid)

Nylon:

• Good mechanical property


• Abrasion and chemical
resistance
• Self-lubricating Nylon tubing
• All nylons are hygroscopic
– reduces mechanical
properties and increases Velcro
part dimension

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Aramids (aromatic polyamides)


• Have very high tensile strength
• Good stiffness
• Typical applications - Fibers for
reinforced plastic, bullet proof
vests, cables and radial tyres

Kevlar bullet proof vests


Kevlar safety gloves
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Aramids: Components

Kevlar wires for radial tires Kevlar lining for


bulletproof car door
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Polycarbonates
• Versatile
• Good Mechanical and Electrical
properties
• High Impact and chemical
resistance
• Safety helmets, optical lenses,
bullet resistant window glazing,
load bearing electrical
components, wind shields,
Compact disc
medical apparatus, electrical
insulators, business machine
components etc.

Helmet body
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Polycarbonate Components

Tail Lamp covers


Mobile phone casing

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Polycarbonate Components

Polycarbonate roofing for stadium in Australia

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Polyesters (acid and alcohol):


Polyester

Saturated Unsaturated
Highly crystalline – high Tm Cross linked structure

• Good mechanical property


• Good electrical property
• Good chemical Resistance
• Abrasion resistance and low friction
• Gears, cams, rollers, load bearing members, pumps,
electromechanical components, PET bottles, PBT engineering
components, Terylene dress materials, polyester foam
cushions, polyester sun control films and tracing films

 M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore 29


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Polyesters Applications

PET bottles Polyester sun control film

PBT lamp cover BPT transformer bobbins


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Polyethylene
• Good electrical and chemical
properties
• Mechanical properties depend on Packaging
composition and structure films
• Inert to chemicals
• Three major classes - LDPE,
HDPE, UHMWPE
• LDPE, HDPE – House wares,
bottles, ducts, bumpers, garbage
cans, toys, packaging materials,
tubing etc. Garbage
• UHMWPE – Parts requiring high covers
impact toughness and resistance
to abrasive wear (artificial knee
and hip joints)

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Polyethylene Applications

UHMWPE Artificial hip joint


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Polystyrene
• Inexpensive
• Generally have average
properties and good resistance to
tearing
• Automotive components,
medical devices, appliance parts,
packing trays, foam insulation,
radio components, house wares, File trays
toys, furniture parts, pens, safety
razor etc.

Television
Cabinet

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Polystyrenes Applications

Food packaging
containers
Inner liners for refrigerator

Flush tank
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Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC):


• Wide range of properties, inexpensive, water resistant and
self extinguishing
• Not suitable for applications related to strength and heat
resistance
• Rigid PVC is tough and hard
• Used in construction industry ( pipes, turbine pumps)
• Flexible PVC - wire and cable coatings, in low pressure
flexible tubing and hose, footwear, gaskets, seals, sheet
coatings, ATM cards etc.

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Rigid PVC Applications


PVC pipe sections

PVC sections

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Flexible PVC Applications
Water pipes
Pneumatic tubing

Dip coating on
metal tray
Electrical insulation
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General Properties and Applications of


Thermosetting Plastics
• Alkyds
• Amino resins
• Epoxies
• Phenolics
• Polyesters
• Polyurethanes
• Silicones

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Alkyds (from alkyl, - alcohol and acid)


• Posses good electrical
insulating properties,
Distributor
impact resistance and
cap
dimensional stability
• Low water absorption
• Typical applications in
electrical and electronic
components
Circuit
breaker

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Aminos (Urea and Melamine)


• Properties depend upon
composition
• Aminos are hard and rigid.
• Resistant to abrasion, creep
and electrical arcing Ashtray
• Small appliance housings, (Melamine)
toilet tops, handles
• Urea – Electrical and
electronic components,
stove hardware, small
housings etc.
• Melamine – Dinner ware,
buttons, military uniforms,
ashtrays etc . Shirt buttons (Melamine)
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Aminos: Applications

Hair drier housing (Urea


Formaldehyde)
Electrical parts (Urea
Formaldehyde)

Dinner ware
(Melamine)
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Epoxies:
• Excellent mechanical and electrical properties
• Good dimensional stability
• Strong adhesive property
• Good resistance to heat and chemicals
• Electrical components requiring good mechanical strength
and high insulation
• Tools, dies and adhesives
• Fiber Reinforced Epoxies – Excellent mechanical properties
• E.g.: Pressure vessels, rocket motor casings, tanks and
similar structural components

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Epoxies Applications

Adhesives
PCB encapsulation

Tooling

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Phenolics
• Although brittle, are rigid and
dimensionally stable
• Resistant to heat, water,
chemicals and electricity
• Handles, knobs, laminated
panels, electronic components
(insulators, wiring devices)
• Used as bonding materials to
hold abrasive grains together in
grinding wheels

Pressure cooker
handles

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Phenolics Applications

Bakelite housing

SRBF panel

Bakelite lamp
fittings

Bakelite jewelry
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Unsaturated Polyesters
• Good mechanical strength,
chemical and electrical
properties
• Polyesters are generally
reinforced with glass (or other)
fibers
• Then are also available as
FRP helmet body
casting resins
• Boats, luggage carriers, chairs,
automotive body

FRP bus body panels


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FRP Applications

Chemical tanks

FRP boat body

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Polyimides
• Good mechanical, physical and
electrical properties at elevated
temperature
High
• Good creep resistance, low
friction and wear characteristics. temperature
• Non melting characteristic (self components
extinguisher) of thermosets, but
structure of thermoplastic
• Pump components ( bearings,
seals, valve seats, piston rings), Films for high
electrical connectors for high
temperature use temperature
• Aerospace and automobile parts, applications
sports equipment and safety
vests.

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Silicones

• Properties depend on composition


• Posses excellent electrical property over wide range of
temperature and humidity
• Resistant to chemicals and heat
• Electrical components requiring strength at high elevated
temperatures, oven gaskets, heat seals, and water proof
materials
• A silicone-based material called super light weight ablator,
used as a heat shield on parts of the booster of space shuttle
(Silicon rubber adhesive is used to fix ceramic tiles on space
shuttle)

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Silicones Application

Water
sealant

gaskets and seals


Potting with RTV
silicon

Silicone rubber
roller
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Elastomers
• Natural rubber
• Synthetic rubbers
– Butadiene rubber
– Butyl rubber
– Chloroprene rubber
– Ethylene-propylene rubber
– Isoprene rubber
– Nitrile rubber
– Polyurethanes
– Silicones
– Styrene-butadiene rubber
– Thermoplastic elastomers

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Elastomers

Elastomer Application

Natural Rubber Tires, Gaskets and Hoses

Polyacrylate Oil Rings, O-rings, footwear, belts

SBR Molded Mechanical Goods and


Disposable items.
Silicone Electric Insulation, Seals and
Gaskets

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Synthetic Rubbers
Further development than natural rubber
• Synthetic natural rubber, butyl, styrene-butadiene, and
ethylene propylene
• Better resistance to heat, gasoline and chemicals, and higher
range of useful temperatures
• Tires, shock absorbers, seals and belts
Polyurethane
This Elastomer has good overall properties of high strength,
stiffness and hardness
• Resistance to abrasion, cutting and tearing
• Seals, gaskets, cushioning, diaphragms for rubber forming of
sheet metals and auto body parts

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Elastomers
• Polyisoprene -- Natural rubber polymer minus natural rubber
impurities
• Styrene butadiene rubber -- Copolymer. Low cost. Used in
hoses, belts, gaskets and auto tires
• Chloroprene -- Trade name Neoprene. 1st commercial
synthetic rubber. Used in gaskets, shock mounts, seals, etc..
Weather resistant.
• Nitrile rubber -- Resists swelling in oils and gasoline. Used in
O-rings, gasoline hoses, seals, etc.
• EPDM -- Copolymer. Exceptional weathering resistance, but
not resistant to oils. Used in wire insulation, weathering
stripping and auto door and decklid seals, etc. Often used in
foamed seals
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Rubber
High friction properties
Good resistance to abrasion and
fatigue
Can withstand exposure to fuels,
oils and chemicals
Can be made flame retardant and Car Tire
self extinguishing, with halogen free
and smoke suppressant types
available
Can absorb vibration and noise and
act as an insulator
Eg. : Engine Mount
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Applications of Conducting Polymers


Conductive Paints, Coatings, Caulks, Sealants, Adhesives,
Sheets, Tubes, and Structural Components
• Electromagnetic inerference (EMI) shielding
• Electromagnetic pulse applications
• Electrical signal transfer
• Electrostatic painting of panels
• Electrostatic discharge
• Lightning Strike Protection
• Electro-optical devices (photovoltaic cells)

Industries: Space, Aerospace, Electronic, Automotive, Chemical

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14 orders of magnitude change in electrical resistivity
1.E+18
PP/VGCF's
1.E+16 Epoxy/SWNT's
PP/VGCF's
1.E+14 Insulating PVC/AL
PE/Cu
1.E+12
Conducting
PP/VGCF’s
Polymer s from
1.E+10
Nanotube Filler s ESD range
1.E+08
PP/e-VGCF
1.E+06

1.E+04
ABS/SWNT’s
1.E+02

1.E+00
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Concentration in weight %
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Summary

• Polymers with additives give plastics.


• They are easy to shape: complicated parts performing
several functions can be molded from a polymer in a single
operation.
• Thermoplastics have linear or branched chains and hence
are soft and easier to form (Reversible process - Ice
Cream). e.g.. Acrylics, Nylon, PVC, Polyethylene
• Thermosets have cross linked structure and have
irreversible process (Baked Cake). e.g.. Bakelite
• Thermosets generally possess better mechanical, thermal,
chemical, and electrical resistance and better dimensional
stability than thermoplastics.

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