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5 Review of Related Literature

Five dams in three provinces in the Philippines were damaged during the earthquake that occurred
on April 22, according to ABS-CBN News. The earthquake had a magnitude of 6.1 and was centered 1 mile
from Floridablanca, Pampanga, on the island of Luzon. It damaged roads and other infrastructure, and an
estimated 16 people were killed. News agencies are reporting another strong earthquake hit, with a
magnitude of 6.5 according to the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, struck the Philippine
island of Samar on April 23. The Republic of the Philippines Department of Energy said no damages were
reported by the power plants located in the Visayas area. The DOE said that as of 2:45 pm on April 23, 98.5%
of power had been restored in the Pampanga Electric Cooperative II. The remaining 1.5% covers about 2,300
households. Citing information from the National Irrigation Administration, ABS-CBN News said the five dams
“were damaged and needed immediate repairs.” The Cong. Dadong Dam in Arayat, Pampanga, showed
cracks, and repairs are estimated to cost PHP20 million (US$384,000). Other damaged dams listed are
Mangindong Dam in Bataan, P10 million (US$192,000) to repair; Balsik Dam in Bataan, P5 million
(US$96,000) to repair; Bucao Intake in Zambales, P10 million (US$192,000) to repair; and San Pablo CIS in
Zambales, P5 million (US$96,000) to repair. None of these dams appear to be associated with a hydroelectric

The Philippines Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) announced this week four of the nine renewable
energy projects it has approved include hydropower. The DTI Board of Investment’s (BOI) renewable energy
project approvals total about US$562 million. These projects qualified for incentives under the Renewable
Energy Act No. 9513, which is covered in the 2017 Investment Priorities Plan under the list of Special Laws.
The proposed hydropower projects and their developer include:Manilla-based Alsons Renewable Energy
Corp. (AREC), a subsidiary of Alsons Consolidated Resources Inc., will construct and invest $70 million to
develop a 15.1-MW hydropower project. The facility will be located on Siguil River in Barangay Amsipit and
Nomoh, in the municipality of Maasim, Sarangani province on Mindanao.A 20-person staff will operate the
run-of-river plant, and it is scheduled to begin “formal operations” in August 2020, according to DTI. Water
from Siguil River used for generation will return to the river and discharge into Sarangani Bay. Repower
Energy Development Corp. is constructing the $31 million 6.2-MW Katipunan River small hydropower plant
in Bukidnon. Repower is also developing two additional hydropower plants: the $21.6 million 4.4-MW Tibag
River facility in Quezon province and the $41.4 million 10-MW Pulangui IV facility in Bukidnon. DTI said these
three plants will simultaneously start commercial operations in April 2019, and each plant will use 18
personnel for operations. According to the Philippines Department of Energy (DOE) Renewable Energy
Roadmap 2017-2040, the country expects to have at least 20,000 MW of renewable energy installed by 2040.

In February 2016, reported “Alsons has a clear strategy for developing renewable energy,
starting with hydropower,” according to Joseph Nocos, Alsons’ vice president for Business Development. As
of June 2017, renewable energy plants supplied about 7,038 MW of installed capacity in the country. This
equates to 32.5% of the national output of 21,621 MW, according to data published by the DOE. The addition
of the new facilities will push the hydropower contribution to the country’s renewable energy percentage well
over its current 51.7%. Unrelated to the current approved facilities, AREC has plans for three additional hydro
plants. Nocos said after AREC constructs the Siguil River facility, the company plans to develop and build “a
40-MW plant in Negros along Bago River, and two more hydropower projects on Mindanao planned for the
following two years.” According to the DTI, “Production of renewable power is becoming cheaper and it is
fast becoming a better alternative towards addressing power-sufficiency and cost-effectiveness in the
economic development of our country, “said Ceferino Rodolfo, trade undersecretary and BOI managing head.
Under the approved plans: Ormoc Solar Energy Corp. is developing a solar project in Cavite and one in
Pagbilao, Quezon; Ecopark Energy of Valenzuela Corp. is building a solar plant in Valenzuela City; and
Nuevo Solar Energy Corp. is putting up two solar plants in Laguna, one each in Calauan and Lumban.

Dam is not the cause of flood and will not cause destruction. It will help deter flooding.
This was categorically stressed by Civil Engineer and Doctor of Philosophy Daniel C. Peckley Jr, an expert
on water exploitation, on allegations of a certain opposition group that a dam causes flooding in reference to
the proposed Upper Tabuk Hydropower Project (UTHPP). “Ti layus gapu iti nadagsen nga tudo nga
maurnong iti karkarayan tayo. Gapu iti climate change, nagbalin nga nadagdagsen ti tudo nga iy-iyeg dagiti
bagyo iti pagilyan tayo. Dagiti dams, mabalin nga mausar tapnu ma-control iti panagbaba iti layus kadagiti ili
nga adda ti baba ti dam. Kaspangarigan jay San Roque Dam jay Pangasinan. Nu awan ti San Roque Dam
ken dagiyay dams nga adda pay jay ngato na (Binga ken Ambuklao Dams), mas karkaru ti layos jay
Pangasinan” (Flooding is caused by heavy rains that are accumulated in the rivers. Because of climate
change, typhoons are bringing in heavier rainfall. The dams control the flow of water to low-lying areas. Take
for example the San Roque Dam in Pangasinan, if there is no San Roque dam and the dams upstream,
flooding in Pangasinan would be worse). Dams retard and essentially block raging floodwaters. Unblocked
and unchecked raging floodwaters are like a straight left punch from the young Manny Pacquiao. A good
block can minimize the impact of such a devastating punch.

In flood mitigation, dams block and slow down flood waters. In its most simple terms, flood mitigation using
a dam is capturing water and then releasing it at a slower rate, with the aim of minimizing river levels
downstream of the dam. With a dam and reservoir, the peak of a flood (in cms = m3/s) can be reduced and
its arrival attenuated or delayed. Kalinga has vast hydropower resources but it has the highest electricity
rate in Northern Luzon.

To develop and eventually build a hydropower plant that can generate electricity that is cheaper by at least
PhP1/kWh than the electricity sold by Kalinga Electric Cooperative’s main supplier. This is the main
objective when UTHPP was conceived in 2008, and still remains to date. Peckley Jr. explains that the
UTHPP is a small hydropower development with storage along the Tanudan River within the ancestral
domain of the Minanga Indigenous Cultural Community (ICC) of Kalinga in Barangay Dupag, Tabuk City.
The rated capacity shall be between 15MW and 20MW and is conservatively projected to generate around
50GWh of electricity annually. The normal operating height (head) for power generation shall be around
35m, while the design flow at full capacity shall be around 60 cubic meters per second (cms).

The Upper Tabuk Dam shall be equipped with gates which can be used to mitigate flooding, not cause
them, he stressed. The project’s other objectives are: To provide year-long irrigation for the rice terraces
and rice fields of Sabangan, Minanga, Sadog of Bgy. Dupag, Kantong and Bangkagan of Bgy.
Bagumbayan, and Naneng Centro of Bgy. Naneng. The preservation and sustainability of these rice fields
and rice terraces can be assured if, through the implementation and eventual operation of the proposed
hydropower plant, financial resources can be allotted so that these fields can be tilled and farmed at least
twice a year.

To provide slope and riverbank protections for Sabangan, Minanga and other farm lands downstream of the
dam to the confluence of the Chico River and Tanudan River.
To ensure that Minanga ICC, together with its neighboring ICCs shall benefit from the project through the
lease of the steep and rocky slopes and lands upstream of Minanga.

In 2012, the project was shelved primarily because of false allegations that the Minanga ICC is just a
fabrication and does not exist, and that the Minanga ICC was created so that a group of residents of
Barangay Dupag, Tabuk City could monopolize whatever benefits that shall be derived from the project,
Peckley related. Certain groups went around getting signatures to oppose the construction of the UTHPP
claiming the dam will inundate vast track of lands, rice fields (pa-payaw), farms (uma) and coffee
plantations. He claimed that the “Timpuyog Dagiti Mannalon ti Kalinga” (TMK), the Cordillera People’s
Alliance (CPA), and other parties took advantage of strong emotions then and successfully undermined the
project. But the community did not stop the search for their identity and quest for development until they
gain recognition from three of their neighboring ICCs (Nanong, Dallak, Dupag ICCs).

In an open vote during the community consultations and consensus building activities, Minanga ICC voted
92 in favor and 5 against; Dallac voted 100% in favor; and Naneng 100% in favor. This that gave them
courage and strength to work for the realization of the project requesting Peckley Jr. to continue the
project. Peckley Jr. is the principal engineer of DPJ Engineers and Consultants and operator of the 1 Mega
Watt Bulanao Hydro Electric Power Plant. Hydropower, the cheapest and most reliable renewable
energyAmong other renewable sources of energy, Peckley said hydropower is the cheapest and most

The Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) rates of these sources are as follows: Hydropower = PhP5.8705/kWh; Biomass =
PhP6.63/kWh; Wind = PhP7.40/kWh; Solar = PhP8.69/kWh.

The FIT rate is the fixed generation rate that all consumers in the Philippines pay for all the electricity
generated by FIT-eligible renewable energy plants. (Under the Renewable Energy Act of 2008, the Energy
Regulatory Commission (ERC) assigns a fixed rate for “power producers harnessing renewable energy under
the FIT system”, to encourage investments in renewable energy technologies. This FIT rate is being paid for
by all electricity consumers in the country, and is reflected in our electrical bills as “FIT all”, which essentially
means FIT Allowance. As one can infer from the said FIT rates, electricity from solar farms and wind turbines
are significantly more expensive than electricity from hydropower. For the UTHPP, it will also benefit host
local government units per ER 1-94, as amended by EPIRA; direct payment of business taxes, real property
taxes and other taxes to the concerned LGUs; employment during the development, implementation and
operation of the project; tourism and industries that can be established with the implementation and operation
of the hydropower project; and the construction of the access road and bridge serves as access to the project
site. The dividend or host community royalty fee equivalent to two centavos (PhP0.02) per kWh of the total
annual electricity sales of the project shall be paid beginning on the first anniversary date of the plant’s
operation and on every anniversary date thereafter, unless otherwise changed and amended by the
concerned parties in writing and approved by the National Commission on Indigenous People. The royalty
fee will increase by one centavo (PhP0.01) every five years of operation; To ensure that the economic and
financial benefits of the project shall remain in Tabuk City and Kalinga, the locals are encouraged to be the
equity investors of the project. (JDP/PAB-PIA CAR, Kalinga)

BAGUIO CITY -- The Aboitiz-owned dams and hydropower generation facility in Benguet have been installed
with equipment capable of monitoring earth movement, which may affect the structural integrity of the
facilities. Mike Hosillos, manager for corporate communication of SN Aboitiz Power (SNAP), said in an
interview Wednesday that there were five accelerographs installed in strategic locations at the 105 megawatts
(MW) Ambuklao facility and at the 140-MW Binga Hydro Electric Power Plant. The equipment records ground
acceleration, one of the parameters in conducting seismic analysis of the dams’ structures. The strong motion
recorders are connected to control centers so that rapid assessment could be conducted, especially during
cases that needed emergency response. SNAP president and Chief Executive Officer Joseph Yu said the
company invested some PHP8 million for the technology.

“The main purpose of these equipment is to monitor the structural integrity of the dams that supply our hydro
plants as well as to safeguard the welfare of our employees and host communities,” Yu said in a statement.
The installation of the technologies is part of SNAP’s sustainability and risk mitigation plans to help ensure
energy reliability and security of the Luzon grid, he added. “This undertaking could potentially save lives and
assets, as well as ensure the reliability of our services to our customers,” Yu said, adding that “strong motion
recorders in our dams could help us reduce cost and risk, and avoid having calamities turn into disasters by
initiating early damage-detection.” (PNA)

German-led renewable energy firm Hydrotec Renewables Inc. has obtained environmental endorsements for
a mini-hydroelectric power plant within the Pamitinan Protected Landscape (PPL) in Rodriguez, Rizal. In a
statement, Hydrotec said the Protected Area Management Board (PAMB) of the Department of Environment
and Natural Resources (DENR) had issued a resolution approving the construction of the 3-megawatt power
facility. The resolution allows Hydrotec to build the mini-hydropower plant with an “environmentally-friendly
design” within the protected area. The DENR Environment Management Bureau (EMB) has also issued a
certificate of non-coverage (CNC), which Hydrotec said further affirms the project was seen to have no
negative impact on the environment. “With the CNC, there is no need for Hydrotec to get an ECC, which is a
tedious and expensive process,” Hydrotec director Hannes Mueller said. The construction period of a hydro
power plant is 6 to 8 months. The company targets to complete all eight hydro projects by 2016.

PAMB, a multisectoral body responsible for the administration and management of all protected areas in the
country, unanimously approved the clearance for the mini-hydropower plant. PAMB cited the benefits of the
project, including a river cleaning system that would remove any debris and other solid wastes from the Wawa
river; local employment; a potential contribution to a more effective flood control; reduction of sedimentation
and siltation at Wawa, Marikina River, Laguna de Bay, Pasig River; and Manila Bay and funding from the
project income to be used in support of reforestation. Hydrotec has received eight renewable service
contracts including certificates of registration from the Department of Energy for its small hydro projects along
Marikina river and its tributaries. The Pamitinan Protected Landscape covers 608 hectares in Sitio Wawa,
Brgy. San Rafael, Rodriguez, Rizal. Pamitinan was a well-known place in Rizal because of Wawa Dam built
by the Americans in 1909. The dam was the original source of water supply for the residents in Manila and
nearby communities until it was closed in 1962 due to deterioration of water quality.