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WIRELESS

COMMUNICATION
ETEC 405
Syllabus
Wireless Communication
(ETEC 405)

UNIT I
Protective Relays, CTs and PTs: Classification of Relays: Electromechanical, static
and numerical relays: Construction, operating characteristic and their applications.
Constructions and Characteristic of CTs and PTs, capacitance voltage transformer.
[T1,T2][No. of Hrs.: 10]
UNIT II
Protection of Generators and Transformers: Differential Protection, protection of
stator windings, rotor earth fault protection, protection against unbalanced loading, loss
of excitation and prime mover failure; Protection of motors (induction and synchronous)
and bus bars. [T1,T2][No. of Hrs.: 10]
UNIT III
Protection of Transmission lines: Over current protection, Grading of over current
relays, distance protection, types of distance relays and their characteristics, carrier current
protection, protection against surges, surge diverters, surge absorbers, use of ground
wires on transmission lines, methods of grounding.
[T1,T2][No. of Hrs. 12]
UNIT IV
Fuses and Circuit Breakers: Types & Applications of Fuse and MCB, Current
interruption theories, types of Circuit Breakers: Air, air-blast, Oil, SF6 and Vacuum
circuit breakers-Principle, ratings and applications.
[T1,T2][No. of Hrs.: 10]
FIRST TERM EXAMINATION
[B.Tech.]
Wireless Communication (ETEC 405)
Time : 1½ hours Maximum Marks : 30
Note:

Question 1. _______________________________________________________
(a) List a few advantages and limitations of wireless communication systems.
(b) Why hexagonal shape is preferred over other cell shapes in cellular mobile radio?
(c) In what ways does the recieved signal get affected by multipath propagation in
mobile communications ?
(d) Breifly explain speech coding in GSM.
Solution:
(a) Advantages :
1. Mobility
2. Improved Reliability
3. Easier and Faster Installation
4. Reduced Cost
Limitations :
1. Signal Interference
2. Spectrum Limitations
3. Low Bandwidth Availability
4. Security Issues
5. Health Concerns
(b) In a cellular System a land area is divided into regular shaped cells, which can be
hexagonal, square, circular or some other irregular shapes, although hexagonal cells
are convetional.
This is becuase there are some criteria for the cell shape, which are
1. Geometric shape
2. Area without overlap
3. Area of the cell
And the eligible shapes for these criteria are Square, circle, equilateral triangle and
hexagon.
The Geometric shape and Area without overlap is satisfied by a hexagon, square,
equilateral triangle as they can be fitted in a manner where there is no area of overlap. The
circle on the other hand would overlap (which implies interference of signals) or leave gaps
(which means loss of coverage in those areas) when not overlapping. When the area factor is
considered a circle has the highest area however it does not satisfy the second criteria of
overlap. Therefore we have to consider a shape which fits correctly and also has maximum
area. For this purpose we shall compare the area of the remaining shapes to the area of circle
to see which has the maximum area.
The area of an equilateral traiangle to a circle approx = 17.77%
3
4 BHAVYA BOOKS: Wireless Communication

The area of a square to a circle approx = 63.7%


The area of a hexagon to a circle approx = 83%
Which means hexagon has the highest coverage area after a circle from the lot. Thus of
the lot hexagon satisfies all the conditons which is why the shape of a cell is hexagonal in
cellular network.
(c) In what ways does the received signal get affected by multipath propagation in mobile
communications?
The received signal gets affected in many ways by multipath propagation such as
• Reception of multiple copies of a signal at different phases; if these phases add
destructively, the signal level relative to noise declines, making signal detection at
the receiver much more difficult and unreliable
• Increase in received data errors due to inter-symbol interference in digital transmission
• Blocking or shadowing of radio signals, which is caused by obstacles much larger in
size than the wavelengths of the operating signals such as a small wall, trees, or a
large vehicle.
(d) Speech Coding : The GSM speech coder is based on the residually excited linear
predictive coder (RELPC), which is extended by including a long term predictor
(LTP). The coder provides 260 bits for each 20 ms blocks of speech which yields a
bit rate of 13 kbps (kilobites per second).
Question 2. ______________________________________________________
(a) Give a comparative analysis of 1G and 2G systems.
(b) Deduce the realtion for co-channel interference of 3-cell cluster architecture.
Solution:
(a) First Generation :
• First-generation cellular networks were introduced in the 1980s are primarily intended
lor voice.
• These networks are very slow less than 1 kilobits per sec (kbps).
• The key idea of 1G cellular networks is that the geographical area is divided into
cells, each served by a base station. Cells are so small that frequency reuse is possible
in the near by cells.
• They are primarily based on analog communications.
• Each phone has 32 bit serial number and 10 digit phone number in its PROM.
Security Issues with 1G :
• Analog cellular phones are insecure.
• Anyone with an all-hand radio receiver can listen in to the conversation. There are
also theft of airtime.
• A thief uses an all-hand radio receiver that is connected to a computer. This computer
can record the 32-bit serial numhers and phone numbers of subscribers when calling.
• The thieves can collect a large database by driving around and then can go into
business reprogramming stolen phones and reselling them.
Second Generation :
• Second generation cellular network introduced in 1980s, are based on digital
transmission.
BHAVYA BOOKS: Wireless Communication 5

• Primarily intended for voice they also support fax and email services at low bit-rate (8
to 9 kbps).
• The higher 2G systems use GSM (Global System For Mobile Communication) and
low-tier system is intended for lo\v-cost, low-power, low-mobility.
• Digital transmission offer several benefits over analog:
(i) Voice, data such as email and fax can be integrated into a single system.
(ii) Better compression can lead to a better channel utilization.
(iii) Error correction code can be used for better quality,
(iv) Sophisticated encryption can be used.
Differences Between First and Second Generation Systems :
• Digital traffic channels : First generation systems are almost purely analog: second-
generation systems are digital.
• Encryption : All second generation systems provide encryption to prevent
eavesdropping.
• Error detection and correction : Second generation digital traffic allows for
detection and correction, giving clear voice reception.
• Channel access : Second-generation systems allow channels to be dynamically shared
by a number of users.
(b) If the cell size and the power transmitted at the base stations are same then CCI will
become independent of the transmitted power and will depend on radius of the cell
(R) and the distance between the interfering co-channel cells (D). If D/R ratio is
increased, then the effective distance between the co-channel cells will increase 34
and interference will decrease. The parameter Q is called the frequency reuse ratio
and is related to the cluster size. For hexagonal geometry
D
Q= = 3N ...(i)
R
From the above equation, small of 'Q' means small value of cluster si/e 'N' and increase
in cellular capacity. But large 'Q' leads to decrease in system capacity but increase in
transmission quality. Choosing the options is very careful for the selection of 'N'. the
proof of which is given in the first section.
The Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR) for a mobile receiver which monitors the
forward channel can be calculated as
S S
= i0 ...(ii)
I
∑ Ii
i–1
where i0 is the number of co-channel interfering cells. S is the desired signal power
from the baseband station and Ii is the interference power caused by the i-th interfering
co-channel base station. In order to solve this equation from power calculations, we
need to look into the signal power characteristics. The average power in the mobile
radio channel decays as a power law of the distance of separation between transmitter
and receiver. The expression for the received power Pr at a distance d can be
approximately calculated as
6 BHAVYA BOOKS: Wireless Communication

–n
 d
Pr = P0  d  ...(iii)
 0
and in the dB expression as
 d
Pr(dB) = P0(dB) – 10n log   ...(iv)
 d0 
where P0 is the power received at a close-in reference point in the far field region at a
small distance do from the transmitting antenna, and ‘n’ is the path loss exponent.
Let us calculate the SIR for this system. If Di is the distance of the i-th interferer
from the mobile, the received power at a given mobile due to i-th interfering cell is
proportional to (Di)–n (the value of ‘n’ varies between 2 and 4 in urban cellular
systems).
Let us take that the path loss exponent is same throughout the coverage area and the
transmitted power be same, then SIR can be approximated as

S R–n
= i0 ...(v)
I
∑ Di – n
i =1

where the mobile is assumed to be located at R distance from the cell center.
Question 3. ______________________________________________________
(a) Mention differences between FDD (Frequency Division Duplexing) and TDD
(Time Division Duplexing).
(b) A mobile subscriber travels at a uniform speed of 60 km/h. Compute the time
between fades if the mobile uses
(i) a cellphone operating at 900 MHz
(ii) a PCS phone operating at 1900 MHz
Comment on the results obtained.
Solution:
(a) FDD : Duplexing may be done using frequency or time domain technique. Frequency
division duplexing (FDD) provides two distinct hands of frequencies for every user.
The forward hand provides traffic from the base station to the mobile, and the reverse
hand provides traffic from the mobile to the base station. In FDD. any duplex channel
acutally consists of two simplex channels (a forward and reverse), and a device called
a duplexer is used is used inside each subcriber unit and base station to allow
simultaneous bidirectional radio transmission and reception for both the subscriber
unit and the base station on the duplex channel pair. The frequency separation between
each forward and reverse channel is constant throughout the system, regardless of the
particular channel being used.
TDD : Time division duplexing (TDD) uses time instead of frequency to provide
both a forward and reverse link. In TDD. multiple users share a single radio channel
by lakiing turns in the time domain. Individual users are allowed to access the channel
in assigned time slots, and each duplex channel has both a forward time slot and a
reverse time slot to faciliated bidirectional communication. If the time separation
BHAVYA BOOKS: Wireless Communication 7

between the forward and reverse time slot is small then the transmission and reception
of data appears simultaneous to the users at both the subscriber unit and on the base
station side. Figure illustrates FDD and TDD techniques. TDD allows communication

on a single channel (as opposed to requiring two separte simplex or dedicated


channels) and simplifies the subcriber equipment since a duplexer is not required.
There are several tradeoffs between FDD and TDD approaches. FDD is geared toward
radio communications systems that allocate individual radio frequencies for each
user. Because each transceiver simultaneously transmits and receives radio signals
which can vary by more than 100 dB. the frequency allocation used for the forward
and reverse channels must be carefully coordinated within its own system and with
out-of-band users that occupy spectrum between these two bands. Furthermore, the
frequency separation must he coordinated to permit the use of inexpensive RF and
oscillator technology. TDD enables each transceiver to operate as either a transmitter
or receiver on the same frequency and eliminates the need for separate forward and
revese frequency bands. Howver. there is a time latency created by TDD due to the
fact that communication is not full duplex in the truest sense and this latency creates
inherent sensitivities to propagation delays of individual users. Because of the rigid
timing required for timing sloting. TDD generally is limited to cordless phone or
short range portable access. TDD is effective for fixed wireless access when all
users are stationary so that propagation delays do not vary in time among the users.
(b) Speed of the mobile, Vm = 60 km/h (given)
= 60 × 103 m/ 3600 s = 16.7 m/s
Time between fades is given by the expression, Tf = c/(2 fcVm)
where c is the speed of radio waves = 3 × l08 m/s
(i) To compute time between fades for a mobile operating at 900 MHz
Step 1. Frequency of operation, fc = 900 MHz or 900 × 106 Hz (given)
Time between fades, Tf = (3 × 108 m/s/ (2 × 900 × 106 Hz × 16.7 m/s)
Hence, time between fades at 900 MHz = 10 ms
(ii) To compute time between fades for a mobile operating at 1900 MHz
Step 2. Frequency of operation, fc = 1900 MHz or 1900 × 106 Hz (given)
Time between fades, Tf = (3 × 108 m/s / (2 × 1900 × 106 Hz × 16.7 m/s)
Hence, time between fades at 1900 MHz = 4.7 ms
Comments on the results It is observed that the rapidity of the fading increases
with the frequency of the transmission at the same speed of the mobile vehicle.
8 BHAVYA BOOKS: Wireless Communication

Question 4. _______________________________________________________
(a) Draw the DAMPS network model. List a few the services provided by this system.
(b) Consider a Rayleigh fading signal experiencing a maximum Doppler frequency
of 20 Hz. The carrier frequency is 900 MHz compute
(a) the positive going level crossing rate for ρ = 1
(b) maximum velocity of the mobile for the given Doppler frequency
Solution:

A wide range of basic and supplementary services are supported by D-AMPS or USDC.
Some of them are listed below :
• basic speech and asynchronous data services
• group 3 fax
• short message services (SMS)
• emergency services
• on-the-air activation (OTA)
• sleep mode
• message encryption
• supplementary services
– Call forwarding
– Call waiting
– Do not disturb
– Voice mail
BHAVYA BOOKS: Wireless Communication 9

– Calling number identification


– Multiple-party services like conference calling
– Call restriction services like password call acceptance
– Privacy services
(b) Carrier frequency of transmission, fc = 900 MHz (given)
Maximum Doopler frequency, fdm = 20 Hz (given)
(a) To compute the positive going level crossing rate, NL
Step 1. Normalized specified level, ρ = 1 (given)
Average number of level crossings per second at a specified levle is given by:
NL = 2.5 fdm ρe–ρ2
Therefore, NL = 2.5 × 20 × 1 × e–1 = 18.39 crossings per second
(b) To compute maximum velocity of the mobile, Vm
Step 2. We know that fdm = Vm/λc
or, Vm = fdm × λc = fdm × c/fc
where c = 3 × 108 m/s
Therefore, Vm = (20 Hz × 3 × 108 m/s) / (900 × 106 Hz)
Hence, Vm = 6.67 m/s or 24 km/h.

SECOND TERM EXAMINATION


[B.Tech.]
Wireless Communication (ETEC 405)
Time : 1½ hours
Maximum Marks : 30
Note:

Question 1.
(a) Explain the funcitonality of BSS GPRS protocol ?
(b) What are the 3G QoS classes ?
(c) Give the Technical Requirements of WLL Systems.
Solution:
(a) The BSS Gateway protocol (BSSGP) operates between the BSS and the SGSN
relaying the LLC packets from the MS to the SGSN. Many MS LLCs can be
multiplexed over one BSSGP. Its primary function is to relay radio related, QoS,
and routing information between the BSS and SGSN and paging requests from SGSN
to the BSS. It supports flushing of old messages from BSS. The data transfer is
unconfirmed between BSS and SGSN.
(b) Four QoS classes have been defined for 3G :
• Conversational class: It is defined for applications such as traditional voice
calls i.e., the most delay-sensitive applications. In this, the transfer delay is
strictly limited.
• Streaming class: It is defined for one-way real time video/audio such as video-
on-demand.
10 BHAVYA BOOKS: Wireless Communication

• Interactive class: It is defined for interactive online applications such as Telnet,


interactive e-mail, and Web browsing.
• Background class: It is defined for other online activities such as FTP or the
background downloading of e-mails.
(c) Technical Requirements of WLL Systems : The following conditions are required
in WLL systems which are looked to as a replacement for existing copper subscriber
lines.
(1) Communications quality : Since a WLL system serves as the access line for
fixed telephone sets, it must provide the same level of quality as conventional
telephone systems with respect to such aspects as speech quality, grade of service
(GOS). connection dela\ and speech delay. In addition, since radio waves are
used, careful consideration must he given to protection of confidentiality and
terminal authentication.
(2) Short construction period
(3) Low cost : The overall cost must be low. including equipment, construction and
costs.
(4) Absence of interference with other wireless systems : A WLL system must
not cause any interference with the operation of existing systems, such as
microwave communications and broadcasting systems.
(5) High traffic volume : One characteristic of a WLL system is that it must support
a larger traffic volume per subscriber than mobile communications systems.
Question 2. ______________________________________________________
(a) Give the overview of IS-95 Air Interface. Brief about IS-95 forward link and IS-
95 reverse link.
(b) Explain GERAN.
Solution:
(a) The IS-95 air interface was very different to anything that had been previously used
as a result ol the fact that CDMA was used. The IS 95 forward link and the IS-95
reverse link are different in their construction in view of the fact that there are different
requirements for each. The 1S-95 air interface is based around the use of CDMA
within a 1.25 MHz channel. Using this, the system can use the same channel for a
large number of signals, each one allocated a different code to access the system.
The Forward IS 95 Channel consists of several code channels:
• the Pilot Channel,
The Pilot tone is always transmitted by the base station on each active Forward
CDMA Channel. It is an unmodulated spread spectrum signal (i.e., it does not contain
spreading by the short Walsh Hadamerd code). The pilot tone is a PN-sequence.
which is used for synchronization.
• a Sync Channel, operating at a fixed rate of 1200 bit/s
• up to seven Paging Channels, (at a fixed rate of 9600 or 4800 bit/s.) and
• a number of Forward Traffic Channels (at 9600. 4800. 2400. and 1200 bit/s).
Reverse linkof IS-95 :
• 824 to 849 MHz (each channel is 45 MHz away from the forward counterpart)
• Access channel
BHAVYA BOOKS: Wireless Communication 11

– 4800 bps
– Initiate communication
– Respond to paging channel message
• Reverse voice traffic channel
– 9600, 4800, 2400, 1200 bps
• Very similar to forward link, but there are important differences.
(b) GERAN (GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network)
The GERAN or GSM EDGE radio access network architecture is similar to the one
used in GPRS. The architecture consists of GSMs base station system (BSS) and its
interfaces. The MSs are in contact with the GERAN via the Um-interface. BSS
communicates with MSCs (GSM entity) via A interface and with SGSN (GPRS entity)
via Gb interface. It also provides connection to UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access
Network (UTRAN) developed in context of the standardization activities of the 3rd
Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) for the Universal Mobile Telecommunication
System (UMTS). Thus, GERAN can use Gb, A, and Iu interfaces to contact the GSM
and UMTS trunk networks, as shown in Figure 1.

Question 3. ______________________________________________________
(a) Compare GEO, MEO and LEO.
(b) What is meant by tunneling? Explain how tunneling works for mobile IP using
IP-in-IP.
Solution: (a)
Parameter LEO MEO GEO
Satellite Height 500-1500 km 5000-12000 km 35800 km
Orbital Period 10-40 minutes 2-8 hours 24 hours
Number of Satellites 40-80 8-20 3
Satellite Life Short Long Long
Number of Handoffs High Low Least (None)
Gateway Cost Very Expensive Expensive Cheap
Propagation Loss Least High Highest
Delay (ms) Low (15) Medium (70) High (280)
12 BHAVYA BOOKS: Wireless Communication

Link Diversity Possible Possible Limited


Satellite Power Low Medium High
Satellite Mass Low Medium High
Doppler High Medium Very Low

(b) Tunneling and Encapsulation : A tunnel establishes a virtual pipe for data packets
between a tunnel entry and a tunnel end point. Packets entering a tunnel are forwarded
inside the tunnel and leave the tunnel unchanged tunneling i.e. sending a packet
through a tunnel, is achieved by using encapsulation. Encapsulation is the mechanism
of taking a packet consisting of packet header and data and putting it into the data
part of a new packet. The reverse operation, taking a packet out of the data part of
another packet, is called decapsulation.

Encapsulation and decapsulation are the operations typically performed when a packet
is transferred from a Higher protocol layer to a lower layer or from a lower to high
level respectively and describe exactly what the HA at the tunnel entry does. The
HA takes the original packet with the MN as destination, puts it into the data part of
a new packet and sets the new IP header in such a way that the packet is routed to the
CoA. The new header is also called the outer header for obvious reasons.
Additionally, there is an inner header which can be identical to the original header as
this is the case for IP-in-IP encapsulation.
Mobile IP is an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Standard Communications
protocol that is designed to allow mobile device users to move from one network to
another while maintaining their permanent IP address.
Mobile IP provides an efficient, scalable mechanism for node mobility when, the
Internet, using Mobile IP, nodes may change their, point of attachment to the internet
without changing their IP address.
Thus allows them to maintain transport and longer layer connections while moving.
Node mobility is realized without the need to propagate host specific routes throughout
the routing fabric.
Question 4. ______________________________________________________
(a) Write a short note on GPRS. What services are offered ?
(b) Give a comparison of primary 802.11x standards.
Solution:
(a) GPRS : General packet radio service (GPRS) is a packet oriented mobile data service
on the 2G and 3G cellular communication system's global system for mobile
BHAVYA BOOKS: Wireless Communication 13

communications (GSM). GPRS usage is typically charged based on volume of data


transferred, contrasting with circuit switched data, which is usually billed per minute
of connection time. Usage above the bundle cap is either charged per megabyte or
disallowed.
GPRS is a best-effort service, implying variable throughput and latency that depend
on the number of other users sharing the service concurrently, as opposed to circuit
switching, where a certain quality of service (QoS) is guaranteed during the connection.
In 2G systems, GPRS provides data rates of 56-114 kbit/second. 2G cellular technology
combined with GPRS is sometimes described as2.5G, that is, a technology between
the second (2G) and third (3G) generations of mobile telephony.
It provides moderate speed data transfer, by using unused time division multiple access
(TDMA) channels in, for example, the GSM system. GPRS is integrated into GSM.
Services offered : GPRS extends the GSM Packet circuit switched data capabilities
and makes the following services possible :
• SMS messaging and broadcasting
• “Always on” internet access
• Multimedia messaging service (MMS)
• Push to talk over cellular (PoC)
• Instant messaging and presence-wireless village
• Internet applications for smart devices through wireless application
protocol (WAP)
• Point-to-point (P2P) service : inter-networking with the Internet (IP)
• Point-to-Multipoint (P2M) service : point-to-multipoint multicast and point-
to-multipoint group calls.
If SMS over GPRS is used, an SMS transmission speed of about 30 SMS messages
per minute may be achieved. This is much faster than using the ordinary SMS over
GSM, whose SMS transmission speed is about 6 to 10 SMS messages per minute.
(b)
Release Standard Band Bandwidth Modulation Advanced Maximum
date (GHz) (MHz) antenna data rate
technologies
1997 802.11 2.4 20 DSSS,FHSS N/A 2 Mbits/s
1999 802.11b 2.4 20 DSSS N/A 11 Mbits/s
1999 802.11a 5 20 OFDM N/A 54 Mbits/s
2003 802.11g 2.4 20 DSSS, OFDM N/A 54 Mbits/s
2009 802.11 o 24.5 20.40 OFDM MMO, up to 600 Mbit/s
four spatial
streams

❒❒❒
END TERM EXAMINATION
[B.Tech.]
Wireless Communication (ETEC 405)
Time : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 75
Note:

Question 1. _______________________________________________________
(a) Explain the term mobility.
(b) Diagramcally explain cell splitting and explain how it increases system capacity.
(c) Discuss about the multiple access techniques used in 2nd generation mobile systems.
(d) What are the five IMT 2000 technologies ?
Solution:
(a) Mobility simply means ability to move. Three types of mobility have to be considered
in wireless communication systems: terminal mobility, personal mobility, and service
mobility (also called service portability).
(i) Terminal Mobility: From the user's viewpoint, it is the ability of a mobile and
wireless terminal to access communication services from different locations
while in motion. From the service Provider's viewpoint, it is the ability of the
network to identify, locate, and track the mobile terminals.
(ii) Personal Mobility: Personal mobility also has two layers of meaning. From
the user's viewpoint, it is the ability of a user to access communication services
based on a personal identification code on any terminal irrespective of wireless
or wireline connection. From the service-provider's viewpoint, it is the ability
of the network to locate the terminal associated with the user and provide those
services according to the user's service profile.
Once the terminal associated with one user is located, the network needs to do
addressing, routing, and charging about the user's calls.
(iii) Service Mobility: It can be seen as a combination of terminal mobility and
personal mobility, is related to service profile.
(b) Cell Splitting : Cell splitting is the process of subdividing a congested cell into
smaller cells, each with its own base station and a corresponding reduction in antenna
height and transmitter power. Cell splitting increases the capacity of a cellular system
since it increases the number of times that channels are reused. By defining new
cells which have a smaller radius than the original cells and by installing these smaller
cells (called microcells) between the existing cells, capacity increases due to the
additional number of channels per unit area. The consequence of the cell splitting is
that the frequency assignment has to be done again, which affects the neighboring
cells. It also increases the handoff rate because the cells are now smaller and a mobile
is likely to cross cell boundaries more often compared with the case when the cells
are big. Because of altered signaling conditions, this also affects the traffic in control
channels. A typical example of cell splitting is shown in Figure. Here, it is assumed
that the cell cluster is congested and as a result, the call blocking probability has
risen above an acceptable level. Imagine if every cell in the cluster was reduced in
14
BHAVYA BOOKS: Wireless Communication 15

such a way that the radius, R of every cell was cut in half, (R/2). In order to cover the
entire service area with smaller cells, approximately four times as many cells would
be required. The increased number of cells would increase the number of clusters
over the coverage region, which in turn would increase the number of channels, and
thus capacity, in the coverage area. In the example shown in Figure, the smaller cells
were added in such a way as to preserve the frequency reuse plan of the system. In
this case, the radius of each new microcell is half that of the original cell.

(c) Cellular systems divide a geographic region into cells here a mobile unit in each cell
communicates with a base station. The goal in the design of cellular systems is to be
able to handle as many calls as possible (this is called capacity in cellular terminology)
in a given bandwidth with some reliability. There are several different ways to allow
access to the channel. These include the following:
• frequency division multiple-access (FDMA)
• time division multiple-access (TDMA)
• Space division multiple-access (TDMA)
• code division multiple-access (CDMA)
– frequency-hop CDMA
– direct-sequence CDMA
FDMA was the initial multiple-access technique for cellular systems. In this technique
a user is assigned a pair of frequencies when placing or receiving a call. One frequency
is used for downlink (base station to mobile) and one pair for uplink (mobile to
base). This is called frequency division duplexing. That frequency pair is not used in
the same cell or adjacent cells during the call. Even though the user may not be
talking, the spectrum cannot be reassigned as long as call is in place. Two second
generation cellular systems. (IS-54, GSM) use time/frequency multiple-access
whereby the available spectrum is divided into frequency slots (e.g., 30 kHz bands)
but then each frequency slot is divided into time slots. Each user is then given a pair
of frequencies (uplink and downlink) and a time slot during a frame. Different users
can use the same frequency in the same cell except that they must transmit at different
times. This technique is also being used in third generation wireless systems (e.g.,
EDGE).
(d)
16 BHAVYA BOOKS: Wireless Communication

The rapid increase of demand for data services, primarily IP have been a key driver
for the evolution of wireless technologies. The third generation is the enabler of
high-speed data wireless mobility, and it is defined in ITU lMT-2000 including
specifications for high quality, global roaming, multimedia applications, flexibility for
evolution, and high-speed data.
• IMT-DS (Direct Spread) : This technology comprises wideband CDMA
(WCDMA) systems and used by all European providers and some Japanese
providers for 3G wide area services.
• IMT-MC (Multi-Carrier) : This included multi-carrier technology, the cdma2000,
standardized by 3GPP2 (Third generation partnership project 2, 3GPP2, 2002).
• IMT-TDD (or TC, Time Code) : This technology contained only the UTRA-
TDD system which uses time-division CDMA (TD-CDMA). After a while, the
Chinese proposal, TD-synchronous CDMA (TD-SCDMA) was added.
• IMT-SC (Single Carrier) : This included the single carrier technology, UWC-
136, which is the enhancement of the US TDMA systems.
• IMT-FT (Frequency Time) : It included an enhanced version of the cordless
telephone standard DECT.
Question 2. _______________________________________________________
(a) Give a comparative analysis of 1G and 2G systems.
(b) Explain various types of handoffs or handovers ?
Solution:
(a) First Generation :
• First-generation cellular networks were introduced in the 1980s are primarily intended
lor voice.
• These networks are very slow less than 1 kilobits per sec (kbps).
• The key idea of 1G cellular networks is that the geographical area is divided into
cells, each served by a base station. Cells are so small that frequency reuse is possible
in the near by cells.
• They are primarily based on analog communications.
• Each phone has 32 bit serial number and 10 digit phone number in its PROM.
BHAVYA BOOKS: Wireless Communication 17

Security Issues with 1G :


• Analog cellular phones are insecure.
• Anyone with an all-hand radio receiver can listen in to the conversation. There are
also theft of airtime.
• A thief uses an all-hand radio receiver that is connected to a computer. This computer
can record the 32-bit serial numhers and phone numbers of subscribers when calling.
• The thieves can collect a large database by driving around and then can go into
business reprogramming stolen phones and reselling them.
Second Generation :
• Second generation cellular network introduced in 1980s, are based on digital
transmission.
• Primarily intended for voice they also support fax and email services at low bit-rate (8
to 9 kbps).
• The higher 2G systems use GSM (Global System For Mobile Communication) and
low-tier system is intended for lo\v-cost, low-power, low-mobility.
• Digital transmission offer several benefits over analog:
(i) Voice, data such as email and fax can be integrated into a single system.
(ii) Better compression can lead to a better channel utilization.
(iii) Error correction code can be used for better quality,
(iv) Sophisticated encryption can be used.
Differences Between First and Second Generation Systems :
• Digital traffic channels : First generation systems are almost purely analog: second-
generation systems are digital.
• Encryption : All second generation systems provide encryption to prevent
eavesdropping.
• Error detection and correction : Second generation digital traffic allows for detection
and correction, giving clear voice reception.
• Channel access : Second-generation systems allow channels to be dynamically
shared by a number of users.
(b) Handover cases : The measurement reports from the BTS and MS. together with
system parameters set by the operator, are used in the preparation algorithm in the
BSC. The outcome could be a handover if this is judged necessary. We will look at
three handover cases. The ditlerence between them is due to where the cells are
located in the network structure, and thus how many nodes will be involved in the
handover. One thing in common for all three cases is that the BSC that makes the
handover decision will order and control the handover procedure from start to finish.
The BSC will identify every specific handover by a handover reference number (HO
ref. no.). This number will be used to ensure that the MS will net the right channel
and call to continue.
Intra-BSC Handover : In this case the handover is controlled by the BSC' internally
and the MSC will only be informed for statistical reasons.
If a better candidate for the connection is identified, based on the measurements
carried out by the MS and BTS. the following will happen:
1. Activation of new channel BSC allocates a TCH in the new cell and orders that
BTS to activate it. The chosen HO ref. no. will be part of the activation message.
The BTS in the new cell will acknowledge that the TCH has been activated.
18 BHAVYA BOOKS: Wireless Communication

Intra-BSC handover
2. Handover command - After the activation the BSC comments the MS to change
to the new channel. The message is sent on FACCH and will contain a full
description of the new channel and the HO ref. no.
3. Handover bursts - The MS will tune in to the new channel and send handover
burst on the new channel. The information content is the HO ref. no.
4. Handover complete - Now the MS is ready to continue the traffic and will send
a handover complete message addressed to the BSC.
5. Release of old channel - When the BSC receives the handover complete from
the MS. The BSC will know that the handover was successful. The BSC orders
the old BTS to release the TCH and the BTs will acknowledge.
Intra-BSC Handover : In this case BSC 1, (old BSC) does not control the better
cell which is the target for the handover. This means that the MSC will be part of the
link procedure between BSCI and BSC2 (new BSC).

Inter-BSC handover
BHAVYA BOOKS: Wireless Communication 19

Inter-MSC handover
1. (a) Handover request - BSC1 will use the MSC to send a handover requirest to
BSC2. The MSC will know which BSC controls that coil.
(b) Activation of new channel - BSC2 will allocate a TCh in the targer cell and then
order then BTS to activate it. The chosen HO ref. no. will be part of the activation
message. The BTS will knowledge that the activation has been made.
2. Handover command - After the activation the new BSC commands the MS to change
to the new channel. The message is sent on FACCH via the old channel and will
contain a full description of the new channel and the HO ref. no.
3. Handover bursts - When the MS has changed to the new channel, it will send handover
burst on the new channel. The information content, it will send handover bursts on
the new channel. The information content is the HO ref. no. The bursts are as short
as the access bursts. This is because the MS does not know the new Timing Advance
(TA) value yet. On teh detection of the handover bursts, and check of HO ref. no.,
the new BTS will send the new TA.
4. Handover complete - Now the MS is ready to continue the the traffic and will send
a handover complete message, which will be addressed to the old BSC as a clear
command.
5. Release of old channel - When the old BSC receives the clear command from the
MSC. the BSC knows that the handover was successful. The BSC orders the BTS to
release the TCH and the BTS will acknowledge.
Inter- MSC Handout : In this case the old BSC is connected to a different MSC
than the BSC that controls the target cell. This means that a new MSC w ill he part of
the procedure. The old MSC will he called anchor-MSC and the new MSC will be
called the target MSC
1. a. Handover request - The old BSC will use the anchor-MSC to send a request to the
new BSC for a handover to the target cell. The anchor-MSC knows which MSC to
contact, and the target-MSC in turn knows which BSC that controls the target cell.
20 BHAVYA BOOKS: Wireless Communication

b. Activation of new channel - The new BSC allocates a TCH in the target cell and
order the BTS to activate it. The chosen HO rel. no. will be part of the activation
message. The BTS will acknowledge that the activation ha.s been made.
2. Handover command - After the activation the new BSC commands the MS to change
to the new channel. The message is sent on FACCH via the old channel and will
contain a full description of the new channel and the HO ref. no. In order to reroute
the call, the target-MSC will also send a handover number, similar to the MSRN. to
the anchor-MSC.
3. Handover bursts - When the MS has changed to the new channel, it will send handover
bursts on the new channel. The information content is the HO ref. no. The bursts are
as short as the access bursts as the MS does not know the new Timing Advance (TA)
value yet. On the given a cellular system with a total bandwidth of 30 MHz which
use to 25 kHz simplex channel to provide full duplex voice and control channels.
Assuming that the system uses a nine-cell reuse pattern and 1 MHz of the total
bandwidth is allocated for control channels.
(i) Calculate the total available channels.
(ii) Determine the number of control channels.
(iii) Determine the number of the voice channel per cell.
(iv) Determine an equitable distribution of control and voice channel in each cell.
Solution : Given that
Total bandwidth = 30 MHz
Channel bandwidth = 25 kHz × 2 = 50 kHz/duplex channel
30000
(i) Total number of available channels = = 600.
50
1000
(ii) The number of control channels = = 20.
50
1000
(iii) The number of the voice channel per cell = = 20.
50
(iv) Since. only a maximum of 20 channel can be used as control channel for N = 9,
one way to allocate is 7 cells with two control channels and 64 voice channels
each, and 2 cells with 3 control channels and 66 voice channels each.
Question 3. ______________________________________________________
(a) Discuss in details the features of FDMA and TDMA based systems.
(b) Define the terms fade rate, average fade duration, dpth of fading.
Solution:
(a) Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) : We have seen that FDM A assigns
individuals channel to individual users. These channels are assigned on demand to
users who request service. When user using the specified channel to him. no other
user cannot share that channel as shown in figure.
The features of FDMA aie as follows
1. The FDMA channel carries only one phone circuit at a time.
2. If an FDMA channel is not in use. mean due to any technical reason it is not
given to the user, then it canot he used by other users to increase or share capacity.
It is essentially a wasted resources.
BHAVYA BOOKS: Wireless Communication 21

3. After the assignment of a voice channel, the base station and the mobile transmit
simultaneously and continuously.
4. The complexity of FDMA system is lower, when it is compared to a TDM A
systems
5. Since FDMA is a continuous transmission scheme, fewer bits are needed for
overhead purposes (Such as synchronization and framing bits) as compared to
TDMA.
6. The bandwidth of FDMA channels are relatively narrow (30 kHz in AMPS I as
each channel supports only one circuit per carrier so FDMA is generally
implemented in anrrow-band system.
7. The symbol tim of a narrow-band is large as compared to the average delay
spread. This implies that the amount of intersymbol interference is low and thus,
little or no equalization is required in FDMA narrow-band systems
8. FDMA requires very good RF filtering to minimize adjacent channel interference.
9. FDMA mobile unit uses duplexers since both the transmitter and receiver operate
at the same lime. This results in an increase in the cost of FDMA subscriber unit
and bass stations.

FDMA where different channels are as signed different frequency bands


Time Division Multiple Access : Time division multiple access (TDMA) system divide
the radio spectrum into time slots. And in eachslot only one user is allowed to either transmit
or recieve. Each user get cyclically one time slot, so a channel may be thought of as a
particular time slot that reoccurs every frame, where N time slots comprise a frame.
Features of TDMA
• TDM A shares a single currier frequency with several users, where each user makes
use of non-overlapping time slots. The number of times slots per frame depends on
several factors, such as modulation tehnique available bandwidth, etc
• Data transmission tor users of a TDMA system is not continuous but occurs in burst.
Thisresults in low batten consumption, since the subscriber transmitter can be turned
off when not in use (which is most of the time).
• Becuase of discontinuous transmissions in TDM A. the handdoff process is much
simpler for a subscriber unit, since it is able to listen for other base stations during
idle time slots. An enhanced link control, such as that provided by mobile assisted
handoff (MAHO) can be carried out by a subscriber by listening on an idel slot in the
TDMA frame.
22 BHAVYA BOOKS: Wireless Communication

• TDMA uses different time slots tor transmission and reception, thus duplexers are
not required. Even if FDD is used, a switch rathre than a duplexer inside the subscriber
unit is all that is required to switch between transmitter and receiver using TDMA.
(b) Fade rate is defined as the number of times that the received signal enevelope crosses
the threshold vaue in a positive-going direction per unit time.
Average fade duration is defined as the average period of time for which the received
signal is below a specified received signal level.
Depth of fading is defined as the ratio between the mean square value and the
minimum value of the fading signal.
Consider a base-station transmitter operating at 900 MHz carrier frequency. For a
mobile moving at a speed of 72 km/h, calculate the received carrier frequency if the
mobile is moving
(a) directly away from the base-station transmitter
(b) directly towards the base-station transmitter
(c) in a direction which is 60 degrees to the direction of arrival of the transmitted
signal
(d) in a direction perpendicular to the direction of arrival of the transmitted signal
(c) Carrier frequency of base station transmitter
fc = 900 MHz (given)
Speed of the mobile, Vm = 72 km/h (given)
Or, Vm = (72 × 103)/3600 = 20 m/s
(a) To calculate received carrier frequency when the mobile is moving directly away
from the base-station transmitter
Step 1. In the given case, θ = 180º, cosθ = 180º = –1
So the Doppler shift is negative.
Step 2. Doppler frequency, or Doppler shift is given by
fd = (1/λc) Vm where λc = (c/fc)
or fd = (fc/c) Vm = (900 × 106 Hz/3 × 108 m/s) × 20 m/s
or, fd = 60 Hz
BHAVYA BOOKS: Wireless Communication 23

Step 3. The received carrier frequency at the mobile = fc – fd


= 900 × 106 Hz – 60 Hz
= 899.99994 MHz
(b) To calculate the received carrier frequency when the mobile is moving directly
towards the base station transmitter.
Step 4. In this case, θ = 0º, cos θ = +1.
So the Doppler shift is positive.
Step 5. Doppler frequency or Doppler shift is given by
fd = (fc/c) Vm = (900 × 106 Hz/3 × 108 m/s) × 20 m/s
or, fd = 60 Hz
Step 6. The recieved carrier frequency at the mobile = fc + fd
= 90 × 106 Hz + 60 Hz
= 900.00006 MHz.
(c) To calculate received carrier frequency when the mobile is moving in a direction
which is 60 degrees to the direction of arrival of the transmitted signal
Step 7. In this case, θ = 60º, cosθ = cos 60º = 0.5.
So the Doppler shift is positive.
Step 8. Doppler frequency or Doppler shift is given by
fd = (fc/c) Vm cos 60º
= (900 × 106/3 × 108) × 20 × 0.5
= 30 Hz
Step 9. Hence, the received carrier frequency at the mobile = fc + fd
= 900 × 106 Hz + 30 Hz
= 900.00003 MHz.
(d) To calculate received carrier frequency when the mobile is moving in a direction
perpendicular to the direction of arrival of the transmitted signal
Step 10. In this case, θ = 90º, cos θ = cos 90º = 0.
So there is no Doppler shift.
Step 11. The received signal frequency is the same as the transmitted frequency.
Hence, the received carrier frequency = 900 MHz
Question 3. ______________________________________________________
(a) Draw the architecture model of GSM and explain the functionality of each entity.
(b) Explain SS7 signaling protocol stack.
Solution:
(a) A GSM network consists of several functional entities, whose functions and interfaces
are defined. The GSM network can be divided into following broad parts.
• The Mobile Station (MS)
• The Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
• The Network Switching Subsystem (NSS)
• The Operation Support Subsystem (OSS)
24 BHAVYA BOOKS: Wireless Communication

Mobile station : Mobile stations (MS), mobile equipment (MH) or as they are most
widely known, cell or mobile phones arc the section of a GSM cellular network that
the user sees and operates. In recent years their size has fallen dramatically while the
level of functionality has greatly increased. A further advantage is that the time
between charges has significantly increased.
There are a number of elements to the cell phone, although the two main elements
are the main hardware and the SIM.
The hardware itself contains the main elements of the mobile phone including the
display, case, hatters, and the electronics used to generate the signal, and process the
data receiver and to be transmitted. It also contains a number known as the
International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). This is installed in the phone at
manufacture and “cannot” be changed. It is accessed by the network during registration
to check whether the equipment has been reported as stolen.
Base Station Subsystem : GSM is a cellular network, which means that cell phones
connect to it by searching for cells in the immediate vicinity. There are five different
cell sizes in a GSM network — macro, micro, pico. femto. and umbrella cells. The
coverage area of each cell varies according to the implementation environment. Macro
cells can be regarded as cells where the base station antenna is installed on a mast or
a building above average rooftop level. Micro cells are cells whose antenna height is
under average rooftop level: they are typically used in urban areas. Picocells are
small cells whose coverage diameter is a few dozen metres: they are mainly used
indoors. Femtocells are cells designed for use in residential or small business
environments and connect to the service provider's network via a broadband internet
connection. Umbrella cells are used to cover shadowed regions of smaller cells and
fill in gaps in coverage between those cells.
Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) : The GSM system architecture contains a
variety of different elements, and is often termed the core network. It provides the
main control and interfacing for the whole mobile network. The major elements
within the core network include:
BHAVYA BOOKS: Wireless Communication 25

• Mobile Switching services Centre (MSC) : The main element within the core
network area of the overall GSM network architecture is the Mobile switching
Services Centre (MSC). The MSC acts like a normal switching node within a
PSTN or ISDN, but also provides additional functionality to enable the
requirements of a mobile user to be supported. These include registration,
authentication, call location. inter-MSC handovers and call routing to a mobile
subscriber. It also provides an interface to the PSTN so that calls can be routed
from the mobile network to a phone connected to a landline. Interfaces to other
MSCs are provided to enable calls to be made to mobiles on different networks.
• Home Location Register (HLR) : This database contains all the
administrative information about each subscriber along with their last known
location. In this way. the GSM network is able to route calls to the relevant base
station lor the MS. When a user switches on their phone, the phone registers
with the network and from this it is possible to determine which BTS it
communicates with so that incoming calls can be routed appropriately. Even
when the phone is not active (but switched on) it reregisters periodically to
ensure that the network (HLR) is aware of its latest position. There is one HLR
per network. although it may be distributed across various sub-centres to tor
operational reasons.
• Visitor Location Register (VLR) : This contains selected information from
the HLR that enables the selected services for the individual subscriber to be
provided. The VLR can be implemented as a separate entity. but it is commonly
realised as an integral part of the MSC. rather than a separate entity. In this way
access is made faster and more convenient.
• Equipment Identity Register (EIR) : The EIR is the entity that decides whether
a given mobile equipment may be allowed onto the network. Kach mobile
equipment has a number known as the International Mobile Equipment Identity.
This number, as mentioned above, is installed in the equipment and is checked
by the network during registration. Dependent upon the information held in the
EIR. the mobile may be allocated one of three states allowed onto the network,
barred access, or monitored in case its problems.
• Authentication Centre (AuC) : The AuC is a protected database that contains
the secret key also contained in the user's SIM card. It is used for authentication
and for ciphering on the radio channel.
• Gateway Mobile Switching Centre (GMSC) : The GMSC is the point to which
a ME terminating call is initially routed, without any knowledge of the MS's
location. The GMSC is thus in charge of obtaining the MSRN (Mobile Station
Roaming Number) from the HLR based on the MSISDN (Mobile Station ISDN
number, the "directory number" of a MS) and routing the call to the correct
visited MSC. The "MSC" part of the term GMSC is misleading, since the gateway
operation does not require any linking to an MSC.
• SMS Gateway (SMS-G) : The SMS-C. or SMS gateway is the term that is
used to collectively describe the two Short Message Services Gateways defined
in the GSM standards. The two gateways handle messages directed in different
directions. The SMS-GMSC (Short Message Service Gateway Mobile Switching
Centre) is for short messages being sent to an ME. The SMS-IWMSC (Short
Message Service Inter-Working Mobile Switching Centre) is used for short
26 BHAVYA BOOKS: Wireless Communication

messages originated with a mobile on that network. The SMS-GMSC role is


similar to that of the GMSC. whereas the SMS-IWMSC provides a fixed access
point to the Short Message Service Centre.
Operation and Support Subsystem (OSS) : The OSS or operation support
subsystem is an element within the overall GSM network architecture that is connected
to components of the NSS and the RSC. It is used to control and monitor the overall
GSM network and it is also used to control the traffic load of the HSS. It must be
noted that as the number of BS increases with the scaling of the subscriber population
some of the maintenance tasks are transferred to the BTS. allowing savings in the
cost of ownership of the system.
(b) The SS7 protocol stack (corresponding to OSI layers) is hsoen in Figure.

• The Message Transfer Part or simply MTP consists of three levels corresponding
to the three lower layers of OSI model; physical layer, data link layer, and network
layer. The MTP level 1 defines the physical, electrical, and functional characteristics
of the signaling links. The MTP level 2 provides reliable transfer of signaling messages
between two signaling points. The MTP level 3 provides the functions and procedures
related to message routing and network management.
• The Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP) provides additional functions such
as global title translation (GTT) to the MTP whihc is used for transferring of signaling
information such PCS registration and cancelation.
• The Transaction Capabilities Application Part (TCAP) enables the exchange of
information between applications using non-circuit-related signaling.
• The Integrated Services Digital Network User Part (ISUP) enables establishment
of circuit-switched network connections (e.g., for call setup).
• The Operations, Maintenance, and Administration Part (OMAP) is an application
of TCAP.
BHAVYA BOOKS: Wireless Communication 27

Question 5. _______________________________________________________
(a) Explain RAKE receivers
(b) Explain call setup and delivry process in roaming management.
(c) Compre 3G and 4G systems.
Solution:
(a) Unlike FDMA and TDMA systems which can only employ time and frequency
diversity for mitigating the effects of fading, CDMA system can employ space or
path diversity also which significantly adds to its advantage. In space diversity,
multiple parallel correlators for the PN waveforms are used at the receivers in the
mobile and the cell sites. These receivers are known as Rake receivers.
A RAKE receiver collect the times shifted versions of the original signal by providing
a separate correlation receiver for each of the multipath signals.
There are four ‘RAKE’ receivers with in each base transceiver and three ‘RAKE’
receivers with in each mobile phone. These are so called because they resemble a
lawn RAKE receiver.
The main function of RAKE receiver at both ends (mobile and base station) is to
aggreagatethe mobile call.
The direct signal at the Rake receiver to form the composite signals that is used to
process the mobile call.
The multipath singals are additives to the direct signal to obtain the cleanest, strongest
signal possible. Therefore we can conclude that the signal to noise ratio (SNR) gets
improves by using RAKE receiver.
A RAKE revceiver circuitry is shown in with correlator 1 to correlator M and integrator.

(b) Whenever someone initiates a call to the roaming mobile phone, always the request
is first received by its home MSC. The steps which are followed are as follows:
• If someone attempts to call a mobile subscriber, then the call is intercepted by
the home MSC which queries the HLR for the current location of the MS.
• If the called subscriber is roaming, the HLR uses the visiting network
identification and queries the VLR in which the MS reside.
28 BHAVYA BOOKS: Wireless Communication

• The VLR returns the routable address to the HLR which informs the home MSC.
• Finally, the connection is setup from the home MSC to the visiting MSC and the
call setup is completed.
The call delivery process when the MS is outside the coverage of the home MSC
(roaming) is shown in Figure.

(c)

Attributes 3G 4G
Major Characteristic Predominantly voice-data Converged data and
as add-on Voll
Network Architecture Wide area cell based Hybrid integration of
Wireless Lan (WiFi) Blue
Tooth Wide Area
Frequency Band 16-25 GHz 2-8 GHz
Component Design Optimized antenna Smart antennas. SW
multiband adapters multi-band wideand radios
Bandwidth 5-20 MHz 100 + MHz
Data Rate 385 kbps-2 Mbps 100 Mbps- 1 Gbps
Access WCDMA/CDMA 2000 MC-CDMA or OFDM
Forward Error Correction Convolution code 1/2, 1/3, Concatenated Coding
Correction turbo
Switching Circuit Packet Packet
Mobile top Speed 200 kmph 200 kmph
IP Multiple versions AB IP (IPV6)
Operational 2003 2010
BHAVYA BOOKS: Wireless Communication 29

Question 6. _______________________________________________________
(a) Describe IMT 2000 vision.
(b) Draw GPRS architecture and explain the GPRS support nodes.
Solution:
(a) IMT-2000 was developed with a vision to provide capabilities which represent
significant improvements over the current mobile systems, especially enabling global
mobility for the users and support of services like high speed data, multimedia, and
Internet. Also, it was developed to be a family of systems rather than a single network.
Additionally, IMT-2000 service environments will include the complete range of
mobile and personal communication applications.

Key aspects of IMT 2000 vision are :


• Common spectrum worldwide (1.8-2.2 GHz band)
• Multiple radio environments (cellular, cordless, satellite, LANs)
• Wide range of telecommunications services (voice, data, multimedia, internet)
• Flexible radio bearers for increased spectrum efficiency
• Data rates up to 2 Mb/s (phase 1)-for indoor environments
• Maximum use of IN capabilities (for service provision and transport)
• Global seamless roaming
• Enhanced security and performance
• Integration of satellite and terrestrial systems.
(b) GPRS System Architecture : GPRS into the existing GSM architecture, a new
class of network nodes, called GPRS support nodes (GSN), has been introduced.
GSNs are responsible for the delivery and routing of data packets between the mobile
stations and the external packet data networks (PDN), Figure illustrates the system
architecture.
30 BHAVYA BOOKS: Wireless Communication

A serving GPRS support node SGSN is responsible for the delivery of data packets
from and to the mobile stations within its service area. Its tasks include packet routing
and transfer, mobility management (attach/detach and location management), logical
link management, and authentication and charging functions. The location register
of the SGSN stores location information (e.g., current cell, current VLR) and user
profiles (e.g., IMSI, address (es) used in the packet data network) of all GPRS users
registered with this SGSN.
A gateway GPRS support node (GGSN) acts as an interface between the GPRS
backbone network and the external packet data networks. It converts the GPRS
packets coming from the SGSN into the appropriate packet data protocol (PDP)
format (e.g., IP or X.25) and sends them out on the corresponding packet data network.
In the other direction, PDP addresses of incoming data packets are converted to the
GSM address of the destination user. The readdressed packets are sent to the
responsible SGSN. For this purpose, the GGSN stores the current SGSN address of
the user and his functions.
In general, there is a many-to-many relationship between the SGSNs and the SGSNs
and the GGSNs : A GGSN is the interface to external packet data networks for
several SGSNs; an SGSN may route its packets over different GGSNs to reach
different packet data network as defined by ETSI. The Gb interfaces, connects the
BSC with the SGSN. Via the Gn and the Gp interfaces, user data and signaling data
are transmitted between the GSNs. The Gn interface will be used if they are indifferent
PLMNs. All GSNs are connected via an IP-based GPRS backbone network. Within
this backbone, the GSNs encapsulate the PDN packets and transmit (tunnel) them
using the GPRS Tunneling protocol GTP.
BHAVYA BOOKS: Wireless Communication 31

Question 7. ______________________________________________________
(a) Explain in detail about IEEE 802.11 standrad and protocols for WLAN.
(b) Explain WLL.
(c) Compare IPv4 and IPv6.
Solution:
(a) IEEE 802.11: IEEE has defined the specifications for a wireless LAN, called IEEE
802.11, which covers the physical and data link layers.
Architecture : The standards defines two kinds of services; the Basic Service Set
(BSS) and the Extended Service Set (ESS).
Basic Service Set (BSS) : IEEE 802.11 defines the bask service set (BSS) as the
building block of a wireless LAN. A basic service set is made of stationary or mobile
wireless stations and an optional central base station known as the access point (AP).
Fig. shows two sets in this standard. The BSS without an AP is a standalone network
and cannot send data to other BSSs. It is called an adhoc architecture. In this
architecture stations can form a network without need of an AP; they can locate one
another and agree to be part of a BSS. A BSS with an AP is sometimes referred to as
an infrastructure network.

Basic service set (BSSs)


Extended Service Sets : An extended service set (ESS) is made up Of two or more
BSSs with APs. In this case, the BSSs are connected thought a distribution system,
which is usually a wired LAN. The distribution system connects the APs in the
BSSs. IEEE 802.11 does not restrict the distribution system, it can be any IEEE
LAN such as an Ethernet. Note that the extended service set uses two types of stations.
Mobile and stationary. The Mobile Stations are normal stations inside a BSS. The
stationary stations are AP stations that are part of wired LAN. Figure shows an ESS.
When BSSs are connected, the stations within reach of one another can communicate
without use of an AP. However, communication between two stations in two different
BSSs usually occurs via two APs. The idea is similar to communication in a cellular
network. If we consider each BSS to be a cell and each AP to be a base station. Note
that a mobile station can belong to more than one BSS at the same time.
32 BHAVYA BOOKS: Wireless Communication

Extended service sets (ESSs)


Station Types : IEEE 802.11 defines three types of stations based on their mobility in
a wireless LAN. No transition, and ESS transition mobility. A station with no transition
mobility is either stationary (not moving) or moving only inside a BSS. A station with
BSS transition mobility can move from one BSS to another; but the movement is
confined inside one ESS. A station with ESS transition mobility can move from one
ESS to another. However, IEEE 802.11 does not guarantee that communication is
continuous during the move.
(b) Wireless Local Loop : Many professionals in the telecommunications industry have
already heard the term Wireless Local Loop (WLL). So. what is the Wireless local
Loop? It is the technology that uses radio to provide the last mile of a communication
link to a customer. Figure above shows a simple use of the local loop in the
telecommunications world. The subscriber is first connected to the switch via a local
loop to a distribution point. The distribution point is then connected to the switch via
a trunked cable. Historically, copper cable used in deploying the local loop, which
accounts for nearly half of the total capital outlet for a telephone network. Multiple
copper wires were also used in creating the trunkling between the distribution point
and the switch. WLL replaces the copper cable in the local loop section with radio.
A WLL subscriber installs a receiver box in the same manner as a satellite dish,
which connects to a cable from the receiver, to sockets (outlets) in the house/building,
The WLL service provider uses a radio transmitter at the base station to transmit and
receive signals from the subscriber unit. Radio propagation, therefore, plays an
essential role in WLL systems.
BHAVYA BOOKS: Wireless Communication 33

Wireless local loop


(c) 1. An IPv6 address consists of 128 bits, while an IP v4 address consists of only 32.
2. IPv6 has a lot more usable addresses compared to IPv4.
3. IPv6 makes the router's task more simpler compared to IPv4.
4. IPv6 is better suited to mobile network than IPv4.
5. IPv6 addresses are represented in a hexadecimal, colon separated notation, while
IPv4 address use the dot-decimal notation.
6. IPv6 alloys for bigger payloads than what is allowed in IPv4.
7. IPv6 is used by less than 1% of the network, while IPv4 is still in use by the
remaining 99%.

❒❒❒
34 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

FIRS
FIRSTT TERM EXAMIN
EXAMINAATION
EIGHTH SEMESTER [B.TECH.], FEBRUARY 2015
MOBILE COMMUNIC
COMMUNICAATION (ETIT -402)
(ETIT-402)
Time: 1 hour Maximum Marks : 30
Note: Attempt Q.No. 1 which is compulsory and any two more questions from
remaining. Each question carries 10 marks.
Question 1. ______________________________________________________
(a) Define: (1.5 × 4 = 6)
(i) Pico Cell
(ii) Cluster and Cluster Size
(iii) Base Station
(iv) Co-channel interference
(b) Choose the correct answer out of four given options (1 × 4 = 4)
(i) For i = 2, j = 2, the value of co-channel reuse ratio is
(a) 4 (b) 6 (c) 7 (d) 12
(ii) For cluster size of 12, if radius of cell is 4 km, then the frequency reuse
distance, D is
(a) 4 km (b) 12 km (c) 24 km (d) 48 km
(iii) For the cluster size of 12, the value of C/I for a hexagonal shaped cell
structure is
(a) 12 (b) 24 (c) 144 (d) 216
(iv) If number of calls in an hour are 49 and one call is dropped and 48 calls
are completed, then the call drop rate is
(a) 1 (b) 48/49 (c) 1/48 (d) 1/49
Solution.
(a) (i) Picocell is a small cellular base station typically covering a small area,
such as in-building (offices, shopping malls, train stations, stock exchanges,
etc.), or more recently in-aircraft. In cellular networks, picocells are
typically used to extend coverage to indoor areas where outdoor signals
do not reach well, or to add network capacity in areas with very dense
phone usage, such as train stations or stadiums.
(ii) It is a group of cell.No channel will be reused in a cell. size N = i2 + ij + j2
(iii) Small geographic unit which supports the frequency channel.
(iv) Refer to Question 2(b) of First Term 2011.
(b) (i) I -6
(ii) 24km
(iii) 144
(iv) 1/49
Question 2. ______________________________________________________
(a) A cellular network has 5 cells and during the busy hour, the number of calls per
hour (Qi) for each cell are 1000, 500, 1200, 1800, 400. If 60% of cell phones
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 35

are used during this period and that one call is made per cell phone, find out
the number of customers in the systems. (3)
(b) On what basis the performance of the cellular system can be specified ? (4)
(c) What do you understand by frequency-reuse ? How it is helpful in capacity
expension of the cellular system ? (3)
Solution.

FG A IJ FG 1000 IJ
n 5

H n! K = H 5! K
(a) Erlang b formula =
F A I ∑ 1000
∑G J
i i

H i! K i!
Where I varies from 0 to 5.
= 500
Pl (b) Refer to Question 2(a) of First Term 2012.
check (c) Refer to Question 2(a) of First Term 2012.
Question 3. ______________________________________________________
(a) With the help of a suitable diagram, explain about the major components of a
basic cellular system. (5)
(b) Initially a radio communication service (mobile communication) is provided
to a city. The total available bandwidth is 50 MHz, and each user requires 50
kHz of bandwidth for duplex voice channel if one antenna is used to cover the
entire town, how many different users can be supported simultaneously ?
Later on a cellular topology is employed where 24 lower power antennas are
located to minimize the interference. If a cluster size of 4 cells is used, then find
out. (1 + 4 = 5)
(i) Bandwidth of a cell
(ii) Capacity of a cell
(iii) Capacity of the cluster
(iv) Overall capacity of the system.
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 1(b) of First Term 2012.
50 MHz
(b) Number of channel = = 1000
50 kHz
(i) Bandwidth of a cell = 50 kHz

(ii) Capacity of a cell = 1000 = 250


4
(iii) Capacity of cluster = 1000
(iv) Capacity of a system = 1000*4 = 4000
Question 4. ______________________________________________________
(a) Which shape of a cell in cellular system is preferred and why ? State all the
reasons. (4)
36 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

(b) If minimum requirement of S/I ratio for hexagonal structure in a TACS system
for satisfactory performance is 18 dB, then find out the minimum cluster size
for the same system. (3)
(c) If in a mobile radio environment, the average cell-site antenna height is 50 m,
the mobile antenna height is 2 m, and the communication path length is 1 km,
find out the ground incident angle, and ground elevation angle. (3)
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 1(b) of End Term 2013.
S
(b) If = 18 dB than…
I

S n
= sqrt (3N) where n = 4
I
18 dB = sqrt (3*N)4
Minimum should be N = 4

tan −1 (50 + 2 )
(c) Incident angel =
100

50
Elevation angle at ground = tan −1
2
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 37

SE
SECC OND TERM EXAMIN
EXAMINAATION
EIGHTH SEMESTER [B.TECH.], APRIL 2015
MOBILE COMMUNIC
COMMUNICAATION (ETIT -402)
(ETIT-402)
Time: 1½ hour Maximum Marks : 30
Note: Attempt Q. No. 1 which is compulsory and any two more questions from the
remaining.
Question 1. ______________________________________________________
Explain (2 × 5 = 10)
(a) Turbo codes
(b) OFDM
(c) Distinguish between dropped calls and terminated calls ?
(d) Soft handoff.
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 1(a) of Second Term 2014.
(b) Refer to Question 1(c) of Second Term 2014.
(c) Refer to Question 1(a) of Second Term 2013.
(d) A soft handover is one in which the channel in the source cell is retained and
used for a whilein parallel with the channel in the target cell. In this case the
connection to the target is established before the connection to the source is
broken, hence this handover is called make-before-break. The interval, during
which the two connections are used in parallel, may be brief or substantial. For
this reason the soft handover is perceived by network engineers as a state of the
call, rather than a brief event. Soft handovers may involve using connections to
more than two cells: connections to three, four or more cells can be maintained
by one phone at the same time. When a call is in a state of soft handover, the
signal of the best of all used channels can be used for the call at a given moment
or all the signals can be combined to produce a clearer copy of the signal.
The latter is more advantageous, and when such combining is performed both in
the downlink (forward link) and the uplink (reverse link) the handover is termed
as softer. Softer handovers are possible when the cells involved in the handovers
have a single cell site.
Question 2. ______________________________________________________
(a) What are the different digital modulation techniques? Compare QPSK and
BPSK ? (5)
(b) How omnidirectional and directional antennas are arranged in system
configuration to reduce the interference ? (5)
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 7(b) of End Term 2011.
(b) Refer to Question 2(a) of Second Term 2013.
Question 3. ______________________________________________________
(a) Explain the Handoff process ? (5)
(b) Explain mobile high gain antennas and its applications. (5)
38 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 3(a) of Second Term 2013.
(b) Refer to Question 1(e) of Second Term 2012.
Question 4. ______________________________________________________
(a) Explain the principle of “Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK)”
Modulation technique. (5)
(b) Mention differences between FDD (Frequency Division Duplexing) and TDD
(Time Division Duplexing). (5)
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 6(b) of End Term 2014.
(b) FDD: Duplexing may be done using frequency or time domain techniques.
Frequency division duplexing (FDD) provides two distinct hands of frequencies
for every user. The forward band provides traffic from the base station to the
mobile, and the reverse band provides traffic from the mobile to the base station.
In FDD, any duplex channel actually consists of two simplex channels (a forward
and reverse), and a device called a duplexer is used is used inside each subcriber
unit and base station to allow simultaneous bidirectional radio transmission
and reception for both the subscriber unit and the base station on the duplex
channel pair. The frequency separation between each forward and reverse channel
is constant throughout the system, regardless of the particular channel being
used.
TDD: Time division duplexing (TDD) uses time instead of frequency to provide
both a forward and reverse link. In TDD, multiple users share a single radio
channel by taking turns in the time domain. Individual users are allowed to
access the channel in assigned time slots, and each duplex channel has both a
forward time slot and a reverse time slot to faciliated bidirectional
communication. If the time separation between the forward and reverse time slot
is small then the transmission and reception of data appears simultaneous to the
users at both the subscriber unit and on the base station side.
On a single channel (as opposed to requiring two separate simplex or dedicated
channels) and simplifies the subcriber equipment since a duplexer is not required.
There are several tradeoffs between FDD and TDD approaches. FDD is geared
toward radio communications systems that allocate individual radio frequencies
for each user. Because each transceiver simultaneously transmits and receives
radio signals which can vary by more than 100 dB, the frequency allocation
used for the forward and reverse channels must be carefully coordinated within
its own system and with out-of-band users that occupy spectrum between these
two bands. Furthermore, the\ frequency separation must be coordinated to permit
the use of inexpensive RF and oscillator technology. TDD enables each
transceiver to operate as either a transmitter or receiver on the same frequency
and eliminates the need for separate forward and reverse frequency bands.
However, there is a time latency created by TDD due to the fact that
communication is not full duplex in the truest sense and this latency creates
inherent sensitivities to propagation delays of individual users. Because of the
rigid timing required for timing slotting. TDD generally is limited to cordless
phone or short range portable access. TDD is effective for fixed wireless access
when all users are stationary so that propagation delays do not vary in time
among the users.
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 39

END TERM EXAMIN


EXAMINAATION
EIGHTH SEMES TER [B.TE
SEMESTER CH.], MA
[B.TECH.], MAYY -JUNE 20 15
201
MOBILE COMMUNIC
COMMUNICA ATION (ETIT -402)
(ETIT-402)
Time : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 75
Note: Attempt any five questions including Q. No. 1 which is compulory. Select one
question from each unit.
Question 1. ______________________________________________________
(a) Explain the term frequency reuse. What is the significance of this factor in
mobile communications ? (4)
(b) Define the term Soft Handoff and where it is employed ? (3)
(c) What is known as directivity of antenna ? (3)
(d) Define the terms ground incident angle and ground elevation angle with suitable
diagrams. (3)
(e) What is foliage loss and how it affects mobile communication system
performance. (3)
(f) Distinguish between Fixed Channel Assignment and Dynamic Channel
Assignment. (3)
(g) State and explain channel coding theorem. (3)
(h) Distinguish between GSM and IS-95 standards. (3)
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 1(a) of End Term 2011.
(b) Refer to Question 4(b) of Second Term 2014.
(c) Directivity is a figure of merit, usually for an antenna. It measures the power
density the antenna radiates in the direction of its strongest emission, versus
the power density radiated by an ideal isotropic radiator (which emits uniformly
in all directions) radiating the same total power.
(d) The ground incident angle and the ground elevation angle over a communication
link are described as follows. The ground incident angle θ is the angle of wave
arrival incidently pointing to the ground as shown in figure. The ground elevation
angle φ is the angle of wave arrival at the mobile unit as shown in figure.
40 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

(e) Refer to Question 1(c) of End Term 2014.


(f ) Refer to Question 1(d) of End Term 2011.
(g) Channel Coding Theorem: Design of channel coding to increase resistance of
a digital communication system to channel noise. The channel coding theorem
is defined as
1. Let a discrete memoryless source
– with an alphabet S
– with an entropy H(S)
– produce symbols once every Ts seconds
2. Let a discrete memoryless channel
– have capacity C
– be used once every Tc seconds.
3. Then if, H(s)/T(s) < C/T(c)There exists a coding scheme for which the source
output can be transmitted over the channel and be reconstructed with an
arbitrarily small probability of error. The parameter C/Tc is called critical
rate.
4. Conversly, if H(S)/Ts > C/Tc it is not possible to transmit information
over the channeland reconstruct it with an arbitrarily small probability
oferror.
(h) Refer to Questions 8(a) and 9(a)(iii) of End Term 2011.
UNIT-I
Question 2. ______________________________________________________
(a) Deduce the relation for signal to Interference ratio of 7-cell cluster. Draw the
suitable diagrams. (6.5)
(b) If a signal-to-interference ratio of 15 dB is required for satisfactory forward
channel performance of a cellular system, what is the frequency reuse factor
and cluster size that should be used for maximum capacity if the path loss
exponent is (i) n = 4, (ii) n = 3 ? Assume that there are six Co-channel cells in
the first ties, and all of them are at the same distance from the mobile. Use
suitable approximations. (6)
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 3(a) of First Term 2012.

(b) If path loss exponent n = 4, and S = 15 dB


I
The frequency reuse ratio q is determined as

F Ni * S I 1/ n
=
H IK
1/4 1.5 0.25
= (6 * 15 dB) = ( 6 * 10 )
= 3.711

q2
Cluster size = = 4.5 so cluster size should be 7.
3
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 41

F Ni * S I 1/ n
If n = 3 the frequency reuse ratio q is determined as
H IK
1/3 1.5 1/3
= (6 * 15 dB) = (6 * 10 )
= 5.646
Question 3. ______________________________________________________
(a) Explain the uniqueness of mobile radio environment. Describe the role of
multipath propagation in mobile radio environment. (6.5)
(b) An antenna has a radiation resistance of 80 Ω and a loss resistance of 10 Ω
and a power gain of 20 dB. Determine the antenna efficiency and its directivity
in dB. (6)
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 2(b) of End Term 2014.
Rrad
(b) Efficiency =
( Rrad + Rloss )

80 8
= = = 0.888
(80 + 10 ) 9
In dB 10 log 0.888 = –0.5 dB
Pmax
Efficiency =
Directivity

Pmax 20
D = = = –40 dB
Efficiency 0.5

UNIT-II
Question 4. ______________________________________________________
(a) Obtain the relation for free space propagation model of a mobile communication
system. (6.5)
(b) Find the far-field distance for an antenna with maximum dimensions of 1 m
and operating frequency of 900 MHz. (6)
Solution.
(a) Free space model predicts that the received power decays as negative square
root of the distance. Friis free space equation is given by
Pt Gt Gr λ 2
Pr(d) =
(4 π ) 2 d 2 L
Where Pt is the transmitted power, Pr(d) is the received power, Gt is the transmitter
antenna gain, Gr is the receiver antenna gain, d is the Tx-Rx separation and L is
the system loss factor depended upon line attenuation, filter losses and antenna
losses and not related to propagation. The gain of the antenna is related to the
effective aperture of the antenna which in turn is dependent upon the physical
size of the antenna as given below
42 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

4 πAe
G =
λ2
The path loss, representing the attenuation suffered by the signal as it travels
through the wireless channel is given by the difference of the transmitted and
received power in dB and is expressed as:
Pt
PL (dB) = 10 log
Pr
The fields of an antenna can broadly be classified in two regions, the far field
and the near field. It is in the far field that the propagating waves act as plane
waves and the power decays inversely with distance. The far field region is also
termed as Fraunhofer region and the Friis equation holds in this region. Hence,
the Friis equation is used only beyond the far field distance, df , which is
dependent upon the largest dimension of the antenna as

2 D2
df =
λ
Also we can see that the Friis equation is not defined for d = 0. For this reason, we
use a close in distance, do, as a reference point. The power received, Pr(d), is
then given by:

FG d IJ 2
Pr(d) = Pr ( d o ) HdK
o

2 D2
(b) Df =
λ

2 * 1 * 1 * 900 * 10 6
= = 6m
(3 * 10 8 )

Question 5. ______________________________________________________
(a) Discuss different types of handoffs and their characteristics. Explain dropped
call rates and their evaluation strategies. (6.5)
(b) Discuss about various mobile antennas with the help of neat diagram explain
umbrella pattern cell site antennas. (6)
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 8(b) of End Term 2011 and also refer to Question 5(b) of
End Term 2015.
(b) Refer to Question 5(b) of End Term 2011 and also refer to Question 1(d) of End
Term 2010.
UNIT-III
Question 6. ______________________________________________________
(a) What is OFDM ? What are the application of OFDM ? (4)
(b) Consider the convolutional encoder with three one bit registers having three
outputs V1 = S2 ⊕ S3, V2 = S1 ⊕ S3, V3 = S1 ⊕ S2 ⊕ S3. Find the output sequence
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 43

if the input sequence is 1100101. Sketch the state diagram and trellis diagram
for this convolutional encoder. (8.5)
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 9(a)(i) of End Term 2011.
(b) Refer to Question 7(a) of End Term 2012.
State Diagram: A convolutional encoder may be defined as a finite state
machine. Contents of the rightmost (K – 1) shift register stages define the states
of the encoder. So, the encoder in figure, has four states. The transition of an
encoder from one state to another, as caused by input bits, is depicted in the
state diagram. Figure shows the state diagram of the encoder in Figure. A new
input bit causes a transition from one state to another. The path information
between the states, denoted as b/c1c2, represents input information bit ‘b’ and
the corresponding output bits (c1c2). Again, it is not difficult to verify from the
state diagram that an input information sequence b = (1011) generates an encoded
sequence c = (11, 10, 00, 01).

(b) Tree Diagram Representation: The tree diagram representation shows all
possible information and encoded sequences for the convolutional encoder.
Fig.shows the tree diagram for the encoder in Fig, The encoded bits are labeled
on the branches of the tree. Given an input sequence, the encoded sequence can
be directly read from the tree. As an example, an input sequence (1011) results in
the encoded sequence (11, 10, 00, 01).
44 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

(c) Trellis Diagram Representation: The trellis diagram of a convolutional code


is obtained from its state diagram. All state transitions at each time step are
explicitly shown in the diagram to retain the time dimension, as is present in the
corresponding tree diagram. Usually, supporting descriptions on state transitions,
corresponding input and output bits etc. are labeled in the trellis diagram. It is
interesting to note that the trellis diagram, which describes the operation of the
encoder, is very convenient for describing the behavior of the corresponding
decoder, especially when the famous ‘Viterbi Algorithm (VA)’ is followed. Figure
shows the trellis diagram for the encoder in Figure

Question 7. ______________________________________________________
Write short notes on the following:
(a) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). (6)
(b) Turbo coding. (6.5)
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 9(a)(i) of End Term 2011.
(b) Refer to Question 9(a)(ii) of End Term 2011.
UNIT-IV
Question 8. ______________________________________________________
(a) List out the important features and technical specifications of D-AMPS second
generation mobile communication system. (8.5)
(b) Discuss about GSM Logical Control Channels. (4)
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 9(b) of End Term 2010.
(b) Refer to Question 5(a) of End Term 2011.
Question 9. ______________________________________________________
(a) Give the overview of IS-95 Air Interface. Brief about IS-95 forward link and
IS-95 reverse link. (8.5)
(b) Discuss the properties of Pseudorandom Noise Sequences. (4)
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 45

Solution.
(a) The IS-95 air interface was very different to anything that had been previously
used as a result of the fact that CDMA was used. The IS 95 forward link and the
IS-95 reverse link are different in their construction in view of the fact that there
are different requirements for each. The IS-95 air interface is based around the
use of CDMA within a 1.25 MHz channel. Using this, the system can use the
same channel for a large number of signals, each one allocated a different code
to access the system.
The Forward IS95 Channel consists of several code channels:
• the Pilot Channel,
The Pilot tone is always transmitted by the base station on each active
Forward CDMA Channel. It is an unmodulated spread spectrum signal
(i.e., it does not contain spreading by the short Walsh Hadamerd code).
The pilot tone is a PN-sequence, which is used for synchronization.
• a Sync Channel, operating at a fixed rate of 1200 bit/s
• up to seven Paging Channels, (at a fixed rate of 9600 or 4800 bit/s.) and
• a number of Forward Traffic Channels (at 9600, 4800, 2400, and 1200
bit/s).
Reverse linkof IS-95:
• 824 to 849 MHz (each channel is 45 MHz away from the forward
counterpart)
• Access channel
o 4800 bps
o Initiate communication
o Respond to paging channel message
• Reverse voice traffic channel
o 9600, 4800, 2400, 1200 bps
• Very similar to forward link, but there are important differences.
(b) Properties of PN Sequence:
• In CDMA user signal is multiplied by pseudo random sequence.
This sequence must be known by the transmitter and also by the receiver
to be able to realize synchronisation and despreading. To be used in real
systems the sequence should be able to be constructed from a finite number
of randomly pre-selected parameters. On the other hand the PN sequence
should look like noise
• A PN sequence has three following properties:
• The number of ‘1’s and the number of ‘0’s in a PN sequence are only different
by one.
• Run lengths of zeroes or ones are the same as in a coin flipping experiment.
Half of the run lengths are unity, one-quarter are of length two, one-eighth
n
are of length three and a fraction 1/2 of all runs are of length n.
• If the sequence is shifted by any non-zero number of elements, the resulting
sequence will have an equal number of agreements and disagreements
with the original sequence.
46 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

FIRS
FIRSTT TERM EXAMIN
EXAMINAATION
EIGHTH SEMESTER [B.TECH.], FEBRUARY 2014
MOBILE COMMUNIC
COMMUNICAATION (ETIT -402)
(ETIT-402)
Time : 1½ hours Maximum Marks : 30
Note: Attempt Q. No. 1 which is compulsory and any two more questions from the
remaining.
Question 1. ______________________________________________________
Explain:
(a) Hybrid channel assignment
(b) Foliage loss
(c) Co-channel interference reduction factor
(d) Isotropic radiator
(e) Radiation intensity and Radiation efficiency of antenna. (2 × 5 = 10)
Solution.
(a) Hybrid Channel Assignment: HCA schemes are the combination of both FCA
and DCA techniques. In HCA schemes, the total number of channels available
for service is divided into fixed and dynamic sets.
• The fixed set contains a number of nominal channels that are assigned to
cells as in the FCA schemes and, in all cases, are to be preferred for use in
their respective cells.
• The dynamic set is shared by all users in the system to increase flexibility.
(b) Foliage Loss: Foliage loss is the loss that occurs due to trees It includes many
parameters and variations pertaining to the size; the density; the distribution
of leaves, branches, trunks; the height of the trees relative to the antenna
height; and so on.The loss of leaves and forest is basically known as foliage
loss. Damage to forest canopies by wind, snow, or winter desiccation
significantly reduced stand leaf biomass and area below “steady-state” levels
in several western coniferous forests. Leaf biomass of 12 different western
conifer forests sampled for an average of 4 years was reduced by as much as
36.3, 34.5, and 42.2% by single wind damage, snow breakage, or winter
desiccation events, respectively, during the sampling interval. Foliage loss
exceeded annual foliage production as estimated from leaf litterfall in about
half the stands where damage occurred.
(c) Co-channel interference reduction factor: The co-channel interference can be
reduced by the following methods:
1. Increasing the distance (D) between two co-channel cells, D
2. Reducing the antenna heights
3. Using directional antennas.
4. Use of diversity schemes at the receiver.
(d) Isotropic radiator: An isotropic radiator is a theoretical point source of
electromagnetic or sound waves which radiates the same intensity of radiation
in all directions. It has no preferred direction of radiation. It radiates uniformly
in all directions over a sphere centered on the source.
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 47

(e) Radiation intensity and radiation efficiency of antenna:


Efficiency of a transmitting antenna is the ratio of power actually radiated (in
all directions) to the power absorbed by the antenna terminals. The power
supplied to the antenna terminals which is not radiated is converted into heat.
The radiation intensity U expresses the power radiated per solid angle. In terms
of U the power gain in a specified direction can be calculated:
U
G =
Pin /4π
where Pin signifies the net electrical power entering the antenna terminals.
Question 2. ______________________________________________________
(a) Explain different performance criterion of a cellular system with special
emphasis on Grade of Service. (5)
(b) Describe all the techniques to improve coverage and capacity in a cellular
system. (5)
Solution.
(a) In cellular mobile communication performance criteria can be specified with
three parameters. They are as follows:
1. Voice Quality
2. Service Quality
(i) Coverage (ii) Dropped Calls Rate (iii) Grade of Service
3. Special Features
Each one of them is specified below
1. Voice Quality: To determine the performance quality of cellular mobile
communication an idea about voice quality is very important. More the quality
of speech signal output expresses the better system performance. But it is difficult
to measure the quality of voice in mobile environment. If the set value is
considered as ‘a’ at which the ‘b’ percent of the subscribers would rate the voice
quality of the system, then the two top Circuit Merits (CM) from the data collected
from statistics can be summarised. For rating the voice quality the quality scales
can be of five types. They are tabulated below.

Comment Quality Scale Score Circuit Merit


Perfectly Understandable Excellent 5 CM 5
Understandable, Some noise is present. Good 4 CM 4
Repetitions of speech is needed, rarely. Fair 3 CM 3
Frequent repetitions of speech is needed. Poor 2 CM 2
Speech is not understandable. Unsatisfactory 1 CM 1
If the percentage of subscribers selecting the circuit merit cases are CM 4
and CM 5, then definitely the cost involved in developing the system is
high.
2. Service Quality: For determining service quality of the system, the three
facors to consider are namely.
(i) Coverage (ii) Number of dropped calls (iii) Grade of Service (GoS).
48 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

(i) Coverage: An efficient cellular mobile system should have maximum


coverage capability. Irrespective of the irregular terrain configurations the
system has to provide higher radio coverage.
(ii) Number of Dropped Calls: The number of dropped calls in a system must
be very small because it reflects that the cellular mobile system is very
efficient in handling all the calls in its zone.
(iii) Grade of Service (GoS): The Grade of Service (GoS) is another important
factor that has to be addressed under the service quality. In a busy hour of
cellular mobile communication the GoS for blocking probability (PB) is of
0.02 for initiating calls. This is considered as a mean value. The value of
PB will be different for different call sites. To obtain a less value of blocking
probability it requires.
(a) Effective plan involved in system design.
(b) Sufficient number of radio channels.
If they are done with enough care the number of dropped calls in a system
may get reduced.
3. Special Features: A cellular mobile system would provide many features
like.
• Call forwarding
• Call waiting
• Voice Stored Box (VSB)
• Navigation services, etc.
(b) When cellular service providers build their networks, their networks are designed
to provide coverage tothe area of desire with the expectation of possible increase
in population in the near future. In some cases, it may be difficult to predict the
need for network expansion or even when network expansion is predictable, the
time for network expansion arrives. There are several techniques to expand an
already existing network or to add more capacity to a network being built. The
following are the two techniques:
1. Cell Splitting: If the network is already functioning, it may be found that
the network needs expansion only in specific regions and not network-
wide expansion. In this case, a cell (or multiple cells) can be split into
smaller cells and frequencies are redistributed in a way that does not cause
additional interference. Each cell can be split into multiple “microcells”
with own BS Rescaling system to smaller cell size. Transmit power of BS
reduced to obtain smaller coverage area than original BS.
Advantages: Enables more spatial reuse → greater system capacity. The
new small cells are reassigned new frequencies that do not cause CCI with
adjacent cells Use “umbrella” cells where fast-moving mobiles covered by
original cell and slower mobiles coveredby microcells.
Disadvantages: Cell splitting causes increased handoff- It requires the
construction of new towers, which is very costly.
2. Beam Tilting: By tilting down the antenna beam, the power outside the
cell, causing CCI reduces.
3. Cell Sectoring: A cell has the same coverage space but instead of using a
single omni-directional antenna thattransmits in all directions, either 3 or
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 49

6 directional antennas are used such that each of these antennasprovides


coverage to a sector of the hexagon. When 3 directional antennas are used,
120° sectoring is achieved (each antenna covers 120°), andwhen 6
directional antennas are used, 60°sectoring is achieved (eachantenna
covers 60°).
Advantages: Cells are divided into a number of wedge-shaped sectors,
each with their own set of channels. Decrease CCI with adjacent cells .
Disadvantages: Each sector is limited to only using 1/3 or 1/6 of the
available channels. We therefore have a decreasein trunking efficiency
and an increase in the number of required antennas .
4. Micro Cells: Antennas move to buildings, hills, and lamp posts. Micro
cells can be introduced to alleviate capacity problems caused by
“hotspots”. By clever channel assignment, the reuse factor is unchanged.
As for cell splitting, there will occur interference problems when macro
and micro cells must co-exist.
5. Frequency Borrowing: Taken from adjacent cells by congested cells or
assign frequencies dynamically.
Question 3. ______________________________________________________
(a) Why hexagonal shape is preferred over other cell shapes in cellular system ? (3)
(b) What is Frequency Reuse in cellular system? (3)
(c) If a 25 MHz total spectrum is allocated to a particular FDD cellular system
and each simplex channel has 25 kHz bandwidth, compute the number of duplex
channels available per cell if a system uses,
(i) 4 cell reuse, (ii) 7 cell reuse, (iii) 12 cell reuse. (4)
Solution.
(a) Hexagonal shape is preferred over other shapes because of following reasons:
(i) For a given distance between the center of a polygon and its farthest
perimeter points, the hexagon has the largest area of the three. Thus by
using hexagon geometry, the fewest number of cells can cover a geographic
region, and hexagon closely approximates a circular radiation pattern which
would occur for an omnidirectionl BS antenna and free space propagation.
(ii) When using hexagons to model a coverage areas, BS transmitters are
depicted as either being in the center of the cell (center-excited cells) or on
the three of the six cell vertices (edge-excited cells). Normally
omnidirectional antennas are used in center-excited cells and directional
antennas are used in corner-excited cells.
(b) In mobile communication systems a slot of a carrier frequency/code in a carrier
frequency is a radioresource unit. This radio resource unit is assigned to a user
in order to support a call/ session. Thenumber of available such radio resources
at a base station thus determines the number of users whocan be supported in the
call. Since in wireless channels a signal is “broadcast” i.e., received by allentities
therefore one a resource is allocated to a user’s it cannot be reassigned until the
user finishedthe call/session. Thus the number of users who can be supported in
a wireless system is highlylimited.
Each cellular base station is allocated a group of radio channels to be used
within a small geographic area called a cell. Base stations in adjacent cells are
50 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

assigned channel groups which containcompletely different channels than


neighbouring cells. Base station antennas are designed to achievethe desired
coverage within a particular cell. By limiting the coverage area within the
boundaries of acell, the same group of channels may be used to cover different
cells that are separated from oneanother by geographic distances large enough
to keep interference levels within tolerable limits. Thedesign process of selecting
and allocating channel groups for all cellular base stations within a systemis
called frequency reuse or frequency planning.
(c) Given: Total bandwidth = 25 MHz
Channel bandwidth = 25 kHz simplex channels. 25 × 2 = 50 kHz duplex channels.
Total available channels = 25,000/50 = 500 channels.
(a) for N = 4, total number of channels available per cell = 500/4 = 125 channels.
(b) for N = 7, total number of channels available per cell = 500/7 ≈ 71 channels.
(c) for N = 12, total number of channels available per cell = 500/12 ≈ 41 channels.

Question 4. ______________________________________________________
(a) What are the propagation effects in the following areas:
(i) Over flat terrain, (ii) Over water, (iii) In an urban area (6)
(b) Explain the effect of antenna height on cell coverage area. (2)
(c) If Pt = 10 W, Gt = 0 dB, Gt = 0 dB, fc = 900 MHz, find Pt in watts at a free space
distance of 1 km. (2)
Solution.
(a) (i) Propagation Over Flat Terrain: If we consider the effect of the earth
surface, the expressions for the received signal become more complicated
than in case of free space propagation. The main effect is that signals
reflected off the earth surface may (partially) cancel the line of sight wave.
(ii) Propagation Over Water: Propagation over water is becoming a big
concern because it is very easy to interfere with other cells if we do not
make the correct arrangements. Interference resulting from propagation
over the water can be controlled if we know the cause. The permittivity’s
of seawater and fresh water are the same, but the conductivities of seawater
and fresh water are different.
Then (seawater) = 80 – j84 and (fresh water) = 80 – j0.021.
Based upon the reflection coefficients formula with a small incident angle,
both the reflection coefficients for horizontal polarized waves and vertically
polarized waves approach 1.
Because the 180° phase change occurs at the ground reflection point, the
reflection coefficient is –1.
(iii) Propagation in an Urban Area: The urban and suburban problems are
complicated because the fields inthe immediate vicinity of the portable or
mobile radio are a superposition of localized multipath scattering. The
signal strength varies from peak levels of afew decibels above the mean or
median level to tens of decibels below the peaksin deep fades.
Consequently, we rely on a statistical description of the signal levels in
the vicinity of the portable or mobile radio that states the local average
and a description of the variation. The signals in a local vicinity are
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 51

described in terms of: (1) a mean or median signal level, (2) a statistical
distribution of levels, and (3) a measure of temporal and frequency
spreading.
(b) Reducing antenna height is a good method to minimize the co-
channelinterference in some environment, e.g., on a high hill. In the cellular
system design effective antenna height is considered rather than the actual
antenna height. Therefore, the effective antenna height changes according to
the present location of the mobile unit in such a difficult terrain. When the
antenna is put up on top of the hill, the effective antenna height getsmore than
the actual antenna height. So, in order to minimize the co-channel interference,
antenna with lower height should be used without decreasing the received signal
strength either at the cell-site or at the mobile device. Similarly, lower antenna
height in a valley is very useful in minimizing the radiated powerin a far-off
high-elevation area where the mobile user is believed to be present. However,
reducing the antenna height does not always minimize the co-channel
interference, e.g., in forests, the larger antenna height clears the tops of the
longesttrees in the surrounding area, particularly when they are located very
close to the antenna. But reducing the antenna height would not be appropriate
for minimizing co-channel interference because unnecessary attenuation of the
signal would occur in the vicinity of the antenna as well as in the cell boundary
if the height of the antenna is below the tree top level.
(c) Using Friis free space equation: Pr (1000m) = (PtGt Grλ )/(4π) d
2 2 2

c
λ =
8
= 3 × 10 m/0.9 GHz = 0.333 m
f
2 2 2 –8
Pr (1000 m) = (10 × (0.333) )/(4π) (1000) = 7 × 10 W.

SE
SECC OND TERM EXAMIN
EXAMINAATION
EIGHTH SEMESTER [B.TECH.], APRIL 2014
MOBILE COMMUNIC
COMMUNICAATION (ETIT -402)
(ETIT-402)
Time : 1½ hours Maximum Marks : 30
Note: Attempt Q. No. 1 which is compulsory and any two more questions from the
remaining.
Question 1. ______________________________________________________
Explain:
(a) Turbo Codes (2 × 5 = 10)
(b) Difference between dropped calls and blocked calls
(c) OFDM
(d) Dropped call rate formula
(e) Capacity of TDMA.
Solution.
(a) Turbo Codes: In information theory, turbo codes (originally in French Turbo
codes) are a class of high-performance forward error correction (FEC) codes
52 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

developed around 1990-91 (but first published in 1993), which were the first
practical codes to closely approach the channel capacity, a theoretical maximum
for the code rate at which reliable communication is still possible given a specific
noise level. Turbo codes are finding use in 3G mobile communications and (deep
space) satellite communications as well as other applications where designers
seek to achieve reliable information transfer over bandwidth—or latency-
constrained communication links in the presence of data-corrupting noise. Turbo
codes are nowadays competing with LDPC codes, which provide similar
performance.
(b) Blocked Call: A blocked call is a call, originated by a mobile station that fails
to reach the conversation state. A blocked call may be caused by different reasons,
such as no available services, channel assignment failure, etc.
Dropped Call: A call is logged as dropped when an active call that was just in
its conversation state ends for any reason, other than a local/remote call end.
A dropped call may be caused by different reasons, such as hand-off failure.
(c) OFDM: OFDM is a frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) scheme used as a
digitalmulti-carrier modulation method. A large number of closely spaced
orthogonal sub-carrier signals are used to carry data on several parallel data
streams or channels. Each sub-carrier is modulated with a conventional modulation
scheme (such as quadrature amplitude modulation or phase-shift keying) at a
low symbol rate, maintaining total data rates similar to conventional single-
carrier modulation schemes in the same bandwidth.
(d) Dropped Call Rate Formula: The dropped-call rate (DCR) is the fraction of
the telephone calls which, due to technical reasons, were cut off before the
speaking parties had finished their conversation and before one of them had
hung up (dropped calls) This fraction is usually measured as a percentage of all
calls.
(e) Capacity of TDMA: TDMA is a type of Time-division multiplexing, with the
specialpoint that instead of having one transmitter connected to one receiver,
there are multiple transmitters. In the case of the uplink from a mobile phone to
a base station this becomes particularly difficult because the mobile phone can
move around and vary the timing advance required to make its transmission
match the gap in transmission from its peers.
Question 2. ______________________________________________________
(a) Explain all setup channels in GSM architecture. (5)
(b) Explain different channel assignment strategies in GSM. (5)
Solution.
(a) GSM uses a variety of channels in which the data is carried. In GSM, these
channels are separated into physical channels and logical channels. The Physical
channels are determined by the timeslot, whereas the logical channels are
determined by the information carried within the physical channel. It can be
further summarised by saying that several recurring timeslots on a carrier constitute
a physical channel. These are then used by different logical channels to transfer
information. These channels may either be used for user data (payload) or
signalling to enable the system to operate correctly.
Common and dedicated channels: The channels may also be divided into
common and dedicated channels. The forward common channels are used for
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 53

paging to inform a mobile of an incoming call, responding to channel requests,


and broadcasting bulletin board information. The return common channel is a
random access channel used by the mobile to request channel resources before
timing information is conveyed by the BSS.
The dedicated channels are of two main types: those used for signalling, and
those used for traffic. The signalling channels are used for maintenance of the
call and for enabling call set up, providing facilities such as handover when the
call is in progress, and finally terminating the call. The traffic channels handle
the actual payload.
The following logical channels are defined in GSM:
TCHf: Full rate traffic channel.
TCH h: Half rate traffic channel.
BCCH: Broadcast Network information, e.g. for describing the current control
channel structure. The BCCH is a point-to-multipoint channel (BSS-to-MS).
SCH: Synchronisation of the MSs.
FCHMS: Frequency correction.
AGCH: Acknowledge channel requests from MS and allocate a SDCCH.
PCHMS: Terminating call announcement.
RACHMS: Access requests, response to call announcement, location update, etc.
FACCHt: For time critical signalling over the TCH (e.g. for handover signalling).
Traffic burst is stolen for a full signalling burst.
SACCHt: TCH in-band signalling, e.g. for link monitoring.
SDCCH: For signalling exchanges, e.g. during call setup, registration/location
updates.
FACCHs: FACCH for the SDCCH. The SDCCH burst is stolen for a full signalling
burst. Function not clear in the present version of GSM (could be used for e.g.
handover of an eight-rate channel, i.e. using a “SDCCH-like” channel for other
purposes than signalling).
SACCHs: SDCCH in-band signalling, e.g. for link monitoring.
(b) There are two types of strategies that are followed:
(i) Fixed: FCA, fixed channel allocation: Manually assigned by the network
operator
(ii) Dynamic:
1. DCA, dynamic channel allocation,
2. DFS, dynamic frequency selection
3. Spread spectrum
1. FCA: In Fixed Channel Allocation or Fixed Channel Assignment (FCA)
each cell is given a predetermined set of frequency channels. FCA requires
manual frequency planning, which is an arduous task in TDMA and
FDMA based systems, since such systems are highly sensitive to co-
channel interference from nearby cells that are reusing the same channel.
Another drawback with TDMA and FDMA systems with FCA is that the
number of channels in the cell remains constant irrespective of the
number of customers in that cell. This results in traffic congestion and
some calls being lost when traffic gets heavy in some cells, and idle
capacity in other cells.
54 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

2. DCA and DFS: Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) may be applied in


wireless networks with several adjacent non-centrally controlled access
points. The access points automatically select frequency channels with
low interference levels. DFS is supported by the novel IEEE
802.11h wireless local area network standard. DFS is also mandated in
the 5470-5725 MHz U-NII band for radar avoidance.
A more efficient way of channel allocation would be Dynamic Channel
Allocation or Dynamic Channel Assignment (DCA) in which voice
channel are not allocated to cell permanently, instead for every call
request base station request channel from MSC. The channel is allocated
following an algorithm which accounts likelihood of future blocking
within the cell. It requires the MSC to collect real time data on channel
occupancy, traffic distribution and Received Signal Strength
Indications (RSSI). DCA schemes are suggested for TDMA/FDMA based
cellular systems such as GSM, but are currently not used in any products.
OFDMA systems, such as the downlink of 4G cellular systems, can be
considered as carrying out DCA for each individual sub-carrier as well
as each timeslot.
Spread Spectrum: Spread spectrum can be considered as an alternative
to complex DCA algorithms. Spread spectrum avoids cochannel
interference between adjacent cells, since the probability that users in
nearby cells use the same spreading code is insignificant. Thus the
frequency channel allocation problem is relaxed in cellular networks
based on a combination of Spread spectrum and FDMA, for
example IS95 and 3G systems. Spread spectrum also facilitate that
centrally controlled base stations dynamically borrow resources from
each other depending on the traffic load, simply by increasing the
maximum allowed number of simultaneous users in one cell (the
maximum allowed interference level from the users in the cell), and
decreasing it in an adjacent cell. Users in the overlap between the base
station coverage area can be transferred between the cells (called cell-
breathing), or the traffic can be regulated by admission control and
traffic-shaping.
Question 3. ______________________________________________________
(a) Explain digital modulation technique QPSK in detail. (5)
(b) Consider a (7, 4) linear block code with the parity-check matrix given by,
LM1 0 1 1 1 0 0 OP
H = M1 1 0 1 0 1 0 PP
MN0 1 1 1 0 0 1 Q
(i) Construct Generator Matrix
(ii) Find the code word that begins with 1101
(iii) Find error syndrome for the received code word 1001 1010. (5)
Solution.
(a) Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK): Sometimes this is known as quadriphase
PSK, 4-PSK, or 4-QAM. (Although the root concepts of QPSK and 4-QAM are
different, the resulting modulated radio waves are exactly the same.) QPSK uses four
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 55

points on the constellation diagram, equispaced around a circle. With four phases,
QPSK can encode two bits per symbol, shown in the diagram with Gray coding to
minimize the bit error rate (BER)—sometimes misperceived as twice the BER of
BPSK.
The mathematical analysis shows that QPSK can be used either to double the
data rate compared with a BPSK system while maintaining the same bandwidth of
the signal, or to maintain the data-rate of BPSK but halving the bandwidth
needed. In this latter case, the BER of QPSK is exactly the same as the BER of
BPSK—and deciding differently is a common confusion when considering or
describing QPSK. The transmitted carrier can undergo numbers of phase changes.
Given that radio communication channels are allocated by agencies such as
the Federal Communication Commission giving a prescribed (maximum)
bandwidth, the advantage of QPSK over BPSK becomes evident: QPSK transmits
twice the data rate in a given bandwidth compared to BPSK—at the same BER.
The engineering penalty that is paid is that QPSK transmitters and receivers are
more complicated than the ones for BPSK. However, with modern electronics
technology, the penalty in cost is very moderate.
As with BPSK, there are phase ambiguity problems at the receiving end,
and differentially encoded QPSK is often used in practice.
Implementation: The implementation of QPSK is more general than that of
BPSK and also indicates the implementation of higher-order PSK. Writing the
symbols in the constellation diagram in terms of the sine and cosine waves used
to transmit them:

2 Es F π I
sn(t) =
Ts H 4 K
cos 2 πf c t + ( 2 n − 1) , n = 1, 2, 3, 4

This yields the four phases π/4, 3π/4, 5π/4 and 7π/4 as needed.
This results in a two-dimensional signal space with unit basis functions

2 2
φ1(t) = cos ( 2 πf c t ) and φ2(t) = sin ( 2 πf c t )
Ts Ts
The first basis function is used as the in-phase component of the signal and the
second as the quadrature component of the signal.

FG IJ
Hence, the signal constellation consists of the signal-space 4 points
Es Es
H
±
2

2
. K
The factors of 1/2 indicate that the total power is split equally between the two
carriers.
Comparing these basis functions with that for BPSK shows clearly how QPSK
can be viewed as two independent BPSK signals.

LM1 0 1 1 1 0 0 OP
(b) We have H = M1 1 0 1 0 1 0 PP
MN0 1 1 1 0 0 1 Q
T
Which is of the form [A /I3]. Accordingly,
56 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

LM 1 0 1 1 OP LM 1 1 OP
0

= M1 PP so that A = M PP
0 1 1
MM 1
T
A 1 0 1
MN0 Q 0 1
PQ
N1
1 1 1
1 1
(i) So the generator matrix is G
LM 0 0 0 1 1 0 OP
LI O 1
=M P = M
0 0 0 1 1P
N A Q MM0 1P
3

N0
1 0 1 0
0 1 1 1 1Q
P
(ii) Code word that begins with 1101.
Question 4. ______________________________________________________
(a) Explain CDMA and derive the expression for capacity in CDMA. (5)
(b) Explain different types of Hand off strategies in GSM. (5)

Solution.
(a) Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is a channel access method used by
various radio communication technologies.
CDMA is an example of multiple access, which is where several transmitters can
send information simultaneously over a single communication channel. This
allows several users to share a band of frequencies (see bandwidth). To permit
this without undue interference between the users, CDMA employs spread-
spectrum technology and a special coding scheme (where each transmitter is
assigned a code).
CDMA is used as the access method in many mobile phone standards such as
cdmaOne, CDMA2000 (the 3G evolution of cdmaOne), and WCDMA (the 3G
standard used by GSM carriers), which are often referred to as simply CDMA.
Capacity: A usual capacity equation for CDMA systems may be fairly easily
derived as follows (for the reverse link): first examine a base station
with N mobiles, its noise and interference power spectral density dues to all
mobiles in that same cell is ISC = (N – 1)Sα, where S is the received power density
for each mobile, and α is the voice activity factor. Other cell interferences IOC
are estimated by a reuse fraction β of the same cell interference level, such
that IOC = βISC; (usual values of β are around 1/2). The total noise and interference
at the base is therefore Nt = ISC(1 + β). Next assume the mobile signal power
density received at the base station is S = REb/W. Eliminating ISC, we derive:
W 1 1 1
N = 1+ . . . ...(1)
R Eb / N t α 1 + β
where
• W is the channel bandwidth (in Hz),
• R is the user data bit rate (symbol rate in symbol per second),
• Eb/Nt is the ratio of energy per bit by total noise (usually given in dB Eb/
Nt ≈ 7 dB),
• α is the voice activity factor (for the reverse link), typically 0.5,
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 57

• and β is the interference reuse fraction, typically around 0.5, and represents
the ratio of interference level from the cell in consideration by interferences
due to other cells. (The number 1 + β is sometimes called reuse factor, and
1/(1 + β) reuse efficiency)
This simple equation (1) gives us a number of voice channels in a CDMA
frequency channel.
We can already see some hints of CDMA optimization and investigate certain possible
improvement for a 3G system. In particular: improving α can be achieved with
dim and burst capabilities, β with interference mitigation and antenna down tilt
considerations, R with vocoder rate, W with wider band CDMA, Eb/Nt with better
coding and interference mitigation techniques.
Some aspects however are omitted in this equation and are required to quantify
other capacity improvements mainly those due to power control, and softer/soft
handoff algorithms.
(b) In cellular telecommunications, the term handover or handoff refers to the
process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel connected
to the core network to another channel. In satellite communications it is the
process of transferring satellite control responsibility from one earth station to
another without loss or interruption of service.
Types of Handoff:
• A hard handover is one in which the channel in the source cell is released
and only then the channel in the target cell is engaged. Thus the connection
to the source is broken before or ‘as’ the connection to the target is made—
for this reason such handovers are also known as break-before-make. Hard
handovers are intended to be instantaneous in order to minimize the
disruption to the call. A hard handover is perceived by network engineers
as an event during the call. It requires the least processing by the network
providing service. When the mobile is between base stations, then the
mobile can switch with any of the base stations, so the base stations bounce
the link with the mobile back and forth. This is called ping-ponging.
• A soft handover is one in which the channel in the source cell is retained
and used for a while in parallel with the channel in the target cell. In this
case the connection to the target is established before the connection to
the source is broken, hence this handover is called make-before-break.
The interval, during which the two connections are used in parallel, may
be brief or substantial. For this reason the soft handover is perceived by
network engineers as a state of the call, rather than a brief event. Soft
handovers may involve using connections to more than two cells:
connections to three, four or more cells can be maintained by one phone at
the same time. When a call is in a state of soft handover, the signal of the
best of all used channels can be used for the call at a given moment or all
the signals can be combined to produce a clearer copy of the signal. The
latter is more advantageous, and when such combining is performed both
in thedownlink (forward link) and the uplink (reverse link) the handover
is termed as softer. Softer handovers are possible when the cells involved
in the handovers have a single cell site.
58 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

END TERM EXAMIN


EXAMINAATION
EIGHTH SEMES TER [B.TE
SEMESTER CH.], MA
[B.TECH.], MAYY -JUNE 20 14
201
MOBILE COMMUNIC
COMMUNICA ATION (ETIT -402)
(ETIT-402)
Time : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 75
Note: Attempt any five question including Question no. 1 which is compulsory. Select
one question from each unit.
Question 1. ______________________________________________________
(a) Explain the functionality of MTSO in a basic cellular system. (3)
(b) Higher the number of cells in a cluster, lesser will be the co-channel Interference.
Justify this with proper relations. (4)
(c) Briefly describe the term “Foliage loss”. (3)
(d) Differentiate between Hard and Soft hand off. (3)
(e) What is Interleaving, explain the significance. (3)
(f) Differentiate between block coding and Convolution coding. (3)
(g) Give additional features of 2nd Generation over 1st generation Mobile
communication systems. (3)
(h) Describe ‘A’ interface of a GSM architecture model. (3)
Solution.
(a) The Mobile Telephone Switching Office (MTSO) is the mobile equivalent to a
PSTN Central Office. The MTSO contains the switching equipment or Mobile
Switching Center (MSC) for routing mobile phone calls. It also contains the
equipment for controlling the cell sites that are connected to the MSC.
The system in the MTSO are the heart of a cellular system. It is responsible for
interconnecting calls with the local and long distance landline telephone
companies, compiling billing information (with the help of its CBM/SDM), etc.
It also provides resources needed to efficiently serve a mobile subscriber such as
registration, authentication, location updating and call routing. Its subordinate
BSC/RNC are responsible for assigning frequencies to each call, reassigning
frequencies for handoffs, controlling handoffs so a mobile phone leaving one
cell (formally known as BTS)’s coverage area, can be switched automatically to
a channel in the next cell.
All cellular systems have at least one MTSO which will contain at least one
MSC. The MSC is responsible for switching calls to mobile units as well as to
the local telephone system, recording billing data and processing data from the
cell site controllers.
(b) Co-channel interference is the cross talk between two different radio transmitters
using the same radio frequency as is the case with the co-channel cells.
If the cell size and the power transmitted at the base stations are same then CCI
will become independent of the transmitted power and will depend on radius of
the cell (R) and the distance between the interfering co-channel cells (D). If D/R
ratio is increased, then the effective distance between the co-channel cells will
increase 34 and interference will decrease. The parameter Q is called the
frequency reuse ratio and is related to the cluster size. For hexagonal geometry
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 59

D
Q = = 3N
R
(c) Foliage loss is the loss that occurs due to trees. It includes many parameters and
variations pertaining to the size; the density; the distribution of leaves, branches,
trunks; the height of the trees relative to the antenna height; and so on. The loss
of leaves and forest is basically known as foliage loss. Damage to forest canopies
by wind, snow, or winter desiccation significally reduced stand leaf biomass
and area below “steady-state” levels in several wester coniferous forests. Leaf
biomass of 12 different western confier forests sampled for an average of 4 years
was reduced by as much as 36.3, 34.5, and 42.2% by single wind damage, snow
breakage, or winter desiccation events, respectively, during the sampling interval.
Foliage loss exceeded annual foliage production as estimated from leaf litterfall
in about half the stands where damage occurred.
(d) Soft Handover: Soft handover means that the radio links are added and removed
in a way that the UE always keeps at least one radio link to the UTRAN. Soft
handover is performed by means of macro diversity, which refers to the condition
that several radio links are active at the same time. Normally soft handover can
be used when cells operated on the same frequency are changed.
Hard Handover: Hard handover means that all the old radio links in the UE are
removed before the new radio links are established. Hard handover can be seamless
or non-seamless. Seamless hard handover means that the handover is not perceptible
to the user. In practice a handover that requires a change of the carrier frequency
(inter-frequency handover) is always performed as hard handover.
(e) Interleaving is a process or methodology to make a system more efficient, fast
and reliable by arranging data in a noncontiguous manner. There are many uses
for interleaving at the system level, including:
• Storage: As hard disks and other storage devices are used to store user
and system data, there is always a need to arrange the stored data in an
appropriate way.
• Error Correction: Errors in data communication and memory can be
corrected through interleaving.
• Multi-Dimensional Data Structures: Interleaving is also known as sector
interleave.
(f ) Block Coding: In coding theory, the linear block code generally referred as an
error correcting code for which the obtained resultant codeword is the linear
combination of any two codewords. In simple words, the linear block code
possesses the linearity property that is the sum of any two codewords is also a
codeword. These linear block codes are divided in to the block odes and
convolutional codes, even though turbo codes are the combination of these two
types. More efficient encoding and decoding algorithms are provided by the
linear codes when compared with the other codes.
Convolutional Coding: The main principle involved in the convolutional code
is the weighted sum of the various input message symbols is the resultant
codeword symbol. This resemblance the convolution used in the LTI systems
where we find the output of a system by knowing the impulse response and the
respective input. So hence the output of a convolutional encoder can be obtained
60 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

by the convolution of the input bits with the states of the convolution encoder
registers.
(g) As compared to 1G, the circuit complexity was increased here whereas thedelay
in handoff was reduced to 1-5 s. The value of ∆ was in the order of 0-5 dB.However,
even this amount of delay could create a communication pause. After 2G was
launched, the previous mobile telephone systems were retrospectively
dubbed 1G. While radio signals on 1G networks are analog, radio signals on 2G
networks are digital. Both systems use digital signaling to connect the radio
towers (which listen to the handsets) to the rest of the telephone system.
2G has been superseded by newer technologies such as 2.5G, 2.75G, 3G, and 4G;
however, 2G networks are still used in many parts of the world.
2G technologies can be divided into Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)-
based and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)-based standards depending
on the type of multiplexing used.
(h) ‘A’ Interface (BSC to MSC): The A interface between the MS and the BTS is
called Um. The GSM air interface is based on time division multiple access
(TDMA) with frequency division duplex (FDD). TDMA allows multiple users to
share a common RF channel on a time-sharing basis, while FDD enables different
frequencies to be used in uplink (MS to BTS) and downlink (BTS to MS)
directions. Most of the implementations use a frequency band of 900 MHz. The
other derivative of GSM is called Digital cellular system 1800 (DCM1800).

Um VLR
B
Air Interface A Interface
Abis
BSC G
MSC

D
BTS VLR
E
B D
F
C
GMSC
EIR
HLR

AuC

UNIT-I
Question 2. ______________________________________________________
Explain the uniqueness of mobile radio environment with respect to-
(a) Mobility – Doppler effect
(b) Non Line of Sight – Multipath propagation. (12.5)
Solution.
(a) Mobility-Doppler Effect: When wave energy like sound or radio waves travels
from two objects, the wavelength can seem to be changed if one or both of them
are moving. This is called the Doppler Effect.
The Doppler Effect causes the received frequency of a source (how it is perceived
when it gets to its destination) to differ from the sent frequency if there is motion
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 61

that is increasing or decreasing the distance between the source and the receiver.
This effect is readily observable as variation in the pitch of sound between a
moving source and a stationary observer. Imagine the sound a race car makes as
it rushes by; whining high pitched and then suddenly lower. Vrrrm-VROOM.
The high pitched whine is caused by the sound waves being compacted as the
car approaches you; the lower pitched VROOM comes after it passes you and is
speeding away. The waves are spread out.
When the distance between the source and receiver of electromagnetic waves
remains constant, the frequency waves is the same in both places. When the
distance between the source and receiver of electromagnetic waves is increasing,
the frequency of the received wave forms is lower than the frequency of the
source wave form. When the distance is decreasing, the frequency of the received
wave form will be higher than the source wave form.
(b) Non Line of sight – Multipath propagation
Non-line-of-sight (NLOS) or near-line-of-sight is radio transmission across a
path that is partially obstructed, usually by a physical object in the innermost
Fresnel zone.
Many types of radio transmissions depend, to varying degrees, on line of
sight (LOS) between the transmitter and receiver. Obstacles that commonly cause
NLOS conditions include buildings, trees, hills, mountains, and, in some cases,
high voltage electric power lines. Some of these obstructions reflect certain radio
frequencies, while some simply absorb or garble the signals; but, in either case,
they limit the use of many types of radio transmissions, especially when low on
power budget.
Lower power levels at receiver give less space for correctly picking the
transmission. Low levels can be caused by at least three basic reasons: low
transmit level, for example Wi-Fi power levels; far-away transmitter, such
as 3G more than 5 miles (8.0 km) away or TV more than 31 miles (50 km) away;
and obstruction between the transmitter and the receiver, leaving no good path.
NLOS lowers the effective received power. Near Line Of Sight can usually be
dealt with better antennas, but Non Line Of Sight is usually dealt with alternative
paths or multipath propagation methods.
Question 3. ______________________________________________________
(a) Diagramitacally explain cell splitting and explain how it increases system
Capacity. (8.5)
(b) Deduce the relation for co-channel interference of 3-cell cluster architecture. (4)
Solution.
(a) Cell Splitting: Cell splitting is the process of subdividing a congested cell into
smaller cells, each with its own base station and a corresponding reduction in
antenna height and transmitter power. Cell splitting increases the capacity of a
cellular system since it increases the number of times that channels are reused.
By defining new cells which have a smaller radius than the original cells and by
installing these smaller cells (called microcells) between the existing cells,
capacity increases due to the additional number of channels per unit area.The
consequence of the cell splitting is that the frequency assignment has to be
done again, which affects the neighboring cells. It also increases the handoff
62 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

rate because the cells are now smaller and a mobile is likely to cross cell boundaries
more often compared with the case when the cells are big. Because of altered
signaling conditions, this also affects the traffic in control channels. A typical
example of cell splitting is shown in Figure. Here, it is assumed that the cell
cluster is congested and as a result, the call blocking probability has risen above
an acceptable level. Imagine if every cell in the cluster was reduced in such a
way that the radius, R of every cell was cut in half, (R/2). In order to cover the
entire service area with smaller cells, approximately four times as many cells
would be required. The increased number of cells would increase the number of
clusters over the coverage region, which in turn would increase the number of
channels, and thus capacity, in the coverage area. In the example shown in
Figure, the smaller cells were added in such a way as to preserve the frequency
reuse plan of the system. In this case, the radius of each new microcell is half that
of the original cell.
6

2 1
1 5 3
7
8 3 4 7
6 2 4 7 6
7 6 2
1
1 2 1 5
1 5 3 4
5 3 3 4 7
4 7 6 3
4 2 1
6
1 5
3

Before Cell Splitting After Cell Splitting

(b) If the cell size and the power transmitted at the base stations are same then CCI
will become independent of the transmitted power and will depend on radius of
the cell (R) and the distance between the interfering co-channel cells (D). If D/R
ratio is increased, then the effective distance between the co-channel cells will
increase 34 and interference will decrease. The parameter Q is called the
frequency reuse ratio and is related to the cluster size. For hexagonal geometry
D
Q = = 3N ...(i)
R
From the above equation, small of ‘Q’ means small value of cluster size ‘N’ and
increase in cellular capacity. But large ‘Q’ leads to decrease in system capacity
but increase in transmission quality. Choosing the options is very careful for the
selection of ‘N’, the proof of which is given in the first section.
The Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR) for a mobile receiver which monitors the
forward channel can be calculated as

S S
= i0
...(ii)
I
∑ Ii
i =1
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 63

where i0 is the number of co-channel interfering cells, S is the desired signal


power from the baseband station and Ii is the interference power caused by the i-
th interfering co-channel base station. In order to solve this equation from power
calculations, we need to look into the signal power characteristics. The average
power in the mobile radio channel decays as a power law of the distance of
separation between transmitter and receiver. The expression for the received
power Pr at a distance d can be approximately calculated as
FG d IJ −n
Pr = P0
Hd K
0
...(iii)

and in the dB expression as


FG d IJ
Pr(dB) = P0 (dB) − 10 n log
Hd K
0
...(iv)

where P0 is the power received at a close-in reference point in the far field region
at a small distance do from the transmitting antenna, and ‘n’ is the path loss
exponent. Let us calculate the SIR for this system. If Di is the distance of the i-th
interferer from the mobile, the received power at a given mobile due to i-th
interfering cell is proportional to (Di)–n (the value of ’n’ varies between 2 and 4
in urban cellular systems).
Let us take that the path loss exponent is same throughout the coverage area and
the transmitted power be same, then SIR can be approximated as

S = R−n
i0
...(v)
I
∑ Di − n
i =1

where the mobile is assumed to be located at R distance from the cell center.
UNIT-II
Question 4. ______________________________________________________
(a) Explain how dynamic channel assignment performs better than fixed channel
assignment, exclusively for mobile communication systems. Discuss about
various Subgroups in Dynamic channel assignment. (8)
(b) Write a short note on mobile antennas with Specific features. (4.5)
Solution.
(a) • In DCA schemes, all channels are kept in a central pool and are assigned
dynamically to new calls as they arrive in the system.
• After each call is completed, the channel is returned to the central pool. It
is fairly straight forward to select the most appropriate channel for any call
based simply on current allocation and current traffic, with the aim of
minimizing the interference.
DCA scheme can overcome the problem of FCA scheme. However, variations in
DCA schemes center around the different cost functions used for selecting one
of the candidate channels for assignment.
64 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

FCA DCA
• Performs better under heavy traffic. • Performs better under light/moderate traffic.
• Low flexibility in channel assignment. • Flexible channel allocation.
• Maximum channel reusability. • Not always maximum channel reusability.
• Sensitive to time and spatial changes. • Insensitive to time and time spatial
changes.
• Not stable grade of service per cell • Stable grade of service per cell in an
in an interference cell group. interference cell group.
• High forced call termination probability. • Low to moderate forced call termination
probability.
• Suitable for large cell environment. • Suitable in microcellular environment.
• Low flexibility • High flexibility.
DCA schemes can be centralized or distributed.
• The centralized DCA scheme involves a single controller selecting a channel
for each cell;
• The distributed DCA scheme involves a number of controllers scattered
across the network (MSCs).
• Centralized DCA schemes can theoretically provide the best performance.
However, the enormous amount of computation and communication among
BSs leads to excessive system latencies and renders centralized DCA
schemes impractical. Nevertheless, centralized DCA schemes often provide
a useful benchmark to compare practical decentralized DCA schemes.
(b) Mobile antennas are designed to be used for operation while in motion. Their
uses include pedestrian mobile operation while walking, bicycle-mounted
antennas for use while riding, and the most common form, automobile-mounted
antennas for use while driving.
Mobile antennas should not be confused with portable antennas, which are
designed to be easy to transport and set up, but are not used while in motion.
Question 5. ______________________________________________________
(a) Obtain the relation for mobile point to point propagation model over flat open
area. Draw the relevant sketch. (8)
(b) Discuss about various handoff strategies in mobile radio systems. (4.5)
Solution.
(a) The point-to-point transmission between the fixed stations over the water or flat
open land can be estimated as follows. The received power Pr can be expressed as
F 1 I 2 2
Pr = Pt H 4 πd / λ K 1 + a v e − jφ v exp ( j∆φ )

where Pt = the transmitted power


d = distance between two stations
λ = wavelength
av, φv = amplitude and phase of a complex reflection coefficient,
respectively.
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 65

∆φ is the phase caused by the path difference ∆d between the direct wave the
reflected wave, or

∆φ = β∆d = ∆d
λ
Pt
P0 =
( 4 πd / λ ) 2
Direct Wave
h1

h2
ve
Wa
H1 c ted h′2
fle
Re H2

“Propagation between two fixed stations over water or flat open land.”
(b) In cellular telecommunications, the term handover or handoff refers to the
process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel connected
to the core network to another channel. In satellite communications it is the
process of transferring satellite control responsibility from one earth station to
another without loss or interruption of service.
Types of Handoff:
• A hard handover is one in which the channel in the source cell is
released and only then the channel in the target cell is engaged. Thus
the connection to the source is broken before or ‘as’ the connection to
the target is made—for this reason such handovers are also known
as break-before-make. Hard handovers are intended to be instantaneous
in order to minimize the disruption to the call. A hard handover is
perceived by network engineers as an event during the call. It requires
the least processing by the network providing service. When the mobile
is between base stations, then the mobile can switch with any of the
base stations, so the base stations bounce the link with the mobile back
and forth. This is called ping-ponging.
A soft handover is one in which the channel in the source cell is retained
and used for a while in parallel with the channel in the target cell. In this
case the connection to the target is established before the connection to
the source is broken, hence this handover is called make-before-break.
The interval, during which the two connections are used in parallel, may
be brief or substantial. For this reason the soft handover is perceived by
network engineers as a state of the call, rather than a brief event. Soft
handovers may involve using connections to more than two cells:
connections to three, four or more cells can be maintained by one phone at
the same time. When a call is in a state of soft handover, the signal of the
best of all used channels can be used for the call at a given moment or all
the signals can be combined to produce a clearer copy of the signal. The
latter is more advantageous, and when such combining is performed both
in thedownlink (forward link) and the uplink (reverse link) the handover
is termed as softer. Softer handovers are possible when the cells involved
in the handovers have a single cell site.
66 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

UNIT-III
Question 6. ______________________________________________________
(a) Briefly discuss about Single error correcting Hamming codes with encoding
and decoding algorithm. (8)
(b) Explain the principle of “Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK)”
Modulation technique. (4.5)
Solution.
(a) In coding theory, Hamming(7, 4) is a linear error-correcting code that encodes
4 bits of data into 7 bits by adding 3parity bits. It is a member of a larger family
of Hamming codes, but the term Hamming code often refers to this specific code
that Richard W. Hamming introduced in 1950. At the time, Hamming worked
at Bell Telephone Laboratories and was frustrated with the error-prone punched
card reader, which is why he started working on error-correcting codes.
The Hamming code adds three additional check bits to every four data bits of
the message. Hamming’s (7,4) algorithmcan correct any single-bit error, or detect
all single-bit and two-bit errors. In other words, the minimal Hamming
distance between any two correct codewords is 3, and received words can be
correctly decoded if they are at a distance of at most one from the codeword that
was transmitted by the sender. This means that for transmission medium situations
where burst errors do not occur, Hamming’s (7,4) code is effective (as the medium
would have to be extremely noisy for 2 out of 7 bits to be flipped).
Algorithm: The following general algorithm generates a single-error
correcting (SEC) code for any number of bits.
1. Number the bits starting from 1: bit 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc.
2. Write the bit numbers in binary: 1, 10, 11, 100, 101, etc.
3. All bit positions that are powers of two (have only one 1 bit in the binary
form of their position) are parity bits: 1, 2, 4, 8, etc. (1, 10, 100, 1000)
4. All other bit positions, with two or more 1 bits in the binary form of their
position, are data bits.
5. Each data bit is included in a unique set of 2 or more parity bits, as
determined by the binary form of its bit position.
(i) Parity bit 1 covers all bit positions which have the least significant bit
set: bit 1 (the parity bit itself), 3, 5, 7, 9, etc.
(ii) Parity bit 2 covers all bit positions which have the second least significant
bit set: bit 2 (the parity bit itself), 3, 6, 7, 10, 11, etc.
(iii) Parity bit 4 covers all bit positions which have the third least significant
bit set: bits 4–7, 12–15, 20–23, etc.
(iv) Parity bit 8 covers all bit positions which have the fourth least
significant bit set: bits 8–15, 24–31, 40–47, etc.
(v) In general each parity bit covers all bits where the bitwise AND of the
parity position and the bit position is non-zero.
The form of the parity is irrelevant. Even parity is simpler from the perspective
of theoretical mathematics, but there is no difference in practice.
(b) In digital communication, Gaussian minimum shift keying or GMSK is a
continuous-phase frequency-shift keying modulation scheme. It is similar to
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 67

standard minimum-shift keying (MSK); however the digital data stream is


first shaped with a Gaussian filter before being applied to a frequency
modulator. This has the advantage of reducing sideband power, which in turn
reduces out-of-band interference between signal carriers in adjacent frequency
channels. However, the Gaussian filter increases the modulation memory in
the system and causes intersymbol interference, making it more difficult to
differentiate between different transmitted data values and requiring more
complex channel equalization algorithms such as an adaptive equalizer at
the receiver. GMSK has high spectral efficiency, but it needs a
higher power level than QPSK, for instance, in order to reliably transmit the
same amount of data.
GMSK is most notably used in the Global System for Mobile
Communications (GSM) and the Automatic Identification System (AIS) for
maritime navigation.
GMSK modulation is based on MSK, which is itself a form of continuous-
phase frequency-shift keying. One of the problems with standard forms of
PSK is that sidebands extend out from the carrier. To overcome this, MSK
and its derivative GMSK can be used.
MSK and also GMSK modulation are what is known as a continuous phase
scheme. Here there are no phase discontinuities because the frequency changes
occur at the carrier zero crossing points. This arises as a result of the unique
factor of MSK that the frequency difference between the logical one and logical
zero states is always equal to half the data rate. This can be expressed in terms of
the modulation index, and it is always equal to 0.5.

1 0 1 1

Data 0 Time

MSK 0 Time
Signal

Signal using MSK modulation: A plot of the spectrum of an MSK signal shows
sidebands extending well beyond a bandwidth equal to the data rate. This can
be reduced by passing the modulating signal through a low pass filter prior to
applying it to the carrier. The requirements for the filter are that it should have
a sharp cut-off, narrow bandwidth and its impulse response should show no
overshoot. The ideal filter is known as a Gaussian filter which has a Gaussian
shaped response to an impulse and no ringing. In this way the basic MSK signal
is converted to GMSK modulation.
Question 7. ______________________________________________________
(a) Explain the principle of OFDM and justify that OFDM based Systems are
bandwidth efficient. (8.5)
(b) Briefly discuss about Trellis diagram of a Convolution Encodes. (4)
68 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

Solution.
(a) OFDM: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, is a form of signal
modulation that divides a high data rate modulating stream placing them onto
many slowly modulated narrowband close-spaced subcarriers, and in this
way is less sensitive to frequency selective fading.
Principle: Conceptually, OFDM is a specialized FDM, the additional
constraint being: all the carrier signals are orthogonal to each other.
In OFDM, the sub-carrier frequencies are chosen so that the sub-carriers
are orthogonal to each other, meaning that cross-talk between the sub-
channels is eliminated and inter-carrier guard bands are not required. This
greatly simplifies the design of both the transmitter and the receiver; unlike
conventional FDM, a separate filter for each sub-channel is not required.
k
The orthogonality requires that the sub-carrier spacing is ∆f = Hertz,
TU
where T U seconds is the useful symbol duration (the receiver side window
size), and k is a positive integer, typically equal to 1. Therefore, with N sub-
carriers, the total passband bandwidth will be B ≈ N·∆f (Hz).
The orthogonality also allows high spectral efficiency, with a total symbol
rate near the Nyquist rate for the equivalent baseband signal (i.e. near half
the Nyquist rate for the double-side band physical passband signal). Almost
the whole available frequency band can be utilized. OFDM generally has a
nearly ‘white’ spectrum, giving it benign electromagnetic interference
properties with respect to other co-channel users.
ADSL (An example of OFDM based system): OFDM is used in ADSL
connections that follow the ANSI T1.413 and G.dmt (ITU G.992.1) standards,
where it is called discrete multitone modulation (DMT). DSL achieves high-
speed data connections on existing copper wires. OFDM is also used in the
successor standards ADSL2, ADSL2+, VDSL, VDSL2, and G.fast. ADSL2 uses
variable sub-carrier modulation, ranging from BPSK to 32768QAM (in ADSL
terminology this is referred to as bit-loading, or bit per tone, 1 to 15 bits per
sub-carrier).
Long copper wires suffer from attenuation at high frequencies. The fact that
OFDM can cope with this frequency selective attenuation and with narrow-
band interference are the main reasons it is frequently used in applications
such as ADSL modems. However, DSL cannot be used on every copper pair;
interference may become significant if more than 25% of phone lines coming
into a central office are used for DSL.
(b) Trellis Diagram Representation: The trellis diagram of a convolutional
code is obtained from its state diagram. All state transitions at each time step
are explicitly shown in the diagram to retain the time dimension, as is present
in the corresponding tree diagram. Usually, supporting descriptions on state
transitions, corresponding input and output bits etc. are labeled in the trellis
diagram. It is interesting to note that the trellis diagram, which describes the
operation of the encoder, is very convenient for describing the behavior of
the Version 2 ECE IIT, Kharagpur corresponding decoder, especially when
the famous ‘Viterbi Algorithm (VA)’ is followed.
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 69

Contents of shift Upper path, input 0 Outputs


register Lower path, input 1 (above
arrows)

A 00 B 00 D 00 H 00 L
a (00x)
11 11
11 11
C E I 10 M
10
b (10x)
01 01
01
01 01
F J N
c (01x) 10
10
10
11 11
G 00 K 00 O
d (11x)

UNIT-IV
Question 8. ______________________________________________________
(a) Draw the architecture model of GSM and explain the functinality of each
entity. (9.5)
(b) Discuss about Normal/Traffic burst of GSM. (3)
Solution.
(a) A GSM network consists of several functional entities, whose functions and
interfaces are defined. The GSM network can be divided into following broad
parts.
• The Mobile Station (MS)
• The Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
• The Network Switching Subsystem (NSS)
• The Operation Support Subsystem (OSS)
70 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

Mobile station: Mobile stations (MS), mobile equipment (ME) or as they are
most widely known, cell or mobile phones are the section of a GSM cellular
network that the user sees and operates. In recent years their size has fallen
dramatically while the level of functionality has greatly increased. A further
advantage is that the time between charges has significantly increased.
There are a number of elements to the cell phone, although the two main elements
are the main hardware and the SIM.
The hardware itself contains the main elements of the mobile phone including
the display, case, battery, and the electronics used to generate the signal, and
process the data receiver and to be transmitted. It also contains a number known
as the International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). This is installed in the
phone at manufacture and “cannot” be changed. It is accessed by the network
during registration to check whether the equipment has been reported as stolen.
Base Station Subsystem: GSM is a cellular network, which means that cell
phones connect to it by searching for cells in the immediate vicinity. There are
five different cell sizes in a GSM network—macro, micro, pico, femto,
and umbrella cells. The coverage area of each cell varies according to the
implementation environment. Macro cells can be regarded as cells where the base
station antenna is installed on a mast or a building above average rooftop level.
Micro cells are cells whose antenna height is under average rooftop level; they
are typically used in urban areas. Picocells are small cells whose coverage
diameter is a few dozen metres; they are mainly used indoors. Femtocells are
cells designed for use in residential or small business environments and connect
to the service provider’s network via a broadband internet connection. Umbrella
cells are used to cover shadowed regions of smaller cells and fill in gaps in
coverage between those cells.
Network Switching Subsystem (NSS): The GSM system architecture contains a
variety of different elements, and is often termed the core network. It provides
the main control and interfacing for the whole mobile network. The major
elements within the core network include:
• Mobile Switching services Centre (MSC): The main element within the
core network area of the overall GSM network architecture is the Mobile
switching Services Centre (MSC). The MSC acts like a normal switching
node within a PSTN or ISDN, but also provides additional functionality to
enable the requirements of a mobile user to be supported. These include
registration, authentication, call location, inter-MSC handovers and call
routing to a mobile subscriber. It also provides an interface to the PSTN so
that calls can be routed from the mobile network to a phone connected to
a landline. Interfaces to other MSCs are provided to enable calls to be
made to mobiles on different networks.
• Home Location Register (HLR): This database contains all the
administrative information about each subscriber along with their last
known location. In this way, the GSM network is able to route calls to the
relevant base station for the MS. When a user switches on their phone, the
phone registers with the network and from this it is possible to determine
which BTS it communicates with so that incoming calls can be routed
appropriately. Even when the phone is not active (but switched on) it re-
registers periodically to ensure that the network (HLR) is aware of its latest
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 71

position. There is one HLR per network, although it may be distributed


across various sub-centres to for operational reasons.
• Visitor Location Register (VLR): This contains selected information from
the HLR that enables the selected services for the individual subscriber to
be provided. The VLR can be implemented as a separate entity, but it is
commonly realised as an integral part of the MSC, rather than a separate
entity. In this way access is made faster and more convenient.
• Equipment Identity Register (EIR): The EIR is the entity that decides
whether a given mobile equipment may be allowed onto the network. Each
mobile equipment has a number known as the International Mobile
Equipment Identity. This number, as mentioned above, is installed in the
equipment and is checked by the network during registration. Dependent
upon the information held in the EIR, the mobile may be allocated one of
three states - allowed onto the network, barred access, or monitored in case
its problems.
• Authentication Centre (AuC): The AuC is a protected database that
contains the secret key also contained in the user’s SIM card. It is used for
authentication and for ciphering on the radio channel.
• Gateway Mobile Switching Centre (GMSC): The GMSC is the point to
which a ME terminating call is initially routed, without any knowledge of
the MS’s location. The GMSC is thus in charge of obtaining the MSRN
(Mobile Station Roaming Number) from the HLR based on the MSISDN
(Mobile Station ISDN number, the “directory number” of a MS) and routing
the call to the correct visited MSC. The “MSC” part of the term GMSC is
misleading, since the gateway operation does not require any linking to an
MSC.
• SMS Gateway (SMS-G): The SMS-G or SMS gateway is the term that is
used to collectively describe the two Short Message Services Gateways
defined in the GSM standards. The two gateways handle messages directed
in different directions. The SMS-GMSC (Short Message Service Gateway
Mobile Switching Centre) is for short messages being sent to an ME. The
SMS-IWMSC (Short Message Service Inter-Working Mobile Switching
Centre) is used for short messages originated with a mobile on that network.
The SMS-GMSC role is similar to that of the GMSC, whereas the SMS-
IWMSC provides a fixed access point to the Short Message Service Centre.
Operation and Support Subsystem (OSS): The OSS or operation support
subsystem is an element within the overall GSM network architecture that is
connected to components of the NSS and the BSC. It is used to control and
monitor the overall GSM network and it is also used to control the traffic load of
the BSS. It must be noted that as the number of BS increases with the scaling of
the subscriber population some of the maintenance tasks are transferred to the
BTS, allowing savings in the cost of ownership of the system.
(b) GSM Normal/Traffic Burst: This GSM burst is used for the standard
communications between the basestation and the mobile, and typically transfers
the digitised voice data.
The structure of the normal GSM burst is exactly defined and follows a common
format. It contains data that provides a number of different functions:
72 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

1. 3 tail bits: These tail bits at the start of the GSM burst give time for the
transmitter to ramp up its power
2. 57 data bits: This block of data is used to carry information, and most
often contains the digitised voice data although on occasions it may be
replaced with signalling information in the form of the Fast Associated
Control Channel (FACCH). The type of data is indicated by the flag that
follows the data field
3. 1 bit flag: This bit within the GSM burst indicates the type of data in the
previous field.
4. 26 bits training sequence: This training sequence is used as a timing
reference and for equalisation. There is a total of eight different bit sequences
that may be used, each 26 bits long. The same sequence is used in each
GSM slot, but nearby base stations using the same radio frequency channels
will use different ones, and this enables the mobile to differentiate between
the various cells using the same frequency.
5. 1 bit flag: Again this flag indicates the type of data in the data field.
6. 57 data bits: Again, this block of data within the GSM burst is used for
carrying data.
7. 3 tail bits: These final bits within the GSM burst are used to enable the
transmitter power to ramp down. They are often called final tail bits, or just
tail bits.
8. 8.25 bits guard time: At the end of the GSM burst there is a guard period.
This is introduced to prevent transmitted bursts from different mobiles
overlapping. As a result of their differing distances from the base station.
Question 9. ______________________________________________________
Briefly discuss about the following: (6 + 6.5)
(a) Mobility Management.
(b) Voice Signal processing and coding.
Solution.
(a) Mobility Management: Mobility Management contains the following:
Location Management:
• Search: find a mobile user’s current location.
• Update (Register): update a mobile user’s location.
• Location info: maintained at various granularities (cell vs. a group of cells
called a registration area).
• Research Issue: organization of location databases.
• Global Systems for Mobile (GSM) vs. Mobile IP vs. Wireless Mesh Networks
(WMN).
Handoff Management:
• Ensuring that a mobile user remains connected while moving from one
location (e.g., cell) to another.
• Packets are routed to the new location.
• Decide when to handoff to a new access point (AP).
• Select a new AP from among several APs.
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 73

• Acquire resources such as bandwidth channels (GSM), or a new IP address


(Mobile IP).
• Channel allocation is a research issue: goal may be to maximize channel
utilization, satisfy QoS, or maximize revenue generated.
• Inform the old AP to reroute packets and also to transfer state information
to the new AP.
• Packets are routed to the new AP.
(b) To reduce the bit-rate required for transmitting telephone quality speech, a new
approach to speech compression is needed. Current mobile phones compress to
about 13,000 b/s (bit per second) and we aim to achieve 4,000 b/s and lower
using a method called ‘DAP-STC’. Compression is generally achieved by
spectrally analysing speech segments to derive a model of the human speech
process.
DAP-STC is a new and potentially more accurate way of doing this with a modified
speech production model. A variable bit-rate version achieves an average 2,400
b/s and is suitable for packetised speech as may be transmitted over computer
networks.
Coding: The objective of speech coding is to achieve savings in the required
memory storage space, transmission bandwidth and transmission power by
reducing the number of bits per sample such that the decoded (decompressed)
speech is perceptually indistinguishable from the original speech.
High quality speech coders can achieve a big reduction in the bit rate by factor
of 13 or more (e.g. from 13 bits per sample to 1 bit per sample or less) with no
perceptible loss in quality or intelligibility. Specifically speech coding methods
achieve the following gains:
• A reduction in speech bit rate rb, or equivalently the same reduction in the
bandwidth (BW=k.rb) and the memory storage requirement both of which
are directly proportional to the bit rate.
• A reduction in the transmission power requirement because after
compression there are less bits (hence less energy) per second to transmit.
• Immunity to noise, as error control coding methods can be used to re
introduced some of the saved bits per sample in order to protect speech
parameters from channel noise and distortion.
Speech coding methods achieve a reduction in the bit rate by utilising the
physiology of speech production and the psychoacoustics of audio perception,
namely:
• Speech is a correlated signal; from an information theory point of view
successive speech samples contain a high level of common or redundant
information. The “redundancy” in natural speech provides pleasant sounds
and robustness to background noise, speaker variations and accents.
However, speech redundancy can be modelled and removed before
transmission and then reintroduced into speech at the receiver.
• Speech is generated by a relatively slowly-varying articulatory system.
Therefore, speech model parameters vary slowly and can be efficiently coded.
• Psychoacoustics of hearing. The threshold of hearing and the spectral and
temporal noise masking thresholds can be used to allocate just sufficient
number of bits to each subband in each speech frame to keep the coding
noise masked below the thresholds of hearing.
74 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

FIRS
FIRSTT TERM EXAMIN
EXAMINAATION
EIGHTH SEMESTER [B.TECH.], FEBRUARY 2013
MOBILE COMMUNIC
COMMUNICAATION (ETIT -402)
(ETIT-402)
Time : 1½ hours Maximum Marks : 30
Note: Attempt Q. No. 1 which is compulsory and any two more questions from the
remaining.
Question 1. ______________________________________________________
(a) What is the significance of frequency re-use? Write the formula showing
relationship between cell radius, frequency re-use distance and frequency re-
use factor?
(b) What is mean by hand-off. Why is it required?
(c) Why hexagonal shape is preferred over other call shapes in cellular network?
(d) Explain co- channel interference and how it can be minimized?
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 1(a) of End Term 2011.
(b) Refer to Question 8(b) of End Term 2011.
(c) Refer to Question 2(a) of End Term 2011.
(d) Refer to Question 3(a) of End Term 2011.
Question 2. ______________________________________________________
(a) Explain different performance criteria of a cellular mobile system with
emphasis on Grade of service.
(b) Prove that for a hexagonal geometry, the co-channel reuse distance is Q = 3N
2 2
where N = i + ij + j .
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 2(a) of End Term 2012.
(b) Refer to Question 3(b) of End Term 2011.
Question 3. ______________________________________________________
(a) What are the various steps involved in obtaining Mobile Point-to-Point Lee
Model use relevant expressions to support your answer.
(b) Write a note on: Effect of cell site on Antenna height.
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 4(a) of End Term 2010.
(b) Refer to Question 4(a) of End Term 2011.
Question 4. ______________________________________________________
(a) Explain how Q and S/I can affect the system capacity. Explain with one
example?
(b) Write short notes on any two:
(i) Foliage Loss
(ii) Multipath Fading
(iii) Role of BSC and MSC in hand-off.
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 75

Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 2(a) of End Term 2010.
(b) (i) Foliage Loss: Refer to Question 1(c) of End Term 2010.
(ii) Multipath Fading: Refer to Question 1(c) of End Term 2011.
(iii) Role of BSC and MSC in hand-off :
Handoff: The user movements may result a change in the channel/cell,
when the quality of the communication is degrading; this is known as
handoff. Handoffs occur between:
• between channels within a cell
• between cells controlled by the same BSC
• between cells under the same MSC but controlled by different BSCs
• between cells controlled by different MSCs.
Handoffs are mainly controlled by the MSC. However to avoid unnecessary
signalling, the first two types of handoffs are managed by the respective
BSC (thus, the MSC is only notified of the handoff).
To perform the handoff the mobile station controls continuously its own
signal strengh and the signal strength of the neighboring cells. The list of
cells that must be monitored by the mobile station is given by the base
station. Power measurements allow to decide which is the best cell in order
to maintain the quality of the communication link. Two basic algorithms
are used for handoffs:
• The ‘minimum acceptable performance’ algorithm. When the quality of
the transmission degrades, the power level of the mobile is increased,
until the increase of the power level has no effect on the quality of the
signal. Upon this link layer hint, a handoff is initiated.
• The ‘power budget’ algorithm. Here the handoff pre-empts the power
increase, to obtain a good SIR (Signal to Interference Ratio).

SE
SECC OND TERM EXAMIN
EXAMINAATION
EIGHTH SEMESTER [B.TECH.], APRIL 2013
MOBILE COMMUNIC
COMMUNICAATION (ETIT -402)
(ETIT-402)
Time : 1½ hours Maximum Marks : 30
Note: Attempt Q. No. 1 which is compulsory and any two more questions from the
remaining.
Question 1. ______________________________________________________
(a) Distinguish between dropped calls and terminated calls?
(b) What is the difference between convolutional code and linear block code?
Explain with block diagram.
(c) What are the different types of hand-offs?
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 5(b) of End Term 2010.
(b) Refer to Question 9(b) of End Term 2011.
76 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

(c) Types of hand-offs: In addition to the above classification of inter-cell and


intra-cell classification of handovers, they also can be divided into hard and
soft handovers:
• A hard handover is one in which the channel in the source cell is released
and only then the channel in the target cell is engaged. Thus the connection
to the source is broken before or ‘as’ the connection to the target is made-
for this reason such handovers are also known as break-before-make. Hard
handovers are intended to be instantaneous in order to minimize the
disruption to the call. A hard handover is perceived by network engineers
as an event during the call. It requires the least processing by the network
providing service. When the mobile is between base stations, then the
mobile can switch with any of the base stations, so the base stations bounce
the link with the mobile back and forth. This is called ping-ponging.
• A soft handover is one in which the channel in the source cell is retained
and used for a while in parallel with the channel in the target cell. In this
case the connection to the target is established before the connection to
the source is broken, hence this handover is called make-before-break. The
interval, during which the two connections are used in parallel, may be
brief or substantial. For this reason the soft handover is perceived by network
engineers as a state of the call, rather than a brief event. Soft handovers
may involve using connections to more than two cells: connections to
three, four or more cells can be maintained by one phone at the same time.
When a call is in a state of soft handover, the signal of the best of all used
channels can be used for the call at a given moment or all the signals can be
combined to produce a clearer copy of the signal. The latter is more
advantageous, and when such combining is performed both in the downlink
(forward link) and the uplink (reverse link) the handover is termed as softer.
Softer handovers are possible when the cells involved in the handovers
have a single cell site.
Question 2. ______________________________________________________
(a) Write short note on Turbo codes.
(b) What are the different digital modulation techniques? Compare QPSK and
BPSK.
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 9(b)(ii) of End Term 2011.
(b) Refer to Question 7(b) of End Term 2011.
Question 3. ______________________________________________________
(a) What do you mean by term spread spectrum. What are the features and
advantages of spread spectrum wireless system?
(b) What are the different channel assignment techniques?
Solution.
(a) Spread-spectrum techniques are methods by which a signal (e.g. an electrical,
electromagnetic, or acoustic signal) generated with a particular bandwidth is
deliberately spread in the frequency domain, resulting in a signal with a wider
bandwidth. These techniques are used for a variety of reasons, including the
establishment of secure communications, increasing resistance to natural
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 77

interference, noise and jamming, to prevent detection, and to limit power flux
density (e.g. in satellite downlinks).
Spread-spectrum telecommunications This is a technique in which a telecommuni-
cation signal is transmitted on a bandwidth considerably larger than thefrequency
content of the original information. Frequency hopping is a basic modulation
technique used in spread spectrum signal transmission.
Advantages of Spread Spectrum: Spread-spectrum systems provide some clear
advantages to designers. As a recap, here are nine benefits that designers can
expect when using a spread-spectrum-based wireless system.
1. Reduced crosstalk interference: In spread-spectrum systems, crosstalk
interference is greatly attenuated due to the processing gain of the spread
spectrum system as described earlier. The effect of the suppressed crosstalk
interference can be essentially removed with digital processing where noise
below certain threshold results in negligible bit errors. These negligible
bit errors will have little effect on voice transmissions.
2. Better voice quality/data integrity and less static noise: Due to the
processing gain and digital processing nature of spread spectrum
technology, a spread-spectrum-based system is more immune to interference
and noise. This greatly reduces consumer electronic device-induced static
noise that is commonly experienced by conventional analog wireless system
users.
3. Lowered susceptibility to multipath fading: Because of its inherent
frequency diversity properties (thanks to wide spectrum spread), a spread
spectrum system is much less susceptible to multipath fading.
4. Inherent security: In a spread spectrum system, a PN sequence is used to
either modulate the signal in the time domain (direct sequence systems) or
select the carrier frequency (frequency hopping systems). Due to the pseudo-
random nature of the PN sequence, the signal in the air has been
“randomized”. Only the receiver having the exact same pseudo-random
sequence and synchronous timing can de-spread and retrieve the original
signal. Consequently, a spread spectrum system provides signal security
that is not available to conventional analog wireless systems.
5. Co-existence: A spread spectrum system is less susceptible to interference
than other non-spread spectrum systems. In addition, with the proper
designing of pseudo-random sequences, multiple spread spectrum systems
can co-exist without creating severe interference to other systems. This
further increases the system capacity for spread spectrum systems or devices.
6. Longer operating distances: A spread spectrum device operated in the
ISM band is allowed to have higher transmit power due to its non-
interfering nature. Because of the higher transmit power, the operating
distance of such a device can be significantly longer than that of a
traditional analog wireless communication device.
7. Hard to detect: Spread-spectrum signals are much wider than conventional
narrowband transmission (of the order of 20 to 254 times the bandwidth of
narrowband transmissions). Since the communication band is spread, it
can be transmitted at a low power without being detrimentally by
background noise. This is because when de-spreading takes place, the
noise at one frequency is rejected, leaving the desired signal.
78 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

8. Hard to intercept or demodulate: The very foundation of the spreading


technique is the code use to spread the signal. Without knowing the code
it is impossible to decipher the transmission. Also, because the codes are so
long (and quick) simply viewing the code would still be next to impossible
to solve the code, hence interception is very hard.
9. Harder to jam: The most important feature of spread spectrum is its ability
to reject interference. At first glance, it may be considered that spread
spectrum would be most effected by interference. However, any signal is
spread in the bandwidth, and after it passes through the correlator, the
bandwidth signal is equal to its original bandwidth, plus the bandwidth of
the local interference. An interference signal with 2 MHz bandwidth being
input into a direct-sequence receiver whose signal is 10 MHz wide gives
an output from the correlator of 12 MHz. The wider the interference
bandwidth, the wider the output signal. Thus the wider the input signal,
the less its effect on the system because the power density of the signal
after processing is lower, and less power falls in the band pass filter.
(b) Refer to Question 5(a) of End Term 2012.
Question 4. ______________________________________________________
(a) What are the two functions performed by an antenna. When we design a cellular
system. What should be the characteristics of antenna.
(b) Write short note on any two:
(i) OFDM
(ii) GPRS
(iii) Error Detection and Correction.
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 9(a)(i) of End Term 2012.
(b) (i) OFDM: Refer to Question 1(c) of End Term 2011.
(ii) GPRS: GPRS: General packet radio service (GPRS) is a packet oriented
mobile data service on the 2G and 3G cellular communication system's
global system for mobile communications (GSM). GPRS usage is typically
charged based on volume of data transferred, contrasting with circuit
switched data, which is usually billed per minute of connection time. Usage
above the bundle cap is either charged per megabyte or disallowed.
GPRS is a best-effort service, implying variable throughput and latency
that depend on the number of other users sharing the service concurrently,
as opposed to circuit switching, where a certain quality of service (QoS) is
guaranteed during the connection. In 2G systems, GPRS provides data
rates of 56-114 kbit/second. 2G cellular technology combined with GPRS
is sometimes described as2.5G, that is, a technology between the second
(2G) and third (3G) generations of mobile telephony. It provides moderate-
speed data transfer, by using unused time division multiple access (TDMA)
channels in, for example, the GSM system. GPRS is integrated into GSM
Services offered: GPRS extends the GSM Packet circuit switched data
capabilities and makes the following services possible:
• SMS messaging and broadcasting
• “Always on” internet access
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 79

• Multimedia messaging service (MMS)


• Push to talk over cellular (PoC)
• Instant messaging and presence-wireless village
• Internet applications for smart devices through wireless application
protocol (WAP)
• Point-to-point (P2P) service: inter-networking with the Internet (IP)
• Point-to-Multipoint (P2M) service: point-to-multipoint multicast and
point-to-multipoint group calls.
If SMS over GPRS is used, an SMS transmission speed of about 30 SMS
messages per minute may be achieved. This is much faster than using the
ordinary SMS over GSM, whose SMS transmission speed is about 6 to 10
SMS messages per minute.
Protocols supported: GPRS supports the following protocols:
• Internet protocol (IP). In practice, built-in mobile browsers use IPv4
since IPv6 was not yet popular.
• Point-to-point protocol (PPP). In this mode PPP is often not supported
by the mobile phone operator but if the mobile is used as a modem to the
connected computer, PPP is used to tunnel IP to the phone. This allows
an IP address to be assigned dynamically (IPCP not DHCP) to the mobile
equipment.
• X.25 connections. This is typically used for applications like wireless
payment terminals, although it has been removed from the standard. X.25
can still be supported over PPP, or even over IP, but doing this requires
either a network-based router to perform encapsulation or intelligence built
into the end-device/terminal; e.g., user equipment (UE).
When TCP/IP is used, each phone can have one or more IP addresses
allocated. GPRS will store and forward the IP packets to the phone even
during handover. The TCP handles any packet loss (e.g. due to a radio
noise induced pause).
(iii) Error Detection and Correction:
• Error detection is the detection of errors caused by noise or other
impairments during transmission from the transmitter to the receiver.
Summer is another name for error detection.
• Error correction is the detection of errors and reconstruction of the
original, error-free data.
Error detection schemes
Repetition codes: A repetition code is a coding scheme that repeats the
bits across a channel to achieve error-free communication. Given a stream
of data to be transmitted, the data is divided into blocks of bits. Each block
is transmitted some predetermined number of times. For example, to send
the bit pattern "1011", the four-bit block can be repeated three times, thus
producing "1011 1011 1011". However, if this twelve-bit pattern was
received as "1010 1011 1011" - where the first block is unlike the other
two - it can be determined that an error has occurred.
Repetition codes are very inefficient, and can be susceptible to problems if
the error occurs in exactly the same place for each group (e.g., "1010 1010
1010" in the previous example would be detected as correct). The advantage
80 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

of repetition codes is that they are extremely simple, and are in fact used in
some transmissions of numbers stations.
Parity bits: A parity bit is a bit that is added to a group of source bits to
ensure that the number of set bits (i.e., bits with value 1) in the outcome is
even or odd. It is a very simple scheme that can be used to detect single or
any other odd number (i.e., three, five, etc.) of errors in the output. An even
number of flipped bits will make the parity bit appear correct even though
the data is erroneous.
Extensions and variations on the parity bit mechanism are horizontal
redundancy checks, vertical redundancy checks, and "double," "dual," or
"diagonal" parity (used in RAID-DP).
Checksums: A checksum of a message is a modular arithmetic sum of
message code words of a fixed word length (e.g., byte values). The sum
may be negated by means of a ones'-complement operation prior to
transmission to detect errors resulting in all-zero messages.
Checksum schemes include parity bits, check digits, and longitudinal
redundancy checks. Some checksum schemes, such as theDamm algorithm,
the Luhn algorithm, and the Verhoeff algorithm, are specifically designed
to detect errors commonly introduced by humans in writing down or
remembering identification numbers.
Cyclic redundancy checks (CRCs): A cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is
a single-burst-error-detecting cyclic code and non-secure hash function
designed to detect accidental changes to digital data in computer networks.
It is not suitable for detecting maliciously introduced errors. It is
characterized by specification of a so-called generator polynomial, which
is used as the divisor in a polynomial long division over a finite field,
taking the input data as the dividend, and where the remainder becomes
the result.
Cyclic codes have favorable properties in that they are well suited for
detecting burst errors. CRCs are particularly easy to implement in hardware,
and are therefore commonly used in digital networks and storage devices
such as hard disk drives.
Even parity is a special case of a cyclic redundancy check, where the
single-bit CRC is generated by the divisor x + 1.
Cryptographic hash functions: The output of a cryptographic hash
function, also known as a message digest, can provide strong assurances
about data integrity, whether changes of the data are accidental (e.g., due
to transmission errors) or maliciously introduced. Any modification to the
data will likely be detected through a mismatching hash value. Furthermore,
given some hash value, it is infeasible to find some input data (other than
the one given) that will yield the same hash value. If an attacker can change
not only the message but also the hash value, then akeyed hash or message
authentication code (MAC) can be used for additional security. Without
knowing the key, it is infeasible for the attacker to calculate the correct
keyed hash value for a modified message.
Error correction:
Automatic repeat request: Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) is an error
control method for data transmission that makes use of error-detection
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 81

codes, acknowledgment and/or negative acknowledgment messages, and


timeouts to achieve reliable data transmission. An acknowledgmentis a
message sent by the receiver to indicate that it has correctly received a
data frame.
Usually, when the transmitter does not receive the acknowledgment before
the timeout occurs (i.e., within a reasonable amount of time after sending
the data frame), it retransmits the frame until it is either correctly received
or the error persists beyond a predetermined number of retransmissions.
Three types of ARQ protocols are Stop-and-wait ARQ, Go-Back-N ARQ,
and Selective Repeat ARQ. ARQ is appropriate if the communication
channel has varying or unknown capacity, such as is the case on the Internet.
However, ARQ requires the availability of a back channel, results in possibly
increased latency due to retransmissions, and requires the maintenance of
buffers and timers for retransmissions, which in the case of network
congestion can put a strain on the server and overall network capacity.
Error-correcting code: An error-correcting code (ECC) or forward error
correction (FEC) code is a system of adding redundant data, or parity data,
to a message, such that it can be recovered by a receiver even when a
number of errors (up to the capability of the code being used) were
introduced, either during the process of transmission, or on storage. Since
the receiver does not have to ask the sender for retransmission of the data,
a back-channel is not required in forward error correction, and it is therefore
suitable for simplex communication such as broadcasting. Error-correcting
codes are frequently used in lower-layer communication, as well as for reliable
storage in media such as CDs, DVDs, hard disks, and RAM.

END TERM EXAMIN


EXAMINAATION
EIGHTH SEMES TER [B.TE
SEMESTER CH.], MA
[B.TECH.], MAYY -JUNE 20 13
201
MOBILE COMMUNIC
COMMUNICA ATION (ETIT -402)
(ETIT-402)
Time : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 75
Note: Attempt any five question including Question no. 1 which is compulsory. Select
one question from each unit.
Question 1. ______________________________________________________
(a) Justify the need of Directional antenna systems for cellular radio system.
(b) Deduce the relations for capacity and spectral efficiency of CDMA based systems.
(c) Differentiate between soft handoff and hard handoff.
(d) Explain the principle theory of turbo coding.
(e) Give the burst format of GSM Traffic Channel.
(f) What is Foliage loss and how it affects the mobile radio propagation.
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 1(h) of End Term 2012.
(b) Refer to CDMA Based Systems.
(c) A hard handover is one in which the channel in the source cell is released and
only then the channel in the target cell is engaged. Thus the connection to the
82 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

source is broken before or ‘as’ the connection to the target is made-for this
reason such handovers are also known as break-before-make. Hard handovers
are intended to be instantaneous in order to minimize the disruption to the call.
A hard handover is perceived by network engineers as an event during the call.
It requires the least processing by the network providing service. When the
mobile is between base stations, then the mobile can switch with any of the base
stations, so the base stations bounce the link with the mobile back and forth.
This is called ping-ponging.
A soft handover is one in which the channel in the source cell is retained and
used for a while in parallel with the channel in the target cell. In this case the
connection to the target is established before the connection to the source is
broken, hence this handover is called make-before-break. The interval, during
which the two connections are used in parallel, may be brief or substantial. For
this reason the soft handover is perceived by network engineers as a state of the
call, rather than a brief event. Soft handovers may involve using connections to
more than two cells: connections to three, four or more cells can be maintained
by one phone at the same time. When a call is in a state of soft handover, the
signal of the best of all used channels can be used for the call at a given moment
or all the signals can be combined to produce a clearer copy of the signal. The
latter is more advantageous, and when such combining is performed both in the
downlink (forward link) and the uplink (reverse link) the handover is termed as
softer. Softer handovers are possible when the cells involved in the handovers
have a single cell site.
(d) Refer to Question 1(f) of End Term 2012.
(e) Refer to Question 8(c) of End Term 2011.
(f) Refer to Question 1(c) of End Term 2012.
Question 2. ______________________________________________________
Draw the basic architecture of cellular radio system. Discuss about the functionality
of each block in detail?
Briefly discuss about the overview of different generations of cellular system.
Solution.
(a) Cellular Networks:
• Cellular networks are wireless WAN that establish a connection between
mobile users.
• The network is comprised of many cells that typically cover 2 to 20 miles
in area.
• The communications are wireless within the cell only.
• Many initial cellular network were predominantly analog because they
were primarily targeted for voice users.
• The use of cellular networks to support digital applications is increasing
rapidly.
Cellular Concept:
• Another advanced of several small cells instead of a single transmitters =>
frequency reuse: better efficiency.
• R cell radius and
• D distance at which a frequency can be reused with acceptable interference.
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 83

Cellular Network Organization: Areas divided into cells


• Each served by its own antenna
• Served by base station consisting of transmitter, receiver, and control unit.
• Band of frequencies allocated
• Cells set up such that antennas of all neighbours are equidistant (hexagonal
pattern)
Cellular System Overview:

Cellular Systems Terms:


• Base Transceiver Station (BTS) also known as Base Station (BS)– includes
an antenna, a controller, and a number of receivers.
• Mobile telecommunications switching center (MTSC) also known as
Mobile Switching Center (MSC)– connects calls between mobile units.
• Two types of channels available between mobile unit and BS
(i) Control channels: Used to exchange information having to do with
setting up and maintaining calls
(ii) Traffic channels: Carry voice or data connection between users.
First Generation:
• First-generation cellular networks were introduced in the 1980s are
primarily intended for voice.
• These networks are very slow less than 1 kilobits per sec (kbps).
• he key idea of 1G cellular networks is that the geographical area is divided
into cells, each served by a base station. Cells are so small that frequency
reuse is possible in the near by cells.
• They are primarily based on analog communications.
• Each phone has 32 bit serial number and 10 digit phone number in its
PROM.
84 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

Security Issues with 1G:


• Analog cellular phones are insecure.
• Anyone with an all-band radio receiver can listen in to the conversation.
There are also theft of airtime.
• A thief uses an all-band radio receiver that is connected to a computer. This
computer can record the 32-bit serial numbers and phone numbers of
subscribers when calling.
• The thieves can collect a large database by driving around and then can go
into business reprogramming stolen phones and reselling them.
Second Generation:
• Second generation cellular network introduced in 1980s, are based on
digital transmission.
• Primarily intended for voice they also support fax and email services at
low bit-rate (8 to 9 kbps).
• The higher 2G systems use GSM (Global System For Mobile
Communication) and low-tier system is intended for low-cost, low-power,
low-mobility.
• Digital transmission offer several benefits over analog:
(i) Voice, data such as email and fax can be integrated into a single system.
(ii) Better compression can lead to a better channel utilization.
(iii) Error correction code can be used for better quality.
(iv) Sophisticated encryption can be used.
Differences Between First and Second Generation Systems:
• Digital traffic channels: First generation systems are almost purely analog;
second-generation systems are digital.
• Encryption: All second generation systems provide encryption to prevent
eavesdropping.
• Error detection and correction: Second generation digital traffic allows
for detection and correction, giving clear voice reception.
• Channel access: Second-generation systems allow channels to be
dynamically shared by a number of users.
Question 3. ______________________________________________________
Deduce the relation for co-channel interference in terms of frequency reuse ratio
from first principles. Assume that all sites are of same area and radiating equal power.
Solution.
Refer to Question 3(a) of End Term 2011.
Question 4. ______________________________________________________
(a) Discuss about point to point prediction model of mobile radio channel?
(b) What are the typical characteristics of mobile radio antennas?
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 4(a) of End Term 2010.
(b) Refer to Question 4(b) of End Term 2012.
Question 5. ______________________________________________________
(a) Discuss about various frequency management strategies of cellular radio
networks. Discuss about the better strategy to deal with handoffs.
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 85

(b) Differentiate between call dropping probability and call blocking probability
of mobile radio networks.
Solution.
(a) There are two types of strategies that are followed:-
1. Fixed: FCA (fixed channel allocation): Manually assigned by the network
operator
2. Dynamic:
(a) DCA (dynamic channel allocation)
(b) DFS (dynamic frequency selection)
(c) Spread spectrum
FCA: In Fixed Channel Allocation or Fixed Channel Assignment (FCA) each
cell is given a predetermined set of frequency channels. FCA requires manual
frequency planning, which is an arduous task in TDMA and FDMA based
systems, since such systems are highly sensitive to co-channel interference
from nearby cells that are reusing the same channel. Another drawback with
TDMA andFDMA systems with FCA is that the number of channels in the cell
remains constant irrespective of the number of customers in that cell. This
result in traffic congestion and some calls being lost when traffic gets heavy in
some cells, and idle capacity in other cells.
If FCA is combined with conventional FDMA and perhaps or TDMA, a
fixed number of voice channels can be transferred over the cell. A new call
can only be connected by an unused channel. If all the channel are occupied
than the new call is blocked in this system. There are however several
dynamic radio-resource management schemes that can be combined with
FCA. A simple form is traffic-adaptive handover threshold, implying that
calls from cell phones situated in the overlap between two adjacent cells
can be forced to make handover to the cell with lowest load for the moment.
If FCA is combined with spread spectrum, the maximum number of channels
is not fixed in theory, but in practice a maximum limit is applied, since too
many calls would cause too high co-channel interference level, causing
the quality to be problematic. Spread spectrum allows cell breathing to be
applied, by allowing an overloaded cell to borrow capacity (maximum
number of simultaneous calls in the cell) from a nearby cell that is sharing
the same frequency.
FCA can be extended into a DCA system by using a borrowing strategy in
which a cell can borrow channels from neighboring cell which is supervised
by Mobile Switching Center (MSC).
DCA and DFS: Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) may be applied in
wireless networks with several adjacent non-centrally controlled access-
points. The access-points automatically selects a frequency channel with
low interference level. DFS is supported by the novel IEEE 802.11h wireless
local area network standard. DFS is also mandated in the 5470-5725 MHz
U-NII band for radar avoidance.
A more efficient way of channel allocation would be Dynamic Channel
Allocation or Dynamic Channel Assignment (DCA) in which voice channel
are not allocated to cell permanently, instead for every call request base
station request channel from MSC. The channel is allocated following an
86 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

algorithm which accounts likelihood of future blocking within the cell. It


requires the MSC to collect real time data on channel occupancy, traffic
distribution and Received Signal Strength Indications (RSSI). DCA schemes
are suggested for TDMA/FDMA based cellular systems such as GSM, but
are currently not used in any products.[citation needed] OFDMA systems,
such as the downlink of 4G cellular systems, can be considered as carrying out
DCA for each individual sub-carrier as well as each timeslot.
DCA and DFS eliminate the tedious manual frequency planning work.
DCA also handles bursty cell traffic and utilizes the cellular radio resources
more efficiently. DCA allows the number of channels in a cell to vary with
the traffic load, hence increasing channel capacity with little costs.
Spread spectrum: Spread spectrum can be considered as an alternative to
complex DCA algorithms. Spread spectrum avoids cochannel interference
between adjacent cells, since the probability that users in nearby cells use
the same spreading code is insignificant. Thus the frequency channel
allocation problem is relaxed in cellular networks based on a combination
of Spread spectrum and FDMA, for example IS95 and 3G systems. Spread
spectrum also facilitate that centrally controlled base stations dynamically
borrow resources from each other depending on the traffic load, simply by
increasing the maximum allowed number of simultaneous users in one cell
(the maximum allowed interference level from the users in the cell), and
decreasing it in an adjacent cell. Users in the overlap between the base
station coverage area can be transferred between the cells (called cell-
breathing), or the traffic can be regulated by admission control and traffic-
shaping.
However, spread spectrum gives lower spectral efficiency than non-spread
spectrum techniques, if the channel allocation in the latter case is optimized
by a good DCA scheme. Especially OFDM modulation is an interesting
alternative to spread spectrum because of its ability to combat multipath
propagation for wideband channels without complex equalization. OFDM
can be extended with OFDMA for uplink multiple access among users in
the same cell. For avoidance of inter-cell interference, FDMA with DCA or
DFS is once again of interest. One example of this concept is the above
mentioned IEEE 802.11h standard. OFDM and OFDMA with DCA is often
studied as an alternative for 4G wireless systems.
(b) Refer to Question 5(b) of End Term 2010.
Question 6. ______________________________________________________
Discuss about the following w.r.t convolutional codes:
(a) Tree Diagram
(b) State Diagram
(c) Trellis Diagram.
Solution.
(a) Tree Diagram:
• Note that the tree diagram in the right repeat itself after the third stage.
• This is consistent with the fact that the constraint length K = 3.
• The output sequence at each stage is determined by the input bit and the
two previous input bits.
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 87

• In other words, we may sat that the 3-bit output sequence for each input bit
is determined by the input bit and the four possible states of the shift
register, denoted as a = 00, b = 01, c = 10 and d = 11.
(b) State Diagram:

(c) Trellis Diagram: Refer to Question 7(a) of End Term 2012.


Question 7. ______________________________________________________
(a) Obtain the relation for probability of error of BPSK modulation system.
(b) Discuss about spectral efficiency of TDMA based systems and obtain the relation
for the same.
Solution.
(a) Binary phase-shift keying (BPSK): BPSK (also sometimes called PRK, phase
reversal keying, or 2PSK) is the simplest form of phase shift keying (PSK). It
uses two phases which are separated by 180° and so can also be termed 2-PSK. It
does not particularly matter exactly where the constellation points are positioned,
and in this figure they are shown on the real axis, at 0° and 180°. This modulation
is the most robust of all the PSKs since it takes the highest level of noise or
distortion to make the demodulator reach an incorrect decision. It is, however,
only able to modulate at 1 bit/symbol (as seen in the figure) and so is unsuitable
for high data-rate applications.
In the presence of an arbitrary phase-shift introduced by the communications
channel, the demodulator is unable to tell which constellation point is which.
As a result, the data is often differentially encoded prior to modulation.
BPSK is functionally equivalent to 2-QAM modulation.
Implementation: The general form for BPSK follows the equation:
2E b
Sn(t) = cos(2π f c t + π(1 − n)), n = 0,1.
Tb
This yields two phases, 0 and π. In the specific form, binary data is often conveyed
with the following signals:
2E b 2E b
S0(t) = cos(2πf c t + π) = − cos(2π f c t) for binary “0”
Tb Tb

2E b
S1(t) = cos(2π f c t) for binary “1”
Tb
where fc is the frequency of the carrier-wave.
88 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

Hence, the signal-space can be represented by the single basis function


2E b
φ(t) = cos(2π f c t)
Tb

where 1 is represented by E b φ(t) and 0 represented by –√Ebφ(t). This assignment


is, of course, arbitrary.
This use of this basis function is shown at the end of the next section in a signal
timing diagram. The topmost signal is a BPSK-modulated cosine wave that the
BPSK modulator would produce. The bit-stream that causes this output is shown
above the signal (the other parts of this figure are relevant only to QPSK).
The bit error rate (BER) of BPSK in AWGN can be calculated as:
 2E b  1  Eb 
Pb =   or Pb = erfc  
 N0  2  N0 
Since there is only one bit per symbol, this is also the symbol error rate.
(b) Refer to Question 7(b) of End Term 2012.
Question 8. ______________________________________________________
(a) Give the salient features of Second Generation Cellular System?
(b) Discuss about mobility management in GSM network.
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 2(b) of End Term 2013.
(b) Mobility management is one of the major functions of a GSM or a UMTS network
that allows mobile phones to work. The aim of mobility management is to track
where the subscribers are, allowing calls, SMS and other mobile phone services
to be delivered to them.
Location update procedure: A GSM or UMTS network, like all cellular
networks, is a radio network of individual cells, known as base stations. Each
base station covers a small geographical area which is part of a uniquely identified
location area. By integrating the coverage of each of these base stations, a
cellular network provides a radio coverage over a much wider area. A group of
base stations is named a location area, or arouting area.
The location update procedure allows a mobile device to inform the cellular
network, whenever it moves from one location area to the next. Mobiles are
responsible for detecting location area codes. When a mobile finds that the
location area code is different from its last update, it performs another update by
sending to the network, a location update request, together with its previous
location, and its Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI).
There are several reasons why a mobile may provide updated location information
to the network. Whenever a mobile is switched on or off, the network may
require it to perform an IMSI attach or IMSI detach location update procedure.
Also, each mobile is required to regularly report its location at a set time interval
using a periodic location update procedure. Whenever a mobile moves from one
location area to the next while not on a call, a random location update is required.
This is also required of a stationary mobile that reselects coverage from a cell in
a different location area, because of signal fade. Thus a subscriber has reliable
access to the network and may be reached with a call, while enjoying the freedom
of mobility within the whole coverage area.
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 89

When a subscriber is paged in an attempt to deliver a call or SMS and the


subscriber does not reply to that page then the subscriber is marked as absent in
both the Mobile Switching Center / Visitor Location Register (MSC/VLR) and
the Home Location Register (HLR) (Mobile not reachable flag MNRF is set).
The next time the mobile performs a location update the HLR is updated and the
mobile not reachable flag is cleared.
TMSI: The Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) is the identity that is
most commonly sent between the mobile and the network. TMSI is randomly
assigned by the VLR to every mobile in the area, the moment it is switched on.
The number is local to a location area, and so it has to be updated each time the
mobile moves to a new geographical area.
The network can also change the TMSI of the mobile at any time. And it normally
does so, in order to avoid the subscriber from being identified, and tracked by
eavesdroppers on the radio interface. This makes it difficult to trace which mobile
is which, except briefly, when the mobile is just switched on, or when the data in
the mobile becomes invalid for one reason or another. At that point, the global
"international mobile subscriber identity" (IMSI) must be sent to the network.
The IMSI is sent as rarely as possible, to avoid it being identified and tracked.
A key use of the TMSI is in paging a mobile. "Paging" is the one-to-one
communication between the mobile and the base station. The most important use of
broadcast information is to set up channels for "paging". Every cellular system has
a broadcast mechanism to distribute such information to a plurality of mobiles.
Roaming: Roaming is one of the fundamental mobility management procedures
of all cellular networks. Roaming is defined as the ability for acellular customer
to automatically make and receive voice calls, send and receive data, or access
other services, including home data services, when travelling outside the
geographical coverage area of the home network, by means of using a visited
network. This can be done by using a communication terminal or else just by
using the subscriber identity in the visited network. Roaming is technically
supported by mobility management, authentication, authorization and billing
procedures.
Location area: A "location area" is a set of base stations that are grouped together
to optimise signalling. Typically, tens or even hundreds of base stations share a
single Base Station Controller (BSC) in GSM, or a Radio Network Controller
(RNC) in UMTS, the intelligence behind the base stations. The BSC handles
allocation of radio channels, receives measurements from the mobile phones,
controls handovers from base station to base station.
To each location area, a unique number called a "location area code" is assigned.
The location area code is broadcast by each base station, known as a "base
transceiver station" BTS in GSM, or a Node B in UMTS, at regular intervals.
If the location areas are very large, there will be many mobiles operating
simultaneously, resulting in very high paging traffic, as every paging request
has to be broadcast to every base station in the location area. This wastes
bandwidth and power on the mobile, by requiring it to listen for broadcast
messages too much of the time. If on the other hand, there are too many small
location areas, the mobile must contact the network very often for changes of
location, which will also drain the mobile's battery. A balance has therefore to
be struck[citation needed].
90 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

Routing area: The routing area is the PS domain equivalent of the location area.
A "routing area" is normally a subdivision of a "location area". Routing areas are
used by mobiles which are GPRS-attached. GPRS is optimized for "bursty" data
communication services, such as wireless internet/intranet, and multimedia
services. It is also known as GSM-IP ("Internet Protocol") because it will connect
users directly toInternet Service Providers
The bursty nature of packet traffic means that more paging messages are expected
per mobile, and so it is worth knowing the location of the mobile more accurately
than it would be with traditional circuit-switched traffic. A change from routing
area to routing area (called a "Routing Area Update") is done in an almost identical
way to a change from location area to location area. The main differences are
that the "Serving GPRS Support Node" (SGSN) is the element involved.
Tracking area: The tracking area is the LTE counterpart of the location area
and routing area. A tracking area is a set of cells. Tracking areas can be grouped
into lists of tracking areas (TA lists), which can be configured on the User
Equipment (UE). Tracking area updates are performed periodically or when the
UE moves to a tracking area that is not included in its TA list.
Operators can allocate different TA lists to different UEs. This can avoid signaling
peaks in some conditions: for instance, the UEs of passengers of a train may not
perform tracking area updates simultaneously.
On the network side, the involved element is the Mobility Management Entity
(MME). MME configures TA lists using NAS messages like Attach Accept, TAU
Accept or GUTI Reallocation Command.
Question 9. ______________________________________________________
(a) Write short note on IS-95 mobile radio network.
(b) Discuss about various logical channels used in GSM.
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 9(b) of End Term 2012.
(b) Refer to Question 6(a) of End Term 2010.

FIRS
FIRSTT TERM EXAMIN
EXAMINAATION
EIGHTH SEMESTER [B.TECH.], FEBRUARY 2012
MOBILE COMMUNIC
COMMUNICAATION (ETIT -402)
(ETIT-402)
Time : 1½ hours Maximum Marks : 30
Note: Attempt Q. No. 1 which is compulsory and any two more questions from the
remaining.
Question 1. ______________________________________________________
(a) (a) What do you mean by interference? How it affects the performance of a
cellular system?
(b) What are the components of a cellular system?
(c) Why hexagonal shape is preferred over other cell shapes in cellular network?
(d) What is effect of antenna height.
(e) Explain foliage loss.
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 91

Solution.
(a) A cellular network or mobile network is a wireless network distributed over land
areas called cells, each served by at least one fixed-location transceiver, known
as a cell site or base station. In a cellular network, each cell uses a different set of
frequencies from neighboring cells, to avoid interference and provide guaranteed
bandwidth within each cell. When joined together these cells provide radio
coverage over a wide geographic area. This enables a large number of portable
transceivers (e.g., mobile phones, pagers, etc.) to communicate with each other
and with fixed transceivers and telephones anywhere in the network, via base
stations, even if some of the transceivers are moving through more than one cell
during transmission. The interference effects were not due to the distance between
areas, but to the ratio of the distance between area to the transmitter power
(radius) of the area. By reducing the radius of an area by fifty percent service
provider could increase the number of potential customers in an area four field.
(b)

(c) Refer to Question 2(a) of End Term 2011.


(d) The height of an antenna system above ground significantly affects signal
propagation. The higher the antenna is above ground, the lower the angle of
radiation. A lower angle of radiation, also called take-off angle, will increase the
distance of the first reflection off the F2 layer of the ionosphere, This increased
distance will enhance long-range signal propagation.
(e) Refer to Question 1(c) of End Term 2010.
Question 2. ______________________________________________________
(a) Explain different performance criterion of a cellular system with special
emphasis on grade of service.
(b) Explain uniqueness of mobile radio environment.
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 2(a) of End Term 2012.
(b) Uniqueness of Mobile Radio Environment
Description of Mobile Radio Transmission Medium

Mobile radio transmission model


92 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

The Propagation Attenuation: In general, the propagation path loss increases


not only with frequency but also with distance. If the antenna height at the cell
site is 30 to 100 m and at the mobile unit about 3 m, and the distance between
the cell site and the mobile unit is usually 2 km or more, then the incident
angles of both the direct wave and the reflected wave are very small, as Fig. The
incident angle of the direct wave is 1, and the incident angle of the reflected
wave is 2. 1 is also called the elevation angle. The propagation path loss would
be 40 dB/dec, 4 where ‘’dec” is an abbreviation of decade, i.e., a period of 10.
This means that a 40-dB loss at a signal receiver will be observed by the mobile
unit as it moves from 1 to 10 km. Therefore C is inversely proportional to R4.
C ∝ R–4 = αR–4
where C = received carrier power
R = distance measured from the transmitter to the receiver
α = constant
The difference in power reception at two different distances R1 and R2 will result in
C2 FG R IJ −4

HR K
2
=
C1 1
and the decibel expression of equation
C2 R
DC (dB) = 10 log = 40 log 1
C1 R2
When R2 = 2R1, ∆C = –12 dB; when C2 = 10C1, ∆C = 40 dB.
Question 3. ______________________________________________________
(a) Obtain the relation for signal to interference ratio for a 7 cell cluster in cellular
system.
(b) What is frequency reuse distance? What are the parameters on which it depends?
(c) Explain co- channel interference reduction factor. How it can be minimized.
Solution.
(a) The Signal-to-Interference Ratio (SIR) is given by
S S
= (no noise)
I N
∑ Ik
k =1
where Ik = power of the kth interfere
N 1 = number of interferers (N1 = 6 when N = 7)
When the transmit power of each Based Station is equal, and path loss exponent
is the same throughout the coverage area, SIR can be approximated by
S R−n
= N1
I
∑ ( Dk ) − n
k =1
where n = propagation path loss slope which depends on terrain environment
(2 ≤ n ≤ 5)
If all the interfering BSs are equidistant from the Mobile, then
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 93

F DI n

S H K
= R =
( 3N )n (assuming that D1 = D2 = ... = Dk = D)
I N1 N1
For 7-cluster
S 1 1 Qn
=
FD I
= −n
= (i.e., D1 = D2 = ... = D6 = D)
6 (Q ) − n
∑ GH R JK
I 6 6
k

k =1

F SI LM F S I OP 1/ n

Hence Qn = 6 H IK ⇒ Q= 6
N H I KQ
But since Q = ( 3 N )1/ 2
LMF 6F S I I OP ≅ 7
MNGH H I K JK
2
1
N = 2
PQ
Mobiles are at the edge of the cell

In this situation, the Mobile is at the Cell boundary


It experiences worst case co-channel interference on the forward channel
S R−n
= N1
I
∑ ( Dk ) − n
k =1

R−n
F I F I
= −n −n

H K H K
R R
2 ( D − R) − n + D − n + D − + D+ + ( D + R) − n
2 2
If written in terms of Q, one obtains

S 1
F I F I
= −n −n
I
H K H K
1 1
2 (Q − 1) − n + Q − n + Q − + Q+ + (Q + 1) − n
2 2
Note the repositioning the Mobile to a different base will give a different result,
unless the distances are also changed.
(b) Frequency reuse: The key characteristic of a cellular network is the ability to re-
use frequencies to increase both coverage and capacity. As described above,
adjacent cells must use different frequencies, however there is no problem with
two cells sufficiently far apart operating on the same frequency.
94 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

The elements that determine frequency reuse are the reuse distance and the reuse
factor.
The reuse distance, D is calculated as
D = R 3N ,
where R is the cell radius and N is the number of cells per cluster. Cells may vary
in radius in the ranges (1 km to 30 km). The boundaries of the cells can also
overlap between adjacent cells and large cells can be divided into smaller cells.
The frequency reuse factor is the rate at which the same frequency can be used in
the network. It is 1/K (or K according to some books) where K is the number of
cells which cannot use the same frequencies for transmission. Common values
for the frequency reuse factor are 1/3, 1/4, 1/7, 1/9 and 1/12 (or 3, 4, 7, 9 and 12
depending on notation).
In case of N sector antennas on the same base station site, each with different
direction, the base station site can serve N different sectors. N is typically 3. A
reuse pattern of N/K denotes a further division in frequency among N sector
antennas per site. Some current and historical reuse patterns are 3/7 (North
American AMPS), 6/4 (Motorola NAMPS), and 3/4 (GSM).
If the total available bandwidth is B, each cell can only use a number of frequency
channels corresponding to a bandwidth of B/K, and each sector can use a
bandwidth of B/NK.
(c) The ratio of the minimum separation between two co-channel cells without
interference to the radius of a cell. Assume that the size of all cells is roughly the
same. The cell size is determined by the coverage area of the signal strength in
each cell. As long as the cell size is fixed, cochannel interference is independent
of the transmitted power of each cell. It means that the received threshold level
at the mobile unit is adjusted to the size of the cell. Actually, cochannel
interference is a function of a parameter q defined as
D
q =
R
The parameter q is the cochannel interference reduction factor. When the ratio q
increases, cochannel interference decreases. Furthermore, the separation D in
equation is a function of KI and C/I,
F I
H K
C
D = f K1 ,
I
where KI is the number of cochannel interfering cells in the first tier and C/I is
the received carrier to- nterference ratio at the desired mobile receiver
C C
=
I K1

∑ Ik
k =1

Question 4. ______________________________________________________
(a) Explain point to point model.
(b) In a mobile radio environment the average cell site antenna height is about 60
m, the mobile antenna height is about 4 m, and the communication path length
is 4 km. Calculate
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 95

1. Incident Angle
2. Elevation angle at the antenna of mobile unit
3. Elevation angle at the location of mobile unit
(c) Explain co-channel interference reduction factor. How it can be minimized.
Solution.
(a) This mobile point-to-point model is obtained in three steps:
1. generate a standard condition,
2. obtain an area-to-area prediction model,
3. obtain a mobile point-to-point model using the area-to-area model as a base.
The philosophy of developing this model is to try to separate two effects, one
caused by the natural terrain contour and the other by the human-made structures,
in the received signal strength.
1. A standard condition: To generate a standard condition and provide
correction factors, we have used the standard conditions shown on the left side
and the correction factors on the right side 10 of Table. The advantage of using
these standard values is to obtain directly a predicted value in decibels above 1
mW expressed in dBM.

2. Obtain Area-to-area Prediction Curves for Human-made Structures: The


area-to-area prediction curves are different in different areas. In area-to-area
prediction, all the areas are considered flat even though the data may be obtained
from non flat areas. The reason is that area-to-area prediction is an average
process. The standard deviation of the average value indicates the degree of
terrain roughness.
Effect of the Human-made Structures: Since the terrain configuration of each
city is different, and the human-made structure of each city is also unique, we
have to find a way to separate these two. The way to factor out the effect due to
the terrain configuration from the man-made structures is to work out a way to
obtain the path loss curve for the area as if the area were flat, even if it is not. The
path loss curve obtained on virtually flat ground indicates the effects of the
signal loss due to solely human-made structures. This means that the different
path loss curves obtained in each city show the different human-made structure
in that city. To do this, we may have to measure signal strengths at those high
96 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

spots and also at the low spots surrounding the cell sites. Then the average path
loss slope, which is a combination of measurements from high spots and low
spots along different radio paths in a general area, represents the signal received
as if it is from a flat area affected only by a different local human-made structured
environment. We are using 1-mi intercepts (or, alternatively, 1-km intercepts) as
a starting point for obtaining the path loss curves. Therefore, the differences in
area-to-area prediction curves are due to the different man-made structures. We
should realize that measurements made in urban areas are different from those
made in suburban and open areas. The area-to-area prediction curve is obtained
from the mean value of the measured data and used for future predictions in that
area. Any area-to-area prediction model128 can be used as a first step toward
achieving the point-to-point prediction model.
(b) 1. Incident angle Θ = tan–1 (60m + 4m)/ 4km = 0.920
2. Elevation angle at the antenna of mobile unit φ = tan (60m – 4m)/ 4km =
–1
0
0.80
3. Elevation angle at the location of mobile unit φ′ = tan (60m / 4km) = 0.86
–1 0

(c) Refer to Question 1(a) of End Term 2012 or Question 3(b) of End Term 2011.

SE
SECC OND TERM EXAMIN
EXAMINAATION
EIGHTH SEMESTER [B.TECH.], APRIL 2013
MOBILE COMMUNIC
COMMUNICAATION (ETIT -402)
(ETIT-402)
Time : 1½ hours Maximum Marks : 30
Notes: (1) Question 1 is compulsory and attempt any TWO from the other THREE.
(2) Write your roll number on the question paper.
(3) Marks are indicating along with the questions.
Question 1. ______________________________________________________
Each part 2 marks
(a) How the grouping of channels into subsets is done in frequency management ?
(b) What are turbo codes?
(c) Differentiate b/w soft handoff and hard handoff?
(d) What are the advantages of digital modulation techniques over analog
modulation techniques?
(e) Explain mobile high gain antennas.
Solution.
(a) Frequency Management: The function of frequency management is to divide
the total number of available channels into subsets which can be assigned to
each cell either in a fixed fashion or dynamically (i.e., in response to any channel
among the total available channels).
The terms “frequency management” and “channel assignment” often crate some
confusion. Frequency management refers to designating set-up channels and
voice channels (done by the FCC), numbering the channels (done by the FCC),
and grouping the voice channels into subsets (done by each system according
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 97

to its preference). Channel assignment refers to the allocation of specific channels


to cell sites and mobile units. A fixed channel set consisting of one or more
subsets is assigned to a cell site on a long-term basis. During a call, a particular
channel is assigned to a mobile unit on a short-term basis. For a short-term
assignment, one channel assignment per call is handled by the mobile telephone
switching office (MTSO). Ideally channel assignment should be based on causing
the least interference in the system.
Numbering the channels: The total number of channels at present (January
1988) is 832. But most mobile units and systems are still operating on 666
channels. Therefore we describe the 666 channel numbering first. A channel
consists of two frequency channel bandwidths, one in the low band

Frequency management chart


and one in the high band. Two frequencies in channel 1 are 825.030 MHz (mobile
transmit) and 870.030 MHz (cell-site transmit). The two frequencies in channel
666 are 844.98 MHz (mobile transmit) and 889.98 MHz (cell-site transmit). The
666 channels are divided into two groups: block. A system and block B system.
Each market (i.e., each city) has two systems for a duopoly market policy (see
Chap. 1). Each block has 333 channels, as shown in Fig. 8.1.
The 42 set-up channels are assigned as follows.
Channels 313-333 block A
Channels 334-354 block B
The voice channels are assigned as follows.
Channels 1-312 (312 voice channels) block A
Channels 355-666 (312 voice channels) block B
These 42 set-up channels are assigned in the middle of all the assigned channels
to facilitate scanning of those channels by frequency synthes sizers. In the new
additional spectrum allocation of ill MHz, an additional 166 channels are
assigned. Since a 1 MHz is assigned below 825 MHz (or 870 MHz), in the future,
additional channels will be numbered up to 849 MHz (or 894 MHz) and will
then circle back. The last channel number is 1023 (= 210). There are no channels
between channels 799 and 991.
98 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

Grouping into subsets: The number of voice channels for each system* is 312.
We can group these into any number of subsets. Since there are 21 set-up channels
for each system, it is logical to group the 312 channels into 21 subsets. Each
subset then consists of 16 channels. In each set, the closest adjacent channel is
21 channels away, as shown in Fig. 8.1. The 16 channel in each subset can be
mounted on a frame and connected to a channel combiner. Wide separation
between adjacent channels is required for meeting the requirement of minimum
isolation. Each 16-channel subset is idealized for each 16-channel combiner. In
a seven-cell frequency-reuse cell system each cell contains three subsets, iA +
iB + iC, where i is an integer from 1 to 7. The total number of voice channels in
a cell is about 45. The minimum separation between three milmi’ls is 7 channels.
If six subsets are equipped in an omnicell site, the minimum separation between
two adjacent channels can be only three (21/6 > 3) physical channel bandwidths.
For example,
1A + 1B + 1C + 4A + 4B + 4C or 1A + 1B + 1C + 5A + 5B + 5C
(b) Refer to Question 1(f) of End Term 2012.
(c) A hard handover is one in which the channel in the source cell is released and
only then the channel in the target cell is engaged. Thus the connection to the
source is broken before or ‘as’ the connection to the target is made-for this
reason such handovers are also known as break-before-make. Hard handovers
are intended to be instantaneous in order to minimize the disruption to the call.
A hard handover is perceived by network engineers as an event during the call.
It requires the least processing by the network providing service. When the
mobile is between base stations, then the mobile can switch with any of the base
stations, so the base stations bounce the link with the mobile back and forth.
This is called ping-ponging.
A soft handover is one in which the channel in the source cell is retained and
used for a while in parallel with the channel in the target cell. In this case the
connection to the target is established before the connection to the source is
broken, hence this handover is called make-before-break. The interval, during
which the two connections are used in parallel, may be brief or substantial. For
this reason the soft handover is perceived by network engineers as a state of the
call, rather than a brief event. Soft handovers may involve using connections to
more than two cells: connections to three, four or more cells can be maintained
by one phone at the same time. When a call is in a state of soft handover, the
signal of the best of all used channels can be used for the call at a given moment
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 99

or all the signals can be combined to produce a clearer copy of the signal. The
latter is more advantageous, and when such combining is performed both in the
downlink (forward link) and the uplink (reverse link) the handover is termed as
softer. Softer handovers are possible when the cells involved in the handovers
have a single cell site.
(d) Pulse Code, Pulse position, and Pulse width modulation are forms of digital
modulation. By turning the carrier off and on in a pattern (a numerical code, the
position of pulse within a certain timeframe, or the width of a pulse within a
certain time-frame) one may convey information over the carrier.
Advantages:
– the modulation method is simple: switch the carrier on and off.
– one can achieve close to the theoretical limit of information transfer within
a given band.
Disadvantages:
– square waves and sharp “on”/”off” edges of the carrier produce harmonics
which must be filtered out or interference with adjacent bands will result.
– the receiver must have some form of synchronization with the transmitter
to decode the digital information (synchronization wastes bandwidth
because it is not ‘information’).
Analog modulation uses the analog information to modulate a carrier:
either it’s amplitude, frequency, phase, or a combination of the 3.
Advantages:
– Very simple demodulation techniques for AM and FM (1 or 2 diodes,
capacitors, and a transformer (for FM))
– Linear amplifiers and modulators are used — no digital circuits.
Disadvantages:
– Modulation methods require lots of power — comparable with the carrier
power.
– Generally the information is not a dense as in digital modulation
(e) High-gain antenna: A high-gain antenna (HGA) is an antenna with a focused,
narrow radio wave beam width. This narrow beam width allows more precise
targeting of the radio signal - also known as a directional antenna. Most
commonly referred to during space missions, these antennas are also in use all
over Earth, most successfully in flat, open areas where no mountains lie to
disrupt radio waves. When transmitting, a high gain antenna allows more of the
transmitted power to be sent in the direction of the receiver, increasing the
received signal strength. When receiving, a high gain antenna captures more of
the signal, again increasing signal strength. Due to reciprocity, these two effects
are equal - an antenna that makes a transmitted signal 100 times stronger
(compared to an isotropic radiator), will also capture 100 times as much energy
as the isotropic antenna when used as a receiving antenna. As a consequence of
their directivity, directional antennas also send less (and receive less) signal
from directions other than the main beam. This property may be used to reduce
interference.
There are many ways to make a high-gain antenna - the most common are
parabolic antennas, helical antennas, yagi antennas, and phased arrays of smaller
100 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

antennas of any kind. Horn antennas can also be constructed with high gain, but
are less commonly seen. Still other configurations are possible - the Arecibo
Observatory uses a combination of a line feed with an enormous spherical reflector
(as opposed to a more usual parabolic reflector), to achieve extremely high
gains at specific frequencies.
Question 2. ______________________________________________________
(a) How omnidirectional and directional antennas are arranged in system
configuration to reduce the interference? (5)
(b) Explain the formula of dropped call rate in detail. (5)
Solution.
(a) Design of an Omnidirectional Antenna System in the Worst Case: We proved
that the value of q = 4.6 is valid for a normal interference case in a K = 7 cell
pattern we would like to prove that a K = 7 cell pattern does not provide a
sufficient frequency-reuse distance separation even when an ideal condition of
flat terrain is assumed. The worst case is at the location where the mobile unit
would receive the weakest signal from its own cell site but strong interferences
from all interfering cell sites.
In the worst case the mobile unit is at the cell boundary R, as shown in Fig. The
distances from all six cochannel interfering sites are also shown in the figure:
two distances of D – R, two distances of D, and two distances of D + R.
Following the mobile radio propagation rule of 40 dB/dec, we obtain

C α R −4 1 α D −4
Then the carrier-to-interference ratio is

C R −4
=
I 2 ( D − R ) + 2 ( D) −4 + 2 ( D + R ) −4
−4
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 101

where q = 4.6 is derived from the normal case. Substituting q = 4.6 into equatiuon,
we obtain CII = 54 or 17 dB, which is lower than 18 dB. To be conservative, we
may use the shortest distance D - R for all six interferers as a worst case: then Eq.
(6.4-la) is replaced by

C R −4 1
= = = 28 = 14.47 dB
I 6 ( D − R ) −4 6 ( q − 1) −4
In reality, because of the imperfect site locations and the rolling nature of the
terrain configuration, the C/I received is always worse than 17 dB and could be
14 dB and lower. Such an instance can easily occur in a heavy traffic situation;
therefore, the system must be designed around the C/I of the worst case. In that
case, a cochannel interference reduction factor of q = 4.6 is insufficient. Therefore,
in an omnidirectional-cell system, K = 9 or K = 12 would be a correct choice.
Then the values of q are
R| D = 3K
= |S5.2
R
q K=9
|| 6 K = 12
T
Substituting these values in equation, we obtain
C
= 84.5 (=) 19.25 dB K=9
I
C
= 179.33 (=) 22.54 dB K = 12
I
The K = 9 and K = 12 cell patterns, shown in figure, are used when the traffic is
light. Each cell covers an adequate area with adequate numbers of channels to
handle the traffic.
Design of a Directional Antenna System: When the call traffic begins to
increase, we need to use the frequency spectrum efficiently and avoid increasing
the number of cells K in a seven-cell frequency-reuse pattern. When K increases,
the number of frequency channels assigned in a cell must become smaller
(assuming a total allocated channel divided by K) and the efficiency of applying
the frequency-reuse scheme decreases.
Instead of increasing the number K in a set of cells, let us keep K = 1 and
introduce a directional antenna arrangement. The cochan-nel interference can
be reduced by using directional antennas. This means that each cell is divided
into three or six sectors and uses three or six directional antennas at a base
station. Each sector is assigned a set of frequencies (channels). The interference
between two cochan-nel cells decreases as shown in figure.
Directional antennas in K = 7 cell patterns:
Three-sector case. The three-sector case is shown in Fig. To illustrate the worst-
case situation, two cochannel cells are shown in Fig. The mobile unit at position
E will experience greater interference in the lower shaded cell sector than in the
upper shaded cell-sector site. This is because the mobile receiver receives the
weakest signal from its own cell but fairly strong interference from the interfering
cell. In a three-sector case, the interference is effective in only one direction
102 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

because the front-to back ratio of a cell-site directional antenna is at least 10 dB


or more in a mobile radio environment. The worst-case cochannel interference
in the directional-antenna sectors in which interference occurs may be calculated.
Because of the use of directional antennas, the number of principal interferers is
reduced from six to two (Fig.).

Interference with frequency-reuse patterns K = 9 and K = 12.


(b) Formula of Dropped Call Rate: The dropped call rate can be calculated either
using general formula or by commonly used formula.
General formula of dropped call rate. The general formula of dropped call rate
P in a whole system can be expressed as:
LM α
N OP = α
N
P = 1−
MN ∑ PQ ∑
n
nX n . Pn
n=0 n=0

where Pn = 1 − X n
Pn is the probability of a dropped call when the call has gone through a hand offs and
X = (1 – δ)(1 – δ)(1 – θν)(1 – β)2
δ = Probability that the signal is below the specified receive threshold (in a
noise-limited system).
µ = Probability that the signal is below the specified cochannel interference level (in
an interference limited system).
τ = Probability that no traffic channel is available upon handoff attempt when
moving into a new cell.
θ = Probability that the call will return to the original cell.
β = Probability of blocking circuits between BSC and MSC during handoff.
N
αn = The weighted value for those calls having n handoffs, and ∑ α n = 1.
n=0
N = N is the highest number of handoffs for those calls.
Equation needs to be explained clearly as follows:
(1) z1 and z2 are two events, z1 is the case of no traffic channel in the cell, z2 is the
case of no-safe return to original cell. Assuming that z1 and z2 are independent
events, then
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 103

P ( z 2 | z1 ) . P ( z1 ) = P ( z1 ) . P ( z1 ) = θ . τ
(2) (1 – β) is the probability of a call successfully connecting from the old BSC
to the MSC. Also, (1 – β) is the probability of a call successfully connecting
from the MSC to the new BSC. Then the total probability of having a successful
call connection is:

BSC ( old ) → MSC (1 − β )


(1 − β ) 2
MSC → BSC ( new ) (1 − β )
(3) The call dropped rate P expressed in Eq. (9.11-1) can be specified in two
cases: 1. In a noise limited system (startup system): there is no frequency reuse,
the call dropped rate PA is based on the signal coverage. It can also be calculated
under busy hour conditions.
In a noise-limited environment (for worst case)
δ = δ1
µ = µ1
τ = τ1 U|
θ = θ V the conditions for the noise limited case
β = β |W
1

1
2. In an interference-limited system (mature system): frequency reuse is applied,
and the dropped rate PB is based on the interference level. It can be calculated
under busy hour conditions.
In an interference-limited environment (for worst case)
δ = δ2
µ = µ2
τ = τ2 U|
θ = θ2 V| the conditions for the interference limited case
β = β2 W
Equation has to make a distinguished difference between PA and PB. The cases of
PA and PB do not occur at the same time. When capacity is based on frequency
reuse, the interference level is high, the size of the cells is small, and coverage is
not an issue. The call dropped rate totally depends on interference.
Commonly used formula of dropped call rate: In a commonly used formula of
dropped call rate, the values of τ, θ, and β are assumed to be very small and can
be neglected. Then equation becomes:
X = (1 − β ) (1 − µ )
Furthermore, in a noise-limited case, µ → 0, equation becomes
N

PA = ∑ α n Pn = ∑ α n [1 − (1 − δ ) n ]
n=0

and in an interference-limited system, 5 → 0, equation becomes:


N
PB = ∑ α n Pn = ∑ α n [1 − (1 − µ ) n ]
n=0
104 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

Handoff distribution of calls, α n. The α n is the weight value for those calls
having n handoffs. Then the handoff distribution of all α n’s is needed for
calculating equation. The relationship of all αn’s is:
N
∑αn =1
n=0

The handoff distribution of calls α can be assumed as follows:


The αn in macrocells is used for calculating the dropped call rate PA.
Question 3. ______________________________________________________
(a) What is the role of BSC and MSC in handoff? (3)
(b) Distinguish b/w dropped call and terminated call? (2)
(c) Explain QPSK modulation technique in detail. (5)
Solution.
(a) Handover cases: The measurement reports from the BTS and MS, together with
system parameters set by the operator, are used in the preparation algorithm in
the BSC. The outcome could be a handover if this is judged necessary. We will
look at three handover cases. The difference between them is due to where the
cells are located in the network structure, and thus how many nodes will be
involved in the handover. One thing in common for all three cases is that the
BSC that makes the handover decision will order and control the handover
procedure from start to finish. The BSC will identify every specific handover by
a handover reference number (HO ref. no.). This number will be used to ensure
that the MS will get the right channel and call to continue.
Intra- BSC Handover: In this case the handover is controlled by the BSC
internally and the MSC will only be informed for statistical reasons.

Intra-BSC handover
If a better candidate for the connection is identified, based on the measurements
carried out by the MS and BTS, the following will happen:
1. Activation of new channel - BSC allocates a TCH in the new cell and
orders that BTS to activate it. The chosen HO ref. no. will be part ofthe
activation message. The BTS in the new cell will acknowledge that the
TCH has been activated.
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 105

2. Handover command - After the activation the BSC commands the MS to


change to the new channel. The message is sent on FACCH and will contain
a full description of the new channel and the HO ref. no.
3. Handover bursts - The MS will tune in to the new channel and send handover
bursts on the new channel. The information content is the HO ref. no. The
bursts are as short as the access bursts, since the MS does not know the new
Timing Advance (TA) value yet. On the detection of the handover bursts,
and check of HO ref. no., the new BTS will send the new TA to the MS.
4. Handover complete - Now the MS is ready to continue the traffic and will
send a handover complete message addressed to the BSC.
5. Release of old channel - When the BSC receives the Handover Complete
from the MS, the BSC will know that the handover was successful. The
BSC orders the old BTS to release the TCH and the BTs will acknowledge.
Inter- BSC Handover: In this case BSC 1, (old BSC) does not control the better
cell which is the target for the handover. This means that the MSC will be part of
the link procedure between BSC1 and BSC2 (new BSC).

Inter-BSC handover
1. a. Handover request - BSC1 will use the MSC to send a handover request
to BSC2. The MSC will know which BSC controls that cell.
b. Activation of new channel - BSC2 will allocate a TCH in the target cell
and then order the BTS to activate it. The chosen HO ref. no. will be part
of the activation message. The BTS will acknowledge that the activation
has been made.
2. Handover command - After the activation the new BSC commands the MS
to change to the new channel. The message is sent on FACCH via the old
channel and will contain a full description of the new channel and the HO
ref. no.
3. Handover bursts - When the MS has changed to the new channel, it will
send handover bursts on the new channel. The information content is the
HO ref. no. The bursts are as short as the access bursts. This is because the
MS docs not know the new Timing Advance (TA) value yet. On the detection
106 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

of the handover bursts, and check of HO ref. no., the new BTS will send the
new TA.
4. Handover complete - Now the MS is ready to continue the traffic and will
send a handover complete message, which will be addressed to the old
BSC as a clear command.
5. Release of old channel - When the old BSC receives the clear command
from the MSC, the BSC knows that the handover was successful. The BSC
orders the BTS to release the TCH and the BTS will acknowledge.
Inter- MSC Handover: In this case the old BSC is connected to a different
MSC than the BSC that controls the target cell. This means that a new MSC will
be part of the procedure. The old MSC will be called anchor-MSC and the new
MSC will be called the target MSC

1. a. Handover request - The old BSC will use the anchor-MSC to send a
request to the new BSC for a handover to the target cell. The anchor-
MSC knows which MSC to contact, and the target-MSC in turn knows
which BSC that controls the target cell.
b. Activation of new channel - The new BSC allocates a TCH in the target
cell and order the BTS to activate it. The chosen HO ref. no. will be part
of the activation message. The BTS will acknowledge that the activation
has been made.
2. Handover command - After the activation the new BSC commands the MS
to change to the new channel. The message is sent on FACCH via the old
channel and will contain a full description of the new channel and the HO
ref. no. In order to reroute the call, the target-MSC will also send a handover
number, similar to the MSRN, to the anchor-MSC.
3. Handover bursts - When the MS has changed to the new channel, it will
send handover bursts on the new channel. The information content is the
HO ref. no. The bursts are as short as the access bursts as the MS does not
know the new Timing Advance (TA) value yet. On the
(b) Dropped call is the common term for a wireless mobile phone call that is
terminated unexpectedly as a result of technical reasons, including presence in
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 107

a dead zone. One reason for a dropped call is when the mobile phone moves out
of range of a wireless network. An active call cannot usually be maintained
across a different company’s network (as calls cannot be re-routed over the
traditional phone network while in progress), resulting in the termination of the
call once a signal cannot be maintained between the phone and the original
network. Another common reason is when a phone is taken into an area where
wireless communication is unavailable, interrupted, interfered with, or jammed.
From the network’s perspective, this is the same as the mobile moving out of the
coverage area.
Occasionally, calls are dropped upon handoff between cells within the same
provider’s network. This may be due to an imbalance of traffic between the two
cell sites’ areas of coverage. If the new cell site is at capacity, it cannot accept
the additional traffic of the call trying to “hand in.” It may also be due to the
network configuration not being set up properly, such that one cell site is not
“aware” of the cell to which the phone is trying to handoff. If the phone cannot
find an alternative cell to which to move that can take over the call, the call is
lost.
Co-channel and Adjacent channel interference can also be responsible for
dropped calls in a wireless network. Neighbour cells with the same frequencies
interfere with each other, deteriorating the quality of service and producing
dropped calls. Transmission problems are also a common cause of dropped calls.
Another problem may be a faulty transceiver (XCVR) inside the base station.
Calls can also be dropped if a mobile phone at the other end of the call loses
battery power and stops transmitting abruptly.
Sun spots and solar flares are rarely blamed for causing interference leading to
dropped calls.
(c) Refer to Question 7(b) of End Term 2011.
Question 4. ______________________________________________________
(a) Why do we prefer MSK over QPSK? (2)
(b) Differentiate b/w block codes and convolutional codes. (3)
(c) Consider (7, 4) block code generated by

Explain how the error syndrome S helps in correcting a single error.


Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 7(b) of End Term 2011.
(b) Refer to Question 9(b) of End Term 2011.
(c) Refer to Question 6(a) of End Term 2012.
108 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

END TERM EXAMIN


EXAMINAATION
EIGHTH SEMES TER [B.TE
SEMESTER CH.], MA
[B.TECH.], MAYY -JUNE 20 12
201
MOBILE COMMUNIC
COMMUNICA ATION (ETIT -402)
(ETIT-402)
Time : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 75
Note: Attempt any five question including Question no. 1 which is compulsory. Select
one question from each unit.
Question 1. ______________________________________________________
(a) What is Adjacent Channel Interference and how it can be minimized? (3)
(b) Explain the significance of the term ‘Radiation Resistance’ of an antenna. (3)
(c) Differentiate between Rayleigh and Rician Distribution models for a mobile
radio channel. (4)
(d) Write a brief note on non-fixed channel assignment strategies. (3)
(e) Explain the salient features of GMSK Modulation Technique. (3)
(f) Briefly discuss about Turbo coding. (3)
(g) Discuss about the multiple access techniques used in 2nd generation mobile
systems. (3)
(h) Explain the properties of directional antennas. (3)
Solution.
(a) Adjacent-Channel Interface(ACI) is interference casued by extraneous power
from a signal in an adjacent channel. ACI may be caused by inadequate filtering
(such as incomplete filtering of unwanted modulation products in FM system),
improper tuning or poor frequency control (in the reference channel, the
interfering channel or both).
ACI is distinguished from crosstalk.
A d ja cen t C h an ne l
P In te rferen ce
C h an ne l C h an ne l
1 3

f
2 .40 1 G H z

Broadcast regulators frequently manage the broadcast spectrum in order to


minimize adjacent channel interference. For example, in North America, FM
radio stations in a single region cannot be licensed on adjacent frequencies –
that is, if a station is licensed on 99.5 MHz in a city, the frequencies of 99.3 MHz
and 99.7 MHz cannot be used anywhere within a certain distance of that station’s
trasmitter, and the second-adjacent frequencies of 99.1 MHz and 99.9 MHz are
restricted to specialized usages such as low-power stations. Similar restrictions
formerly applied to third-adjacent frequencies as well (i.e. 98.9 MHz and 100.1
MHz in the example above), but these are no longer observed. The adjacent-
channel interference which receiver A experiences from a transmitter B is the
sum of the power that B emits into A’s channel–known as the “unwanted
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 109

emission”, and represented by the ACLR (Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio)–


and the power that A picks up from B’s channel, which is represented by the ACS
(Adjacent Channel Slectivity). B emitting power into A’s channel is called
adjacent-channel leakage (unwanted emissions). It occurs becuase RF filters
require a roll-off, and do not eliminate a signal completely. Therefore, B emits
some power in the adjacent channel which is picked up by A. A receives some
emissions from B’s channel due to the roll off of the selectivity filters. Selectivity
filters are designed to “Select” a channel.
(b) Radiation resistance is that part of an antenna’s feed point resistance that is
caused by the radiation of electromagnetic waves from the antenna. The radiation
resistance is determined by the geometry of the antenna, not by the materials of
which it is made. It can be viewed as the equivalent resistance to a resistor in the
same circuit. Radiation resisttance is caused by the radiation reaction of the
conduction electrons in the antenna. When electrons are accelerated, as occurs
when an AC electrical field is impressed on an antenna, they will radiate
electromagnetic waves. These waves carry energy that is taken from the electrons.
The loss of energy of the eletrons appears as an effective resistance to the
movement of the electrons, analogous to the ohmic resistance caused by
scattering of the electrons in the crystal latticeof the metallic conductor.
While the energy lost by ohmic resistance is converted to heat, the energy lost
by radiation resistance is converted to electromagnetic radiation.
Power is calculated as
P = I2R
Where I is the electric current flowing into the feeds of the antenna and P is the
power in the resulting electromagnetic field. The result is a virtual, effective
resistance:

P
R =
I2
This effective reisistance is called the radiation resistance.
Thus the radiation resistance of an antenna is a good indicator of the strength of
the electromagnetic field radiated by a transmitting antenna or being received
by a receiving antenna, since its value is directly proportional to the power of
the field.

(c) Rayleigh Distribution Rican Distribution


Rayleigh distribution is commonly used When there is a dominat stationary (nonfading)
to describe the statistical time varying signal compenent present, such as a line-of
nature of the received envelope of a flat sight propagation path, the small-scale fading
fading signal, or the envelope of an envelope distribution is Ricean.
individual multipath component.
It is due to the effect of a propagation It is a stochastic model for radio propagation
environment on a radio signal, such as anomaly caused by partial cancellation of a
that used by wireless devices. radio signal by itself.
It is a reasonable model when there are It is the specialized model for stochastic fading
many objects in the environment that when there is no line of sight signal, and is
scatter the radio signal before it arrives sometimes considered as a special case of
at the receiver. the more generalized concept of Rician fading.
110 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

(d) In a non-fixed (dynamic channel assignment strategy), voice channels are not
allocated to different cells permanently. Instead, each time a call request is
made, the serving base station requests a channel from the MSC. The switch
then allocates a channel to the requested cell following an alogrithm that takes
into account the likelihood of future blocking within the cell, the frequency of
use of the candidate channel, the reuse distance of the channel, and other cost
functions. Accordingly, the MSC only allocates a given frequency if that
frequency is not presently in use in the cell or any other cell which falls within
the minimum restricted distance of frequency reuse to avoid co-channel
interference. Dynamic channel assignment reduces the likelihood of blocking,
which increaes the trunking capacity of the system, since all the avialable
channels in a market are aceesible to all of the cells. Dynamic channel assignment
strategies require the MSC to the collect real-time data on channel occupancy,
traffic distribution, and radio signal strength indications (RSSI) of all channels
on a continuous basis. This increases the storage and computational load on the
system but provides the advantage of increased channel utilization and decreased
probability of a blocked call.
(e) GMSK (Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying):
• The GMSK modulation model is used to generate GMSK modulated signal,
which is represented by compex envelope equivalent and carrier frequency;
it also performs differntial encoding.
• GMSK modulation is recommended for GSM systems with BTb = 0.3 and rate
270.833 kbits/s.
• GMSK is a type of constant-envelope FSK, where frequency modulation is
a result of carefully planned phase modulation.
• The most important feature of GMSK is that it is a constant-envelope variety
of modulation. This means there is a distinct lack of AM in the carrier with
a consequent limiting of the occupied bandwidth. The constant amplitude
of the GMSK signal makes it suitable for use with high-efficiency amplifiers.
• GMSK modulation complying with GSM specification
• Adjustable sample rate.
(f) As higher and higher speeds are used in wireless applications, error correction
continues to pose a major design challenge. Recently, a new class of codes,
In pu t d O utpu t
M ultip lexer

Z
–1
Z
–1 Take every se co nd
y2 b it from e a ch
e ncod er
In te rle aver (P u ncturin g )

–1 –1
Z Z
RCE y1
e ncod er

Encoder in Turbo Coding


ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 111

called turbo codes, has emerged as a popular choice for third-generation wireless
systems. Turbo codes exhibit performance, in terms of bit error probability, that
is very close to the Shannon limit and can be efficiently implemented for high-
speed use. A number of different turbo encoders and decodeers have been
introduced, most of which are based on convolution encoding.
(g) Cellular systems divide a geographic region into cells here a mobile unit in each
cell communicates with a base station. The goal in the design of cellular systems
is to be able to handle as many calls as possible (this is called capacity in cellular
terminology) in a given bandwidth with some reliability. There are several different
ways to allow access to the channel. These include the following:
• frequency division multiple-access (FDMA)
• time division multiple-access (TDMA)
• time/frequency multiple-access
• random access
• code division multiple-access (CDMA)
– frequency-hop CDMA
– direct-sequency CDMA
– multi-carrier CDMA (FH or DS)
A mentioned earlier, FDMA was the initial multiple-access technique for cellular
systems. In this technique a user is assigned a pair of frequencies when placing
or receiving a call. One frequency is used for downlink (base station to mobile)
and one pair for uplink (mobile to base). This is calledfreqency division
duplexing. That frequency pair is not used in the same cell or adjacent cells
during the call. Even though the user may not be talking, the spectrum cannot
be reassigned as long as call is in place. Two second generation cellular systems.
(IS-54, GSM) use time/frequency multiple-access whereby the available spectrum
is divided into frequency slots (e.g., 30 kHz bands) but then each frequency slot
is divided into time slots.Each user is then given a pair of frequencies (uplink
and downlink) and a time slot during a frame. Different suers can use the same
frequency in the same cell except that they must transmit at different times. This
technique is also being used in third generation wireless systems (e.g., EDGE).
(h) • A directional antenna or beam antenna is an antenna which radiates greater
power in one or more directions allowing for increased performance on
transmit and receive and reduced interference from unwanted sources.
• Directional antennas like Yagi-Uda antennas provide increased performance
overdipole antennas when a greater concentration of radiation in a certain
direction is desired.
• All practical antennas are at least somewhat directional, although usually
only the direction in the plane parallel to the earth is considered, and
practical antennas can easily be omnidirectional in one plane.
UNIT-I
Question 2. ______________________________________________________
(a) Discuss about the essential parmeters that influences the performance criteria
of cellular mobile systems. (6)
(b) Consider a cellular system with total available voice channels to handle the
2
traffic are 960. The area of each cell is 6 km and the total coverage area of the
2
system is 2000 km .
112 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

(i) System capacity if clusters size is 4. (ii) System capacity if cluster size is 7.
How many times the cluster size 4 is replicated to cover entire cellular area ? (6.5)
Solution.
(a) PERFORMANCE CRITERIA
For specification cellular system followin are the performance criteria
Voice Quality: Voice quality is complicated parameter for design engineers.
Because it dependes person to person and also all mobile users not uses a
common equipment, so in the area designer cannot decide that how to a build a
system without knowing the voice quality that will satisfied the users. In military,
Airforce communication, this is not a problem because Armed forces must use
the assigned equipment. But in general the voice quality depend upon the
following criterion, a set value x at which y percent of customers rate the system
voice quality is good or excellent (from transmitter to receiver). Generally
following scaled used for circuit merits (CM) in respect of voice quality.
Circuit Merit Score Quality Scale
CM 1 1 (Unsatisfactory) not understandable
CM 2 2 Poor (Understable, but repeetitions are required)
CM 3 3 Fair (Occasional repetitions required)
CM 4 4 Good (understable, but some noise)
CM 5 5 Excellent
Service Quality: Following parameter are required to judge the service quality.
1. Coverage Area 2. Grade of Service 3. Number of Droped Calls.
Coverage Area: If a system serve as for as possible large area it is good, but it is
not possible to seve 100 percent area due to irregular Geo-graphical structure.
Due to following regions, also full coverage of area is not possible.
1. The transmitted power must be very high to illuminate weak spots (where
reception is not faithful). Which increases the cost.
2. The higher the transmitted power, higher the interference.
Hence, a system usually cover 90%. Area in flat parts, white 60 to 75% in Hill Parts.
Grade of Services: The grade of service is very good if number of block calls
out of 100 is to or less than 2 in peak hour. However, the blocking probability at
each cell site is differetn. To decrease the blocik calls or blocking probability
requires a good system plain and sufficient number of radio channel as well as
number of cell site.
Droped Calls: The measure the droped calls, there is a parameter named call
drop rate. If during Q calls, Q – 1 calls are completed then call drop rate is 1/Q,
if Q – 2 calls are completed then call drop rate is 2/Q.
(b) Total coverate area of system, Asys = 2000 km2 (given)
2
coverate area of cell, Acell = 6 km (given)
Total Number of channels, N = 960 (given)
(i) System capacity if cluster size is 4,
K =4
System capacity C = N × M
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 113

N = 960
Asys 2000
(Number of cluster) M = = = 83.33 closter
Acluster 24
2
where Acloster = k × Acell = 4 × 6 = 24 km
System capacity C = N × M = 960 × 53.33 = 79996.8 Channels
(ii) System capacity if cluster size is 7,
K =7
C = N×M
N = 960
Asys 2000
M (Number of cluster) = = = 47.62 Closter
Acluster 42
2
where Acloster = K × Acell = 7 × 6 = 42 km
System capacity C = N × M = 47.62 × 960 = 45715.3 Channels
OR
Question 3. ______________________________________________________
(a) Discuss about the various constraints to be considered in planning a cellular
system. (6)
(b) Explain how system capacity can be increased with cell splitting by maintaining
constant value of frequency reuse ratio ? (6.5)
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 2(a) of End Term 2012.
(b) Cell splitting is a method to divide a cell into small cell sites [small base stations]
with its own antenna having low transmitted power, with reduce height of

C
E
D C o rne r
G b ase station s
D
E 2 B
F
D3 A
1
C 6 F
C G C
4 d /2
E 5 d /2
B
G D E

B
G
F
Example of cell splitting
antenna. Cell splitting increases the capacity of a cellular system because
splitting cells having smaller radius than the original cells and by installing
these smaller cells between the existing cells, capacity increases due to the
additional number of channels per unit area. To reduce the area of a cell, let if
radius of a cell is reduced by R/2, then to cover the entire serivce area with
smaller cells, nearly 4 microcell [smaller cells] are required. The increased number
114 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

of cells would increase the number of channels, and thus capacity, in the coverage
area. But keep is mind when this concept is employing, the minimum value of Q
[= D/R] must be maintained in such way so co-channel interference must be
minimised. Following figure shows the cell splitting concept. In following figure
base stations placed at the corner of cells. We can place at centre also that we
have been disucss in frequency re-use.
But generally when we implement cell concept we place the base antenna at
corner for geting large coverage area to increase the capacity.
In figure, the original base station. A has been surrounded by six new base
antenna [numbered]. The smaller cells were added in such a way as to preserve
the frequency re-use plan of the system. Microcell base station labelled G was
placed hall way between two large stations utilizing the same channel. [G is
midway between [A and C, D and B]. Same case for all microcell base stations. In
the case, the radius of each new microcell is half that of th original cell.
The new cell formed as microcells, their transmitted power must reduced to
avoid the interference.
For above figure.
−n
 R
R − n and Pr [at old cell boundary] 2 
 2 
Pr [at old cell boundary] αPt αPt
1

Where Pt1 and Pt2 are the transmit powers of the larger and smaller cell base
stations.
n is the path less component if received power is same then
Pt1 Pt2
n
= n ⇒ Pt1 = Pt2 .2n
R  R
 
2
 Pt2 1
⇒  = n
 Pt1 2 
UNIT-II
Question 4. ______________________________________________________
(a) Discuss about the following propagation models: (6.5)
(i) Small Scale Propagation (ii) Large Scale Propagation.
(b) Discuss about the characteristics of Mobile Antennas. (6)
Solution.
(a) (i) Ground Wave Propagation (Small Scale): Ground wave propagation
more or less follows the contours of the earth and can propagate considerable
distance, well over the visual horizon. This effect is found in frequencies
up to about 2 MHz. Several factors account for the tendency of
electromagnetic wave in this frequency band tofollow the earth’s curvature.
One factor is that the electromagnetic wave induces a current in the earth’s
surface, the result of which is to slow the wavefront near the earth, causing
the wavefrount to tilt downward and hence follow the earth’s curvature.
Another factor is diffraction, which is phenomenon having to do with the
behavior of electromagnetic waves in the presence of obstacles.
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 115

Electromagnetic waves in the frequency range are scattered by the


atmosphere in such a way that they do not penetrate the upper atmosphere.
The best-known example of ground wave communication is AM radio.
(ii) Sky Wave Propagation (Large Scale): Sky wae propagation is used for
amateur radio, CB radio, and international broadcasts such as BBC and
Voice of America. With sky wave propagation, a signal from an earth-based
antenna is reflected from the ionized layer of the upper atmosphere
(ionosphere) back down to earth. Although it appears the wave is reflected
from the ionosphere as if the ionosphere were a hard reflecting surface, the
effect is in fact caused by refraction. Refraction is described subsequently.
A sky wave signal can travel through a number of hops, bouncing back
and forth between the ionosphere and the earth’s surface. With the
propagation mode, a signal can be picked up thousands of kilometers from
the transmitter.
(b) Characteristics of Mobile Antenna:
• Anetnnas transform wire propagated waves into space propagated waves.
• They receive electromagnetic waves and pass them onto a receiver or they
transmit electromagnetic waves which have been produced by a transmitter.
• From a connection point of view the antenna appears to be a dual gate,
although in reality it is a quad gate.
• A quasi-ommidirectional pattern can also be produced.
• Characteristics of a mobile handset antenna depend storngly on the size of
the ground plane of the device on which the antenna is mounted (phone
chassis, which typically consists of the printed circuit board and the RF
shield) and the position of the antenna on it.
OR
Question 5. ______________________________________________________
(a) Write short notes on the following: (6.5)
(i) Fixed Channel Assignment (ii) Dynamic Channel Assignment
(b) Obtain the model for mobile radio propagation over water or flat open area. (6)
Solution.
(a) (i) Fixed Channel Assignment: In this assignment channels are assigned to
the cell site for long periods. The assigned channel is divided in two part
1. Set-up channels 2. Voice channels
Set-up channels: Generally 21 set-up channels are assinged in each cell
for N = 4, 7, 21 frequency re-use pattern. If antenna is ominidirectional,
then each cell only needs one set-up channels. Set-up channel also called
control channels, these are the channel designated to set-up calls. Set up
channels can be calssified in type of channel again.
(A) Access Channel (B) Paging Channel
In a low traffic system access channel and paging channels are same so fora
low traffic a set up channel some time called access channel or paging
channel. Both the channel contains two 30 kHz bandwidths normally one
set-up channel is also specified by two operations as a forward set-up
channel (using lower band or in uplinking) and reverse set-up channel
(using higher band, or in downlinking). The forward set-up channel
116 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

functions as the paging channel for responding to the mobile originating


calls. The reverse set-up channel functions as the access channel for the
responder to the paging call.
The forward set-up channel istransmitted at the cell site, and the revese set-
up channel is transmitted at the mobile unit. All type of set-up channels
carry only data informations.
(A) Access Channel: An access channel is used for the mbile originating
calls, the mobile unit scans its all set-up channel and choose strongest one.
The strongest set-up channel indicates which cell is to serve the originating
calls. The mobile phone detects the system information transmitted from
the cell site.
Also the mobile unit monitors the Busy/idle (unoccupied) status bit over
the desired forward set-up channel. When the idle bits are received, the
mobile unit can use the reverse set-up channel to initiate the calls. It is
automatic process, this process is continuous between mobile phone and
cell site. It can be explained in a simple way that if you are at a place where
mobile unit indicating sufficient signal strength only then you can make a
call or received the call.
(B) Paging Channel: Paging channels used for land originating calls.
Separation between Access and Paging Channel: All 21 setup channels
(21 is only example it may be less or more) are actually paging channels.
The access channel can be assigned by the MTSO as a channel other than
21 set-up channel in the cell. The mobile unit receives the access channel
information from the forward paging channels. Incertain cases, if land
originating calls increases, one set-up channel cannot handle all set-up
traffic in a cell. In such cases another channel in a group voice. Channels is
used as an access channel. Then the land originating calls are using paging
channels and the mobile originating calls are using access channels.
(ii) Channel Assignment to Dynamic (Moving) Units: Such type of situaton
arises when instantly traffic become high or become too low. You have
been might overserved in office time traffice become so heavy, due to that
number of incoming calls become high or in right when people moving to
their home incoming call become very less and hand-off situation occur.
Then for a cell it become very difficult to manage such situation. To solve
this problems, we have to use less transmitted power for both set-up and
voice channels for certain cell sites. We also have to raise the threshold
level for reverse set-up channels and voice channels at certain cell sites in
order to control the acceptance of incoming calls and hand-off calls.
To solve the problem in a generalised way following method is used.
Frequency Assignment: In this arrangement, if there is any prediction of
traffic, we can assign frequencies intelligently at one site or at one
sector without interfering with adjacent co-channel sectors or co-channel
cells.
Tilted Antenna: The tilted directional antenna can reduce the interference.
Sometime antenna tilting is more effective than decreasing antenna height,
especially in areas of tall trees or at high sites.
(b) Refer to Question 4(b) of End Term 2011.
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 117

UNIT-III
Question 6. ______________________________________________________
(a) A (6, 3) linear block code is generated according to Generation Matrix. (6)

1 0 0 1 0 1

G= 0 1 0 0 1 1
  . For a particular code word transmitted the received
 0 0 1 1 1 0

codeword is 10011. Find the corresponding dataword transmitted.
(b) Explain the BPSK modulation scheme with the help of transmitter and receiver
block diagrams. (6.5)
Solution.
(a) Refer to Previous Questions.
(b) Phase-Shift Keying : In PSK, the phase of the carrier signal is shifted to represent
data.
Two-Level PSK: The simplest scheme uses two phase to represent the two binary
digits and is known as binary phase-shift keying. The resulting transmitted
signal for one bit time is:
BPSK

 A cos ( 2πf ct )  A cos ( 2πf ct ) binary 1


s (t ) =  =
 A cos ( 2πf ct + π ) − A cos ( 2πf ct ) binary 0
Because a phase shift of 180º (π) is equivalent to flipping the sine wave or multiplying it by
–1, the rightmost expressions can be used. This leads to a convenient formulation. If we
have a bit stream, and we define d(t) as the discrete function that takes on the value of +1
for one bit time if the corresponding bit in the bit stream is 1 and the value of –1 for one bit
time if thecorresponding bit in the bit stream is 0, then we can define the transmitted signal
as:
BPSKsd(t) = Ad(t)cos (2π f ct)
An alternative form of two-level PSK is differential PSK (DPSK). In this scheme, a binary
0 is represented by sending a signal burst of the same phase as the previous signal burst
sent. A binary 1 is represented by sending a signal burst of opposite phase to the preceding
one. This term differential refers to the fact that the phase shift is with reference to the
previous bit transmitted rather than to some constant reference signal. In differential
encoding, the information to be transmitted is represented in terms of the changes between
successive data symbols rather than the signal elements themselves. DPSK avoids the
requirement for an accurate local oscillator phase at the receiver that is matched with the
transmitted. As long as the preceding phase is received correctly, the phase reference is
accurate.
OR
Question 7. ______________________________________________________
(a) What is Trellis diagram? Explain the construction of Trellis diagram with the
example of a simple convolutional encoder. (6.5)
(b) Draw the composition interms of capacity performance of FDMA and TDMA
based systems. (6)
118 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

Solution.
(a) Trellis Diagram: A convolutional encoder is often seen as a finite state machine.
Each state corresponds to some value of the encoder’s register. Given the input
bit value, from a certain state the encoder can move to two other states. These
state transitions constitute a diagram which is called a trellis diagram. Each
path on the trellis diagram corresponds to a valid sequence from the encoder’s
output. Conversely, any valid sequence from the encoder’s output can be
represented as a path on the trellis diagram. One of the possible paths is denoted
as red.
Note that each state transition on the diagram corresponds to a pair of output
bits.There are only two allowed transitions for every state, so there are two
allowed pairs of output bits, and the two other pairs are forbidden. If an error occurs,
it is very likely that the receiver will get a set of forbidden pairs, which don’t
constitude a path on the trellis diagram. So, the task of the decoder is to find a path
on the trellis diagram which is the closest match to the received sequence.

0 00 0 00 0 00 0 00 0 00

0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 01

0 10 0 10 0 10 0 10 0 10

0 11 0 11 0 11 0 11 0 11

1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00

1 01 1 01 1 01 1 01 1 01

11 0 11 0 11 0 11 0 11 0

111 111 111 111 111


i i+1 i+2 i+3 i+4
A trellis diagram corresponding to the encoder on the figure
Convolutional Encoders: Like any error-correecting code, a convolutional code
works by adding some structured redundant information to the user’s datat and
then correcting errors using this information.
A convolution encoder is a linear system.
A binary convolutional encoder can be represented as a shift register. The outputs of the
encoder are modulo 2 sums of the values in the certain register’s cells. The input to the
enceder is either the unencoded sequence (for non-recursive codes) or the unencoded
sequence added with the values of some register’s cells (for recursive codes). Convolutional
codes can be systematic and non-systematic. Systematic codes are those where an unencoded
sequence is a part of the output sequence. Systematic codes are almost always recursive,
conversely, non-recursive codes are almost always non-systematic. A combination of
register’s cells that form one of the output streams (or that is added with the input stream
for recursive codes) is defined by a polynomial. Let m be the maximum degree of the
polynomials constituting a code, then K = m + 1 is a constraint length of the code.
For example, for the decoder on the figure, the polynomials are:
2 3 6 2 3 5 6
● g1 (z) = 1 + z + z + z + z ● g2 (z) = 1 + z + z + z + z
A code rate is an inverse number of output polynomials.
For the sake of clarity, in the article we will restrict ourselves to the codes with
1
rate R = .
2
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 119

+ + + + o ut 1

FD FD FD FD FD FD
in

+ + + + o ut 2

A standard NASA convolutional encoder with polynomials (171, 133)


Decoding procedure for other codes is similar.
Encoder polynomials are usually denoted in the octal notation. For the above
example, these designations are “1111001” = 171 and “1011011” = 133.
the constraint lenght of this code is 7.
(b) Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA): We have seen that FDMA assigns
individuals channel to individual users. These channels are assigned on demand
to users who request service. When user using the specified channel to him, no
other user cannot share that channel as shown in figure.
The features of FDMA are as follows:
1. Thre FDMA channel carries only one phone circuit at a time.
2. If an FDMA channel is not in use, mean due to any technical reason it is not
given to the user, then it canot be used by other users to increase or share
capacity. It is essentially a wasted resources.
3. After the assignment of a voice channel, the base station and the mobile
transmit simultaneously and continuously.
4. The complexity of FDMA system is lower, when it is compared to a TDMA
systems.
5. Since FDMA is a continuous transmission scheme, fewer bits are needed
for overhead purposes (Such as synchronization and framing bits) as
compared to TDMA.
6. The bandwidth of FDMA channels are relatively narrow (30 kHz in AMPS)
as each channel supports only one circuit per carrier so FDMA is generally
implemented in anrrow-band system.
7. The symbol tim of a narrow-band is large as compared to the average delay
spread. This implies that the amount of intersymbol interference is low and
thus, little or no equalization is required in FDMA narrow-band systems.
8. FDMA requires very good RF filtering to minimize adjacent channel
interference.
9. FDMA mobile unit uses duplexers since both the transmitter and receiver
operate at the same time. This results in an increase in the cost of FDMA
subscriber unit and base stations.
120 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

C o de

F re q ue ncy (f)

C ha nn el N
C h an ne l 1
C h an nel 2
C h an nel 3
C h an nel 4
Tim e (t)
FDMA where different channels are as signed different frequency bands
Multiple Aceess Technique used in Different Wireless Communication Systems

Cellular System Multiple Acess Technique


Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) FDMA/FDD
Global System for Mobile (GSM) TDMA/FDD
US DigitalCellular (USDC) TDMA/FDD
Pacific Digital Cellular (PDC) TDMA/FDD
CT2 (Cordless Telephone) FDMA/TDD
Digital European Cordelss Telephone (DECT) CDMA/FDD
US Narrowband Spread Spectrum (IS - 95) CDMA/FDD
W-CDMA (3GPP) CDMA/FDD
CDMA/TDD
CDMA 2000 (3GPP2) CDMA/FDD
CDMA/TDD
Time Division Multiple Access: Time division multiple access (TDMA) system
divide the radio spectrum into time slots. And in eachslot only one user is
allowed to either transmit or receive. Each user get cyclically one time slot, so a
channel may be thought of as a particular time slot that reoccurs every frame,
where N time slots comprise a frame.

C o de

C h an ne l N
C h an ne l N – 1
.
.
t s .
slo C h an ne l 3
e
T im C h an ne l 2
Fre q ue ncy (f)
C h an ne l 1

Tim e (t)
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 121

One important point in TDMA that, transmission of date in buffer and burst
method, so transmission for every user it become discontinuous. If indicate like
in FDMA which accomodate analog FM. TDMA must use digital data and digital
modulation techniques. The transmission from various users is interfaced into a
repeating frame structure as shown in Fig.
O ne TD M A Fra m e
P re am b le In fo rm a tion M essag e Tra il B its

S lot 1 S lot 2 N–1 S lot N


S lot 3 S lot 4

Tra il B its S ync. bits In fo rm a tion M essag e Tra il B its

It can be seen that a frame consists of a number of slots. Each frame is made up of
an preamble informationmessage and trail bits. In TDMA/TDD, half of the time
slots in the frame information message would be used for the forward link channels
and half would be used for reverse link channels. In TDMA/FDD systems, an
identical or similar frame structure would be used for forward or reverse
transmission, but carrier frequencies will be different for the both channel. TDMA
frame preamble contains the address and synchronization information that both
the base station and the subscriber use to identity each other. Gaurd times is used to
allow the synchronization of the receivers between different slots and frames.
Features of TDMA
• TDMA shares a single carrier frequency with several users, where each user
makes use of non-overlapping time slots. The number of times slots per
frame depends on several factors, such as modulation tehnique available
bandwidth, etc.
• Data transmission for users of a TDMA system is not continuous but occurs
in burst. Thisresults in low battery consumption, since the subscriber
transmitter can be turned off when not in use (which is most of the time).
• Becuase of discontinuous transmissions in TDMA, the handdoff process is
much simpler for a subscriber unit, since it is able to listen for other base
stations during idle time slots. An enhanced link control, such as that
provided by mobile assisted handoff (MAHO) can be carried out by a
subscriber by listening on an idel slot in the TDMA frame.
• TDMA uses different time slots for transmission and reception, thus
duplexers are not required. Even if FDD is used, a switch rathre than a
duplexer inside the subscriber unit is all that is required to switch between
transmitter and receiver using TDMA.
UNIT-IV
Question 8. ______________________________________________________
Explain the architecure model of GSM with block diagram. Discuss about different
entities of the system. Write a brief note on various interfaces used in GSM system. (12.5)
Solution.
GSM System Architecture: The GSM system architecture consists of three major
interconnected subsystems that interact between themselves and with the users throgh
122 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

certain network interfaces. The subsystems are the Base Station Subsystem (BSS),
Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS), and the Operation Support Subsystem (OSS).
The Mobile Station (MS) is also a subsystem but is usually considered to be part of the
BSS for archtecture purposes. Equipment and services are designed within GSM to
support one or more of these specific subsystems. The BSS, also known as the radio
system, provides and manages radio transmission paths between the mobile stations
and the Mobile Switching Center (MSC). The BSS also manages the radio interface
between the mobile stations and all other subsystems of GSM. Each BSS consists of
many Base Station Controllers (BSCs) which connect the MS to the NSS via the MSCs.
The NSS manages the switching functions of the system and allows the MSCs to
communicate with other networks such as the PSTN and ISDN. The OSS supports the
operation and maintenance of GSM and allows system engineers to monitor, diagnose,
and troubleshoot all aspects of the GSM system. This subsystem interact with the other
GSM subsystems, and is provided solely for the staff of the GSM operating company
which provides service facilities for the network.
Figure shwos the block diagram of the GSM system architecture. The Mobile Station
(MS) communicate with the Base Station Subsystem (BSS) over the radio air interface.
The BSS consists of many BSCs which connect t a single MSC, and each BSC typically
controls up to several hundred Base Transceiver Stations (BTSs). Some of the BTSs may
be co-located at the BSC, and others may be remotely distributed and physcially
connected to the BSC by microwave link or dedicated leased lines. Mobile handoffs
(called handovers, or HO, in the GSM specification) between two BTSs under the control
fo the same BSC are handled by the BSC, and not the MSC. This greatly reduces the
switching burden of the MSC.

As shown in Fig. the interface which connects a BTS to a BSC is called the Abis
interface carries traffic and maintenace data, and is specified by GSM to be standardized
for all manufacturers. In practice, however, the Abis for each GSM base station
manufacturer has subtle differences, thereby forcing service providers to use the same
manufacturer for the BTS and BSC equipment.
OR
Question 9. ______________________________________________________
Write short notes on the following: (6 + 6.5)
(a) Voice Signal Processing in GSM (b) IS-95 Mobile Network.
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 123

Solution.
(a) Voice Signal Processing in GSM: The radio channel is quite different from the
wired channel. First, the radio channel has a distinct time-change characteristic.
The radio channel is exposed to the air, so it is vulnerable to the interferences in
the air. The signal is influencedby various interferences, multi-path fading and
shadow fading, so the (uplink and downlink) transmission techniques are
applied. The original subscriber data or signalizing data are transformed before
being carried by the radio waves. And at the other end of the transmission, a
reverse transforming will be done. This can provide necessary protection to the
transmitting signal. The transformation methods roughly include the channel
coding/decoding, interleaving/de-interleaving, burst formatting, encryption/
decryption, and modulation/demodulation. For the voice, to pass an analog-
top-digital converter is actually a sampling process in the rate of 8KHz, after
quantification each 125 µs contains 13bit of code stream; then speech coding is
performed with every 20ms as a segment and the code transmission rate is reduced
in 13kbit/s, which becomes 22.8Kbit/s after the channel coding; then the voice
becomes a code stream at 33.8Kbit/s after code interleaving, encryption and
burst formatting and is transmitted finally. The processing at the terminal is just
the reverse of the above procedures.
20m s
8KH z, 13 bit S egm e- Speech 13kbit/s
Voice A /D C hannel coding
ntation coding
22.8kbit/s

33.8kbit/s
Interleaving E ncryption B urst form atting M odulation Transm ission

(b) Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Technique: In CDMA, the narrow
band massage sigbnal is multiplied by a large bandwidth signal called spreading
signal. CDMA is a spread spectrum based technique tht will be discussed in
detail in next section.
As with FDMA, each cell is allocated a frequency bandwidth, which is split into
two parts, half for reverse (mobile to base) and half for forward (bast station to
mobile unit).
Transmission is in form of direct sequence spread spectrum (DS-SS), which uses
a chipping code to increase the data rate of the transmission, resulting in an
increase signal bandwidth.
Multiple access is provided by assigning orthogonal chipping coes to multiple
users, so that the receiver can re-cover the transmission of an individual unit
from multiple transmission.
CDMA has number of advantage over cellular network
Frequency Diversity: The transmission is spread out over a larger bandwidth
due to that less affect by noise. If bandwidth is increased S/N ration increase,
which mean noise will be reduced.
Multiplication Resistance: Chipping codes usedfor CDMA not only exhibit
low cross correlation but also low autocorrelation. Hence a version of the signal
that is delayed by more than one chip interval does not interfere with the dominant
signal as in other multipath environments.
124 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

Privacy: Due to spread spectrum is obtained by the use of noise like signals,
where each user has a unique code, so privacy is inherent.
Gracefull Degradation: In CDMA, more users access the system simultaneously
as compared to FDMA, TDMA.

FIRS
FIRSTT TERM EXAMIN
EXAMINAATION
EIGHTH SEMESTER [B.TECH.], FEBRUARY 2011
MOBILE COMMUNIC
COMMUNICAATION (ETIT -402)
(ETIT-402)
Time : 1½ hours Maximum Marks : 30
Note: Attempt Q. No. 1 which is compulsory and any two more questions from the
remaining.
Question 1. ______________________________________________________
(a) What is cell splitting? How is it advantageous? (2)
(b) What is the significance of frequency re-use? Write the formula showing
relationship between cell radius, frequency re-use distance and Frequency re-
use factor. (3)
(c) What is meant by Handoff. Why is it required. (2)
(d) How many full duplex channels are required in each cell for a cellular system
with 6 clusters, 7 cells per cluster and a total capacity of the system being 1050
full duplex channels? (3)
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 3(c) of End Term 2010.
(b) Refer to Question 1(a) of End Term 2011.
(c) Refer to Question 8(b) of End Term 2011.
(d) Total capacity of system = 1050 full duplex channel
Total no. of cluster = 6
Cells in each cluster = 7
Total no. of cells = 7 × 6 = 42
1050
Full duplex channels in each cell = = 25
42
Question 2. ______________________________________________________
(a) Explain the operation of cellular system with the help of a diagram defining
the significance of each unit. (5)
(b) On what parameters does the performance criteria of cellular system depends?
Explain. (5)
Solution.
(a) Operation of Cellular Systems: The operation of a cellular mobile system can
be described as five major functionalities and four additional utilities. All the
functions together moke a complete mobile cellular system.
Mobile unit initialization:
(a) When mobile unit is turned on. It scans and selects the strongest setup
control channel used for system.
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 125

(b) Cells with different frequency bands repetitively broadcast on different


setup channels.
(c) The receiver selects the strongest setup channel and monitors that channel.
(d) With this the mobile station has automatically selected the BS antenna of
the cell within which it will operate.
(e) Then handshake takes place b/w the mobile unit and MTSO controlling
this cell through the BS. In this cell.
(f) Handshake is used to Identify the user and register its location.
(g) As long as the mobile station is on, scanning is repeated periodically to
account for the motion of the unit.
(h) If the unit enters a new cell, then a new BS is selected.
Mobile-originated call
(i) A mobile unit originates a call by sending the number (Mobile identification
Number, MIN) of the called unit on the preselected setup channel.
(j) The receiver of mobile unit checks if the forward channel (from BS) is idle.
(k) If idle the mobile may transmit over the reverse channel (To base station).
(l) BS sends request to the MTSO.
Paging
(m) MTSO attempts to complete connection.
(n) MTSO sends a paging message to certain BSs depending on called mobile
number.
(o) BS sends paging signal on its own assigned setup channel.
Call accepted
(q) MTSO stes up a circuit between calling and called BSs.
(r) MTSO selects available traffic channel within each BS’s cell and notifies
eachBS, which in turn notifies its mobile unit (a data msg called alert is
transmitted over FVC to instruct the mobile to ring).
(s) The two mobile units tune to their respective channels. Ongoing call
Ongoing Call.
(t) While connection is maintained, two mobile stations exchange voice or
data through BSs and MTSO.
Handoff
(u) If a mobile unit moves from range of one cell to another the traffic channel
has to change.
(v) System makes litis change without either interrupting the call or alerting
the user.
Call blocking: If all traffic channels are busy even after multiple attempts a busy
tone is returned.
Call termination: When one of the users hangs up, MTSO is Informed and the traffic
channels are released.
Call drop: during a connection if because of interference or weak signal soot
the BS.
(b) Refer to Question 1(b) of End Term 2011.
Question 3. ______________________________________________________
(a) What are the various steps involved in obtaining Mobile Point-to-Point, Lee
Model. Use relevant expressions to support your answer.
126 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

(b) What gives rise to the constant standard deviation along a path loss curve.
Explain with the help of diagram.
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 4(a) of End Term 2010.
(b) The straight-line path-loss slope with confidence
The path-loss curves are obtained from many different runs at many different
areas. As long as the distances of the radio path from the cell site to the mobile
unit are the same in different runs, the signal strength data measured at that
distance would be used to calculate the mean value for the path loss at that
distance. In the experimental data, the path-loss deviation is 8 dB across the
distance from 1.6 to 15 km (1 to 10 mi) where the general terrain contours are not
generally flat.
Figure depicts this. The path-loss curve is λ. The received power can be expressed as
r
Pr = P0 − λ log
r0
The slope λ is different in different areas, but it is always a straight line in a log
scale. If λ = 20 is a free-space path loss, λ = 40 is a mobile path loss.

An 8-dB local mean spread


Confidence level. A confidence level can only be applied to the path-loss curve
when the standard deviation σ is known. In American suburban areas, the standard
deviation σ = 8 dB. The values at any given distance over the radio path are
concentrated close to the mean and have a bell-shaped (normal) distribution. The
probability that 50 percent of the measured data are equal te or below a given
level is

P( x ≥ C ) = zC
1
πσ
∞ 2 2
e − ( x − A ) / 2 σ dx = 50%

where A is the mean level obtained along the path-loss slope, which is shown in
equation as
r
A = P0 − λ log 1
r0
Thus level A corresponds to the distance r1. If level A increases, the confidence
level decreases, as shown in equation.
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 127

Question 4. ______________________________________________________
(a) Explain the gain and pattern relationship of antenna.
(b) Write short notes on any three of the following: (3 × 6)
(i) Propagation over water
(ii) Effect of cell site antenna height
(iii) Foliage Loss
(iv) Umbrella Pattern Antennas
Solution.
(a) The Gain-and-Pattern Relationship
The gain of an antenna or an antenna array
4π (maximum radiation intensity) E 2 (θ , φ )
G= = max 2 m m
Total power radiated E (θ, φ )
where E = electric field
Emax = maximum of E
2 2
E = average value of E which is related to the radiation intensity
θ, φ = angles

We can obtain the antenna pattern E from either a measurement or an analytic


form. Then the gain G from the pattern E can be calculated.
The pattern and gain of an antenna array: Frequently, it is necessary to
calculate the gain of an antenna array. The general field pattern can be expressed
sin [ Nπ ( d cos φ . sin θ + ψ )]
E( θ, φ ) = × ( individual antenna element pattern)
N sin [ π ( d cos φ . sin θ + ψ )]
where N = number of elements in an array
d = spacing between adjacent elements in wavelength
ψ = phase difference between two adjacent elements
θ, φ = radiation angles
θ = 90° = direction perpendicular to the array axis
The gain of the array can be obtained by substituting equation. Two cases are
listed below.
128 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

1. A broadside-array case (ψ = 0). The individual elements are in parallel and


lie in the y-z plane. In this case the gain related to n single element of any
type of antenna is shown below.

2. A collinear-array case (ψ = 0). The individual elements arc roll In ear in the
z axis. In this case, the gain related to a single dipole element is as shown
in the following table.

(b) (i) Refer to Question 4(b) of End Term 2011.


(ii) Refer to Question 4(a) of End Term 2011.
(iii) Refer to Question 1(c) of End Term 2010.
(iv) Refer to Question 1(d) of End Term 2010.

SE
SECC OND TERM EXAMIN
EXAMINAATION
EIGHTH SEMESTER [B.TECH.], APRIL 2011
MOBILE COMMUNIC
COMMUNICAATION (ETIT -402)
(ETIT-402)
Time : 1½ hours Maximum Marks : 30
Note: Question 1 is compulsory, attempt any two from the rest.
Question 1. ______________________________________________________
Define the following: (5 × 2 = 10)
(i) Radiation Resistance of antenna
(ii) Forced handoff
(iii) Adjacent Channel Interference
(iv) Dropped call rate
(v) Paging Channel.
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 129

Solution.
(i) Radiation resistance is that part of an antenna’s feedpoint resistance that is
caused by the radiation of electromagnetic waves from the antenna. The radiation
resistance is determined by the geometry of the antenna, not by the materials of
which it is made. It can be viewed as the equivalent resistance to a resistor in the
same circuit. Radiation resistance is caused by the radiation reaction of the
conduction electrons in the antenna. When electrons are accelerated, as occurs
when an AC electrical field is impressed on an antenna, they will radiate
electromagnetic waves. These waves carry energy that is taken from the electrons.
The loss of energy of the electrons appears as an effective resistance to the
movement of the electrons, analogous to the ohmic resistance caused by
scattering of the electrons in the crystal lattice of the metallic conductor. While
the energy lost by ohmic resistance is converted to heat, the energy lost by
radiation resistance is converted to electromagnetic radiation.
(ii) Refer to Question 2(b) of Second Term 2012.
(iii) Refer to Question 1(a) of End Term 2012.
(iv) Refer to Question 2(b) of Second Term 2012.
(v) Refer to Question 2(b) of End Term 2010.
Question 2. ______________________________________________________
(a) Explain various umbrella pattern antennas with the help of neat diagrams. (5)
(b) What is meant by frequency management? Explain the numbering of channels
with the help of frequency management chart, if bandwidth assigned for two
AMPS system is 40 Mhz. (5)
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 1(d) of End Term 2010.
(b) Refer to Question 1(a) of Second Term 2012.
Question 3. ______________________________________________________
(a) A(6, 3) Linear block code is generated according to the generator matrix. (5)
LM1 0 0 1 1 1 OP
G= M PP
0 1 0 0 1 1
NM0 0 1 1 1 0 Q
For a particular code word transmitted, the received code word is 10011. Find
corresponding data word transmitted.
(b) Explain mobile high gain antennas and its applications. (5)
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 6(a) of End Term 2012.
(b) Refer to Question 1(e) of Second Term 2012.
Question 4. ______________________________________________________
(a) For a PCM system with following parameters:
(i) Maximum analog input frequency = 4 kHz
(ii) Maximum decoded voltage at the receiver = 2.25 V
(iii) Minimum dynamic range = 46 dB
130 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

Determine : (a) minimum sample rate (b) minimum no. of bits used in the PCM
code (c) resolution (d) quantization error. (5)
(b) What orthogonality? How OFDM proves to be a better modulation technique
over others? (5)
Solution.
(a) Minimum sample rate
⇒ f s ⇒ 2fa = 2(4 kHz) = 8 kHz
The absolute dynamic range
Vmax
46 dB = 20 log V
min

DR = 199.5
(b) The minimum number of bit is
log (199.5 + 1)
n = = 7.63
log 2
To choose number of bit must be greater than minimum value which is equal to
8. It is also require a bit for the sign bit. Therefore total number of bit is nine. The
total number of the PCM code is 29 = 512
n
The actual dynamic range is DRcdB = 20 log (2 – 1) = 48.13 dB
Vmax Vmax 2 .25
(c) Resolution: ∆V = = n = 8 = 0.009 j 0.01
L −1 2 −1 2 −1
(d) Maximum quantization error is
0 .01 V
φc = Resolution = = 0.005 V
2 2

END TERM EXAMIN


EXAMINAATION
EIGHTH SEMES TER [B.TE
SEMESTER CH.], MA
[B.TECH.], MAYY -JUNE 20 11
201
MOBILE COMMUNIC
COMMUNICA ATION (ETIT -402)
(ETIT-402)
Time : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 75
Note: Attempt any five question including Question no. 1 which is compulsory. Select
one question from each unit.
Question 1. ______________________________________________________
(a) What is the frequency reuse distance? What are the parameters on which it
depends. Show taht frequency reuse factor fro a cellular system is given by ‘K/
S’, where K is average number of channels per cell and S is the total number of
channels avialable to serivce provider. (5)
(b) Explain different performarice criterion of a cellular mobile system with special
emphasis on grade of service (5)
(c) Explain all fading techniques in wirless communication. How Rayleigh fading
can be minimized in mobile radio system. (5)
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 131

(d) Give all differences between fixed channel assignment and non-fixed channel
assignment. (5)
(e) If Pt = 10W, Gt = 0db, fc = 900 MHz. (5)
Find P6 in watts at a free space distance of 1 km.
Solution.
(a) Frequency Reuse Distance: The minimum distance which allows the same
frequency to be reused will depend on many factors, such as the number of
cochannel cells in the vicinity of the center cell, the type of geographic terrain
contour, the antenna height, and the transmitted power at each cell site. The
frequency reuse distance D can be determined from D = 3 K R where K is the
frequency reuse pattern shown in figure, then

0
R
1

1
1
4
1 2
3
4 3 4 5
2 1
1 7
3 6 1
1
2
4 1
1
3
K=4
2

q = D /R = 46
K=7

3.46 R K =4
 4.6 R K =7

D=
 6R K = 12
7.55R K = 19

C a ll B
no B
12 6
4
A
5 9 5 A
8 10 6
10
11 2 11 B
B
7 3 7 B
3
12 A
12 1 A
6 4 6 A
4
9 5 9
B
10 6 B
11 DR = 6
K = 12 A
A 2 2
K = i + ij + j = 19
1 2 C e ll re us e pa tte rn to sta rt-u p c o nfigu ra tio n S h ift pa ram e ter i = 3 , j = 2
132 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

If all the cell sites transmit the same power, then K increases and the frequency
reuse distance D increases. This increased D reduces the chance that cochannel
interference may occur.
(b) Refer to Question 2(a) of End Term 2012.
(c) Fading Techniques: In wireless communications, fading is deviation of the
attenuation affecting a signal over certain propagation media. The fading may
vary with time, geographical position or radio frequency, and is oftenmodeled
as a random process. A fading channel is a communication channel comprising
fading. In wireless systems, fading May either is due to multipath propagation,
referred to as multipath induced fading, or due to shadowing from obstacles
affecting the wave propagation, sometimes referred to as shadow fading.
Rayleigh fading is a statistical model for the effect of a propagation environment
on a radio signal, such as that used by wireless devices. Rayleigh fading models
assume that the magnitude of a signal that has passed through such a transmission
medium (also called a communications channel) will vary randomly, or fade,
according to a Rayleigh distribution – the radial component of the sum of two
uncorrelated Gaussian random variables. Rayleigh fading is viewed as a
reasonable model for troposphere and ionosphere signal propagation as well as
the effect of heavily built-up urban environments on radio signals. Rayleigh
fading is most applicable when there is no dominant propagation along a line of
sight between the transmitter and receiver. If there is a dominant line of sight,
Rician fading may be more applicable.
Rician fading is a stochastic model for radio propagation anomaly caused by
partial cancellation of a radio signal by itself – the signal arrives at the receiver
by several different paths (hence exhibiting multipath interference), and at least
one of the paths is changing (lengthening or shortening). Rician fading occurs
when one of the paths, typically a line of sight signal, is much stronger than the
others. In Rician fading, the amplitude gain is characterized by a Rician distribution.
Rayleigh is the specialised model for stochastic fading when there is no line of
sight signal, and is sometimes considered as a special case of the more generalised
concept of Rician fading. In Rayleigh fading, the amplitude gain is characterized
by a Rayleigh distribution.
Weibull fading, named after Waloddi Weibull, is a simple statistical model of
fading used in wireless communications and based on the Weibull distribution.
Empirical studies have shown it to be an effective model in both indoor and
outdoor environments. In 2005, a theoretical model for a particular class of
weibull distributions was described by Sagias and Karagiannidis, who also analyzed
channel capacity of a wireless channel in the presence of weibull fading.
(d) Refer to Question 5(a) of End Term 2012.
(e) Pt = 10 W
Gt = 0 dB
Gr = 0 dB
d = 1 KM ⇒ 1000 M
f ⇒ 900 MHz ⇒ 0.96 GHz

P r(1000) =
( PG G λ )
t t r
2

( 4π ) 2 d 2
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 133

We need value of l
C C
We know that f = l=
λ f
8
C = 3.8 × 10 m f = 0.9 GHz
3.8 × 108
l = m
0.9
  3.8 × 108  
2

 10 ×  
  0.9  
Pr(1000m) = = ( Ans)W
( 4π)2 (1000)2
Question 2. ______________________________________________________
(a) Why hexagonal shape is preferred over other cell shapes in cellular mobile
radio. (2.5)
(b) Describe all the techniques to improve coverage and capacity in cellular
systems. (5)
(c) If 25 MHz of total spectrum is allocated for a duplex wireless cellular system
and each simplex channel has 25 KHz RF bandwidth, find: (5)
(i) No. of duplex channels
(ii) Total number of channels per site, if N = 4 cell reuse is used.
Solution.
(a) In a cellular System a land area is divided into regular shaped cells, which can
be hexagonal, square, circular or some other irregular shapes, although hexagonal
cells are convetional.
This is becuase there are some criteria for the cell shape, which are
1. Geometric shape
2. Area without overlap
3. Area of the cell
And the eligible shapes for these criteria are Square, circle, equilateral triangle
and hexagon.
The Geometric shape and Area without overlap is satisfied by a hexagon, square,
equilateral triangle as they can be fitted in a manner where there is no area of
overlap.The circle on the other hand would overlap (which implies interference
of signals) or leave gaps (which means loss of coverage in those areas) when not
overlapping. When the area factor is considered a circle has the highest area
hoever it does not satisfy the second criteria of overlap. Therefore we have to
consider a shape which fits correctly and also has maximum area. For this purpose
we shall compare the area of the remaining shapes to the area of circle to see
which has the maximum area.
The area of an equilateral traiangle to a circle approx = 17.77%
The area of a square to a circle approx = 63.7%
The area of a hexagon to a circle approx = 83%
Which means hexagon has the highest coverage area after a circle from the lot. Thus
of the lot hexagon satisfies all the conditons which is why the shape of a cell is
hexagonal in cellular network.
134 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

(b) Increasing capacity: As we know that communication industry is only one


industry in the world which is increase by 100% per year. So to fullfil this
demand a number of approaches have been used including the following:
Frequency Borrowing from Cells: If a cell is not using all the channel allocated
to that cell then it can be given to adjacent cell in busy hour for a certain time
but it can be done dynmically.
New Channels: If number of subscriber is increased then to managed them more
channel can be added.
Cell Splitting: As we know all the geographical area is not same, neither number
of subscribers are same in all the cells so a cell having larger number of customers
canbe split in small cells. Generally a cell radius is 6.5 to 13 km in size, so it can
be divided into small cells. For spliting a cell in smaller size a cell or 1.5 km
radius is close to the practical minimum size. If cells split in smaller radius the
transmitter power must be reduced at same time. A radius reduction by a factor of
S reduces the coverage area and increases the required number of base stations
2
by a factor of S .

Cell splitting
Microcells: As cells become smaller, antennas height become smaller. It moves
from the tops of tall building or hills to the tops of small buildings or the sides
of large buildings, where they form microcells. Decrease in cell size is
accompnined by a reduction in the rediated power levels from the base stations
and the mobile units.
Microcells are usefull in city streets or along highways and inside large public
buildings.
(c) Total Bandwidth = 25 MHz
Channel Bandwitdth = 25 KHz × 2 = 50 KHz/duplex channel
2500
1. Total available channels = = 500channels
50
2. for N = 4
500
Total number of channels per site ⇒ = 125 channels
4
OR
Question 3. ______________________________________________________
(a) Explain co-channel interference. How it can be minimized? (2.5)
(b) Prove that for a hexagonal geonetry, the co-channel reuse distance is Q =
2 2
3N where, N = i + ij + j . (5)
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 135

(c) Suppose 5 cells of iginally cover a cogested service area with 80 channels per
cell. Find its channel capacity. Now, if cell spliting is done with new radius
R1 = R/2, find its new channels capacity. Assume path loss exponent n = 4. (5)
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 1(a) of End Term 2012.
(b) Co-channel Interference (CCI): Co-channel interference (CCI) is generated
when two or more independent signals are transmitted simultaneously in the
same frequency band. The same frequencies (frequency bands) are re-used many
times. In following figure, for examples frequency bands f1 to f7 re-used in a N =
7 cell re-use patterns. If the mobile unit is at location m7, then it recives the
desired signal on frequency f7 from the nearest base station B7.
Simultaneously, the mobile unit at M 7 also receives, in the same frequency
band, an independent interfering signal from base station A7. The ratio of desired
average carrier power (C) from the nearby base station (B7) to averageinterference
(I) power from the distant base station (A7) the average C/I or channel interference
(CCI) factor
D
a=
R
D = Distance between base station that transmit on the same frequency.
For example, distance A7 to B7.
R = Coverage radius of the basic station transmitter of one cell.
A larger ‘a’ factor leads to higher C/I, to get larger C/I values; the cell re-use
factor must increases and the capacity is reduced the relation between D and R
hexagonal shape sharingof k frequencies.
 D = 3N R 
 
C lu ster C

3 C
2
Base (a cce ss p oint)
C
4 C M ob ile
6 C
5
C
7 C
1
R
1 C 3
D M1 B
2
3 A 2
B
4 B
A A
4
6 B
5
6 A
5 B
7 B
M7
A 7 A
B
D R
A
C lu ster B

C lu ster A

f2 f3 AC I
f2 f3
2 3

A B
Base A2 M obile Base B3
At f 2 At f 3
136 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

P ow er spe ctral density

0 dB

– 40 dB

– 50 dB

fc f(kH z)
C o-channel interferen ce for k = 7 cell re-use pattern

R
7 b 7
A a= D B
R

The CCI-caused C/I ration received at a desired base station (cell site) for a N = 7 cell
re-use pattern.
Assuming that we have all six, m = 6 co-channel interference, the CCI at the base
station is
C C
CCI b = =
NT + I N + ∑m
Ii
T
i =1
If CCI is the pre-dominant factor or noise NT is negligible, then we have
C
CCI b = m =6
∑ Ii
i =1

I′1 I′6

I′2 d1 I′5
C .S o. C b

I′3 d2
I′4

We assume for example, that the non-line of sight (NLOS) path loss is at a slope
of 40 dB/decade, that is proportional to R–4. In this case
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 137

R −4
4
1  D
CCI b = =  
6D −4
6 R
By putting D = 3N R and N = 7
−4
1 R 
⇒ 73.5
6  3N R 
CCI b =

C
or CCI b = 18.7 dB ⇒ = 18.7 dB.
I
C
This ratio received at the base, assumes equal transmit power and equidistant
I
spacing of the six remote interferring signals from the base.
(c) Total cells = 5
each cell have channels = 80
Capacity original = 5 × 80 = 400
R
After all splitting R1 =
2
We now have 24 new cells.
capacit new = 24 × 80 = 19200
for n = 4, transmit power of new BS is 12 dB lower than original, No change in
frequency use. Cost is that more base stations and more handoffs.
Question 4. ______________________________________________________
(a) What is the effect of antenna height on cell area coverage? Explain in detail. (6.5)
(b) What are the propagation effects in following areas: (6)
(i) Over flat terrain (ii) Over water (iii) In an urban area
Solution.
(a) Cell Site Antenna Height: There are several points, which need to be clarified
concerning cell site antenna height effects.
Antenna Height Unchanged: If the power of the cell site transmitter changes
the whole signal strength can be linearly updated according to the change in
power. If the transmitted power increased by 3dB to each grid in the signal
strength map. The relative difference in power among the grids remains the
same.
Antenna Height Changed: If the antenna heigh changes, then signal strength
map obtained from the old antenna height cannot be updated. With the simple
antenna heigh antenna formula as

 h′ 
1
Dg′ = 20log 
 h1 
Where h1 is the old actual antenna height and h¢1 is the new actual antenna
height. However we can still use the same terrain contour data along the radio
path (from the cell site antenna to each grid) to figure out the difference in gain
resulting from the different antenna heights in each grid.
138 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

 h′ 
Dg = 20log  e 
 he 
Where he is the old effective antenna height and h′e is the new effective antenna
height. The additional gain (increase or decrease) will be added to the signal
strength grid based on the old antenna height.
Visualization of the effective antenna height: The effective antenna height
changes when the location of the mobile unit changes. Therefore we can visualize
the efffective antenna height as always changing up or down while the mobile
unit is moving. This kind of picture should be kept in mind. In addition following
fact may be helpful
1. The mobile unit is driven up a positive slop (up to a high spot). The
effective antenna height increases if the mobile unit is driving away from
the cell site antenna and it decreases if the mobile unit is approaching the
cell site antenna.
2. The mobile unit is driven the hill. The effective antenna height decreases
if the mobile unit is driven away from the cell site antenna, and it increases
if the mobile unit is approaching the cell site antenna.
Lowering the antenna height: Lowering the antenna height doesn’t always
reduce the co-channel interference. In some circumstances, such as on fairly flat
ground or in a valley situation, lowering the antenna height will be very effective
for reducing the co-channel and adjacent channel interference. However there
are three cases where the lowering the antenna height may or may not effective
help to reduce the interference.
(b) Radio Propagation Model: A radio propagation model, also known as the
Radio Wave Propagation Model or the Radio Frequency Propagation Model, is
an empirical mathematical formulation for the characterization of radio wave
propagation as a function of frequency, distance and other conditions. A single
model is usually developed to predict the behavior of propagation for all similar
links under similar constraints. Created with the goal of formalizing the way
radio waves are propagated from one place to another, such models typically
predict the path loss along a link or the effective coverage area of a transmitter.
Characteristics: As the path loss encountered along any radio link serves as
the dominant factor for characterization of propagation for the link, radio
propagation models typically focus on realization of the path loss with the
auxiliary task of predicting the area of coverage for a transmitter or modeling
the distibution of signals over different regions.
Free Space Propagation (Flat Open Area) over
water & flat terrain: For propagation distance d R e ce ive
A n ten n a
much larger than the square of the antenna size A p erture
divided the wavelength, the far-field of the generated
electromagnetic wave dominates all other Tra nsm it
component. In free space, the power radiated by an A n ten n a
isotopic antenn is spread uniformaly and without
loss over the surface of a sphare surrounding the antenna. Even the simplest
antenna has some directivity. For example, a linear dipole has uniform power
flow in any plane perpendicular to the axis of the dipole (omnidirectionality) and
the maximum powr flow is in the equtaorial plane.
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 139
2
The surface area of a sphere of radius d is 4 d , so that the power flow per unit area
2
w (power flux in watts/mater ) at distance d from a transmitter antenna with
input accepted power PT and gaia GT is

PT GT
W =
4πd 2
Propagation in an urban area: If we consider the effect of the earth surface,
the expressions for the received signal become more complicated than in case of
free space propagation. The main effect is that signals reflected off the earth
surface may (partially) cancel the line of sight wave.
L ine -o f-sig ht

G ro un d-R e flecte d
w a ve

S u rfa ce W a ve

OR
Question 5. ______________________________________________________
(a) Explain all setup channels in GSM architecture. (7)
(b) What are type of cell site antennal. Compare them according to geographical
areaof a cell. (5.5)
Solution.
(a) GSM Channel Types: There are two types of GSM logical channels, called
traffic channels (TCH) and control channels (CCH). Traffic channels carry
digitally encoded user speech or user data and have identical functons and
formats on both the forward and reverse link. Control channels carry signaling
and synchronizing commands between the base station and the mobile station.
Certain types of control channels are defined for just the forward or reverse link.
GSM Traffic Channels (TCH): GSM traffic channels may be either full-rate or
half-rate and may carry either digitized speech or user data. When transmitted as
full-rate, user data is contained within one TS per frame. When transmitted as
half-rate, user data is mapped onto the same time slot, but is sent in alternate
frames. That is, two half-rate channel users would share the same time slot, but
would alternately transmit during every other frame. In the GSM standard, TCH
data may not be sent in TS 0 within a TDMA frame on certain ARFCNs which
serve as the broadcast station for each cell . Furthermore, frames of TCH data are
broken up every thirteenth frame by either slow associated control channel data
(SACCH) or idle frames. Figure illustrates how the TCH data is transmitted in
consecutive frames. Each group of twenty-six consecutive TDMA frame is called
a multiframe. For every twenty-six frames, the thirteenth and twenty-sixth frames
consist of Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH) data, or the idle frame,
respectively. The twenty-sixth frame contains idle bits for the channels case
when full-rate TCHs are used, and contains SACCH data when half-rate TCHs
are used.
Full-Rate TCH: The following full rate speech and data channels are supported:
• Full-Rate Speech Channel (TCH/FS)–The full-rate speech channel carries
user speech which is digitized at a raw data rate of 13 kbps. With GSM
140 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

channel coding added to the digitized sppech, the full-rate speech channel
carries 22.8 kbps.
• Full-Rate Data Channel for 9600 bps (TCH/F9.6)–The full-rate traffic
data channel carries raw user data which is sent at 9600 bps. With additional
forward error correction coding applied by the GSM standard, the 9600
bps data is sent at 22.8 kbps.
• Full-Rate Data Channel for 4800 bps (TCH/4.8)–The full-rate traffic data
channel carries raw user data which is sent at 4800 bps. With additonal
forward error correction coding applied by the GSM standard, the 4800
bps is sent at 22.8 kbps.
• Full-Rate Data Channel for 2400 bps (TCH/2.4)–The full-rate traffic data
channel carries raw user data which is sent at 2400 bps. With additional
forward error correction codng applied by the GSM standard, the 2400 bps
is sent at 22.8 kbps.
Half-Rate TCH: The following half-rate speech and data channels are
supported:
• Half-Rate Speech Channel (TCH/FS)–The half-rate speech channel has
been designed to carry digitized speech which is sampled at a rate half that
of the full-rate channel. The half-rate speech channel will carry 11.4 kbps.
• Half-Rate Data Channel for 4800 bps (TCH/4.8)–The half-rate traffic
data channel carries raw user data which is sent at 4800 bps. With additional
forward error correction coding applied by the GSM standard, the 4800
bps data is sent at 11.4 kbps.
• Half-Rate Data Channel for 2400 bps (TCH/2.4)–The half-rate traffic
data channel carries raw user data which is sent at 2400 bps. With additional
forward error correction coding applied by the GSM standard, the 2400
bps data is sent at 11.4 kbps.
GSM Control Channels (CCH): There are three main control channels in the
GSM system. These are the broadcast channel (BCH), the common control
channel (CCCH), and the dedicated control channel (DCCH). Each control of
several logical which are distributed in time to provide the necessary GSM
control functions. The BCH and CCCH forward control channels in GSM are
implemented only on certain ARFCN channels and are allocated timeslots in a
veryspecific manner. Specifically, the BCH and CCCH forward control channels
are allocated only TS 0 and are broadcast only during certain frames within a
repetitive fifty-one frame sequence (called the control channel multiframe) on
those ARFCNs which are designated as control channels are still able to carry
full-rate users on seven of the eight time slots. The GSM specification defines
thirty-four ARFCNs as stadard broadcast channels. For each broadcast channel,
frame 51 does not contain any BCH/CCCH forward channel data and is considered
to be an idle frame. However, the reverse channel CCCH is able to receive
subscriber transmission during TS 0 of any frame (even the idle frame). On the
other hand, DCCH data may be sent during any time slot and any frame, and
entire frames are specifically dedicated to certain DCCH tranmissions.
• Broadcast Channels (BCH)–The broadcast channel operates on the forward
link of a specific ARFCN within each cell, and transmits data only in the
first time slot (TS 0) of certain GSM frames. Unlike TCHs which are duplex,
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 141

BCHs only use the forward link. Just as the forward control channel (FCC)
in AMPS is used as a beacon for all nearby mobiles to camp on to, the BCH
serves as a TDMA beacon channel for any nearby mobile to identify and
lock on to. The BCH provides synchronization for all mobiles within the
cell and is occasionally monitored by mobiles in neighboring cells so that
received power and MAHO decisiionsmay be made by out-of-cell users.
The three types of BCH are now described:
(a) Broadcast Control CHannel (BCCH)–The BCCH is a forward control
channel that is used to broadcast information such as cell and network
identity, and operating characteristics of the cell (current control channel
structure, channel availability, and congestion). The BCCH also
broadcasts a list of channels that are currently in use within the cell.
Frme 2 through frame 5 in a control multiframe (4 out of every 51 frames)
contain BCCH data. It should be noted from figure 10.8 that TS 0 contains
BCCH data during specific frames, and contains other BCH channels
(FCcH and SCH), common control channels (CCCHs) or an idle frame
(sent every 51st frame) during other specific frames.
(b) Frequency Correction CHannel (FCCH)–The FCCH is a special data
burst which occupies TS 0 for the very first GSM frame (frame 0) and is
repeated every ten frames within a control channel multiframe. The FCCH
allows each subscriber unit to synchronize its internal frequency standard
(local oscillator) to the exact frequency of the base station.
(c) Synchronization CHannel (SCH)–SCH is broadcasty in TS 0 of the
frame immediately following the FCCH frame and is used to identify the
serving base station while allowing each mobile to frame synchronize
with the base station. The frame number (FN), which ranges from 0 to 2,
715, 647, is sent with the base station identity code (BSIC) during the
SCH burst. The BSIC is uniquely assigned to each BST in a GSM system.
• Common Control CHannels (CCCH)–On the broadcast (BCH) ARFCN,
the common control channels occupy TS 0 of every GSM frame tht is not
otherwise used by the BCH or the Idle frame. CCCH consists of three
different channels: the paging channel (PCH), which is a forward link
channel, the random access channel (RACH) which is a reverse link channel,
and the access grant channel (AGCH0, which is a forward link channel,and
the access grant channel (AGCH), which is a forward link channel.
(a) Paging CHannel (PCH)–The PCH provides paging signals from the
base station to all mobiles in the cell, and notifies a specific mobile of an
incoming call which originates from the PSTN. The PCH transmits the
IMSI of the target subscriber, along with a request for acknowledgement
from the mobile unit on the RACH.
(b) Random Access Channel (RACH)–The RACH is a reverse link channel
used by a subscriber unit to acknowledge a page from the PCH, and is
also used by mobiles to originate a call. The RACH uses a slotted ALOHA
access scheme.
(b) Cell Site Antenna: A cell site is a site where antennas and electronic
communications equipment are placed, usually on a radio mast, tower or other
high place, to create a cell (or adjacent cells ) in a cellular network. The elevated
structure typically supports antennas, and one or more sets of transmitter/receiver
142 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

stransceivers, digital signal processors, control electronics, a GPS recievers for


timing, primary and backup electical power sources, and sheltering. A cell site is
sometimes called a “cell tower”, even if the cell site antennas are mounted on a
building rather than a tower. In GSM networks, the technically correct term is
Base Transceiver Station (BTS), and colloquial British English synonyms are
“mobile phone mast” or “base station”. The term “base station site” might better
reflect the increasing co-location of multiple mobile operators, and therefore multiple
base stations, at a single site. Depending on an operator’s technology, even a site
hosting just a single mobile operator may house multiple base stations, each to
serve a different air interface technology.
Different kind of cell sites
1. Temporary set-up: Although cell antennas are normally attached to
permanent structures, carriers also maintain fleets of vehicles, called cell-on-
wheels (COWs), that serve as temporary cell sites. A generator may be included
for use where network electrical power isn’t available, and the system may have
a wireless backhaul link allowing use where a wired link is not available.
2. Off-grid systems: An off-grid cell site is not connected to the public electrical
grid. Usually the system is off-the-grid because of difficult access or lack of
infrastructure. Fuel cell or other backup power systems are added to critical cell
sites to provide emergency power. More sites use internal-combustion-engine-
driven generator sets. However, being less efficient than public power, they
increase operating expense and are a source of pollution (atmospheric, acoustic,
etc.) and some are in areas protected by environment and landscape conservation.
3. Camouflage: There is often local opposition to new masts for reasons of
safety and appearance. The latter is sometimes tackled by disguising the mast as
something else, such as a flag pole, street lamp, or a tree (i.e. palm trees, pine
trees, cypress..) or rooftop structures or urban features such as chimneys or panels.
Question 6. ______________________________________________________
(a) Explain three propagation machanisms: (6)
(i) Reflection (ii) Diffraction (iii) Refraction
(b) Determine depth loss for a signal with frequency 1 GHz, at a distance of 10 Km.
What will be the far field distance for a base station antenna with largest
antenna dimension D = 0.5m, freq. of operation f1 = 900 MHz. If frequency of
operation is changed to f2 = 1800 MHz, then find far field distance. (6)
Solution.
(a) (i) Reflection: When a wave propagation in the medium reaches the border
with another medium which has different electrical properties, the wave is
partly reflected and partly transmitted. If the second medium is a perfect
conductor then all the energy is reflected, otherwise some of the energy is
reflected and some is absorbed.
Near to earth or some other surface; it is unusual to have a single direct
path between the transmitter and receiver because radio waves are reflected
from the surface (ground) or surfaces,. This means that the free space
propagation model is inaccurate for all situations where reflection might
take place. Of course, the magnitude relationship between the Line of
Sight (LOS) wave’s power and the power of any reflected waves determines
how close to free space propagation the situation is. But, in many practical
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 143

situations, the two-ray ground reflection model is sufficiently accurate.


This model has been found to be sufficiently accurate for predicting the
large scale signal strength over several kilometers for mobile radio systems,
as well as for short range urban line of sight (street) and indoor applications.
For most of these applications, where the separation between the transmitter
and receiver is relatively small, the earth can be assumed to be flat. The
total received power is then a combination of the line of sight component
and the ground reflected component.
(ii) Diffraction: Diffraction refers to various phenomena which occur when a
wave encounters an obstacle. In classical physics, the diffraction
phenomenon is described as the apparent bending of the waves around
small obstacles and the spreading out of waves past small openings. Similar
effects occur when a light wave travels through a medium with a varying
refractive index, or a sound wave travels through one with varying acoustic
impedance. Diffraction occurs with all waves, including sound waves, water
waves, and electromagnetic waves such as visible light, X-rays and radio
waves. As physical objects have wave-like properties (at the atomic level),
diffraction also occurs with matter and can be studied according to the
principles of quantum mechanics.
(iii) Refraction: Refraction is the change in direction of a wave due to a change
in its medium. It is essentially a surface phenomenon. The phenomenon is
mainly in governance to the law of conservation of energy and momentum.
Due to change of medium, the phase velocity of the wave is changed but
its frequency remains constant. This most commonly observed when a
wave passes from one medium to another at any angle other than 90º or 0º.
Refraction oflight is the most commonly observed phenomenon, but any
type of wave can refract when it interacts with a medium, for example when
sound wavespass from one medium into another or when water wave move
into water of a differnt depth. Refraction is described by Snell’s law, which
states that for a given pair of media and a wave with a single frequency, the
ratio of the sines of the angle of incidence q1 and angle of refraction q2 is
equivalent to the ratio of phase velocities (V1/V2) in the two media, or
equivalently, to the opposite ratio of the indices of refraction (n2/n1):
sin θ1 v1 n2
= = .
sin θ 2 v2 n1
(b) Largest dimension of antenna, D = 0.5m
Operating frequency, f = 900 MHz
3 × 108 m / s
λ = c/f =
900 × 106 Hz
2 D 2 2 ( 0.5)
2

For field distance (df) = = = 1.51m


λ 0.33
With f = 1800 MHz,
2D 2
For field distance (df) =
λ
c 3 × 108 m / s
λ = = = 0.16m
f 1800 × 106 Hz
144 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

2 ( 0.5)
2

df = = 3.12m
0.16
OR
Question 7. ______________________________________________________
(a) Explain three types of multiple access techniques. Why CDMA technique is
more secure over. (7)
(b) What are different digital modulation techniques compare QPSK and BPSK in
terms of bandwidth and data rate. (5.5)
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 7(a) and Question 9(b) of End Term 2012.
(b) Linear Modulation Techniques: Digital modulation techniques may be broadly
classified as linear and non-linear. In linear modulation techniques, the amplitude
of the transmitted signal, s(t), varies linearly with the modulating digital signal
m(t). Linear modulation techniques are bandwidth efficient and hence are very
attractive for use in wire-less communication systems where there is an increasing
demand to accommodate more and more users within a limited spectrum.
In a linear modulation scheme, the transmitted signal s(t) can be expressed as:
s (t) = Re [Am (t) exp (j2πfct)]
= A [mR (t) cos (2πfct) – mt(t) sin(2πfct)]
where A is the amplitude, fc is the carrier frequency, and m(t) = mR(t) + jmI(t) is a
complex envelope representation of the modulated signal which is in general
complex form. From equation it is clear that the amplitude of the carrier varies
linearly with the modulating signal. Linear modulation schmes, in general, do
not have a constant envelope.
Spectrum and Bandwidth of BPSK: The BPSK signal using a polar baseband
data waveform m(t) can be expressed in complex envelop form as
{
SBPSK = Re g BPSK (t ) exp ( j 2πf ct ) }
where gBPSK (t) is the complex envelope of the signal given by
2 Eb
gBPSK (t) = m (t ) e jθc
Tb
The power spectral density (PSD) of the complex envelope can be shown to be
2
 sin πfTb 
Pg BPSK ( f ) = 2 Eb 
 πfT 
b

The PSD for the BPSK signal at RF can be evaluated by translating the baseband
spectrum to the carrier frequency using the relation given in equation.
Hence the PSD of a BPSK signal at RF is given by

E  sin π ( f − f ) T  2  sin π ( − f − f ) T  2 
PBPSK = b  c b
 + c b
 
2  π ( f − f c ) Tb   π ( f − f c ) Tb  
 
bit period. At the end of each bit period, the switch at the output of the integrator
closes to dump the output signal to the decision circuit. Depending on whether
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 145

the integrator output is above or below a certain threshold, the decision circuit
decides that the recived signal corresponds to a binary 1 or 0. The threshold is
set at an optimum level such that the probability of error is minimized. If it is
equally likely that a binary 1 or 0 is transmitted then the voltage level
corresponding to the midpoint between the detector output voltage levels of
binary 1 and is used as the optimum threshold.
Spectrum and Bandwidth of QPSK Signals: The power spectral density of a
QPSK signal can be obtained in a manner similar to that used for BPSK, with the
bit periods Tb replaced by symbol periods Ts. Hence the PSD of a QPSK signal
using rectangular pulses can be expressed as

E  sin π ( f − f ) T  2  sin π ( − f − f ) T  2 
PQPSK = s  c s
 +
c s
 
2  π ( f − f c ) Ts   π ( − f − f c ) Ts  
 
 sin 2π ( f − f ) T  2  sin 2π ( − f − f ) T  2 
= Eb  c b
 +  2π − f − f T  
c b



2 π ( f − f c) b 
T  ( c) b  

The PSD of a QPSK signal for rectangular and raised cosine filtered pulses is
plotted in Fig. The null-to-null RF bandwidth is equal to the bit rate Rb, which
is half that of a BPSK signal.

UNIT-IV
Question 8. ______________________________________________________
(a) Draw and explain in detail architecture of a cellular (GSM) system. Explain in
detail. How a call is matured. (5)
(b) What are different hand-off strategies. (5)
(c) What are training bits and why they are used in GSM burst architecture. (2.5)
Solution.
(a) Global System for Mobile (GSM): Global System for Mobile (GSM) is a second
generation cellular system standard that was developed to solve the fragmentation
problems of the first cellular systems in Europe. GSM is the world’s first cellular
146 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

system to specify digital modulation and network level architectures and


services. Before GSM, European countries used different cellular standards
throughout the continent, and it was not possible for a customer to use a single
subscriber unit throughout Europe. GSM was originally developed to serve as
the pan-European cellular service and promised a wide range of network services
through the use of ISDN GSM’s success has exceeded the expectations of virtually
everyone, and it is now the world’s most popular standard for new cellular radio
and personal communication equipment throughout the world. The task of
specifying a common mobile communication system for Europe in the 900 MHz
band was taken up by the GSM (Groupe special mobile) committee which was a
working group of the conference Europe’ene Postes des et Tel’le’ communication
(CEPT). Recently, GSM has changed its name to the Global System for Mobile
Communications for marketing reasons. The setting of standards for GSM is
currently under the aegis of the European Technical Stadards Institute (ETSI).
GSM was first introduced into the European market in 1991. By the end of
1993, several noneurpean countries in South America, Asia, and Australia had
adopted GSM and the technically equivalent offshoot, DCS 1800, which supports
Personal Communication Services (PCS) in the 1.8 GHz to 2.0 GHz radio bands
recently created by governments throughout the world.
GSM Services and Features: GSM services follow ISDN guidelines and are
classified as either teleservices or data services. Teleservices include standard
mobile telephony and mobile-originated or base-originated traffic. Data services
include computer-to-computer communication and packet-switched traffic. User
services may be divided into three major categories:
• Telephone srevices, including emergency calling and facsimile.GSM also
supports Videotex and Teletex, though they are not integral parts of the
GSM standard.
• Bearer services or data services which are limited to layers 1, 2, and 3 of
the open system interconnection (OSI) reference model. Supported services
include packet switched protocols and data rates from 300 bps to 9.6 kbps.
Data may be transmitted using either a transparent mode.
• Supplementary ISDN services, are digital in nature, and include call
diversion, closed user groups, and caller identification,a and are not
available in analog mobile networks. Supplementary services also include
the short messaging service (SMS) which allows GSM subscribers and base
stations to transmit alphanumeric pages of limited length (160 7 bit ASCII
characters) while simultaneously carrying normal voice traffic. SMS also
provides cell broadcost, which allows GSM base stations to repetitively
transmit ASCII messages with as many as fifteen 93-character strings in
concatenated fashion. SMS may be used for safety and advisory
applications, such as the broadcast of highway or weather information to
all GSM subscribers within reception range.
Refer to Question 8 of End Term 2012.
(b) Handoff Strategies: Once a mobile unit dialed the number and call is established
the set-up channel is not used agian during the calle period hence handoff is
implemented on the voice channel. The value of implementing handoffs is
dependent on the size of a cell. Let if the radius of the cell is 32 km (20 mi) the
2 2
area is 3217 km (1256 mi ). After a call is initiated in this area, there will be
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 147

very little chance that it will dropped before the call is terminated as a result of
a weak signal at the boundary. So arises why handoff is required. Because if a
call is dropeed in a area, the customer simply redials and reconnects the call.
Generally handoff is needed in two situations. Where the cell site receive weak
signals from the mobile unit. (1) at cell boundary, say – 100 dBm which is the
level for requesting a handoff in a noise area. (2) When the mobile phone is
reaching the signal strength holes (gaps) within the cell site.
Generally, two types of handoff are there:
(1) That based on signal strength (2) Based on carrier to interference ratio.
Handoff: It is a unique feature that allows cellular systems to operate as
effectively as demonstrated in actual use to understand clearly let us analyze
following examples.
During a call, two parties are on a voice channel. When the mobile unit moves
out of the coverage area of a particular site, the recepition become weak. The
present cell site requests a handoff. The system switches the call to a new
frequency channel in a new cell site without either interrupting the call or
changing the user. The call continues as long as the user is talking.
Different Handoff Strategies: Processing of handoff is an important tasks and
it must be performed successfully.
As we known that when a mobile unit moves into different cell site during a
conversation in progress, the MSC automatically transfers the call to a new
channel belonging to the new base station. This handoff operation not only
involves identifying a new base station, but also requires that the voice and
control signals be allocated to channels associated with the new base station.
L evel a t P o in t A
Im p rop er ha nd off (not occu r)
R e ceive d sign al le vel

H a nd off thresho ld

M in im um ac ce p ta ble sig na l to m ainta in ce ll

L evel a t P o in t B (call is term ina te d)

Tim e

L evel a t P o in t B

L evel a t w h ich ha nd off is m ade


P rop er ha nd o ff (o ccu r)
R e ceive d sign al lev el

(C a ll is tran sferre d to ce ll B )

Tim e

A B

BS1 BS2
So handoff is a very complicated process, so if possible it may not occur very
frequently. Therefore to meet such requirements, system designer mus fix a signal
level or threshold level at which handoff is required. When conversation is in
148 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

progress, but at instant specified signal level become minimum, at which better
voice reception is not possible, then a slightly stronger signal level is used as a
threshold at which handoff is made.
This margin of signal level is given by
D = Pr(handoff) – Pr(minimum usable)
but D cannot be two large or small.
As shown in the figure. In first case handoff is not possible because before
transferring the call to cell B, call will be terminated.
While in second case handoff will occur.
(c) The figure shows the field structures of the normal burst used in the GSM system.
This diagram shows that the field structure is different for the normal burst,
synchronization burst, and the frequency correction bursts. The fields transmitted
during the normal burst include initial tail bits (ramp-up time), training sequence,
flag bits user data bits, final tail bits, and guard period. The diagram shows that
the first 3 bits of the time slot are dedicated to the gradual increase of transmitter
power level (ramp-up). For the normal burst, this is followed by the information
(user data) bits. The flag bits indicate if the normal burst has been replaced with
FACCH signaling information. This diagram shows that some of the bits in the
center of the burst are used as training bits (to allow equalizer training). At the
end of the transmitteed burst there are tail bits (for error protection) and 3 guard
period bits that are used during the gradual reduction of the RF transmitter
signal (ramp-down).
Tw o 1 -b it fla g bits (no rm a l b urst o nly) indica te
pres ence o f fast asso ciated cha nne l (FA C C H )

P o w er pro file

N o rm al T (t) Info rm a tion F Train ing bits F Info rm a tion T 12 G P


B its 3 57 1 26 1 52 3 8.25
S ynch ron iza tio n T (t) Info rm a tion Lo n g Train ing se q uen ce Info rm a tion T 12 G P
B its 3 30 64 39 3 8.25
Fre q ue ncy
C o rrec tion T (t) bina ry bits all z ero in F bu rst T 12 G P

B its 3 1 42 3 8.25
T (1)-Tail B its (R a m p) F. F la g B its
in form a tion -U s er or m ess age d a ta T (2). Tail B its
Train ing -S yn chron iza tion & tra in in g G P G ua rd P e riod
OR
Question 9. ______________________________________________________
(a) Write short notes on any two of the following: (2.5 × 3 = 7.5)
(i) OFDM (ii) Turbo coding (iii) IS – 95
(b) What is the difference between convolution code and linear block codes? Make
block diagram of a convolution encoder. (5)
Solution.
(a) (i) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM): OFDM, also
called multicarrier modulation, uses multiple carrier signals at different
frequencies, sending some of the bits on each channel. This is similar to
FDM. However, in the case of OFDM, all of the subchannels are dedicted to
a single data source.
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 149

Figure illustrates OFDM. Suppose we have a data stream operating at R bps


and an available bandwidth of Nfb, centered at f0. The entire bandwidth
could be used to send the data stream, in which case each bit duration
would be 1/R. The alternative is to split the data stream into N substreams,
using a serial-to-parallel converter. Each substream has a data rate of R/N
bps and is transmitted on a separate subcarrier, with a spacing between
adjacent subcarriers of fb. Now the bit duration is N/R. To gain a clearer
understanding of OFDM, let us consider the scheme in terms of its base
frequency, fb. This is the lowest-frequency subcarrier. All of the other subcarriers
are integer. The OFDM scheme uses advanced digital signal processing
techniques to distribute the data over multiple carriers at precise frequencies.
The precise relationship among the subcarriers is referred to as orthogonality.

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing


OFDM has several advantages. First, frequency selective fading only affects
some subchannels and not the whole signal. If the data stream is protected
by a forward error-correcting code, this type of fading is easily handled.
More important, OFDM overcome intersymbol interference (ISI) in a
multipath environment.
(ii) Turbo Coding: As higher and higher speeds are used in wireless
applications, error correction continues to pose a major design challenge.
Recently, a new class of codes, called turbo cods, has emerged as a popular
choice for third-generation wireless systems. Turbo codes exhibit
performance, in terms of bit error probability, that is very close to the
Shannon limit and can be efficiently implemented for high-speed use. A
number of different turbo encoders and decoders have been introduced,
most of which are based on convolutional encoding.
150 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

Figure depicts a turbo encoder. In this scheme, the encoder is replicated.


One copy of the encoder receives a steam of input bits and produces a
single output check bit C1 for each inut bit. The input to the other encoder
is an interleaved version of the input bit stream, producing a sequence of
C2 check bits. The initial input bit plus the two check bits are then
multiplexed to produce the sequence I1C11C21I2C12C22...,that is, the first
input bit followed by the first bit from encoder one, followed by the first
bit from encoder 2, and so on. The resulting sequence has code rate of 1/3.
A code rate of 1/2 can be achieved by taking only half of the check bits,
alternating between outputs from the two encoders; this process is called
puncturing. Rates of 1/3 and 1/2 are both found in third-generation systems.

Viterbi Algorithm for w = 10010100101100... with decoding window b = 7

(iii) Refer to Question 9(b) of End Term 2012.


(b) Linear Block Codes: Linear block codes are so named because each code word
in the set is a linear combination of a set of generator code words. If the messagesa
are k bits long, and the code words are n bits long (where n > k) there are k
linearly independent code words of lenght n that form a generator matrix. To
encode any message of k bits, you simply multiply the message vector u by the
generator matrix to produce a code word vector V that is n bits long. Linear
block codes are very easy to implement in hardware, and since they are
algebraically determined, they can be decoded in constant time. They have
very high code rates, usually above 0.95. They have low coding overhead, but
they have limited error correction capabilities. They are very useful in situations
where the BER of the channel is relatively low, bandwidth availability is limited
in the transmission, and it is easy to retransmit data. One class of linear block
codes used for high speed computer memory is SEC/DED (single error correcting/
double-errror-detecting) codes. In high speed memory, bandwidth is limited
because the cost per bit is relatively high compared to low-speed memory like
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 151

disks. The error rates are usually low and tend to occur by the byte so a SEC/
DED coding scheme for each byte provides sufficient error protection. Error
coding must be fast in this situation because high throughout is desired. A SEC/
DED code is extremely simple and does not cause a high coding delay.
Refer to Question 7(a) of End Term 2012.

END TERM EXAMIN


EXAMINAATION
EIGHTH SEMES TER [B.TE
SEMESTER CH.], MA
[B.TECH.], MAYY -JUNE 20 10
201
MOBILE COMMUNIC
COMMUNICA ATION (ETIT -402)
(ETIT-402)
Time : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 75
Note: Attempt any five question including Question no. 1 which is compulsory. Select
one question from each unit.
Question 1. ______________________________________________________
(a) Mention various frequency reuse schemes. (5 × 5 = 25)
(b) Prove that for a hexagonal geometry, the co-channel reuse ration is given by Q
2 2
= 3N , where N = i + ij + j .
(c) What could be the impact of Foliage loss in calculating GOS?
(d) Define umbrella pattern effect. Also, mention its benefits.
(e) Discuss difference of fixed channel assignment and non-fixed channel
assignment.
Solution.
(a) Frequency reuse schemes: The frequency reuse concept can be used in the
time domain and the space domain. Frequency reuse in the time domain results
in the occupation of the same frequency in different time slots. It is called time-
division multiplexing (TDM). Frequency reuse in the space domain can be
divided into two categories.
1. Same frequency assigned in two different geographic areas, such as AM or
FM radio stations using the same frequency in different citites.
2. Same frequency repeatedly used in a same general area in one system – the
scheme is used in cellular systems. There are many cochannel cells in the
system. The total frequency spectrum allocation is divided into K frequency
reuse patterns.
(b) Refer to Question 3(b) of End Term 2011.
(c) Foliage loss is very complicated topic that has many parameters and variations.
The sizes of leaves, branches, and trunks, the density and distribution of leaves,
branches, and trunks, and the height of the trees relative to the antenna heights
will all be considered. An illustration of this problem is shown in figure. There
are three levels trunks, branches, and leaves. In each level, there is a distribution
of sizes of trunks, branches and leaves and also of the density and spacing
between adjacent trunks, branches, and leaves. The texture and thickness of the
leaves also count. This unique problem canbecome very complicated and it beyond
152 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

the scope of this book. For a system design, the estimate of the signal reception due
to foliage loss does not need any degree of accuracy.

L ea f size

Branch size
Tru nk size

spa cing

D e nsity

M ea n M ea n
sizes D istribution o f spa cing
D istributions of b etw e e n adjace nt tru nks
leaves, trunks, or b ranches o r bran ches
A characteristic of foliage environment.
Furthermore, some trees, such as maple or oak, lose their leaves in winter, while
others, such as pine, never do.
However, a rough estimate should be sufficient for the purpose of system design.
In tropic zones, the sizes of tree leaves are so large and thick that the signal can
hardly penetrate. In this case, the signal will propagate from the top of the tree and
deflect to the mobile receiver. We will include this calculation also. Sometime the
foliage loss can be treated as a wire-line loss, in decibels per foot or decibels per
meter, when the foliage is uniformly heavy and the path lengths are short.
(d) An umbrella antenna is a top-loaded electrically lengthened monopole antenna,
consisting in most cases of mast fed at the ground end, to which six or more
wires are connected at the top, stoping downwards. The outer end of each wire is
terminated by an insulator, usually placed at about one third the total height to
isolate the lower support-wire or rope which is anchored to the ground. The
radial wires can also function as guy wires to support the mast. The radial wires
make the antenna look like a giant umbrella without the cloth, accounting for
the name. They are used as transmitting antennas at frequencies below 1.6 MHz,
particularly in the LF and VLF bands, at frequencies sufficiently low that it is
impractical to build a full size quarter-wave monopol antenna. Typical mast
heights are less than 1/40 wavelength to 1/10 wavelength depending on the
requirement. The funciton of the added umbrella-wires is to add capacitance to
the top of the antenna, improving the current distribution on the vertical mast to
increase the radiation resistance, and making the antenna with height of 15 to
350 metres are in service.
Umbrella antennas radiate vertically polarised ground waves in an
omnidirectional radiation pattern. Because they are short compared to a
wavelength of the radio waves, they have low radiation resistance and are usually
inefficient, radiating only a fraction of the power supplied by the transmitter.
Umbrella antennas are used as single mast antennas and are in common use for
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 153

commerical medium-wave AM broadcasting as well as for LF and VLF transmitters


for broadcasting and navigational aids. They were used at most OMEGA Naviagation
System transmitters, operating around 10 kH, and at LORAN-C stations, operating
at 100 kHz with central masts approximately 200 metres tall. Eight umbrella antennas
350 metres high are in use in an array at the German VLF communcations facilitiy,
operating at about 20 kHz with high radiation efficiency even through they are less
than 1/40 wavelength high. They were invented during the wireless te4legraphy
era, about 1900 to 1920, and used with spark-gap transmitters on longwave bands to
transmit information by Morse code. Small umbrella antennas were widely used
with portable transmitters by military signal corps during World War 1, since there
was no possibility of setting up full-sized quarter-wave antennas.
(e) Refer to Question 5(a) of End Term 2012.
Question 2. ______________________________________________________
(a) Verify the statement that as long as the cell size is fixed, C/I is independent of
the transmitted power ofeach cell. (4.5)
(b) What is paging control? (2)
2
(c) Suppose there are 1001 radio channels and each has an area of 12km and the
2
entire system covers an area of 4200km . (6)
(i) Calculate system capacity if cluster size is 7.
(ii) How many times would the cluster of size 4 have to be replicated in order
to approximately cover the entire cellular area?
(iii) Calculate the system capacity if the cluster size is 4.
(iv) Does decreasing the cluster size increase the system capacity?
Solution.
(a) When the size of each cell is approximately the same and the base stations
transmit the same power, the co-channel interference ratio is independent of the
transmitted power and becomes a function of the radius of the cell (R) and the
distance between centers of the nearest co-channel cells (D). By increasing the
ratio of D/R, the spatial separation between co-channel cells relative to the
coverage distance of a cell is increased. The parameter Q, called the co-channel
reuse ratio, is related to the cluster size. For a hexagonal geometey
D
Q= = 3N
R
A small value of Q provides larger capacity since the cluster size N is small,
whereas a large value of Q improves the transmission quality, due to a smaller
level of co-channel interference. A trade-off must be made between these two
objectives in actual cellular design.
Table: Co-channel Reuse Ratio for Some Values of N of N.

Cluster Size (N) Co-channel Reuse Ratio (Q)


i = 1, j = 1 3 3
i = 1, j = 2 7 4.58
i = 2, j = 2 12 6
i = 1, j = 3 13 6.24
154 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

Let i 0 be the number of co-channel interfering cells. Then , the signal-to-


interference ratio (S/I or S/R) for a mobile receiver which monitors a forward
channel can be expressed as
S S
= i0
I ∑I
i
i =1

where S is the desired signal power from the desired base station and Ii is the
interference power caused by the ith interfering co-channel cell cell base station.
If the signal levels of co-channel cells are known, then S/I ratio for the forward link.
−n
d
Pr = P0  
 d0 
d
or Pr ( dBm) = P0 ( dBm) − 10n log  
 d0 
When the transmit power of each base station is equal and the path loss exponent
is the same throughout the coverage area. S/I for a mobile can be approximated as
S R− n
= i0
( i)
I ∑ D −n
i =1
Considering only the first layer of interfering cells, if all the interfering base
stations are equipment from the desired base station and if this distance is equal
to the distance D between cell centers, then Equation simplifies to

( )
n
S ( D / R)
n
3N
= = ...(i)
I i0 i0
Equation relates S/I to the cluster size N, which in turn determines the overall
capacity of the system. For example, assume that the six closest cells are close
enough to create significant interference and that they are all approximately
equidistant from the desired base station. For the U.S. AMPS cellular system
which uses FM and 30 kHz channels, subjective tests indicate that sufficient
voice quality is provided when S/I is greater thatn or equal to 18 dB. Using Eq.
(3.9), it can be shown in order to meet this requirement, the cluster size of seven is
required to meet an S/I requirement of 18 dB.
Using an exact cell geometry layout, it can be shown for a seven-cell cluster, with
the mobile unit at the cell boundry, the mobile is a distance D – R from the two
nearest co-channel interfering cells and is exactly D + R/2, Di D – R/2, and D + R
from the other interfering cells in the first tier. Using the approximate geometry
shown in Figure. Aassuming n = 4, the signal-to-interference ratio for the worst case
can be closely approximated as (an exact expression is worked out by Jacobsmeyer.
S R −4
=
I 2 ( D − R ) + 2 ( D + R )−4 + 2 D −4
−4

Equation can be rewritten in terms of the co-channel reuse ratio Q, as


S 1
=
I 2 (Q − 1) + 2 ( Q + 1)−4 + 2Q −4
−4
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 155

(b) A paging method and apparatus for a mobile communication network to which
at least two non-coordinated core networks are connected is disclosed, wherein
a service state of a mobile station is checked, when a request for a paging message
to the mobile station has been received from one of the non-coordinated core
networks. Then, a multicall paging message is transmitted using an existing
signalling link of the mobile station and/or mobile station location information
known in a radio access network, when the mobile station is already connected
to another one of the non-coordinated core networks. The checking is preferable
performed by a radio network controller which is connected to the non-coordinated
core networks. Thus, a paging request received form a non-coordinated core network
can be supplied to a mobile station, although the paged mobile station is already
connected to another non-coordinated core network.
(c) (i) Total number of available channels, K = 1001
Cluster size, N =7
2
Area of cell, Acell = 12 km
2
Area of cellular system, Asys = 4200 km
K
Since number of channel per cell is J =
N
1001
then J = = 143 channels/cell
7
2
Acluster = N × Acell = 7 × 12 = 84 km
The number of times the cluster has to be replicated to cover the entire cellular
system.
Asys 4200
M = = = 50
A cluster 84
C = MJN = 50 × 143 × 7 = 50050 Channels.
(ii) for N = 4
2
A cluster = 4 × 12 = 48 km
Asys 4200
M = = = 87.5 ≅ 87
A cluster 48
156 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

1001
(iii) With N = 4, J = = 250 channels/cell
4
The system capacity, C = 87 × 250 = 87000 channels
(iv) From (i) and (iii) it is seen that a decrease in N from 7 to 4 is accompanied by an
increase in M from 50 to 87, and the system capacity is increased from 50050 to
87000 channels. Therefore, decreasing the cluster size does increase the system
capacity.
OR
Question 3. ______________________________________________________
(a) Define co-channel interfaerence for seven-cell cluster pattern. Also find CCI
for the case when mobile is at cell boundry. (6.5)
(b) DEfine Trunking efficiency and Grade of service. (2)
(c) State cell splitting. If each cell is allocated 60 channels regardless of cell size.
2
Find the number of channels contained in a 3 × 3 km area without cell splitting
i.e. R = 1km and with cell splitting. (4)
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 3(b) of End Term 2011.
(b) Trunking and Grade of Service: Cellular radio systems rely on trunking to
accommodate a large number of users in a limited radio spectrum. The concept
of trunking allows a large number of users to share the relatively small number
of channels in a cell by providing access to each user, on demand, from a pool of
available channels. In a trunked radio system, each user is allocated a channel
on a per call basis, and upon termination of the call, the previously occupied
channel is immediately returned to the pool of available channels. Trunking
exploits the statistical behavior of users so that a fixed number of channels or
circuits may accomodate a large, random user community. The telephone
company uses trunking theory to determine the number of telephone circuits
that need to be allocated for office buildings with hundreds of telephones, a dn
this same principle is used in designing cellular radio systems. There is a trade-
off between the number of available telephone cirrcuits and the likehood of a
particular user finding the at no circuits are avaiable during the peak calling time.
As thenumber of phone lines decreases, it becomes more likely that all circuits will
be busy for a particular user. In a trunked mobile radio system, when a particular user
requests service and all of the radio channels are already in use, the user is blocked,
or denied access to the system. In some systems, a queue may be used to hold the
requesting users until a channel becomess available. To design trunked radio systems
that can handle a spcific capacity at a specific “grade of service,” it is essential to
understand trunking theory and queuing theory. The fundamentls of trunking theory
were developed by Erlang, a Danish mathematician who, in the late 19th century,
embarked on the study of how a large population could be accommodated by a
limited number of servers. For example, a radio channel that is occupied for thirty
minutes during an hour carries 0.5 Erlangs of traffic.
The grade of service (GOS) is a measure of the ability of a user to access a
trunked system during the busiest hour. The busy hour is based upon customer
demand at the busiest hour during a week, month, or year. The busy hours for
cellular radio systems typically occur during rush hours, between 4 p.m. and 6
p.m on a Thursday or Friday evening. The grade of service is a benchmark used
to define the desired performance of a particulr trunked system by specifying a
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 157

desired likelihood of a user obtaining channel access given a specific number of


channels available in the system. It is the wirelesss designer’s job to estimate the
maximum required capacity and to allocate the proper number of channels in
order to meet the GOS. GOS is typically given as the likelihood that a call is
blocked, or the likelihood of a call experiencing a delay greater than a certain
queuing time.
(c) Refer to Question 3(b) of End Term 2012.
Radius = 1 km
• Cell radius of 1 km implies that the sides of a large hexagens are also 1 km
in length
• To cover the 3km × 3km square centred base station A, we need to cover 1.5
km (1.5 times hexagen s radius) towars right, lfet, top, bottom of base station.
• This Area has five base stations since each base stations have 60 channels.
So, total number of channels without cell splitting is equal to 5 × 60 = 300
channels
Total base stations = 5
Channels in each base stations = 60
Total number of channels = 5 × 60 = 300 channels.
Question 4. ______________________________________________________
(a) How can you obtain point to point model (Lee Model)? (6)
(b) What are the limitations of GPRS? (2.5)

1
(c) Derive free space equation i.e. Pr = Pr . , where, Pt = transmitted free power
( )
2
4 πr
λ

Pr = Received power, l is wavelenght , r is distance between Tx and Rx. (4)


Solution.
(a) Model (Lee Model): This mobile point-to-point model is obtained in three
steps: (1) generate a stadard condition, (2) obtain an area-to-area prediction
model, (3) obtain a mobile point-to-point model using the area-to-area model as
a base. The philosophy of developing this model is to try to separate two effects,
one caused by the natural terrian contour and the other by the human-made
structures, in the received signal strength. To generate a standard condition and
provide correction factors, we have used the standard condition shown on the
left side and the correction factors on the right side of table. The advantage of
using these standard values is to obtain directly a predicted value in decibels
above 1 mW expressed in dBM. The area-to-area prediction curves are different
in different areas in area-to-are prediction, all the areas are considered flat even
though the data may be obtained from nonflat areas. The reason is that area-to-area
prediction is an average process. The standard deviation of the average value indicates
the degree of terrain roughness.
Standard condition Correction factorss At the Base Station
P1′
Transmitted power Pt = 10 W (40 dBm) α1 = 10 log
10
h′
Antenna height ht = 100 ft (30 m) α2 = 20 log 1
h1
Antenna gain gt = 6 dB/dipole α3 = g′m – 6
158 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

At the Mobile Unit


h2′
Antenna heigh h2 = 10ft (3 m) α4 = 10 log
h2
Antenna gain gm = 0 dB/dipole α5 = g′m
(b) Limitations of GPRS: It is already clear that GPRS is an important new enabling
mobile data service which offers a major improvement in spectrum efficiency,
capability and functionality compared with today’s non-voice mobile services.
However, it is important to note that there are some limitations with GPRS,
which can be summarized as:
Limited Cell Capacity For All Users: GPRS does impact a network’s existing
cell capacity. There are only limited radio resources that can be deployed for
different uses – use for one purpose precludes simultaneous use for another.
Speeds Much Lower in Reality: Achieving the theoretical maximum GPRS
data transmission speed of 172.2 kbps would require a single user taking over
all eight timeslots without any error protection. Clearly, it is unlikely that a
network operator will allow all timeslots to be used by a single GPRS user.
Support of GPRS Mobile Terminate by Terminals is not Ensured: At the time
of writing, there has been no confirmation from any handset vendors that mobile
terminated GPRS calls (i.e. recipt of GPRS calls on the mobile phone) will be
supported by the initial GPRS terminals. Availability or not of GPRS MT is a
central question with critical impact on the GPRS business case such a application
migration from other nonvoice bearers.
(c) Free Space Propagation Model: The free space propagation model is used to
predict received signal strength when the transmitter and receiver have a clear,
unobstructed line-of-sight path between them. Satellite communication systems
and microwave line-of-sight radio links typically undergo free space propagation.
As with most large-scale radio wave propagation models, the free space model
predicts that received power decays as a function of the T-R separation distance
raised to some power (i.e. a power law function). The free space power received by
a receiver antenna which is separated from a radiating transmitter antenna by a
distance d, is given by the Friis free space equation,

t t Gr λ
2
PG
Pr ( d ) =
( 4π ) 2 d 2 L
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 159

where Pt is the transmitted power, Pr(d) is the received power which is a function
of the T-R separation, Gt is the transmitter antenna gain, Gr is the receiver antenna
gain, d is the T-R separation distance in meters, L is the system loss factor not
related to propagation (L ≥ 1), and l is the wavelength in meters. The gain of an
antenna is related to its effective aperture, Ae, by
4πAe
G=
λ2
The effective aperture Ae is related to the physical size of the antenna, and λ is
related to the carrier frequency by
c 2πc
λ= =
f ωc
where f is the carrier frequency in Hertz, wc is the carrier frequency in radians per
second, and c is the speed of light given in meters/s.
An isotropic radiator is an ideal antenna which radiates power with unit gain
uniformly in all directions, and is often used to reference antenna gains in
wireless systems. The effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) is defined as
EIRP = PtGt
and represents the masimum radiated powr available from a transmitter in the
direction of maximum antenna gain, as compared to an isotropic rdiator.
In practice, effective radiated power (ERP) is used instead of EIRP to denote the
maximum radiated power as compared to a half-wave dipole antenna (instead of an
isotropic antenna). Since a dipole antenna has a gain of 1.64 (2.15 dB above an
isotrope), the ERP will be 2.15 dB smaller than the EIRP for the same transmission
system. In practice, antenna gains are given in units of dBi (dB gain with respect to
an isotropic source) or dBd (dB gain with respect to a half-wave dipole).
The path loss, which represent signal attenuation as a positive quantity measured
in dB, is defined as the difference (in dB) between the effective transmitted
power and the received power, and may or may not include the effect of the
antenna gains. The path loss for the free space model when antenna gains are
included is given by
Pt  G G λ2 
PL ( dB ) = 10log = −10log  t 2r 2 
Pr  ( 4π ) d 
When antenna gains are excluded, the antennas are assumed are assumed to
have unity gain, and path loss is given by
Pt  λ2 
PL ( dB ) = 10log = −10log  2 2
Pr  ( 4π ) d 
The Friis free space model is only a valid predictor for Pr for values of d which
are in the far-field of the transmitting antenna. The far-field, or Fraunhofer region,
of a transmitting antenna. The far-field, or Fraunhofer region, of a transmitting
antenna is defined as the region beyound the far field distance df, which is
related to the larges linear dimension of the transmitter antenna aperture and the
carrier wavelength. The Fraunhofer distance is given by
2D2
df =
λ
160 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

where D is the largest physical linear dimension of the antenna. Additionally, to


be in the far-field region, df must satisfy
df ≈ D
and df ≈ l
Furthermore, it is clear that equation does not hold for d = 0. For this reason,
large-scale propagation models use a close-in distance, d0, as a known received
power reference point. The received power, Pr(d), at any distance d > d0, may be
related to Pr at d0. The value Pr(d0) may be predicted from equation, or may be
measured in the radio environment by taking the average received power at
many points located at a close-in radial distance d0 from the transmitter. The
reference distance must be chosen such that it lies in the far-field region, that is,
d0 ≥ df , and d0 is chosen to be smaller than any practical distance used in the
mobile communication sytem. Thus, using equation, the received power in free
space at a distance greater than d0 is given by
2
d 
Pr ( d ) = Pr ( d 0 )  0  d ≥ d 0 ≥ d f
d
In mobile radio systems, it is not uncommon to find that Pr may change by many
orders of manitude over a typical coverage area of several square kilometers.
Because of the large dynamic range of received power levels, often dBm or dBW
units are used to express received power levels. For example, if Pr is in units of
dBm, the received power is given by
 P (d )  d 
Pr ( d ) dBm = 10log  r 0  + 20log  0  d ≥ d0 ≥ d f
 0.001W  d 
where Pr (d0) is in units of watts.
OR
Question 5. ______________________________________________________
(a) What are the merits of Two hand-off-level algorithm? Analyse it. (4)
(b) What do you understand by Dropped Call Rate? Discuss various methods to
improve it. (4)
(c) Define Two Ray Model for propagatrion in open area. Also, find out incident
angle for a mobile communication if cell site antenna height is 100m and
mobile antenna height is 2m and communication path is 10m. (4.5)
Solution.
(a) Advantage of delayed handoffs: Consider the following example. The mobile
units are moving randomly and the terrain contour is uneven. The received
signal strength at the mobile unit fluctuates up and down. If the mobile unit is in
a hole for less than 5 s (a driven distance of 140 m for 5 s, assuming a vehicle
speed of 100 km/h), the delay (in handoff) can even circumvent the need for a
handoff. If the neighboring cells are busy, delayed handoff may take place. In
principle, when call traffic is heavy, the switching processor is loaded, and thus
a lower number of handoffs would help the processor handle call processing
more adequately. Of course, it is very likely that after the second handoff level
is reached, the call may be dropped with great prohability.
The other advantage of having a two-handoff-level algorithm is that it makes
the handoff occur at the proper location and eliminates possible interference in
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 161

the system.
(b) The definition of dropped call rate: The definition of a dropped call is after
the call is established but before it is properly terminated. The definition fo
“The call is established” means that the call is setup completely by the setup
channel. If there is a possibility of cal drop due to no available voice channels,
this counted as a blocked call not a dropped call.
It there is a possibility that a call will drop due to the poor signal of the assigned
voice channel, this is considered a dropped call. This case can happen when the
mobile or portable units are at a standstill and the radio carrier is changed from
a strong setup channel to a weak voice channel due to the selective frequency
fading phenomenon.
The perception of dropped call rate by the subscribers can be higher due to:
1. The subscriber unit not functioning properly (needs repair).
2. The user operating the portable unit in a vehicle (misused).
3. The user not knowing how to get the best reception from a portable unit
(needs education).
Consideration of dropped calls: In principle, dropped call rate can be set very
low if we do not need to maintain the voice quality. The dropped call rate and
the specified voice quality level are inversely proportional. In designing a
commercial system, the specified voice quality level is given relating to how
much C/I (or C/N) the speech coder can tolerate. By maintaining a certain voice
quality level, the dropped call rate can be calculated by taking the following
factors into consideration.
1. Provide signal coverage based on the percentage (say 90%) that all the
received signal will be above a given signal level.
2. Maintain the specified co-channel and adjacent channel interference levels
in each cell during a busy hour, i.e., the worst interference case.
3. Since the performance of the call dropped rate is calculated as possible call
dropping in every stage from the radio link to the PSTN connection, the
response time of the handoff in the network will be a factor when the cell
becomes small, the response time for a handoff request has to be shorter in
order to reduce the call dropped rate.
4. The signaling of the handoff and the MAHO algorithm will also impact the
call dropped rate.
5. The relationship among the voice quality, system capacity and call dropped
rate can be expressed through a common parameter C/I.
Relationship among capacity, voice quality, dropped call rate: Radio capacity
m is expressed as follow:
BT / Bc
m=
2
(C / I ) s
3
where BT/BC is the total number of voice channels. BT/BC is a given number, and
(C/I)s is a required C/I for designing a system. The above equation is obtained
based on six co-channel interferers which occur in busy traffic, i.e., a worst case.
In an interference limited system the adjacent channel interference has only a
secondary effect.
162 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

2
3  BT  1
2
3  BT / Bc 
(C / I ) s =   =   . 2
2 m 2  Bc  m
(c) Ground Reflection (2-ray) Model: In a mobile radio channel, a single direct
path between the base station and a mobile is seldom the only physical means
for propagation, and hence the free space propagation model is in most cases
inaccurate when used alone. The 2-ray ground reflection model shown in figure
is a useful propagation model that is based on geometric optics, and considers
both the direct path and a ground reflected propagation path between transmitter
and receiver. This model has been found to be reasonably accurate for predicting
the large scale signal strength over distance of several kilometers for mobile
radio systems that use tall towers (heights which exceed 50 m), as well as for
line-of-sight microcell channels in urban environments.

In most mobile communication systems, the maximum T-R separation distance


is at most only a few tens of kilometers, and the earth may be assumed to be flat.
The total received E-field, ETOT, is then a result of the direct line-of-sight
component, ELOS, and the ground reflected component, Eg.
Referring to figure, ht is the height of the transmitter and hr is the height of the
receiver. If E0 is the free space E-field (in units of V/m) at a reference distance d0
from the tranmitter, then for d > d0, the free space propagating E-field is given by
  d 
(d > d0 )
E0 d 0
E ( d .t ) = cos  ω c  t −  
d   c 
where |E(d.t)| = E0d0/d represents the envelope of the E-field at d meters from the
transmitter.
Two propagation waves arrive at the receiver: the direct wave that travels a
distance d; and the reflected wave that travels a distance d”. The E-field due to
the line-of-sight component at the receiver can be expressed as.
E0 d 0   d′ 
ELOS ( d '.t ) = cos  ωc 1 −  
d   c 
E0d0   d′′  
and E-field equation is Eg (d′,t) = cos  w e  t −  
d′′   c 
According to laws of reflection in dielectrics given in Section 3.5.1
qi = q0
and Eg = GEi
Et = (1 + G)Ei
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 163

where Γ is the reflection coefficient for ground. For small values of θi (i.e., grazing
incidence), the reflected wave is equal in magnitude and 180º out of phase with the
incident wave, the resultant E-field, assuming perfect ground reflection is the vector
sum of ELOS and Eg, and the resultant total E-field envelop is given by
|ETOT| = |ELOS + Eg|
The electric field ETOT (d, t) can be expresse as
E0 d 0   d '  Ed   d '' 
ETOT ( d , t ) = cos  ω c  t −   + ( −1) 0 0 cos  ω c  t −  
d '
  
c  d ''   c 
Using the method of images which is demonstrated by the geometry of Figure
the path difference, ∆, between the line-of-sight and the ground reflected paths
can be expressed as

(ht + hr ) (ht − hr )
2 2
∆ = d ''− d ' = + d2 − + d2

tan −1 ( Cell site antenna height + Mobile antenna height )


Incident Angle ⇒ θ =
Communication Path
tan −1 (100 + 2)
So, θ = ⇒ tan −1 (10.2)
10
Question 6. ______________________________________________________
(a) What are the different channels used in GSM system? Describe all set up
channels in detail and why they are required? (6.5)
(b) Write in detail about OFDM transmitter and Receiver. (5)
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 5(a) of End Term 2011.
(b) Refer to Question 9(a)(i) of End Term 2011.
Question 7. ______________________________________________________
(a) Draw diagram of Turbo Encoder, why turbo coding is important in cellular
mobile system? (6)
(b) Mention differences between FDD (Frequency Division Duplexing) and TDD
(Time Division Duplexing). (6.5)
Solution.
(a) Refer to Question 9(a)(ii) of End Term 2011.
(b) FDD: Duplexing may be done using frequency or time domain techniques.
Frequency division duplexing (FDD) provides two distinct hands of frequnencies
164 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

for every user. The forward band provides traffic from the base station to the
mobile, and the reverse band provides traffic from the mobile to the base station.
In FDD, any duplex channel acutally consists of two simplex channels (a forward
and reverse), and a device called a duplexer is used is used inside each subcriber
unit and base station to allow simultaneous bidirectional radio transmission
and reception for both the subscriber unit and the base station on the duplex
channel pair. The frequency separation between each forward and reverse channel is
constant throughout the system, regardless of the particular channel being used.
TDD: Time division duplexing (TDD) uses time instead of frequency to provide
both a forward and reverse link. In TDD, multiple users share a single radio
channel by taking turns in the time domain. Individual users are allowed to
access the channel in assigned time slots, and each duplex channel has both a
forward time slot and a reverse time slot to faciliated bidirectional
communication. If the time separation between the forward and reverse time slot
is small then the transmission and reception of data appears simultaneous to the
users at both the subscriber unit and on the base station side. Figure illustrates
FDD and TDD techniques. TDD allows communication
R everse Forw ard
C hannel C hannel Freq uency
Freq uency separation
(a ) FD D
R everse Forw ard
C hannel C hannel
Tim e
Tim e separation
(b ) TD D

on a single channel (as opposed to requiring two separte simplex or dedicated


channels) and simplifies the subcriber equipment since a duplexer is not required.
There are several tradeoffs between FDD and TDD approaches. FDD is geared
toward radio communications systems that allocate individual radio frequencies
for each user. Because each transceiver simultaneously transmits and receives
radio signals which can vary by more than 100 dB, the frequency allocation
used for the forward and reverse channels must be carefully coordinated within
its own system and with out-of-band users that occupy spectrum between these
two bands. Furthermore, the frequency separation must be coordinated to permit
the use of inexpensive RF and oscillator technology. TDD enables each
transceiver to operate as either a transmitter or receiver on the same frequency
and eliminates the need for separate forward and revese frequency bands. Howver,
there is a time latency created by TDD due to the fact that communication is not
full duplex in the truest sense and this latency creates inherent sensitivities to
propagation delays of individual users. Because of the rigid timing required for
timing sloting. TDD generally is limited to cordless phone or short range portable
access. TDD is effective for fixed wireless access when all users are stationary so
that propagation delays do not vary in time among the users.
Question 8. ______________________________________________________
(a) What are various security levels provided in GSM? (6)
(b) Discuss salient features of IS-95. (6.5)
Solution.
(a) GSM Service Security: GSM was designed with a mo0derate level of service
security. The system was designed to authenticate the subcriber using a pre-
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 165

shared key nand challenge-response. Communications between the subscriber


and the base station can be encrypted. The development of UMTS introduces an
optional Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM), that uses a longer
authentication key to give greater secuity, as well as mutually authenticating
the network and the user – whereas GSM only authenticates the user to the
network (and not vice versa). The security model therefore offers confidentiality
and authentication,, but limited authorization capabilities, and no non-
repudation. GSM uses several cryptographic algorithms for security. The A5/1,
A5/2 and A5/3 stream ciphers are used for ensuring over-the-air voice privacy.
A5/1 was developed fiirst and is a stroonger algorithm used within Europe and
the United States; A5/2 is weaker and used in other countries. Serious weaknesses
have been found in both algorithms: It is possible to break A5/2 in real-time
with a ciphertext-obly attack, and in Januuary 2007, The Hacker’s choice started
the A5/1 craking project with plans the use FPGAs that allow A5/1 to be broken
with a rainbow table attack. The system suupports multiple algorithms so
operators may replace that cipher with a stronger one.
New attacks have been observed that take advantage of poor securityy
implmentations, architectuure and development for smart phone applications.
Some wirtapping and eavesdropping techniquues hijack the audo input and
output providing an opportunity for a 3rd party to listen in to the convesation.
GSM uses General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) for data transmissions like
browsing the web. The most commonly deployed GPRS ciphers were publicly
broken in 2011. The researchers revealed flaws in the commonly used GEA/1
and GEA/2 ciphers and published the open source “gprsdecode” software for
sniffing GPRS networks. They also noted that some carriers don’t encrypt the
data at all (i.e. using GEA/0) in order to detect the use of traffic or protocols they
don’t like, e.g. Skype, leaving their customers unprotected. GEA/3 seems to
remain relatiively hard to break and is said to be in use on some mopre modern
networks. If used with USIM to prevent coneections to famke base stations and
downgrade attacks, users will be protected in the medium term, though migration
to 128-bit GEA/4 is still recommended.
(b) Refer to Question 9(b) of End Term 2012.
Question 9. ______________________________________________________
(a) Define spectrum efficiency. (2.5)
(b) Compare AMPS and digital cellular system with respect to various parameters. (5)
(c) Why location update is required in cellular system. (5)
Solution.
(a) The frequency spectrum is a limited resource, we should utilize it very effectively.
In order to approach this goal, spectrum efficiency should be clearly defined
from either a total system point of view or a fixed point to point link. For most
radiio system spectrum efficiency is the same as channel efficiency, the maximum
number of channels that can be provided in a given frequency band. This is true
for a point to point system not true whhere frequencyy re-use concepts used like
mobile cellular system.
So spectrum efficiency ≠ channel efficiency. But system capacity is diirectly
related to spectrum efficency and the parameter for system comparison are voice
quality, transmitted power, and cell size. Satisfactor voice quality is generally
accepted as governed by the carrier noise ratio C/NFM = 18 dB. To maintain voice
166 ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication

quality when channel bandwidth is reduced, it is necesssary to increase the S/N


ratio in order to improve the reception. Transmission power is then also increased.
Every time power is increased, interference problems are created. For point to
poiint radiio links, these problems are adjustable because no frequency re-use
in involved. However when frequency re-use system like cellular phone
frequency use, the concept is different. We know thhat a cellular system includes
many suubscriber on demand at any given time in a given system, identical
channels will bbe operating simultaneously in different geographic locations.
As the number of cells increases in a given area, interference may appear in one
ofo several forms, co-channel, adjacent channel, multichannel at co-locations.
Interference mayh also results from receiived power level differences. In a
frequencyy re-use system, however, coo-channel separation is more critical to
the system than adjacent channel interference because adjacent channel
interference may be eliminated by the use of sharp filters.
Number of frequency reuse cells K:
2C
K=
3 I
A higher required carrier to interference ratio at the booundary of a cell results in
the need for more frequuency reuse cells.
Number of channels per cell:
B Bt
m= t =
Bc K 2C
Bc
3 I
Bt → Total bandwidth (transmitted or received)
Bc → Channel bandwidth.

(b) AMPS and ETACS System Overview: Like all other first generation, anal.og,
cellular systems, AMPS and ETACS use frequency modulation (FM) for radio
transmission. In the United States, transmission from mobiles to base stations
(reverse link) use frequencies between 824 MHz and 849 MHz, while base stations
transmit to mobiles (forward link) using frequencies between 869 MHz and 894
MHz. ETACS uses 890 MHz to 915 MHz for the revese link and 935 MHz to 960
MHz for the forward link. Every radio channel actually consists of a pair of
simplex channels separated by 45 MHz.
AMPS and ETACS cellular radio syystems generally have tall towers which
support several receiving antennas and have transmitting antennas which
typically rediate a feew hundred watts of effectgive radiated power. Each base
station typically has one control channel transmtter (that broadcasts on the
forward control channel), one control channel receiver (that listens on the reverse
control channel for any cellular phone switching to set-up a call), and eight or
more FM duplex voice channels. The actual number of control and voice channels
used at a particular base station varies widelyy in different syystem installations
depending on traffic, maturity of the system, and locations of other base stations.
The number of base stations in a service area varies widely, as well, from as few
as cellular tower in rural area to several hundred or more base stations in a large city.
Each base station in the AMPS or ETACS system continuously transmits digital FSK
data on the forward control channel (FCC) at all times so that idel cellular subscriber
ALPHAA GROUP: Wireless Communication 167

units can lock onto the strongest FCC whereever they are. All subscribers must be
locked, or “camped” onto a FCC in order to originate or receive calls. The base
station reverse control chhannel (RCC) receiver constantly monitors tranmissions
from cellular subscribers that are locked onto the matching FCC.
United States Digital Cellular (IS-54): The first generation analog AMPS system
was not designed to support the current demand for capacity in large cities. Cellular
systems which use digital modulation techniques (called digital cellular) offer large
improvements in capacity and system performance. After extensive research and
comparison by major cellular manufacturers in the late 1980s, the United States
Digital Cellular System (USDC) was developed to support more users in a fixed
spectrum allocation. USDC is a time division multiple access (TDMA) system which
supports three full-rate users or six half-rate users on each AMPS channel.
The USDC system was designed to share the same frequencies, frequency reuse
plan, and base station as AMPS, so that base stations and suubscriber units
could be equipped with both AMPS and USDC channels withiin the same piece
of equpment. By supporting both AMPS and USDS, cellular carriers are able to
provide new customers with USDC phones and may gradually replace AMPS
base stations with USDC base stations, channel by channel, over time. Because
USDC maintains compatibility with AMPS in a number of ways, USDC is also
known as Digital AMPS (D-AMPS).
(c) Location Update: A GSM or UMTS network, like all cellular networks, is a
radio network of individual cells, known as base stations. Each base station covers
a small geographical area which is part of a uniquely identified location area. By
integrating the coverage of eachh of these base stations, a cellular network provides
a radio coverage over a much wider area. A group of base stations is named alocation
area, or a routing area. The location update procedure allows a mobiile device to
infrom the cellular network, whenever it moves form one location area to the next.
Mobiles are responsible for detectiing location area codes. When a mobile finds
that the location area code is different from its last update, it performs another
uupdate by sending to the network a location update request, together wiith its
previous location, and its Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI).
There are several reasons why a mobile may provide updated location infromation
to the network. Whenever a mobile is swicxhed on or off, the network mayy
requre it to perform an IMSI attach or IMSI detach location update procedure.
Also, each mobile is required to regularly report its location at a set time interval
using a periodic location update procedure. Whenever a mobile moves from one
location area to the next while not ion a call, a random location update is
required. This is also required of a stationary mobile that reselects coverage
from a cell in a diffrent location area, because of signal fade. Thus a subscriber
has reliable access to the network and may be reached with a call, while enjoying
the freedom of mobility within the whole coverage area.
When a subscriber is paged in an attempt to deliver a call or SMS and the
subscriber does not rely to that page then the subscriber iis marked as absent in
both the Mobile Switching Center/Visitor Location Register (MSC/VLR) and
the Home Location Register (HLR) Mobile not reachable flag MNRF is set). The
next time the mobile performs a location update the HLR is updated and the
mobile not reachable flag is cleared.