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Difference between Deen and Religion

1. Introduction
i. Religion is a set of dogmas, rituals for worship, and a number of social customs. “Religion means the belief in
spiritual things.” (E.B. Taylor)
ii. Deen is much broader; it covers both aspects, spiritual and secular, of human life. Is a religio-socio-politico-
economic system.

2. Meaning of deen
i. Islam guides us in religious matters and secular/worldly affairs
َ ‫َ ه إ‬ َ ِّ َّ
a) ‫اْل إسَلم‬
ِ ‫اَّلل‬
ِ ‫ِإن الدين ِعند‬
“Deen with Allah is Islam” - Surah Al-Imran

ii. Man must regard Allah as Master alone

“And whosoever seeks a deen other than Islam, it will not be accepted from him.” – Al-Imran
iii. Allah has sent the messenger with true deen so that the sovereignty of all false authorities finishes

“He sent Prophet with a system of life which is dominant than the pre-existing ones. “ – Surah - Tauba

3. Requirement of Islam as Deen: Total implementation

i. The struggle to establish unqualified and unconditional ascendancy of the Holy Quran and Sunnah of Prophet is
obligatory on all Muslims
ii. The goal of this struggle is to achieve domination of True way of Life so that Islamic system of Social Justice is

4. Difference between Deen and Religion

i. Objective reality (and a system of collective life) vs subjective experience (private relation between God and Man)
ii. Welfare and progress of mankind (aim of deen) vs own salvation (aim of religion)
iii. Right way of life established vs man doesn’t possess the knowledge to establish a welfare way of life
iv. Encourages the use of reason vs hostility to reason and scientific discovery
“…in all this] there are messages/signs indeed for people who use their reason.” – Surah Baqaraah
v. Holds that needs and demands change. Only Divine Laws are immutable vs denouncing everything new and
declaring it as sin
vi. In harmony with realities of life vs following susceptibilities and prejudices of men
vii. Treats fear as polytheism vs induces a perpetual sense of fear
viii. Calls to face the harsh realities of life vs flee from struggle
ix. Enjoins conquest of success in this world and the next vs focus on hereafter alone

5. Difference between Deen and Shariah

i. Meaning of Shariah: mode and path
ii. Deen has remained the same. Shariah has changed according to time.
Sources of knowledge for Shariah
1. Primary: Quran
a. Wahi-based 1st source of knowledge
b. Unique
i. ‫ض ظ ِه ر ًيا‬ ‫إ َإ‬ ‫وا بم إثل َه َـذا ْالق إر َ َ ْ َ إ َ َ إ َ َ َ إ‬ ْ ْ َ َ َ َ ُّ ْ َ َ َ َ ‫قل هل ن إ‬
ٍ ‫آن ال يأتون ِب ِمث ِل ِه ولو كان بعضهم ِلبع‬
ِ ِ ِ ِ ‫اْلنس وال ِجن عَل أن يأت‬ ِ ‫ئ اجتمع ِت‬ ِ ِ
“O Prophet, tell these people that even if they band together to make a Quran like this, they’ll be unable to
do so.” – Surah Bani Israel
ii. Hanging of Surah Kausar on wall of Ka’aba by a sahabi
c. Miscellaneous
i. Division into makki and madni
ii. Haroof e muqatteat; 7 surahs start with these
iii. 114 surahs; 86 Makki
iv. 540 ruku
d. All comprehending manual; has all basic fundamental principles
i. “Nothing has been spared in the Quran” – Surah An’aam
ii. “ And We have sent down to you the Book as clarification for all things.” – Surah Nahl
e. It guides to straight path
َ ‫َ َّ َ َ إ‬ َ َّ َ ُ َ ‫َ َ إ َ َ َ ِِّ ْ إ نَ ه َ َ إ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫َّ َ َ ْ إ َ إ‬
i. ‫ات أن له إم أج ًرا ك ِب ر ًيا‬
ِ ‫ئ ال ِذين يعملون الص ِالح‬ ‫ه أقوم ويبّش المؤ ِم ِن ر‬ ‫ِإن هـذا القرآن ِيه ِدي ِلل ِ يت ِ ي‬
“Surely this Quran guides to that which is most upright and gives good news to the believers who do good
that they shall have a great reward.” – Surah Bani Israel
f. Rights of Quran
i. Must be recited with correct pronunciation
ii. Must have a clear understanding of what one’s reciting
iii. Must practice what one understands
iv. Must convey to others what one practices
1. Imam Ghazali’s Khatam of Quran

2. Primary: Hadees and Sunnah

a. Wahi ghair-matlu’
b. How to implement the basic principles given in Quran
c. Sihah e Sitta and Asul Arba

1. Sahih Bukhari, collected by Imam Bukhari (d. 870), includes 7000+ ahadith
2. Sahih Muslim, collected by Muslim b. al-Hajjaj (d. 875), includes 9000+ ahadith
3. Sunan al-Nasa'i, collected by al-Nasa'i (d. 915)
4. Sunan Abu Dawood, collected by Abu Dawood (d. 888)
5. Jami al-Tirmidhi, collected by al-Tirmidhi (d. 892)
6. Sunan ibn Majah, collected by Ibn Majah

1. Kitab al-Kafi [a] Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni al-Razi (329 AH) 16,199
2. Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih Muhammad ibn Babawayh 9,044
3. Tahdhib al-Ahkam Shaykh Muhammad Tusi 13,590
4. Al-Istibsar Shaykh Muhammad Tusi 5,511

d. Why is Hadees significant?

ٌَ َ ٌ ‫ه‬ َ ‫ََ إ َ َ َ ُإ ن‬
i. ‫اَّلل أ إس َوة ح َسنة‬
ِ ‫ول‬ ِ ‫لقد كان لكم ِ يف رس‬
“There is the best example of Holy Prophet for you.” – Surah Ahzaab

ٌ ‫اَّلل َغف‬
‫َ ُإ َ ه‬ ُ َ ‫ن إ ُ ه َإ‬ َّ َ َ ‫ُّ َ ه‬ ‫ُ إ‬
ٌ ‫ور َّرح‬
ii. ‫يم‬ ِ ‫ون يح ِب إبكم اَّلل َويغ ِف إر لك إم ذنوبكم و‬ ‫إ‬
‫قل ِإن كنتم ت ِحبون اَّلل فات ِبع ِ ي‬
“O Prophet, tell these people that if you have love and affinity for God, then follow me. Consequently
you’ll become Allah’s loved ones.” – Surah Al - e – Imran
3. Secondary: Qiyaas
a. Analogical deduction
b. To be employed in case of ambiguity in Quran and Hadis
c. Example of Alcohol being declared ‘rijs’ and hence everything causing addiction was prohibited
d. Example of halal animals’ characteristics in Quran
e. “Find the things hidden in basic concepts of Quran” – Surah Hashr
f. "Where there is no revealed injunction, I will judge amongst you according to reason." – hadis
4. Secondary: Ijma
a. Scholars reach a decision by having a unanimous consensus
b. 2 possibilities: New issue w/o solution, existing issue with a disputed solution
c. Ijma about finality of Prophethood
d. Can’t be wrong
i. “My ummat won’t gather upon a wrong thing.” – Hadis
5. Ijtihad
a. The struggle to reach the right decision
b. Difference between Fatwa and Ijtihad
c. Characteristics of Mujtahids
d. Limitation on application of ijtihad
i. Regional and time
ii. Applied only when nasoos are silent
e. Mujtahid may be right or wrong but awarded nonetheless
i. ‫ئ‬َ‫اَّلل َل َم َع ْالم إحسن ن‬
َ ‫ينا َل َن إهد َي َّنه إم سب َل َنا َوإ َّن ه‬
َ َ َ َ ‫ه‬
‫َوال ِذين جاهدوا ِف‬
‫ِ ِر‬ ِ ِ
“Those who struggle in Our way, We will certainly guide them to the straight path.” – Surah An-Qaboot
Fundamental Beliefs
1. Tauheed
َّ َ ٰ َ
a. ‫ال ِإله ِإال ٱهلل‬
“There is no God but Allah” – Shahadah

b. Uniqueness َ of Allah
ٌ َ ُ ‫َ َ ُ ه‬
i. ‫َول إم يكن له كف ًوا أحد‬
“And there is none like Him.” – Surah Ikhlas

c. Only He is worthy َ of worshipَ

‫َ إ َّ َ َ َ َّ َ َ إ‬ َّ َّ َ ‫َإ‬ َْ َ ‫َ َ َإ‬
i. ‫ون‬ِ ‫وح ِإلي ِه أنه ال ِإله ِإال أنا فاعبد‬
‫ول ِإال ن ِ ي‬
ٍ ‫وما أرسلنا ِمن قب ِلك ِمن رس‬
“….. but We revealed to him that there is no God but Me, therefore serve Me.” – Surah Ambiya

d. Allah as the Creator of everything:

َ َّ َ َ ‫َ إ َ إ‬ َ َ َّ َ َ ‫َ َإ‬ َ ْ ‫َأ إم خلقوا م إن َغ إي َِ إ َ إ‬
i. ‫وقنون‬
ِ ‫ات واْلرض بل ال ي‬ ِ ‫ش ٍء أم هم الخ ِالقون أم خلقوا السماو‬
‫رِ ي‬ ِ ِ
“Or were they created without there being anything, or are they the creators? Or did they create the
heavens and the earth? Nay! They have no certainty.” – Surah Toor

e. Kinds of Tauheed
i. Unity in person (touheed-fiz-zaat); He is not a combination of several things nor can He be divided into
several things
ٌ َ َ ‫ه‬
1. ‫ق إل ه َو اَّلل أحد‬
“Say: Allah is One.” – Surah Ikhlas
2. “Lam yalid walam yu lad”
He neither begets nor is He born – Surah Ikhlas
ii. Unity in attributes (touheed-fis-sifaat)
1. No other being possesses His attributes. He is eternal, self-sufficient, Omnipotent and
iii. Unity in Actions (touheed-fil-af’aal)
1. No one can do or does the works which Allah has done or does or will do in future

f. Aims and Objectives of Tauheed

i. A muawwahid shouldn’t obey and worship anyone except God
ii. Must call to God for help and no one else
1. “Iyya ka na’budu wa iyya ka nasta’een” – Surah Fatiha
“You alone we worship, and you alone we ask for help.”
iii. Believe that God alone is the knower of the unseen
1. “He is Allah… Knower of the unseen and witnessed.” – Surah Hashr
iv. Sacrifice only in Allah’s name
v. Believe firmly that God has power over all things
“Al-Qaadir – The All Powerful” – Asma al husna

g. Derivatives from Belief in God

i. If God exists, He must be nearest to us; prayer an effective route to reach him. Not one sided relationship.
He is Al-Mujeeb, The Responder of Prayer
ii. Belief in Prophets
iii. Belief in Angels
iv. Belief in life after death

h. Impact of Tauheed
i. Impacts on an Individual
1. Man is freed from human slavery; Creates a sense of accountability
2. Disappointment finishes as everything is happening according to His Command
3. Humility; Whatever he has, has been given by God and hence can be taken away whenever
4. Patience
5. Cowardice finishes
In Surah Ambiya, Hazrat Ibrahim destroyed all idols and placed the axe in front of the biggest
6. Allama Iqbal: “The essence of Tawhid as working idea is equality, solidarity and freedom.”
a. Hence, in Islamic polity, there’s no place for discrimination w.r.t race, caste, profession,

ii. Impacts on a Society

1. Equality and Dignity
a. “He is dearer to God who is more pious” - Quran
2. Unity and Brotherhood
a. “Certainly all Muslims are brothers.”

2. Belief in all Prophets and Khatm-e-Nabuwwat

a. Belief in All Prophets
i. From Adam to Muhammad, all are prophets and hence must be respected and followed
1. “And verily We have raised in every nation a messenger, (proclaiming): Serve Allah and shun
false gods.” – Surah Nahl
ً َ ََ َ َْ َ َ ‫َ ه‬ َ ََ ‫َ ََ إ‬
َ ‫اع ه‬ َّ ‫َّم إن يطع‬
2. ‫اَّلل َو َمن ت َوَّل ف َما أ إر َسلناك عل إي ِه إم ح ِفيظا‬ ‫الرسول فقد أط‬ ِ ِ
“Whoever obeys the Messenger, he indeed obeys Allah…..” – Surah Nisa
ii. Distinct Qualities of Prophets
1. Humanity
Inna ma ana bashar mislukum
“I am a man like you.” – Quran made Prophet announce this at various times
2. God selects the best among us
“Allah knows best on whom to bestow Prophethood.” – Surah Ambiya
3. Knowledge bestowed by Allah
“He does not speak according to personal desires but says only what is revealed to him.” –
Surah An-Najm
4. Infallibility

b. Khatm-e-Nabuwwat
ً ‫شء َعل‬ َِ ِّ ُ ‫َ ه َ َ َ َ َّ ِّ نَ َ َ َ ه‬ َّ َ َ ‫َّ َ َ َ َّ ٌ َ َ َ َ ِّ ِّ َ ُ إ‬
1. ‫يما‬ ِ ٍ ‫ئ وكان اَّلل ِبكل ي إ‬ ‫اَّلل وخاتم الن ِبي ر‬
ِ ‫ما كان محمد أبا أح ٍد من رج ِالكم ول ِكن رسول‬
“Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but he is the Messenger of Allah and the
Last of the prophets; and Allah is cognizant of all things.” – Surah Ahzaab (the last sentence
implies the veracity of the prophet being the final one).

ii. In his last sermon, he said: “Ana khaatim-un-Nabiyyin La al-nabi ba’adi” “

“I am the Last Prophet and there is no Prophet after me.”

iii. Characteristics of Finality of Prophethood

1. Universality
“Say people! I am a prophet sent for all of you.” – Surah A’raaf
2. Annulment of previous Shariahs
“And the one who selects religion other than Islam, will never be accepted.” – Surah Al-e-
3. Perfection
“This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you, and have
chosen for you Islam as your religion.” – Surah Ma’idah
3. Belief in the Day of Judgement
a. “And (as to) those who reject Our communications and the meeting of the hereafter, their deeds are null. Shall
they be rewarded except for what they have done?” – Surah A’raaf

َْ ْ ً َ ‫َ َ َ ْ َ ْ َ َ ُ ُ َ ُّ ُ َ إ‬ ‫ه‬
b. ‫ال ِذي خلق ال َم إوت َوالح َياة ِل َي إبل َوك إم أيك إم أح َسن ع َمَل َوه َو ال َع ِزيز الغفور‬
“Who created death and life that He may try you – which of you is best in deeds; and He is the Mighty, the
Forgiving” – Surah Mulk

c. Surah Al-Qaria explains the Day of Judgement

“The Striking Calamity. What is the Striking Calamity? And what can make you know when is the Striking Calamity?
It is the day when people will be like moths, dispersed. And the mountains will be like wool, fluffed up. Then as for
one, whose scales are heavy [with good deeds], He will be in a pleasant life. But for one whose scales are light. His
refuge is an abyss. And what can make you know what that is? It is a fire, intensely hot.”

d. Impacts on Individual Life

i. Sense of responsibility and accountability
ii. Humility
iii. Virtue and Piety
iv. Patience
v. Courage
vi. Check on animalistic tendencies

e. Impacts on society
i. Ideal society where everyone leads a virtuous life
ii. Spirit of Generosity
iii. Spirit of Worship
iv. Cooperation and Brotherhood
Worships and Their Impacts
“We haven’t created the jinn and mankind, but only for Worship” – Surah Zaariyaat
1. Namaz
a. Importance of Namaz
i. “Wa Aqeemus Salata wa atuz zakata warka’u ma’ar Rak’een”
“And be steadfast in prayer, pay regular charity and bow down your heads with those who bow down.”
– Surah Baqarah

ii. “Was ta’eenu bissabri was salat”

“Seek assistance through Patience and Prayer.” – Surah Baqarah

iii. “Prayer is miraj for Believers.” – Hadis

iv. “O Prophet, tell me what is Islam?”

“One is the Tasha’hud and praying, and paying zakat and performing Hajj if possible”
“What is Ihsan?”
“You should worship Allah as if you are observing him. If you’re not in a position to observe Allah, then
He is surely observing you.” – Hadis – e – Jibrail
b. Philosophy of Namaz
i. Discipline; Once one enters in to Namaz, one can’t do things which are usually allowed during daily lives.
Hence, one surrenders completely to Allah’s will
ii. No innovation in Namaz since Allah is watching. Solidify the belief that Allah is the Knower of the Seen
and Unseen. (Surah Hashr)
iii. If even Halal food is not allowed in Namaz, how can one do haram things in daily life? This is the concept
of ‘abd’. Thus, Namaz is for improving oneself, not just for praising Allah
iv. When you enter Namaz, you have to meet some preliminary conditions; purity of body, dress, place of
worship, facing qibla, etc. In a similar manner, Allah wants purity of mind and thought as well in daily
c. Impacts of Namaz
i. On individual
1. Punctuality
“Establish regular prayer, for the prayer is enjoined on believers at stated times.” –
Surah An-Nisa
2. Sense of duty and responsibility; first towards Creator and then towards his fellows.
3. Self-Discipline
4. Self-control
5. Humility
ii. On society
1. Mosques as community centers
2. Mutual help and cooperation
3. Equality and brotherhood
4. Tolerance
5. Unity
2. Zakat
Mandatory on Sahib-e-Nisaab; those possessing 7.5 gm of Gold or 52.5 gm of silver for one year
2.5% of such holdings has to be paid
a. Importance of Zakat
i. “Aqeemus Salaat wa Aatuz Zakaat”
“Be steadfast in prayer and practice regular Charity” – Quran
ii. “Spend in the cause of Allah of the good things which you have earned and of that which We bring forth
from the earth for you.” – Surah Baqarah
iii. “Take alms of their wealth and make them pure and clean.” – Surah Tauba
“Allah has made Zakat obligatory for you for this very reason so that the remaining wealth of yours may
become pure for you.” – Hadis
b. Objectives of Zakat
i. Purification of the Soul
“He shall be saved from Hell fire who is God fearing and who gives riches to others for the purification
of his soul.” – Surah Al-lail
ii. Helping the poor
“And in whose wealth there is a right acknowledge for the beggar and the destitute.” – Surah Zaariyat
iii. Support of Islam
“And strive with your wealth and your lives in the way of Allah.” – Quran
c. Impacts of Zakat
i. Removes Greed and creates generosity
ii. Removes Materialism
iii. Brings man closer to God as it is a source of great reward
iv. Shield against crime
v. Purifies heart and property
vi. Individual welfare lies in Collective welfare
vii. Cooperation
viii. Defense of religion
“And do Jihaad, economically and physically.” – Surah Tauba
ix. Distribution of wealth
3. Fasting
a. More effective acquisition of social values than Namaz
i. The appearance of the moon of Ramadan is a signal for mass movement towards equality, which isn’t
limited to one vicinity or country, but affects the whole Muslim world. The rich and the poor stand
shoulder to shoulder in one row in a mosque, but have difference in their living environments at home.
“The outcome of roza is Taqwa (piety) ” – Surah Baqarah
b. Importance
i. Creates piety and fear of Allah
“O ye who believe, fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed before you, so that ye may ward off
evil” – Surah Baqarah
ii. Acts as a shield against sins in this world and hell in the next
“Fasting is a shield for you as it saves you from sins in this world and would protect you from hell in the
Hereafter.” – Hadis
iii. Extremely meritorious
“The one who’s going to perform roza with self-accountability, God forgives his past sins.” - Hadis
c. Philosophy
i. Fasting is a physical and spiritual ibadat. No one knows that you’re in Roza. It’s a secret between you and
Allah. The concept of Allah being All-Knowing and All-Seeing is the strongest here.
ii. One month’s continuous rigorous training so that its impact lasts for the next 11 months
iii. Long practice of obedience

d. Impacts
i. Discipline and self-control
ii. Obedience and closeness to God
iii. Shield against sins
Hadis mentioned above
iv. Augments brotherhood and sympathy
v. Social unity
vi. Increased Social Congregation in mosques

4. Hajj
a. Greatest of all forms of worship
i. Physical, spiritual and economic forms of worship combined
ii. Hajj is about surrendering your desires; Leave one’s work and loved ones and give up the pleasures and
amenities of life to live a simple one for a couple of days during the Pilgrimage
Lying on the plain of Arafat instead of comfort of bed at home, wearing a simple piece of cloth like
everyone else, not allowed to wear a perfume even!
b. Importance
i. “And for God, Hajj is compulsory on people who possess sources towards that way. “ – Surah Baqarah
ii. “One who is not held back by some genuine problem or by a tyrant ruler and still does not go on to the
pilgrimage, it makes little difference whether he dies a Jew or a Christian.” – Hadis
iii. “Nothing but the Heaven is the reward of an approved Pilgrimage.” – Hadis
c. Procedure of performance (from lecture notes)

d. Impacts
i. Teaches complete surrender to Allah
“Labaik! Allah huma Labaik!”
ii. Develops the idea of universal brotherhood
iii. Inculcates discipline and humility
iv. Impacts of other ibadah
Social System of Islam
1. Introduction
o The social order of Islam is based on the universal principle of human brotherhood and it endeavors to secure
happiness, prosperity and goodness for both the individual and society
o No place for class divisions
o Humans can’t lead a better life in isolation
2. Fundamental principles of Islamic Social System
o Collaborations of individual, society and state
o Mutual cooperation and brotherhood of mankind
“Co-operate with all what is good and pious but do not co-operate in what is sinful and wicked.” – Surah Maidah
o Value based society
3. Main Characteristics of Social System of Islam
o Equality of Mankind
 All mankind started with Adam and Eve
“O you people, you should have fear of your Lord, who has created you from one being” – Surah Nisa
“I created you from a man & a woman, and We created your tribes just for your identity and
reproduction” – Surah Hujraat
 People spread with time. Geographic features and climatic differences slowly changed their physical
 Basis of this society is neither color, nor race or nationality, but rather is a moral code: Those who believe
in God and adopt His revelations through Prophet (SAW) as law of their life are members of this society
without any distinction w.r.t color, race, caste, or creed
 All members enjoy equal rights and status
“The believers are but a single brotherhood” – Surah Hujrat
 Hence, the bond between the members is a strong one
 People who don’t accept this creed aren’t members of this society but they enjoy a liberal treatment –
given all the basic human rights as Muslims and are treated with tolerance
 Muslims are like one body; structural functionalism by Emile Durkheim (zabardasti relate karein).
“The parable of the believers in their affection, mercy, and compassion for each other is that of a body.
When any limb aches, the whole body reacts with sleeplessness and fever.” - Hadis
o Structure of Social Life
 Family
 Most dominant social institution and a real cohesive force which makes civilization possible
 Established through marriage and then grows through ties of kinship into groups of tribes, clans
and nations
 Institution of Marriage
o Without marriage, there will be no family and no ties of kinship to unite the different
members of humanity and hence, no civilization. This importance accorded to family is
the reason why Islam pays special attention to the social problems relating to family
o Directions for marriage:
“You cannot go for Nikaah with those women whom your fathers had married.” –
Surah Nisa
“Allah has forbidden Nikaah with these relations – your mothers, daughters, sisters
and aunts. Other than these relations, you can go for Nikah where you like.” – Nisa
“If you like, you can go for 2, 3 or 4 wives. But if you’re afraid you can’t do justice to all
of them, then only 1 is permitted.” – Nisa
o Celibacy is unnatural and forbidden
 In view of its importance, family life is regarded not only desirable but is
considered virtuous and an act of worship also.
 Once a family is formed, there are rights and responsibilities of each family member:
 Husband and Wife
o “When you go for Nikkah, you have to pay haq-meher” – Quran
The person shouldn’t wait for his wife to ask for it
o “You both are dress for each other” – Surah Baqarah
They must try their best to live with love and affection and show kindness towards each
other even in disputes.
o “Allah has created your couples. There’s relief and satisfaction for you people in it.” –
Surah Rom
o “Made man the caretaker of women.” – Surah Nisa
Man given strict instructions to be just and benevolent and to fulfill his duties with
equity and willing cooperation
o “And they (women) have rights to similar to those (men) in kindness, and men are a
degree above them.” – Surah Baqarah
Al Tabari, in his tafsir, interprets the verse as stating men to have a greater degree of
responsibility over women than that of women over men. It follows that rights owed to
the wife are nonnegotiable but the husband may have to give up some of his.
 Parents and Relatives
o Enjoins fair treatment of all within limits of justice and considers it an act of virtue
o “We have enjoined every man to look after his parents” – Surah Luqman
“Your Lord has decided that no one should be worshipped other than Him and you
should respect your parents.” – Surah Isra
o Qata-rehmi not allowed
The Prophet was once asked, “Who’s the best person?” He replied: “One who fears God
and keeps the best connection with his relatives.”
 Neighbors
 Comes after obligations to relatives
 “Let him who believes in God and the Last Day be generous to his neighbor.” – Hadis
“Treat your neighbor well. Be a Muslim.” – Hadis
 The General Community
 Must cooperate in good and not in evil; Surah Maidah
 Must act as friends to one another and say kind things to other people
“Don’t call others with bad nicknames” – Surah Hujrat
 The Prophet said:
“The Muslim Society is like a body with respect to mutual love and sympathy. If a limb of the
body suffers pain, the whole body responds to it.” Structural functionalism.
 About the believers, the Quran says:
”When they spend, they won’t do it extravagantly. Nor do it miserly. They won’t kill anyone
nor give false vows. They don’t become a part of negative activities.” – Surah Furqan

o Position and rights of Women (nichay notes mai se dekho)

Economic System of Islam
1. Introduction
i. Supremacy of God is the basis for everything
“When the prayer is over, disperse in the universe and search for your livelihood, but remember Allah during
that so that you may really succeed.” – Surah Jumma
ii. “He it is Who created for you all that is on the Earth” – Surah Baqarah
iii. No distinction between people w.r.t restrictions for making an effort to make a living, provided it’s halal and within
the law.
2. Fundamentals
i. Golden Mean
 Between the two extremes of Communism and Capitalism; virtues of both, evils of none
 Allows neither unrestricted freedom to damage the interest of the community and the individual, nor does
it recommend a totalitarian regime so as to destroy the personality of the individual
ii. Individual and Social Nature
 Individual given the freedom of enterprise and work
 Feels no rivalry towards others, but regards helping his co-workers and others as his religious and moral
iii. Obligation of Lawful earning
 “Next to obligatory prayer is the obligation of earning an honest living.” - Hadis
iv. Humans to exploit natural resources for betterment in this world and the next
 “In Earth, we have placed various sources of income.” – Surah Araaf
Muslim is urged to make every effort diligently to exploit the resources of this world for himself and
 Worldly life is simply a trial, and wealth is an instrument of this trial
v. Forbids Asceticism and Unchecked Materialism
 One should neither give one’s self entirely to spiritual activities while disregarding the needs of the body,
nor should one judge everything by the economic benefit while ignoring the moral value of life
vi. Duties of Employer and Employee
 Employees to work diligently and not shirk their duties
 “There are those whose adversary I shall be on the Day of Judgement; one of them is a man who hired a
worker and after receiving full service from him, did not give him wages” - Hadis

3. Main Characteristics
i. Individual liberty
ii. Right to Property
 Right to own, sell, inherit
 Allows private ownership (to stimulate individual efforts for acquisition of wealth and benefit the society
as a whole) in principle with certain restrictions
 If the individual works for the uplift of the society, then it is the duty of the latter to provide necessary
facilities to the former so that his work isn’t hampered
 Extent and Limitation of Private Ownership
1. Community is allowed to enact the necessary legislation to organize private ownership and change
it whenever the public demands it
2. The individual must realize that he is only a trustee who is holding the property, which infact
belongs to the community
iii. Circulation of wealth
 Islam wants a wider circulation of wealth
“The people who accumulate gold and silver and don’t spend in Allah’s way, tell them that there is
grave punishment for them” – Surah Taubah
“Tell them whatever is surplus needs to be spent” – Surah Taubah
 Laws of inheritance and charity assist in circulation of wealth
“In their assets, there is a fixed right for those who are deprived” – Surah Za’riyaat
iv. Economic inequality within natural limits and equitable difference
 Inequality is essential for self-purification and the development of the human personality
 People whose means of sustenance are scarce should learn to be patient, tolerant and content. While
those with abundant resources should develop qualities of gratefulness, kindness, benevolence and
“It is He who has made you the vicegerents on Earth and raised some of you above others in ranks so
that He may test you.” – Surah An’aam
 Islam permits differences in wealth only if differences aren’t so wide that some people are living in luxury
while the majority is left to lead a life of misery and hunger. It’s the beginning of the end:
“And when We wish to destroy a town, We give commands to its well to-do people who transgress
therein; thus the word proves true against them, so We destroy them utterly.” – Surah Isra
“No one’s faith among you is reliable until he likes for his brother what he likes for himself.” - Hadis
v. Social Security
 Islamic state is responsible for fulfilling basic needs of its members
“Those who honor the boundaries ordained by God and those who don’t, are like people who bought a
boat together. Those who were occupying a lower part of the boat had to go upstairs to fetch their
water; they thought that it would be much better to make a hole in their part to get the water and save
themselves from the hassle of going upstairs and disturbing the people there. If the people would let
them do it, they would all be destroyed; but if they stopped them from doing this, they would not only
save themselves, but also save other people occupying the boat.” – Hadis
 Society is accountable to God for the weak and poor living in its fold
 If one individual is left hungry or shelter-less on any day, the whole community will be answerable to God
on the Day of Judgement
vi. Guidelines regarding production, consumption, distribution
 Islam forbids its followers to exploit other people or use unjust methods of acquiring wealth. The Quran
makes it obligatory for every Muslim to struggle hard according to his ability to make a living.
 Forbids both miserliness and extravagance and suggests a middle course between the two
 In distribution, the main principle is of justice and benevolence so that wealth isn’t concentrated in few
hands and various people who have participated in the production of national wealth should be justly and
fairly rewarded
4. Sources of Revenue (from notes)
i. Maal-e-fay
ii. Zakat?
Political System of Islam
 Various political systems of the world. See diagram in notes
 Shah Wali Ullah’s definition: “Politics is associated with the wisdom that discusses to establish a bond and relation among
the individuals of a community”
 Introduction
o Unlike Christianity which declares, “Render unto Caesar what is Caesar’s, and unto Christ what is Christ’s”, there
isn’t a separation of religious from political life
o Islamic state is an ideological state. Based on ideology of Islam.
 Basis of Islamic Political System
o Sovereignty of Allah
َ ‫ْ ُ ْ ا‬
ِ ِ ‫ِإ ِن الحك ُم ِإَّل‬
 ‫لِل‬
“Sovereignty belongs to none but Allah” – Surah Yusuf
َ ‫ََ َ ُ ۡ َ ۡ ُ ا‬
 ‫اَّل لـه الخـلق َواَّل ام ُر‬
“To Him belongs the creation and the command” – Surah A’raaf
 Allah is Omnipotent, Omniscient, and Omnipresent
 Hence, Allah’s sovereignty doesn’t recognize the possibility of dictatorship, absolute monarchy or
autocracy in an Islamic Polity
o Khilafat
 The Quran proclaims the vicegerency of Man. It says
“And when thy Lord said unto the angels: Lo! I am about to place a vicegerent (Khalifa) in the earth.”
 Khalifa combined both political and religious leadership
 E.J. Rosenthal: “Under the sovereignty of God and the authority of His Law, the shariah, the caliph is a
temporal ruler of the state and the defender of the faith.”
 Characteristics
o Ideological state
 Always an ideological state; doesn’t depend on color/region
 Not a secular state; religion isn’t a personal matter
 Not a theocratic state; there exists a competence and merit system. Everything is not under the command
of religious leaders
“Allah commands you people to convey the trust to those who are competent.” – Surah Nisa
“When you hand over the matters to incompetent, then there is destruction alone.” - Hadis
o Welfare state
 Always a welfare state
 Ensures basic human rights
 Freedom of expression
o Government by consultation
 Consultation with Shura is extremely important. Afterall the benefits of masses are at stake, not a single
individual’s. Hence the Prophet was instructed in Quran:
“O you Prophet, you must consult your companions for governance” – Surah Al-e-Imran
“The state matters are settled through mutual consultation.” – Surah Shura
 Ahl-ul-raaye are consulted in Shura. The Prophet largely consulted Khulafa-e-Rashideen.
o Equality of all mankind
 Allama Iqbal: “The essence of Tawhid as working idea is equality, solidarity and freedom.”
 Hence, in Islamic polity, there’s no place for discrimination w.r.t race, caste, profession, etc.
 Law is supreme
The Prophet told his daughter Fatima not to assume any privilege from ordinary law; if you steal, by
God, your hand will be cut
o Foreign Policy
 Treaties with foreigners to be honored
 Ambassadors enjoy diplomatic immunity
 Foreigners residing in Islamic State are subject to their personal laws
 Muslim law of Jihad is humane; women, old, children, trees, etc not be harmed
o Obedience of Ruler
 Muslims instructed to obey the supreme commander among them
o Order good and forbid wrong
 “When Allah gives authority to people on Earth, they establish salat and pay zakat, spread goodness
and forbid evil.” – Surah Hajj
o Payment of Zakat
 Office of Head of state
o All power and authority belongs to God, and with man there’s only delegated power which becomes a trust
o Accountable to even the humblest subject in the realm, and hence the victim of abuse has the absolute right to
claim redress
o Justice is the inviolable foundation
o Selection process
 A contract concluded between the ruler and the ruled
 Only persons who are the most representative of population take the oath of allegiance
 Functions of Islamic State
o Executive: Legislation to be carried out in light of Quran and Hadis
o Judiciary: In domain of judiciary, there is equality of all men; the head of state is not exempt
o Cultural duty; to let others know what Islam stands for. Basic principle is “There is no compulsion in religion.” –
Surah Baqarah
o To fight for the right
 How to synthesize the Islamic Political System and the Parliamentary system?
o Rectify the voting system
 Increase the minimum voter age
 Enhance the literacy rate
o Allama Iqbal said that people who are parliamentarians must be capable of doing Ijtehaad
Prophet as Diplomat
 Introduction
o Diplomat par ُexcellence
ٌ ‫ه‬
 ‫اَّلل أ إس َوة‬ َ ‫ََ إ َ َ َ ُإ ن‬
ِ ‫ول‬ ِ ‫لقد كان لكم ِ يف رس‬
“In Prophet, there is the best example for all mankind” – Surah Ahzaab
o Used letters, assigned envoys, personal visits as means of communication
o Contact with leaders within (banu Aus and Khazraj; Constitution of Madina) and without Arabia (Heraclius and
Negus, e.g.)
 Makkah’s life
o Half-al-fudul
 Accepted this alliance created by Makkans even after Prophethood; stayed true to his word
o Migration to Abyssinia
 Asked 15 Muslims to migrate to Abyssinia in light of increasing persecution by Quraish
 In addition to protection, it opened up a new trading prospects through the diplomatic foresight of the
o Journey to Taif
 People of Taif rejected the Prophet’s invitation to Islam and started stone pelting
 Signifies prophet’s diplomatic efforts in personal capacity
o Al-Aqaba Pledges
 People from Madina who came to Makkah for pilgrimage came into contact with Prophet
 Impressed by his character and attitude, they accepted Islam and agreed to preach the teachings in
 Madina’s life (Arrived in 628 AD)
o Meethaq-e-Madina and its impacts
 Constitution dealt with civil and political relations among civilians and outside
 The signing of this constitution led to the unification of a community that had been at war
 Displayed a degree of diplomacy by the Prophet as although he envisioned a society which will eventually
be based on religious outlook, practical consideration was needed to be inclusive of the varying social
o Treaty of Hudaibiya
 Signed after the rumor of killing of Hazrat Usman
 Muslims upset. Quran said this was victory in Surah Fath
 Led to realization of Prophet as an equal in the eyes of Makkans
 Cessation of Military activity and boding well for the future
 These diplomatic efforts manifested in 8 A.H. when the whole of Makkah embraced Islam upon its
o Correspondence with other leaders
 Letters being sent while the Treaty of Hudaibiya was being signed
 Letters were sent to Rome, Abyssinia and Persia to invite them to Islam
 Ruler of Abyssinia and Bahrain accepted. Others rejected.
 Diplomatic Norms
o Practice of sending and receiving diplomats
 Diplomats were inviolable and immune; demanded repatriation from Roman Emperor for the murder of
his diplomat
 Welcomed diplomats warmly and negotiated honestly and decisively; offered his cloak to sit on to Vael
bin Hajir
 Never violated the impunity of foreign envoys even though some of his envoys had been mistreated
 Never abused them even if they were disrespecting; Negotiations between the Prophet and Urwah bin
 Provided Hareth, who leading 400 people came to negotiate, with food and provisions on their return
 Reply to Musailma’s envoy who regarded Musailma as Prophet: “… I would sentence you to death had
the envoys had no immunity.”
o Law of treaty
 Governed the conclusion, binding and breaching effects of a treaty
 Pacta Sunt Servada (agreements must be kept) was already a principle during Treaty of Hudaibiya
o Law of state responsibility
 Reparation made by Prophet to Quraish for wrongdoings committed by his followers who had gone for a
spying mission but had violated the law of war
o Peaceful Foreign Policy
 All his letters started with “Aslam Taslam”
 If you join Islam, there will be ‘salamti.’ We don’t want your state.
Prophet as a Military Strategist
 Introduction
o All battles standard
o No battle lost on account of lack of wisdom
o Deep insight
o His example prepared great generals
 Principles of Warfare
o “Let your invasion be in the name of Allah. Invade but do not plunder or conceal booty. Never deform the
corpse or kill an infant.” – Hadis
o Read from notes
 Objectives of Warfare altered
o Fighting against aggression
 “And fight in the way of Allah with those who fight against you.” – Surah Baqarah
o Assistance of Oppressed
 “Why should ye not fight in the cause of Allah and of those who, being weak, are ill-treated” – Surah
o Eradication of Mischief
 “Fight them until there is no more mischief, and the religion of Allah prevails.” – Surah Baqarah
o Eradication of hindrance in way of Islam
 “But graver is it in the sight of Allah to prevent access to the path of Allah, to prevent access to the
sacred mosque, and drive out its members. Tumult and oppression are worse than slaughter.” – Surah
 Qualities as a strategist
o Strong belief in Allah
 Unstinted belief; Sword in one hand, Quran in the other
o Minimum human losses
 In all wars, 250 muslims were martyred and 789 non-muslims were killed
 Conquered the arab peninsula in 8 years
o Bravery
 “When the battle used to be fierce, we looked for the Prophet to find a refuge behind him. This was
how it was at Badr; We were taking shelter behind the Prophet who was then going at the enemy more
closely than anyone of us.” – Hazrat Ali
 Military strategies
o Changing the philosophy of war
o Preparations of War
 “Against them, make ready your strength to the utmost of your power, including steeds of war to strike
terror in to the enemies.” – Surah Anfaal
o Espionage and surveillance of enemies
o Secrecy in War planning/Strategy
o Innovative War Strategies
 Battle of trench (Ahzaab); trench was a new concept
o Exemplary conduct with fighters
 “Verily you have been formed with an exemplary character.” - Quran
o Inclination towards compromise/reconciliation
 “In reality, instead of destroying the enemy, the Prophet (SAW) forced them to think upon.” – Dr.
Hameed Siddique in his book: “Ahd-e-Nabi kay maidaan –e- Jang”
o Good treatment of POWs
Prophet as a peacemaker
 Introduction
i. Preferred conciliatory efforts and diplomatic channels over war
ii. War fought in self defense
iii. Stay at Makkah was testimonial to this fact
 Islam signifies peace and its apostle as such
i. “Indeed, God is peace.” – Hadis
ii. 113/114 Surahs start with God’s intro as God of peace, unlike any greek god of wrath
iii. Whenever the Prophet had a choice between 2 courses of action, the easier (non-confrontational) and the harder
(confrontational), he opted for the easier one – Sahih Bukhari
 Peacemaking Efforts at Makkah
i. He and his followers were persecuted mercilessly
ii. How could a creed whose fundamental principle was “there ought to be no compulsion in religion” (Surah
Baqarah) compel people by force to accept it?
iii. Peaceful preaching

iv. Migration to Abyssinia

v. Shib-e-Abi Talib; a general social boycott, a pact against injustice and aggression
 Peacemaking Efforts at Madina
i. Unification of warring tribes of Aus and Khazraj
ii. Establishment of Brotherhood between Ansaar and Muhaajir
iii. Meethaq-e-Madinah; controlled the conspiring Jews of Madinah
iv. Treaty of Hudaibiya; averted war
v. Diplomatic efforts; to foreign leaders
vi. Conquest of Makkah; declared amnesty for all
vii. Wufud Delegations; Delegates from other Arab tribes accepted Islam after conquest of Makkah
viii. Hujjat-ul-Wida; abolished all the previous bloodshed and vendetta
“Behold! All practices of paganism and ignorance are now under my feet. The blood revenge of the Days of
Ignorance is remitted.”
 A look at the battles of the Prophet
i. Minimal Casualties
ii. Military Strategies (from last chapter)
Prophet as an Educator
 Introduction
o Successfully taught and conveyed the message of Allah
o “It is He who has sent, among the unlettered, a messenger from themselves, reciting to them His verses and
purifying them and teaching them the Book and Wisdom although they were before in clear error.” – Surah
 Importance of Knowledge in Quran and Hadis
o The first revelation inْ the Quran was:
َ َ َ ‫إ َ إ َ ِّ َ ه‬
‫اقرأ ِباس ِم ربك ال ِذي خلق‬
“Read in the name of thy Lord, Who created.” – Surah Alaq
o “Those truly fear Allah, among His servants, who possess knowledge.” – Surah Fatir
o Besides the Quran, the Prophet(SAW) stressed on seeking knowledge:
 “Talabu –al – ilm min – al – mehd il-al-lahd”
“Seek knowledge from the cradle to the grave.”
 “To acquire knowledge is obligatory on all Muslim men and women.”
 Steps taken by the Prophet to promote education
o Establishment of Mosques as centers for worship and learning for men and women
o Higher center of learning: Suffa
o Courses and Methods of study: Quran formed the general basis; students of higher educational institutions were
further instructed in Arithmetic, Genealogy, Physics, Medicine, and principle of Islamic Law
o Apart from intellectual instruction, physical education was also stressed upon; pupils were taught wrestling,
archery, etc.
o Learning knowledge from Prisoners of Badr; 70 infidels arrested. Those who could read and write could gain
freedom after teaching 10 children
Public Administration and Governance in Islam
Governance: The conducting of public affairs and management of public resources. It centers on the responsibility of governing
bodies to meet the needs of masses

 Characteristics of Good Governance as per UN’s criterion

i. Consensus oriented
ii. Participatory
iii. Following the rule of law
iv. Effective and Efficient
v. Accountable
vi. Transparent
vii. Responsive
viii. Strategic Vision
 Conceptual framework within the Islamic ideology of life
o By highlighting the obligations and rights of God over man, and man over man, the Quran establishes that man
serves God by mainly serving Humanity, after all God has created man as His vicegerent
“It is He who made you vicegerents on Earth and raised some of you above others in rank so that He may test
you.” – Surah An’am
o Islamic good governance:
 Strives to achieve justice in the society
 Maintain dignity of individuals and protect group freedom, regardless of religious or national affiliation
 Steers individuals towards achieving a means of sustainable livelihood before aspiring for other luxuries
 Encourages virtue, limits vice, and rejects compulsion in matters of religion
 Achieves its aims through consultation, participation, representation, accountability mechanisms
“Those, when given authority in land, establish Salah, give Zakat and enjoin what is good and forbid
what is wrong.” – Surah Hajj

 Principles of good governance in Islam

i. Amanah: Authority is Trust of God on Man to fulfill
 The Quran mentions the trust given to mankind – a trust which the heavens, the earth and the mountains
refused to accept because they were afraid of its heavy burden – requires the establishment of justice in
Society (Surah Ahzaab and Nisa)
ii. Khilafat: Role of leadership in Good governance
 ”Aleikum le-sunnati wa sunnat-al-khulafa er-rashideen al-muhdiyyeen”
“Follow my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the Pious Khalifas”
iii. Shura: A cornerstone of the Islamic system of Good Governance
‫ن إَإ‬ ‫َو َش إ‬
 ‫اوره إم ِ يف اْلم ِر‬
“Consult them in affairs (of moment)” – Surah Al-e-Imran
 “My nation shall not agree upon an error.” - Hadis
iv. Adalah: Justice ْ َ َ ‫َّ ه‬
 ‫ان‬ َ ‫َْ إ َ إ إ‬
ِ ‫ِإن اَّلل يأمر ِبالعد ِل و ِاْلحس‬
“God commands justice and fair dealing” – Surah Nahl
 “If you judge, judge between them with justice” – Surah Maida
 Government to provide social and economic justice
i. Duty of government to provide food, housing and clothing
ii. Equitable supply of lifestyle and checking of accumulation of wealth in few hands
v. Equity and Fairness
 No discrimination on any basis since everyone is from a common parentage and hence is equal
 “O Mankind, your Lord is One and your father is one…….No Arab is superior to a non-Arab, no colored
person to a white person, or a white person to a colored person, except by Taqwa (piety)” – Hadis
vi. Hisbah: Accountability
 Everyone will ultimately be judged for their actions in hereafter
“Lo the hearing and the sight and the heart – of each of these will be asked” – Surah Bani Israel
vii. Transparency
 Govt to disclose its strategy, actions, contribution to the community and use of resources
viii. Rule of Law
 “No believing man and woman should exercise any choice in their affairs once God and His Messenger
have decided upon some matter. Anyone who disobeys God and His Messenger has clearly wandered
into error.” – Surah Ahzaab
ix. Striving for excellence
 “An emir who accepts an office but does not make utmost efforts with sincerity, he will never enter
Jannah with other Muslims.” - Hadis
x. Maslah: Public Welfare
 Zakat, e.g.
xi. Effective and efficient administration
 Red tapism, bureaucratic and lengthy processes lead to inefficiency; thus have been discouraged
Good Governance under the Pious Caliphs
 Introduction
o Period of caliphate began in 632 and ended in 661
o Admin under Hazrat Abu Bakr lasted 2 years and followed the pattern of Holy Prophet (SAW)
o Hazrat Umer built a great administrative system; introduced admin reforms and incorporated concepts which have
been included as new to contemporaneous admin practices. The basis of an Islamic System were clearly laid down
during his reign
o Hazrat Usman followed Hazrat Umar’s footsteps in the conduct of government and administration until he became
too old and weak to supervise his aids. Consequently, state officials became independent and the admin became
loose in the last years of his reign
o The unfortunate civil war among Muslims took more of Hazrat Ali’s time than government and administration
 Structure
o The administrative system didn’t consist of government departments or agencies; it had the caliph as Head of
state, a shura, and a few secretaries to help the Caliph in certain specified duties of the state
o The Caliph
 Elected by the people or designated by the dying Caliph (Hazrat Abu Bakr was elected by the people, and
Hazrat Umar was nominated by the former)
 No constitutional or political restrictions on his authority; Not autocratic though: He had to exercise it
within the laws and injunctions in Quran and Sunnah. It also became binding on the Caliph to follow the
traditions of the first 2 caliphs
 His Religious Functions
 His religious functions determined his secular position and power
 He acted as a guide, rather than as a law-giver in such matters. His religious as well as secular
powers were meant to guide the Muslims in the observance of Quranic laws and prophetic
 Lead the public prayers in Mosque of the Prophet (SAW)
 Unlike Pope, he had no authority to change or make innovation in any principle of Islam, as laid
down in Quran and Sunnah
 Other Powers
 Supreme Commander of Islamic Armies
 Caliph sent and received foreign emissaries
 Acted as a Chief Justice
 Supervised collection of revenues
 Looked after construction of canals and other public works
o The Shura
 Another democratic feature
 Caliph consulted it in ALL matters of state
 Holy Quran enjoined Muslims to discuss and resolve problems or take decisions through consultation
“O you Prophet, you must consult your companions for governance” – Surah Al-e-Imran
“The state matters are settled through mutual consultation.” – Surah Shura
 Composition
 No definite rule or law regarding composition
 Usually comprised of Chief Companions among the Muhajireen; sometimes, leading figures in
Ansar also served
 On special occasions, ordinary citizens of Madina or visiting dignitaries were also summoned to a
metting of Shura. Every member had the right to speak.
 It was at once, thus, an executive council, a secretariat of the Caliphs, a consultative council and
a general assembly of the citizens and visitors of Madinah.
 Functions
 Multi-purpose organization
 Advised the caliph in a Mosque in performance of various duties: dispatch of armies, choice of
commanders, establishment of new offices, etc.
 Not sovereign; like the caliph, it had no power to change Islamic Law
 Law was already revealed in the Quran and Sunnah; the function of the Shura (and the caliph)
was to discover and derive it by interpretation
 Ad-hoc Nature
 Meetings not held regularly under set rules, but depended on the wishes of the Caliph
o Shura worked well under Hazrat Umar
o Wasn’t employed that much by Hazrat Usman since he relied more on his relatives than
on advice of companions and citizens of Madina
o Hazrat Ali relied more on his own decision making
o Central Government
 Diwan ul Kharaj (Finance and Expenditure; functions of treasury: taxes collected, payments made)
 Diwan ul Jund (Military’s administration; Est by Hazrat Umar)
 Diwan ul Khatm (post)
 Diwan al Hisbah (Deen police)
o Secretaries
o Provincial administration (introduced by Hazrat Umar)
 Caliphate divided into provinces with capitals
 The ‘Wali’ (governor) was the chief administrator and generally the Supreme Commander of the armed
forces of that province
o District Administration
 Provinces divided into districts
 Each district administered by an Amir
 All officers were paid high salaries so that they don’t indulge in bribery and corruption
 All senior officers and wali were called to Makkah on occasion of Hajj to make inquiries and resolve
o Judiciary
 Judicial functions entrusted to Qazis
 Besides being pious, they were also great jurists and scholars
 Qazi was completely free of executive administration; they were paid good salaries
 On a number of occasions, Hazrat Umar himself appeared before a Qazi to defend himself
o Police
 In general, the security of life and property was the responsibility of the tribal chiefs
 Hazrat Umar introduced night-watches and patrol in cities like Madinah
 A police force, called ‘Ash-Shurta’, set up in new cities where the population was burgeoning
 Hazrat Umar also set up prisons
o Revenue Administration
 Initially, these were distributed as soon as they were received
 Rapidly increased in volume in Hazrat Umar’s reign; hence a more systematic organization was set up
(Diwan ul Kharaj)
 Islam sanctioned 5 sources of revenue:
 Jizya (indemnity of Defense Tax)
 Zakat (poor tax)
 Khiraj (Land tax)
 Ushr (Special land tax on non-Muslims)
 Booty (Income from the conquered places)
 Tax on non-Muslim merchants or traders (because they didn’t pay zakat) (introduced by Hazrat
 Bait-ul-Maal
 First public treasury established in Madinah
 Later developed in all provincial headquarters; out of receipt of provincial treasury, the expenses
of provincial administration and public works were paid and the surplus was sent to central
treasury at Madina
o Military
 Hazrat Umar was the first one to keep a standing army for the state
 He encouraged Muslims to join regular forces whenever the need arose
 Army personnel were well-paid and their families got allowances too
 Didnt allow army personnel to hold lands in their conquered areas, or to do business or agriculture
 Cantonments were built; besides commanding officers, the army had translators, doctors, and detectives
 Army was divided into cavalry and infantry
 Non-Muslims were also included in the army
 No soldier, whose family wasn’t residing in the cantonment, was allowed to be away from his family for
more than 4 months (same applied to civil servants)

Read NOTES for caliph by caliph measures/reforms

Human Rights in Islam
 Introduction
o Human rights derived from Quran, Sunnah of the Prophet and Pious Caliphs
o Haquq-al-abad are in some respects given more importance than Haquq-Allah
o Foremost charter of human rights in history of mankind: Hujjat-ul-Wada
o Western Philosophy:
 Evolution traced back to Magna Carta (1215); allowed protection of some rights to Barons
 British Parliament passed a law in 1355 under which no one could be deprived of his life, liberty
or land without following a prescribed procedure
 American Declaration of Independence 1776 was another step in this direction
 Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948; certain aspects of it adopted by UN General
Assembly in 1966
 Evolution has taken place in the context of rights of individuals with his political liberty in focus
 With all efforts made in Europe for ensuring this, these nations did not see any wrong violating
them while they colonized nations in Asia and Africa
 To regain their human rights, these nations had to struggle for prolonged periods
o Islamic Philosophy:
 Rights are not subject to any class-struggle or favors by authority, but a matter of one’s own fulfilment
 Rights not determined in view of social status or politics of majority and minority
 Not linked to racial or gender considerations
 All humans, as progeny of Adam, are equal
 These rights are founded on seven ethical principles as proposed by Dr. Anis VC Riphah University
 Unity in life
o Coherence has to be the objective in life
o Contradictions create disorder, injustice and violation of human life
 Adl
o A human must act with justice towards everyone and cause no harm or danger to
himself or others
“O you who believe, be steadfast witnesses for Allah in equity and let not hatred of
any people deviate you from justice that you deal not justly.” – Surah Maidah
 Protection of Life
o “Whosoever killed a human for other than manslaughter or corruption in earth, it
shall be as if he had killed all mankind, and who so saves the life of one, it shall be as if
he had saved all mankind.” – Surah Maidah
 Religious freedom, tolerance and pluralism
o “There is no compulsion in religion.” – Surah Baqarah
 Transcendence of Wahi and Legitimacy of Intellect
 Preservation of honor, dignity, lineage of humankind
 Sanctity of ownership and property
 Maulana Maududi said:
“It may be clarified from the very outset that when we speak of human rights in Islam, we really mean
that these rights have been granted by God; they have not been granted by any King, or legislative
assembly. The rights granted by the latter can be recant the same way they have been conferred. But
since in Islam, the rights have been conferred by God, no authority in the world has the right to deny
them to anyone.”
 Essential Human Rights
a. Right to inheritance
 “Unto the men belongs a share of which parents and near kindred leave, and unto the women a share of
which parents and near kindred leave, whether it be little or much – a legal share.” – Surah Nisa
b. Right to life safeguarded
 “Whosoever killed a human for other than manslaughter or corruption in earth, it shall be as if he had
killed all mankind, and who so saves the life of one, it shall be as if he had saved all mankind.” – Surah
 “The Blood revenge of the Days of Ignorance are remitted. The first claim on blood I abolish is that of Ibn
Rabi bin Haris.” – Hujjat-ul-Wada
 ”Do not turn into people who go astray and kill one another.” – Hujjat-ul-Wada
c. Rights of wives protected
 “O people fear Allah concerning women. Verily you have taken them on security of Allah and have made
their persons lawful unto you by Words of Allah…clothe and feed them suitably.” – Hujjat-ul-wada
d. Right to Equality
 “The Arabs are not superior to Ajamis, nor are the Ajamis superior to the Arabs.” – Hujjat-ul-Wada
 “And of His signs is this: He created you of dust and you are now human beings dispersed everywhere.” –
Surah Ar-Rum
e. Right of slaves to kind treatment
 “And your slaves! See that you feed them with such food as you eat yourselves and clothe them with the
stuff you wear…they are the servants of the Lord and are not to be harshly treated.” – Hujjat-ul-Wada
f. Right to religious freedom
 “There is no compulsion in religion” – Surah Baqarah
g. Right to Basic Needs
 “And in their wealth, the seeker and the deprived has due share..” – Surah Al-Zariyaat
h. Right to justice
 “And if you judge between mankind, judge justly….” – Surah Nisa
i. Right to protest
 “Allah likes not the utterance of harsh speech, save by one who has been wronged…” – Surah Nisa
 “Do not follow those who are extravagant; who make mischief in land, and mend not…” – Surah Shura
j. Rights of Non-Muslims
 Equal rights
 They’ll have their own personal laws except in matters where their law might sanction a cruel human
custom, e.g., satti or practices untouchability
 “Whosover is hard or cruel towards such people, or curtails their rights,…., I will be a complainant
against him on the Day of Judgement” – hadis
 “The Christian tribe of Najran shall be under the protection of God and His Prophet. Their life, property,
territory is granted to be respected and protected…” – Charter granted Christians of Najran by Prophet
 Exemption from military service, since they pay jizya and hence responsibility of Muslims to wage jihad
“By God, it is not just that a man who has paid jizya in his youth should be required to pay it when he
has grown old and sick.” – Hazrat Umar
 Muslims are duty bound to protect their places of worship:
“And had there not been Allah’s repelling some people by others, cloisters and churches and
synagogues and mosques, in which Allah’s name is much remembered, would have been pulled down.”
– Surah Hajj
Rights of Women in Islam
 Introduction
o Not only acknowledged complete personhood but has safeguarded her rights also
o Assigned a position of dignity and honor to women
o “He created you from a single being.” – Surah Az-Zumar
“He has made for you mates of your own kind.” – Surah Ash-Shura
 Status before Islam
o Hindu scriptures: good wife described as ‘a woman whose mind, speech, and body is kept in subjection, acquires
high renown in this world and in the next, the same abode with her husband.” + SUTTI
o In Athens, they were always subject to some male kin – to their father, brother or someone else. Her consent in
marriage was not considered necessary
o Roman wife was considered as a minor, and a person incapable of acting according to her own wishes
o According to English Common Law,
 All real property which a wife held at the time of marriage, became the possession of her husband, who
was also entitled to rent from land or any profit made
 The husband had the right to spend from his wife’s personal property as he deemed fit
 Situation started to improve by late 19th century when legislature decided to recognize the rights of
 Women in Islam
o In the midst of darkness that engulfed the world, the divine revelation echoed:
 “O Mankind, keep your duty to your Lord who created you from a single soul and from it, created its
mate (of same kind) and from them twain has spread a multitude of men and women.” – Surah Nisa
 “He it is who did create you from a single soul, and therefore did create his mate, that he might dwell
with her (in love).” – Surah A’raf
o Spiritual Equality
 “Allah will turn in mercy to believing men and women; Allah is Most Forgiving, Ever Merciful.” – Surah
 “Whosoever does good, whether male or female, and is a believer, shall enter Paradise…” – Surah Nisa
 Women are completely equated to men in sight of God in terms of her rights and responsibilities:
“Every soul will be held in pledge for its deeds.” – Surah Al-Muddassir
 Woman, according to Quran, isn’t to be blamed for Adam’s first mistake. Both were jointly wrong in their
disobedience to God, both repented and both were forgiven – Surah Baqarah and Surah A’raf
o Religious Obligations
 No difference in duties such as daily prayers, fasting, poor-due, and pilgrimage
 Has advantages over man in some cases instead:
 Exempted from daily prayers and fasting during her menstrual period and 40 days after childbirth
 Exempted from fasting during her pregnancy and when she is nursing her baby (if there’s a threat
to her health or her baby’s)
 If the missed fasting is obligatory (as in Ramzan), she can make up for the missed days whenever
she can
 She doesn’t have to make up for the missed prayers for any of the above reasons
 Attendance at Friday congregational prayers is optional
o As a child and adolescent
 Quran forbade the Arabian custom of female infanticide:
“And when the female (infant) buried alive – is questioned, for what crime she was killed.” –
Surah Taqwir
 Prophet Muhammad (SAW) said:
 “Whosoever has a daughter and he does not bury her alive, does not insult her, and does not
favor his son over her; God will enter him into Paradise.”
 “Whosoever supports two daughters till they mature, he and I will come in the Day of
Judgement as this (and he pointed with his two fingers held together).”
 Right to acquisition of knowledge:
“Seeking knowledge is mandatory for every Muslim.” – Hadis
o As a wife
 Marriage based on love:
“And among His signs is this: He created mates for you from yourselves that you may find rest,
peace of mind in them, and He ordained between you love and mercy.” – Surah Ar-Rum
 Under Shariah, consent is required for marriage
 A woman has full right to her Mahr, a marriage gift, which is presented to her by her husband and is in the
nuptial contract that such gift’s ownership doesn’t transfer to her father or husband
 Rules for married life in Islam are clear. Both have equal rights, but in consideration of the physiological
and psychological make-up of man and woman, the Quran states:
“And they (women) have rights similar to those (of men) over them, and men are a degree above
them.” – Surah Baqarah
Al Tabari, in his Tafsir, considers this verse to mean that men have a greater degree of responsibility over
women than women have over men. This means that men must fulfill their obligations towards women
whereas the latter are encouraged to do so.
 Yet, man’s leadership doesn’t mean a husband’s dictatorship over his wife. Islam emphasizes the
importance of taking counsel and mutual agreement in family decisions, e.g.,
“If they (husband and wife) desire to wean the child by mutual consent, and consultation, there is no
blame on them…” – Surah Baqarah
 Kind treatment is strongly urged:
“But consort with them in kindness, for if you hate them it may happen that you hate a thing wherein
God has placed much good.” – Surah Nisa
“The best of you is the best to his family…” – Hadis
 Right to end an unsuccessful marriage is recognized. Like the man, the woman can divorce her husband if
the nuptial contract allows that.
 When the continuation of marriage relationship is impossible, men are instructed to seek a gracious end
for it:
“When you divorce women and they reach their prescribed term, then retain them in kindness and
retain them not for injury…” – Surah Baqarah
o As a Mother
 A man came to Prophet asking:
“O Prophet, who among the people is the most worthy of my company? The Prophet replied, “Your
Mother.” The man said, “Who else?” The Prophet replied, “Your Mother”. The man asked, “Then who
else?” Only then did the Prophet say, “Your Father.”
 “Paradise is at the feet of mothers.”
 Kindness to parents next to worship to God
“Your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him, and that you be kind to your parents…” – Surah
o The Economic Aspect
 Right of independent ownership (money, real estate or other properties)
 Right doesn’t change whether she undergoes marriage or not
 Retains full rights to buy, sell, mortgage or lease any or all of her properties
 Right applies to her properties acquired before and after marriage
 No decree in Islam which forbids women from seeking employment whenever there is a necessity for it
 Islam restored her right to inheritance
 “Unto men belongs a share of that which Parents and near kindred leave and unto women, a
share of that which parents and near kindred leave..” – Surah Nisa
 Her share, in most cases, is one-half of the man’s share with no implication that she’s worth half
a man!
- Variation in inheritance only consistent with variations in financial responsibilities of
man and woman according to Shariah. Man, in Islam, is fully responsible for the
maintenance of his wife, children and in some cases, needy relatives (esp female). This
responsibility isn’t waived or reduced because of his wife’s wealth or income
 Entitled to Mahr and may get alimony from her ex-husband if she gets divorced
 Right of election and nomination to political offices
 Right to participate in public affairs

The status of women reached during the present era was not due to kindness of men or natural progress, but rather
owing to a continuous struggle and sacrifice on women’s part. In the case of Islam, such compassionate and dignified
status was decreed, not under pressure from women or other organizations but rather due to its intrinsic truthfulness.

The current pathetic condition of women in Muslim societies is due to the non-abidance of teachings of Islam in letter
and spirit and absence of Ijtehaad.