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NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

551 MF Jhocson Street, Sampaloc, Manila


DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
HYDRAULICS LABORATORY

NAME: _____________________________________DATE: _____________________

GROUP # _________________ SECTION: _________________

EXPERIMENT # 13
OPEN CHANNEL FLOW

I. OBJECTIVE:
The main objective of this experiment is to determine an average value of
both manning (n) and chezy (c) coefficients for the ArmField laboratory flume.
The sides of the flume are made of glass while the bed is made of steel.
Changing the water depth changes the contribution of the sides in the
computed average roughness while the bed contribution remains the same.
It’s required to compute an average value of (n) and (c) for different water
depths and discharges.

II. APPARATUS: Armfield


Flume Point
Gage Pumping
System

III. THEORY:
An open channel is a waterway, canal or conduit in which a liquid flows
with a free surface. Open channel flow describes the fluid motion in an open
channel. In most applications, the liquid is water and the air above the flow is
usually at rest and at standard atmospheric pressure. In the absence of any
other channel control, the flow is controlled only by friction with the bed and
the sides of the channel. In this case, water flows with a uniform depth
(normal depth) at which the weight component in the direction of the flow
balances with the friction force induced by the flow resistance with the bed
and sides. Many equations were developed to relate the bed roughness with
the flow parameters in open channels. Among these equations is the manning
equation which is widely used to relate the flow velocity and the cross
sectional parameters with the manning coefficient (n) which is a function in the
bed material roughness. Another less common equation is the Chezy
equation where the bed roughness is being expressed by Chezy coefficient
(c)
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY
551 MF Jhocson Street, Sampaloc, Manila
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
HYDRAULICS LABORATORY

IV. PROCEDURE:
1. Install the artificial bed inside the flume and adjust the slope as desired.
2. Open the valve to get the suitable discharge and calculate Q using the water
meter installed at the pumping system and a timer.
3. Using the point gauge measure the water level (W.L) and the bed level (B.L.)
at two sections apart. We should wait before measuring to reach the steady
state.
4. For the same slope set before, adjust the discharge in the pumping system
and measure the W.L and B.L at the same sections. Change the valve
opening to get another different discharge in the flume and repeat the
previous steps.
5. Repeat the procedure to obtain 3 different discharge in one set of slope. Then
analyze three different slopes.
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY
551 MF Jhocson Street, Sampaloc, Manila
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
HYDRAULICS LABORATORY

V. DATA & RESULTS

For Gravel:

Volume Time Q Width Depth Wetted Area of


Trial Slope Channel R n
( ) (s) (m3/s) (m) (m) Perimeter ( )
1 0.005 10 5 × 10
−4
0.077 0.045 0.167 −3
3.465 × 10 0.0207 0.0165

2 0.001 0.009 10 9 × 10
−4 0.077 0.055 0.187 −3
4.235 × 10 0.0226 0.0119

3 0.0095 10 9.5 × 10
−4
0.077 0.056 0.189 −3
4.312 × 10 0.0228 0.0115

1 0.005 10 5 × 10−4 0.077 0.0405 0.158 3.119 × 10−3 0.0197 0.0455

2 0.01 0.0093 10 9.3 × 10


−4
0.077 0.0495 0.176 −3
3.812 × 10 0.0217 0.0319

3 0.01 10 1 × 10−3 0.077 0.0515 0.180 3.966 × 10−3 0.0220 0.0311

1 0.007 10 7 × 10
−4
0.077 0.0415 0.160 −3
3.196 × 10 0.0200 0.0476

2 0.02 0.009 10 9 × 10
−4 0.077 0.0475 0.172 −3
3.658 × 10 0.0213 0.0442

3 0.019 10 1.9 × 10
−3
0.077 0.049 0.175 −3
3.773 × 10 0.0216 0.0218
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY
551 MF Jhocson Street, Sampaloc, Manila
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
HYDRAULICS LABORATORY

For Sand:

Volume Time Q Width Depth Wetted Area of


Trial Slope ( ) Channel R n
(s) (m3/s) (m) (m) Perimeter ( )
1 0.005 10 6.5 × 10
−4
0.077 0.045 0.151 −3
2.849 × 10 0.0189 0.0098

2 0.001 0.009 10 9.7 × 10


−4 0.077 0.055 0.166 3.427 × 10
−3 0.0206 0.0084

3 0.0095 10 1 × 10
−3
0.077 0.056 0.168 −3
3.504 × 10 0.0209 0.0084

1 0.005 10 3 × 10−4 0.077 0.0405 0.134 2.195 × 10−3 0.0164 0.1416

2 0.01 0.0093 10 9 × 10
−4
0.077 0.0495 0.155 −3
3.003 × 10 0.0194 0.0241

3 0.01 10 1 × 10−3 0.077 0.0515 0.158 3.119 × 10−3


0.0197 0.0227

1 0.007 10 3 × 10
−4
0.077 0.0415 0.128 −3
1.964 × 10 0.0153 0.0570

2 0.02 0.009 10 9 × 10
−4 0.077 0.0475 0.149 2.772 × 10
−3 0.0186 0.0306

3 0.019 10 1 × 10
−3
0.077 0.049 0.152 −3
2.888 × 10 0.019 0.0291
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY
551 MF Jhocson Street, Sampaloc, Manila
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
HYDRAULICS LABORATORY

VI. Computation

For Gravel:

Slope= 0.001

0.005
1 = = 5×10
−4 3

10

= 0.077 × 0.045 = 3.465 × 10−3 2

5 × 10−4

= = 0.1443 ⁄

3.465 × 10−3

1 = 0.077 + 2(0.045) = 0.167

−3
3.465 × 10
1 = = 0.0207
0.167

2 1

3 2
(0.0207) (0.001)

1
= = 0.0165

0.1443

0.009
2 = = 9×10
−4 3

10

= 0.077 × 0.055 = 4.235 × 10−3 2

9 × 10
−4 = 0.2125 ⁄
2 =
4.235 × 10−3

2 = 0.077 + 2(0.055) = 0.187

−3
4.235 × 10
2 = = 0.0226
0.187

2 1

3 2
(0.0226) (0.001)

2
= = 0.0119

0.2125
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY
551 MF Jhocson Street, Sampaloc, Manila
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
HYDRAULICS LABORATORY
0.0095 −4 3
3= 10 = 9.5 × 10 ⁄
3 = 0.077 × 0.056 = 4.312 × 10−3 2
9.5 × 10−4
3= = 0.2203 ⁄
4.312 × 10−3

3 = 0.077 + 2(0.056) = 0.189

−3
4.312 × 10
3 = = 0.0228
0.189

2 1

3 2
(0.0228) (0.001)

3
= = 0.0115

0.2203

Slope = 0.01

0.005
1 = = 5×10
−4 3

10

= 0.077 × 0.0405 = 3.119 × 10−3 2

5 × 10−4

= = 0.1603 ⁄

3.119 × 10−3

1 = 0.077 + 2(0.0405) = 0.158

−3
3.119 × 10
1 = = 0.0197
0.158

2 1

3 2
(0.0197) (0.01)

1
= = 0.0455

0.1603
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY
551 MF Jhocson Street, Sampaloc, Manila
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
HYDRAULICS LABORATORY

0.0093
2 = = 9.3 × 10
−4 3

10

= 0.077 × 0.0495 = 3.812 × 10−3 2

9.3 × 10−4

= = 0.2440 ⁄

3.812 × 10−3

2 = 0.077 + 2(0.0495) = 0.176

−3
3.812 × 10
2 = = 0.0217
0.176

2 1

3 2
(0.0217) (0.01)

2
= = 0.0319

0.2440

0.01
3 = = 1×10
−3 3

10

= 0.077 × 0.0515 = 3.966 × 10−3 2

1 × 10−3

= = 0.2522 ⁄

3.966 × 10−3

3 = 0.077 + 2(0.0515) = 0.180

−3
3.966 × 10
3 = = 0.0220
0.180

2 1

3 2
(0.0220) (0.01)

3
= = 0.0311

0.2522
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY
551 MF Jhocson Street, Sampaloc, Manila
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
HYDRAULICS LABORATORY

Slope = 0.02

0.007
1 = = 7×10
−4 3

10

= 0.077 × 0.0415 = 3.196 × 10−3 2

7 × 10−4

= = 0.2191 ⁄

3.196 × 10−3

1 = 0.077 + 2(0.0415) = 0.160

−3
3.196 × 10
1 = = 0.0200
0.160

2 1

3 2
(0.0200) (0.02)

1
= = 0.0476

0.2191

0.009
−4 3
2 = 9×10 ⁄
10

= 0.077 × 0.0475 = 3.658 × 10−3 2

9 × 10−4

= = 0.2461 ⁄

3.658 × 10−3

2 = 0.077 + 2(0.0475) = 0.172

−3
3.658 × 10
2 = = 0.0213
0.172

2 1

3 2
(0.0213) (0.02)

2
= = 0.0442

0.2461
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY
551 MF Jhocson Street, Sampaloc, Manila
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
HYDRAULICS LABORATORY

0.019
3 = = 1.9 × 10
−3 3

10

= 0.077 × 0.049 = 3.773 × 10−3 2

1.9 × 10−3

= = 0.5036 ⁄

3.773 × 10−3

3 = 0.077 + 2(0.049) = 0.175

−3
3.773 × 10
3 = = 0.0216
0.175

2 1

3 2
(0.0216) (0.02)

3
= = 0.0218

0.5036

For Sand:

Slope= 0.001
0.0065 −4 3
1 = 10 = 6.5 × 10 ⁄
1 = 0.077 × 0.037 = 2.849 × 10−3 2
6.5 × 10−4
1= = 0.2282 ⁄
2.849 × 10−3

1 = 0.077 + 2(0.037) = 0.151

−3
2.849 × 10
1 = = 0.0189
0.151

2 1

3 2
(0.0189) (0.001)

1
= = 0.0098

0.2282

0.0097
2 = = 9.7 × 10
−4 3

10
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY
551 MF Jhocson Street, Sampaloc, Manila
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
HYDRAULICS LABORATORY
2 = 0.077 × 0.0445 = 3.427 × 10−3 2
9.7 × 10−4
2= = 0.2831 ⁄
3.427 × 10−3

2 = 0.077 + 2(0.0445) = 0.166

−3
3.427 × 10
2 = = 0.0206
0.166

2 1

3 2
(0.0206) (0.001)

2
= = 0.0084

0.2831

0.01
−3 3
3 = 1×10 ⁄
10

= 0.077 × 0.0455 = 3.504 × 10−3 2

1 × 10−3

= = 0.2854 ⁄

3.504 × 10−3

3 = 0.077 + 2(0.0455) = 0.168

−3
3.504 × 10
3 = = 0.0209
0.168

2 1

3 2
(0.0209) (0.001)

3
= = 0.0084

0.2854

Slope = 0.01
0. 003 −4 3
1 = 10 = 3 × 10 ⁄
1 = 0.077 × 0.0285 = 2.195 × 10−3
2
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY
551 MF Jhocson Street, Sampaloc, Manila
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
HYDRAULICS LABORATORY
−4
1 × 10

= 0.0456 ⁄

1 =
2.195 × 10−3

1 = 0.077 + 2(0.0285) = 0.134

−3
2.195 × 10
1 = = 0.0164
0.134

2 1

3 2
(0.0164) (0.01)

1
= = 0.1416

0.0456

0.009
−4 3
2 = 9×10 ⁄
10

= 0.077 × 0.039 = 3.003 × 10−3 2

9 × 10−4

= = 0.2997 ⁄

3.003 × 10−3

2 = 0.077 + 2(0.039) = 0.155

−3
3.003 × 10
2 = = 0.0194
0.155

2 1

3 2
(0.0194) (0.01)

2
= = 0.0241

0.2997

0.01
3 = = 1×10
−3 3

10

= 0.077 × 0.0405 = 3.119 × 10−3 2

1 × 10−3

= = 0.3207 ⁄

3.119 × 10−3

3 = 0.077 + 2(0.0405) = 0.158


NATIONAL UNIVERSITY
551 MF Jhocson Street, Sampaloc, Manila
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
HYDRAULICS LABORATORY
3.119 × 10−3
3
= = 0.0197
0.158

2 1

3 2
(0.0197) (0.01)

3
= = 0.0227

0.3207

Slope = 0.02

0.003
1 = = 3×10
−4 3

10

= 0.077 × 0.0255 = 1.964 × 10−3 2

3 × 10
−4 = 0.1528 ⁄
1 =
1.964 × 10−3

1 = 0.077 + 2(0.0255) = 0.128

−3
1.964 × 10
1 = = 0.0153
0.128

2 1

3 2
(0.0153) (0.02)

1
= = 0.0570

0.1528

0.009
−4 3
2 = 9×10 ⁄
10

= 0.077 × 0.036 = 2.772 × 10−3 2

9 × 10−4

= = 0.3247 ⁄

2.772 × 10−3

2 = 0.077 + 2(0.036) = 0.149

−3
2.772 × 10

2 = = 0.0186

0.149
2
3
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY
3 551 MF Jhocson Street, Sampaloc, Manila
3
3
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
3 2
HYDRAULICS LABORATORY
1
3 2
= (0.0186) (0.02) = 0.0306
0.3247

0 .01 −3 3
= 10 = 1 × 10 ⁄
= 0.077 × 0.0375 = 2.888 × 10−3
2

1 × 10−3

= 0.3463 ⁄
2.888 × 10−3

= 0.077 + 2(0.0375) = 0.152


−3
= 2.888 × 10 = 0.019
0.152

2 1

3 2
(0.019) (0.02)

3
= = 0.0291

0.3463
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY
551 MF Jhocson Street, Sampaloc, Manila
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
HYDRAULICS LABORATORY

VII. DRAWING:
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY
551 MF Jhocson Street, Sampaloc, Manila
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
HYDRAULICS LABORATORY

VIII. OBSERVATION & CONCLUSION:


NATIONAL UNIVERSITY
551 MF Jhocson Street, Sampaloc, Manila
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
HYDRAULICS LABORATORY

IX. PICTURES