Sei sulla pagina 1di 48

Support to Indonesia’s Climate Change Response

Technical Assistance Component (SICCR-TAC)

Ecotourism Assessment

15 February 2017
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC
Jakarta Office:
Manggala Wanabakti Building, Block 4, 5th Floor
Jl. Gatot Subroto, Senayan, Jakarta Pusat
T : +62-21 570 32 46 ext. 4016
F : +62-21 571 12 37

Banda Aceh Office:


Jl. Sudirman No. 21, Geuceu Iniem
Banda Aceh 23239
T : +62-651 630 27 82

Author:
Phil Harman and
Wiwin Iswandi

Photo:
Phil Harman

Distributed by:
SICCR – TAC

Jakarta, March 2017

The European Union is made up of 27 Member States who have decided to gradually link together their
know-how, resources and destinies. Together, during a period of enlargement of 50 years, they have built a
zone of stability, democracy and sustainable development whilst maintaining cultural diversity, tolerance and
individual freedoms.

The European Union is committed to sharing its achievements and its values with countries and peoples
beyond its borders.

The European Commission is the EU’s executive body.

Implemented by: Consortium Partners:

Deutsche Gessellschaft
für Internationale
Zussamenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH
Ecotourism Assessment
The Support to Indonesia’s Climate Change Response –
Technical Assistance Component (SICCR-TAC)
GIZ International Services is implementing SICCR-TAC together with AHT and SNV under the auspices
of the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, represented by the Directorate General of Climate Change.
The Government of Aceh, represented by the Aceh Provincial Environment and Forestry Office, is the
main local stakeholder.
The project has a large number of existing and potential partners. The consortium will works with the
provincial and district authorities in Aceh, other public bodies, as well as private sector actors, local
communities, universities and NGOs.
The focus of the project is on building the capacity of the Government of Aceh in its effort towards low-
carbon/low-emission economic development in the Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry sector.
One of the project’s main activities is strengthening Forest Management Units (FMU) as local units for
sustainable forest management in Aceh. The project promotes strategic alliances and sharing of lessons
learned on implementation of the REDD+ and climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies.
The project supports capacity development of the Ministry of Environment and Forestry’s Directorate
General of Climate Change at the central level, and to its regional offices (Balai PPI), particularly targeting
the Balai PPI Palembang, which covers the Province of Aceh.

This project is implemented by GIZ International Services, AHT and SNV. The views expressed in this
document do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission.
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

Contents

1 Executive Summary 7
1.1 Introduction 7
1.2 Climate Change and Tourism 7
1.3 Indonesia Overview 7
1.4 Aceh Tourism Policies 8
1.5 Aceh Tourism Overview 8
1.6 Other Organisations Active in Tourism 8
1.7 Specific Destinations Assessed 8
1.8 Key Issues 8
1.9 Recommendations 9

2 Introduction and Assessment Objectives 11


2.1 Definition of Ecotourism 11
2.2 Assessment Objectives and Methodology 11
2.3 Assessment Team 12

3 Climate Change and Tourism 13


3.1 Access to Capital 14
3.2 Poverty and Tourism Development 15
3.3 Sustainability Criteria 15
3.4 The Sharing Economy 15

4 Indonesia Tourism Overview and National Ecotourism Strategy 15


4.1 National Tourism Development Plan 2005-2025 17

5 Aceh Tourism Policies 17

6 Aceh Tourism Overview 18

7 Other Organisations that are Active in Tourism in Aceh 20

8 Specific Destinations Assessed 20


8.1 Banda Aceh 20
8.2 Lampuuk Beach, Aceh Besar 21
8.3 Pulau Weh (Weh Island), Sabang 21
8.4 Sampoiniet CRU Unit, Aceh Jaya District 23
8.5 Sarah Raya, Aceh Jaya District 24
8.6 Takengon, Aceh Tengah District 24
8.7 Gayo Lues District 25
8.8 Ketambe, Aceh Tenggara 26
8.9 CRU Unit Trumon, Aceh Selatan 26

Ecotourism Assessment 3
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

9 Key Issues 27
9.1 Certification of Local Guides 28
9.2 Benefitting from Cruise Tourism 28

10 Recommendations 29
10.1 Broader Policy Recommendations 29
10.2 Specific Recommendations 33
10.3 Sabang/Pulau Weh Recommendations 33
10.4 Takengon, Aceh Tengah Recommendations 34
10.5 Gayo Lues Recommendations 34
10.6 Ketambe, Aceh Tenggara Recommendations 35
10.7 Sampoiniet CRU Unit, Aceh Jaya District Recommendations 35
10.8 Trumon, CRU Unit, Aceh Selatan Recommendations 35

Annexes 36
Annex 1: Terms of Reference 36
Annex 2: List of Meetings 41
Annex 3: Specific Project Recommendations 42

Diagram
Diagram 1: Green Tourism Approach 11

Diagram 2: Ecotourism Market 14

Diagram 3: Domestic and International Visitor Arrivals to Aceh 18

Diagram 4: Airline Access to Aceh 19

4 Ecotourism Assessment
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

Images
Image 1: Unstaffed Visitor Information Centre 21

Image 2: Coffee Shop Culture in Aceh 21

Image 3: Mangroves near Iboih Village 22

Image 4: CRU Sampoiniet 23

Image 5: Café Seladang 24

Image 6: Arial View of Gayo Lues 25

Image 7: Wisma Cinta Alam Guest House 26

Image 8: Lookout Tower PLTD Apung I 28

Image 9: Small Scale Accommodation in Sabang 29

Image 10: Canopy Walk Example Australia 34

Tables
Table 1: Indonesia’s Tourism Competitiveness Factors 16

Table 2: Main Purpose of Visit 16

Table 3: Tourism Organisations Active in Aceh 20

Table 4: Cruise Ship Visitors to Sabang, 2016 22

Table 5: Tourist Visits to Aceh Tengah 25

Table 6: Tourist Visits to Gayo Lues 26

Ecotourism Assessment 5
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

Abbreviations
Abbreviation Explanation

Privately owned, independent consulting firm, offering management and


AHT Group AG
engineering services
Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Daerah (Regional Development
BAPPEDA
Planning Agency)
Badan Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam (Center for Conservation of Natural
BKSDA
Resources)
Badan Pengusahaan Kawasan Sabang (Management Board of Sabang
BPKS
Free Port and Free Trade Zone)
CRU Conservation Response Unit
DGCC Directorate General of Climate Change
FMU Forest Management Unit
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GHG Green House Gas
Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (German International
GIZ
Cooperation)
GIPI Gabungan Industri Pariwisata Indonesia (Indonesia Tourism Board)
GoA Government of Aceh
GSTC Global Sustainable Tourism Council
KfW Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (German Development Bank)
KPH Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan (Forest Management Unit)
LULUCF Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry
MOEF Ministry of Environment and Forestry
NKE Non Key Expert
PLTD Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Diesel (Diesel Power Plant)
REDD+ Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation
Support to Indonesia’s Climate Change Response Technical Assistance
SICCR-TAC
Component
SMEs Small and Medium Sized Enterprises
Stichting Nederlandse Ontwikkelingsorganisatie (The Netherlands
SNV
Development Organization)
UNEP The United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNWTO The United Nations World Tourism Organization
USAID United States Agency for International Development
WMO World Meteorological Organization

6 Ecotourism Assessment
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

1. Executive Summary
1.1. Introduction
This ecotourism assessment in Aceh is being conducted under the EU funded “Support to Indonesia’s
Climate Change Response Technical Assistance Component” (SICCR-TAC). This is relevant to the third
project component which focusses on providing advice on new investments and economic development
initiatives that are compatible with low carbon, biodiversity and improving livelihoods. The assessment
team was from SNV and encompassed 40 days from the Senior Tourism Expert, Phil Harman and 50
days from the National Tourism Expert, Wiwin Iswandi.

The overarching objectives of this ecotourism assessment is to understand the current situation
including ecotourism policies, practices and products in the province of Aceh and gain insights into
existing and emerging tourism development potential whose realization can have positive effects on
the province’s climate change goals. The methodology included background research, discussions with
stakeholders and two field assessments.

1.2. Climate Change and Tourism


Environmentally orientated tourism can also play an important role in maintaining areas of high
conservation value by raising awareness and helping local governments and communities understand
the economic benefits tourism can bring if natural attractions are maintained. However, tourism can
have a severe negative impact on the environment if not properly managed. Positively, ecotourism style
holidays and more sustainable experiences are increasing in popularity, and globally tourism is growing
fastest in the world’s biodiversity hot spots. One of the biggest factors that has been identified as
limiting the greening of tourism is access to capital and to solve environmental problems in developing
countries; it is also important to address local livelihoods.

1.3. Indonesia Overview


The National Tourism Development Plan 2005-2025 is based on the principles that tourism must protect
and conserve the environment holistically. Indonesia is ranked 19 out of 139 countries by the World
Economic Forum for natural resources competitiveness highlighting the potential ecotourism can play in
attracting international tourists.1 However, the same report highlighted environmental sustainability as a
major challenge in realizing Indonesia’s tourism potential from its natural resources, along with tourism
infrastructure and health and hygiene.

The Ministry of Tourism has identified that nature accounts for 35% of travellers visiting Indonesia
including ecotourism, marine tourism and adventure tourism. Aceh is not one of the top 10 priority
areas for tourism development, although Lake Toba is which may provide opportunities through market
linkages. The key priorities for the National Tourism Ministry for Aceh are Halal tourism, marine tourism
and adventure tourism.

1 The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report 2015, World Economic Forum.

Ecotourism Assessment 7
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

1.4. Aceh Tourism Policies


The key documents guiding tourism development in Aceh are the Master Plan for the Department of
Culture and Tourism Aceh from 2012-2017 and the Qanun Number 8 concerning tourism, 2013. Both of
these documents are generally supportive of ecotourism development and recognize relevant challenges
to growing tourism in Aceh but are short of real specifics.

1.5. Aceh Tourism Overview


Tourism currently accounts for 2.5% of the province’s GDP. Aceh attracted a little over 1.7 million tourists
in 2015, a 75% increase since 2011. International tourists currently make up only a small percentage
of the market numbers totalling 25,000 in 2015. Air access to Aceh is relatively good with international
flights from Malaysia and Saudi Arabia and direct flights to Jakarta. There are also internal flights which
provides another option rather than land based travel. Roads are generally good in much of the province
but poorer over the border in North Sumatra which increases travelling times for connections through to
Medan or Lake Toba.

1.6. Other Organisations Active in Tourism


There are a number of other organisations that are active or are taking an interest in developing tourism
in Aceh including the USAID funded Lestari project that is likely to work in Gayo Lues, KfW with a focus
on South Aceh Province and UNESCO with a focus on the Leuser National Park.

1.7. Specific Destinations Assessed


As part of the overall assessment, two field trips were conducted which included the following
destinations. Banda Aceh, Lampu-uk (Aceh Besar), CRU Samponiet, (Aceh Jaya), Pulau Weh (Sabang),
Takengon (Aceh Tengah), Gayo Lues, Ketambe (Aceh Tenggara) and CRU Trumon, Aceh Selatan.

1.8. Key Issues


Through the assessment a number of key issues have been identified that may impact on the potential
to harness ecotourism in a way that promotes a low carbon tourism sector, protects the province’s
biodiversity and creates local jobs. The critical issue identified is that local communities are not yet
benefitting significantly from tourism in areas of high conservation value. Feedback from stakeholder
workshops made it clear that local communities felt that they were maintaining forested areas but not
seeing any real benefits. A key factor is that current visitation to Aceh is low so it is important to work
on demand side factors to increase visitation but then also make sure communities are benefitting from
tourism in terms of local employment and increased business. Other major issues identified include:
• Low awareness of Aceh as a tourism destination
• Limited investment in tourism sector
• Attitudes towards tourism
• Management of tourism assets
• Information provision

8 Ecotourism Assessment
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

• Limited interpretation
• Energy use, renewable energy, and waste management
• Lack of capacity of Government and FMUs
• Human resources development
• Certification of local guides
• Benefitting from cruise tourism
• Capitalising on the new road linking the West Coast to Central Aceh
• Lack of production diversification

1.9. Recommendations
To promote low carbon growth and to protect biodiversity, if tourism can be developed in and around
the Leuser Ecosystem it would potentially provide the best return on investment given the projects
objectives. The area is challenging in terms of access and limited supporting tourism infrastructure but
given its unique flora and fauna, it certainly has potential. The key will be to work on the demand side
as it is unlikely there will be significant investment until tourism visitation increases from its low base.
Specific recommendations for areas such as Pulau Weh can help diversify product and highlight the
need to better manage natural assets but the environmental impact will be limited.

Recommendations are divided into broader higher level recommendations that could be taken up by
the GoA and the relevant departments as well as more specific recommendations that could potentially
be implemented almost immediately by the GoA or district governments, potentially with support of
the SICCR-TAC project or other donors where applicable. Outlines of specific projects that SICCR-TAC
could support are contained in Annex 3 and cover Aceh Adventure Trail, CRU Strengthening, Ecotourism/
Adventure Investment Attraction, Specific Nature Based Attraction Development in Sabang and support
for Gayo Lues in Ecotourism Development.

Ecotourism Assessment 9
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

10 Ecotourism Assessment
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

2. Introduction and Assessment Objectives


This ecotourism assessment in Aceh is being conducted under the EU funded “Support to Indonesia’s
Climate Change Response Technical Assistance Component” (SICCR-TAC). The tourism assessment
is relevant to the third project component which focusses on providing advice on new investments
and economic development initiatives that are compatible with low carbon, biodiversity and improving
livelihoods.

2.1. Definition of Ecotourism


For the purpose of this assessment in Aceh, the following definition of ecotourism is being used:
“Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being
of local people”.2 It is important to highlight that the success of ecotourism in Aceh also depends on
the overall tourism experience including mainstream attractions, supporting infrastructure, appropriate
accommodation, access and quality of service. The below Green Tourism Approach diagram summarises
what typically needs to be in place for a successful tourism destination. It is often the case that many
destinations have strong attractions but have issues with access, availability of accommodation of a
suitable standard or appropriate amenities such as clean toilet facilities, banking or an interesting array
of activities. At the same time as identifying opportunities to further develop tourism in Aceh, this
assessment is looking at how tourism can also support the development of a low carbon, economy, as
well as protecting biodiversity and creating local livelihoods.

Diagram 1: Green Tourism Approach

Livelihoods

Attractions Accomodation

Activities &
Access
Amenities

Low carbon and Biodiversity

2.2. Assessment Objectives and Methodology


The overarching objectives of this ecotourism assessment is to understand the current situation including
ecotourism policies, practices and products in the province of Aceh and gain insights into existing and
emerging tourism development potential whose realization can have positive effects on the province’s
climate change goals. There is a separate renewable assessment that has relevance to this assessment
– this assessment will not supplicate this work but will collaborate and share information when relevant.

2 www.ecotourism.org/book/ecotourism-definition

Ecotourism Assessment 11
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

The key tasks that have been identified in the Terms of Reference (Annex 1) include:
• Identification of important tourism stakeholders
• Identification and evaluation of the region’s main ecotourism related policy documents
• Mapping ecotourism products and services
• Assessment of the region’s ecotourism competitiveness
• Identifying promising product development scenarios as well as prioritising the potential in the
target FMUs

The methodology that has been used for the assessment has the following components:
• Background data collection including broader tourism trends and ecotourism information at a
national, province and district level.
• Review of relevant tourism policies at a province level as well as in specific destinations.
• Initial one-one discussions in Jakarta with Ministry of Tourism and the peak tourism industry
association.
• Discussion with tourism industry stakeholders organised by the Aceh Province Tourism
Department held in Banda Aceh on 16 November 2016 and initial briefing of relevant government
and industry stakeholders organised by BAPPEDA, the Government of Aceh’s Planning Agency,
in Banda Aceh on 17 November 2016.
• Stakeholder discussion organised by BAPPEDA Sabang, 18 November 2016.
• Stakeholder discussion organised by BAPPEDA Gayo Lues, 23 November 2016.
• Field visit and site inspection including Banda Aceh, Lampuuk (Aceh Besar), Pulau Weh, Takengon
(Aceh Tengah), Gayo Lues, and Aceh Tenggara.
• One on-one discussions during field visit to Aceh.
• Additional discussions in Jakarta including the National Parks section of the Ministry of
Environment and UNESCO.
• Second field visit to CRU Sampoinet (Aceh Jaya), CRU Trumon (Aceh Selatan) and Singkil (Aceh
Singkil).
• Prepare draft report.
• A planned stakeholder workshop in Banda Aceh on January 26, 2017 to share findings and
seek feedback did not occur due to a competing meeting involving senior government officals
organised by the Government of Aceh.
• Finalise report.

Please see Annex 2 for full list of interviews conducted and discussion participants.

2.3. Assessment Team


The assessment team was from SNV and encompassed 40 days from the Senior Tourism Expert, Phil
Harman and 50 days from the National Tourism Expert, Wiwin Iswandi. Guidance was provided by the
Team Leader and Deputy Team Leader. The project support team in Jakarta and Banda Aceh also
provided advice and facilitated meetings and logistical arrangements.

12 Ecotourism Assessment
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

3. Climate Change and Tourism


The issue of climate change impacts all industries including tourism and there are responsive measures
that the industry should take to both mitigate and adapt to climate change. For tourism, the impact
could be severe in terms of changes in biodiversity, loss of key natural attractions and beach erosion.
These are all key issues that are highly relevant to the Province of Aceh.

Typically, the tourism industry, especially high end resorts and hotels as well as the transport sector, are
large users of resources including water and energy. The sector is responsible for an estimated 5% of
global greenhouse gas emissions, which is equivalent to its contribution to global GDP. However, some
other estimates for the tourism sector are much higher.3 An estimated 75% of GHG emissions come
from transport and a further 21% from accommodation.4 As aviation tends to be one of the biggest
contributors to GHG emissions, to a certain degree this is outside the control of a specific destination.

Studies in European hotels show that energy costs represent around 6% of turnover, while in best
practise establishments that have invested in better designs and renewable energy, the energy costs are
between 1.5-2.8%. This shows that there can be a relatively quick return on investment and should be
considered by the GoA in terms of policy and possibly incentives.5 Waste is another negative impact of
tourism with estimates that each international visitor generates up to 2 kg of solid waste per day. The
figure tends to be higher in more developed countries.6

Key opportunities to mitigate the effect of climate change can be focussed around:
• Reducing energy use
• Improving energy efficiency
• Increasing the use of renewable energy such as solar and biogas
• Sequestering carbon such as through off sets7
• Maintaining forest cover, peat lands and mangroves

Environmentally orientated tourism can also play an important role in maintaining areas of high
conservation value by raising awareness and helping local governments and communities understand
the economic benefits tourism can bring if natural attractions are maintained.8 This is highly relevant to
Aceh considering areas of high conservation values including marine areas and the Leuser ecosystem. If
well managed, tourism can be a much more environmentally sound use of land compared to alternative
uses such as expansion of palm oil, coffee or cocoa plantations – all of which are threats to the landscape
in Aceh. Globally, tourism has been identified as one of ten sectors that can play a key role in the
transformation to the green economy.9 The green tourism economy can be defined as being low carbon,
using resources efficiently and being socially inclusive.10

3 p.418, Green Economy Report, United Nations Environment Programme, 2011.


4 p.421, Green Economy Report, United Nations Environment Programme, 2011.
5 p.430, Green Economy Report, United Nations Environment Programme, 2011.
6 p.421, Green Economy Report, United Nations Environment Programme, 2011.
7 p.35 Climate Change and Tourism – Responding to Global Challenges (2008), UNWTO, UNEP WMO.
8 p.145. Climate Change and Tourism – Responding to Global Challenges (2008), UNWTO, UNEP WMO.
9 p. 138, Climate Change and Tourism – Responding to Global Challenge (2008), UNWTO, UNEP WMO.
10 p.16, Green Economy Report, United Nations Environment Programme, 2011.

Ecotourism Assessment 13
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

It should be noted that tourism can have a severe negative impact on the environment such as through
the destruction of mangroves to build a new beach resort. Large scale tourism has other impacts
on biodiversity such as over fishing to feed tourists and destruction of coral reefs and rain forests
for construction material to build hotels. In dryer areas, construction of golf courses has had lowered
the water table negatively affecting flora and fauna. Not properly managing tourism development and
maintaining biodiversity is likely to have a longer term negative impact on the destination but often short
term profits are put before longer term economic sustainability.

Positively, consumers are becoming increasingly sophisticated and potentially due to pressure of daily life
and increasing urbanisation, ecotourism style holidays and more sustainable experiences are increasing
in popularity. There are also a percentage of the market that are willing to pay more for the experience.11
As the diagram below illustrates, the visitors that have a strong interest in ecotourism, the “dark green
tourists”, is a comparatively smaller market than the “light green tourists” that may only want to have
a natural experience as part of a holiday. However, visitors strongly engaged in ecotourism often stay
longer and travel more widely, hence spreading the benefits of tourism.

Diagram 2: Ecotourism Market


rism

Ma
tou

rke
co
nE

tS
st i

ize
ere
Int

The growing interest in nature based tourism and the desire for a pristine environment becomes a
strong economic argument to properly manage a destination and to avoid new developments that are
not compatible with environmental sustainability.12 Globally, tourism is growing fastest in the world’s
biodiversity hot spots.13 There is also increasing evidence that more sustainable tourism has greater
economic multipliers due to increased local inputs and more of the money is spent in the local community.14
While tourism is largely driven by the private sector, the GoA can have a policy and planning framework
that influences how the tourism industry develops in Aceh.

3.1. Access to Capital


One of the biggest factors that has been identified as limiting the greening of tourism is access to
capital. This problem is exacerbated given that the tourism industry is largely made up of small and
mediums sized enterprises (SMEs). The public sector also has a role to play in terms of conservation,
visitor services, water and energy.15

11 p.419, Green Economy Report, United Nations Environment Programme, 2011.


12 p.423, Green Economy Report, United Nations Environment Programme, 2011.
13 Panel 6, World Bank Tourism Forum, December 2015.
14 p.423, Green Economy Report, United Nations Environment Programme, 2011.
15 p.139 Climate Change and Tourism – Responding to Global Challenge (2008), UNWTO, UNEP WMO.

14 Ecotourism Assessment
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

3.2. Poverty and Tourism Development


It is unlikely environmental problems can be solved in developing countries without addressing local
livelihoods. The least developed and developing countries often have the best wildlife and biodiversity
assets but are often under the most pressure as the lives of many of the world‘s and Indonesia’s poor
are closely linked to exploiting fragile ecosystems. This can include fishing in coral reefs to small
holder coffee plantations in mountainous areas with high conservation value or poaching of wildlife.16 In
developing tourism, there is a need to engage and ensure local communities’ benefit.

Tourism potentially has an important role to play in Aceh as it generates a significant number of jobs,
particularly for women and youth. Being labour intensive, it has relatively low barriers of entry for service
level jobs as well as micro and small businesses that service the sector.

3.3. Sustainability Criteria


The Global Sustainable Tourism Council has established criteria for destinations and hotel and tour
operators. The concept is that these should be the minimum requirements to protect and sustain the
worlds cultural and tourism heritage at the same time ensuring tourism meets its potential as a tool for
both conservation and poverty alleviation.17 The Indonesian Ministry of tourism is piloting these criteria
in three destinations in Indonesia and could be relevant to adopt in Aceh as the basis of a sustainable
industry.

3.4. The Sharing Economy


The sharing economy provides both challenges and opportunities to destinations. As it uses underutilised
assets such as homes (e.g. Airbnb) or cars (e.g. Uber) to provide services to visitors, it can arguably
be much more environmentally sustainable approach to tourism development. This can be especially
interesting in an emerging destination such as Aceh which may not have sufficient services for visitors
and can potentially encourage dispersal of visitors. From the visitor perspective these type of services
can provide more of a local experience rather than staying in traditional hotels or using conventional.
From a government perspective the sharing economy can provide challenges in terms of missed tax
revenue or avoiding local regulations (such as safety regulations). The opportunity for a destination is
how to best harness the power of the sharing economy to drive productive tourism growth.

4. Indonesia Tourism Overview and National


Ecotourism Strategy
The Republic of Indonesia is increasingly realising the potential of the tourism industry to increase foreign
exchange earnings (expected to be the largest foreign exchange earner by 2019, up from 3rd currently).18
Currently tourism is the fifth most important sector for the Indonesian Government after infrastructure,
maritime, energy, and trade and is expected to move up to fourth place in 2017.

16 p.19, Green Economy Report, United Nations Environment Programme, 2011.


17 www.gstcouncil.org/en
18 Ministry of Tourism, 2015.

Ecotourism Assessment 15
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

In 2015, Indonesia travel and tourism competitiveness index ranked 50th out of 140 countries.19 Currently,
Bali, Jakarta and Batam attract more than 90% of international visitors to Indonesia. With the growing
middle class, domestic tourism is a major factor underpinning the growth of the tourism industry with
Indonesians increasingly having the disposable income and interest to explore their own country. With
Indonesia’s rich natural and cultural attractions there is certainly also a significant potential for Indonesia
to attract a greater share of international travellers. Indonesia is ranked 19 out of 139 countries by the
World Economic Forum for natural resources competitiveness highlighting the potential ecotourism can
play in attracting international tourists.20 Indonesia’s ranking for mega biodiversity comes after only
Brazil and Zaire. However, as the following table demonstrates environmental sustainability is identified
as a major challenge in realizing Indonesia’s tourism potential from its natural resources, along with
tourism infrastructure and health and hygiene. These are also issues highly relevant to Aceh.

Table 1: Indonesia’s Tourism Competitiveness Factors

Top Three Competitiveness Factors Bottom Three Competitiveness Factors


Natural resources Tourism service infrastructure
Prioritization of travel and tourism Health and hygiene
Price competitiveness Environmental sustainability

The Ministry of Tourism has identified that nature accounts for 35% of travellers visiting Indonesia with
ecotourism accounting for almost half of these visitors. While the picture is more complex than the below
table shows, it does highlight the considerable potential of nature based tourism to attract significant
number of visitors.

Table 2: Main Purpose of Visit21

Marine Tourism (35%)

Nature
Ecotourism (45%)
(35 %)

Adventure Tourism (20%)

Heritage & Pilgrim Tourism (20%)

Culture
MAIN PRODUCTS Culinary & Shopping Tourism (45%)
(60 %)

City & Village Tourism (35%)

MICE & Events Tourism (25%)

Man Made
Sports Tourism (60%)
(5 %)

Integrated Area Tourism (15%)

19 The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report 2015, World Economic Forum.
20 The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report 2015, World Economic Forum.
21 Source: Data and Information Centre, Ministry of Tourism and Central Statistic Bureau, 2014.

16 Ecotourism Assessment
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

4.1. National Tourism Development Plan 2005-2025


The National Tourism Development Plan 2005-2025 is based on the principles that tourism must protect
and conserve the environment holistically. The Indonesian Government has prioritized ten destinations
across the archipelago to attract tourists namely: Lake Toba (North Sumatra), Tanjung Kelayang (Bangka
Belitung), Tanjung Lesung (Banten), Thousand Islands (DKI Jakarta), Borobudur (Central Java), Bromo
Tengger Semeru (East Java), Mandalika (West Nusa Tenggara), Labuan Bajo (East Nusa Tenggara),
Wakatobi (South East Sulawesi), and Morotai (North Maluku). Given the location of Lake Toba to attractions
in southern Aceh, there may be some potential to link to Lake Toba given its strategic importance to the
national Government.

In 2017, Indonesia’s sustainable roadmap includes:


• Development of a National Certification Body
• International Sustainable Development on Tourism and GSTC conference
• Participating in World Tourism Day celebrating the Year of Sustainable Development

The Ministry of Tourism in consultation with the Province of Aceh has developed a strategy to develop
ecotourism in the Province which covers attractions, accessibility, branding, advertising, selling,
destination management, community and industry. This is more of a practical action plan but it is unclear
if it will be implemented. The key priorities for the National Tourism Ministry for Aceh are Halal tourism,
marine tourism and adventure tourism.

5. Aceh Tourism Policies


The key documents guiding tourism development in Aceh are the Master Plan for the Department of
Culture and Tourism Aceh from 2012-2017 and the Qanun Number 8 concerning tourism, 2013. The
Master Plan is a general document but broadly supportive of the development of tourism - while it
does not mention ecotourism explicitly it does highlight the need to develop tourism in balance with
protecting natural resources. This is captured in one of the broader principles that tourism should be
developed that is “pro-Sharia, pro-jobs, pro-growth, pro-poor and pro-environment”. The Master Plan
also recognizes that nature tourism can be higher yield than “mass tourism” and there is the opportunity
to support cultural tourism development combined with the Aceh’s natural beauty that can help support
the protection of cultural assets and the environment. The strategy also discusses the need to expand
business opportunities to create jobs and reduce unemployment and poverty in the Province.

The Master Plan also identifies a number of issues, many of which are consistent with the findings of
this assessment. These include:
• There is still not optimal for the construction and the development of tourism area/object in each
district/municipal.
• Maintenance of tourism facilities.
• Low community awareness of benefits of tourism.
• Limited tourism promotion, both at the regional, national and international level.
• Sub optimal use of ICT as a tourism marketing and promotion tool.
• Limited human resources development especially in services and tourism management.
• Less than optimal cooperation between the government and private sector.

Ecotourism Assessment 17
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

Aceh Qanun No. 8 of 2013 on Tourism is also broadly supportive of ecotourism although it likes specifics.
Some of the key points include:
• One of the aims of destination tourism operations in Aceh is to preserve the tourist attraction
objects.
• To realize tourism development in Aceh, research and development activities need to be
conducted to determine the potential of natural resources and oriented to the preservation of
the environment.
• The Government of Aceh and District/City Government in the field of Tourism is authorized to
enact a tourist attraction, one of the natural tourist attractions.
• The Aceh Government and District/City to implement the tourism coaching in the form of the
settings, providing guidance and supervision of the operation of tourism directed to creating and
maintaining sustainability, integrity objects and tourist attraction, and its development as well as
providing an opportunity for the local community.

6. Aceh Tourism Overview


Tourism currently accounts for 2.5% of the province’s GDP. The Government of Aceh has identified 803
tourist attractions in the province; 429 natural, 203 cultural and 171 manmade, obviously the “pulling
power” of these attractions vary widely.

Aceh has been growing strongly as a tourist destination in recent years. The province attracted a little
over 1.7 million tourists in 2015, a 75% increase since 2011. International tourists comprise less than
2% of tourism arrivals totalling 25,000 in 2015. Malaysian visitors accounted for approximately 85% of
all international visitors with China, USA, Singapore, Australia, Germany, France, the United Kingdom,
Thailand and the Philippines other source markets.

Diagram 3: Domestic and International Visitor Arrivals to Aceh

Source: Aceh Department of Tourism, 2015

18 Ecotourism Assessment
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

Currently Banda Aceh has direct daily flights to Jakarta and Medan and is serviced by the four largest
airlines in the country, Garuda, Lion, Batik and Citylink. Banda Aceh is also serviced daily by Air Asia and
Fire Fly to Kuala Lumpur and Penang by Firefly and Malaysian Airlines.

Diagram 4: Airline Access to Aceh

There are also some intra-province flights although they tend to have limited capacity. For example, Susi
Air with a capacity of seven passengers has a return flight to Gayo Lues from Medan on Tuesday and
Banda Aceh on Saturday.

Road access is relatively good in many parts of Aceh although travel times are still considerable to
areas such as Gayo Lues. There are relatively poor road conditions over the provincial border into North
Sumatra which is an issue for tourists needing to connect via Medan or travel via Lake Toba. There is
an issue with road connections through to potential attractions such as CRU Sampoinet that has an
unsealed road of the main highway which is not accessible to car traffic when there are excessive rains.
Ferry connections are particularly to Sabang from Banda Aceh but understandably less frequent to areas
such as Pulau Banyak which is emerging as a tourist destination.

There are 34 star rated hotels in Aceh and 377 non star rated properties. The occupancy rate for star
rated properties is 54% and an even lower 35% for non-star rated properties. In 2016, there were 474
certified tourist guides in Aceh.22

There are a number of tourism associations operating in Aceh, although there is a great deal of variety
in how active they are. As the table below shows, a number of associations are also active at the
district level as branches of national organisations. There are also district specific organisations. These
organisations obviously make a useful launching point for any tourism initiative as a way to consult and
engage with the private sector.

22 Aceh Department of Tourism, 2016.

Ecotourism Assessment 19
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

Table 3: Tourism Organisations Active in Aceh

Associations/Tourism Agencies In Aceh Province

Aceh Province
HPI The Indonesian Tourist Guide Association
PHRI The Indonesian Hotel & Restaurant Association
ASITA Association of Indonesia Tours & Travel Agencies
ASPPI Association of Indonesian Tourism

Sabang
FTKP Sabang Tourism Governance Forum
WGT (LWG) Weh Green Tourism (Local Working Group)
HPI The Indonesian Tourist Guide Association
ASPPI Association of Indonesian Tourism
PHRI The Indonesian Hotel & Restaurant Association

Gayo Lues
HPI The Indonesian Tourist Guide Association
KSW Community Awareness Tourism

Aceh Tengah
HPI The Indonesian Tourist Guide Association
PHRI The Indonesian Hotel & Restaurant Association
ASITA Association of Indonesia Tours & Travel Agencies

7. Other Organisations that are Active in Tourism


in Aceh
There are a number of other organisations that are active or are taking an interest in developing tourism in
Aceh. The USAID funded Lestari project has completed an initial tourism assessment and are currently
deciding on actual activities which is likely to include Gayo Lues as a focus. KfW are supporting
ecotourism in Aceh Selatan including the establishment of an ecolodge in swamp-land near Singkil.
They are likely to have other activities as well, such as promotion of ecotourism product. UNSECO’s
current focus is supporting the network of national parks in Sumatra (the Tropical Rainforest Heritage
of Sumatra) that has World Heritage listing but is currently listed as “in danger”. UNESCO has a keen
interest in supporting the development of sustainable tourism to Leuser and recently commissioned a
study into developing ecotourism within and around the Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra sites.

8. Specific Destinations Assessed


8.1. Banda Aceh
From a visitor perspective, Banda Aceh was a welcoming city and had a number of interesting sites
including the Baiturrahman Grand Mosque, Dutch colonial heritage and Tsunami related attractions. The
proximity to Sabang and Lampuuk beach also helps to complement the city.

20 Ecotourism Assessment
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

Information provision for visitors in Banda


Aceh is extremely limited. There was a
visitor centre at the Sultan Iskandar Muda
International Airport, however at the time the
assessment team visited it was not staffed
and there was only three brochures produced
by the Aceh Department of Tourism that were
available. Probably due to the emerging nature
of the tourism industry in Aceh, unlike many
places in Indonesia, there was no visible sign
of private sector tour companies promoting
trips to tourism attractions in the Province.

It is apparent there is a strong coffee culture in


Banda Aceh which is a potential drawcard - Image 1: Unstaffed Visitor Information Centre
quite a number of souvenir shops were selling
Aceh Gayo coffee and there are countless coffee shops where visitors and local alike can taste Arabica
and robusta coffee from Aceh.

8.2. Lampuuk Beach, Aceh Besar

Lampuuk Beach in Aceh Besar has quite


a number of home stay businesses and an
attractive beach. Across the wider district,
officially there are 217 rooms across 8
establishments. Given the close proximity to
Banda Aceh (approximately 45 minutes drive),
the destination has the potential to develop
further as a beach destination for both the local
and international markets. Discussions with a
local homestay owned revealed that there was
often longer stay visitors from key European
markets and Japan. While developing this
destination will not necessarily have positive
Image 2: Coffee Shop Culture in Aceh effects on maintaining the environment, it can
improve the product offering for the Province
and also be a good source of income/jobs for one of the local communities that was devastated by the
2004 Tsunami.

8.3. Pulau Weh, Sabang


Sabang has been assigned as a National Tourism Destination (DPN), National Tourism Strategic Area
(KSPN) as well as a National Tourism Development Area (KPPN) by the central Ministry of Tourism.
Sabang has potential for the development of natural tourism with 20 potential dive sites, mangroves,
a volcano as well as cultural and historical sites including Japanese war relics (bunkers and fort) and a
museum and historical buildings in Kota Sabang.

Ecotourism Assessment 21
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

In order to realise the tourist potential, the central


and local governments have identified transport
infrastructure (roads, airport, cruise ship port and
marina) development as a key priority. Since the
establishment of the Maimun Saleh Airport in
2016, Garuda Airlines provides a twice weekly
flight from Medan, North Sumatera to Sabang, the
major gateway for tourists to the area. Balohan
Port provides public transportation to Banda Aceh
from the island. In addition, there is also a basic
cruise ship terminal on the island. In addition, the
Ministry of Tourism is also focusing on improving
Image 3: Mangroves near Iboih Village the tourism experience through the establishment
of Tourism Destination Management Organisation
(DMO) which commenced in 2011 and will continue until 2017. The Organisation covers stakeholder and
local community management, training and certification programs for 100-200 local guides, hospitality
training for Port workers and upgrading training for 15 dive instructors.

Sabang (Pulau Weh) has been designated as a Nature Tourism Garden with 1,250 Ha in land and 5,275
Ha marine with coral reefs and over 20 potential dive spots identified. In addition, there is protected
forested areas of 3,329 Ha according to the Ministry of Forestry. Situated at the convergence of the
Indian and Pacific oceans, the coral reefs around Pulau Weh are home to a great diversity of fish species,
like sea turtles, sharks, rays and dolphins.

Domestic tourists account for the largest number of tourists with over 623,000 visitors in 2015, up from
212,165 in 2012. The number of international tourists to Sabang has varied widely in the last few years
with 5,582 being recorded in 2015, however preliminary figures for 2016 indicate a doubling of arrivals
to 10,501.

Table 4: Cruise Ship Visitors to Sabang, 2016

Cruise Ship Passengers

Silver Shadow 232


Seven Seas Voyager Fisrt Visit 688
Seven Seas Voyager Second Visit 682
MS Hamburg 306
MS Hamburg 306
Artania 918
Seven Pacific Eden First Visit 1,329

Seven Pasific Eden Second Visit 1,329

The World 262


Silver Sea 132
Total 6,184
Source : BPKS (Management Board of Sabang Free Port and Free Trade Zone) Data, 2016

22 Ecotourism Assessment
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

In 2015, Aceh Provincial Department of Tourism recorded 819 rooms across 95 accommodation
establishments in the district. There is already an interesting mix of hotel and guest house accommodation
on the island with more under construction. There are eight dive centres on the island servicing both
local and international visitors. Particularly for international visitors, facilities such as restaurants or
shopping are extremely limited and there is potential to expand. Another challenge is that there tends to
be overcrowding on weekends and low occupancy during the week given the strong local and regional
market. Other challenges and opportunities to increasing tourism to Sabang include:
• Needing to diversify product
• Restructuring entrance to Balohan Port to make it more user friendly for tourists
• Improving public facilities and amenities
• Developing improved shore excursions for the cruise and yacht markets
• Improving promotion and marketing activities and information provision

In many ways Sabang is already becoming a mainstream tourism destination, however there is potential
to introduce new product which may help preserve the environment and increase the diversity of product
such a trekking routes and mangrove walks. There may also be potential in the future to link the volcano
and geothermal plant which is due for completion in 2018 as an educational tourism product. BPKS is
currently working on a tourism master plan that should be available in 2017 as well as a trekking route
plan.

8.4. Sampoiniet CRU Unit, Aceh Jaya


District
Aceh Jaya District, covering 3,727km2 or 372,700 Ha is hilly
and mountainous with numerous cliffs and steep slopes.
There are three watersheds crossing the district. In 2015, In
2015, Aceh Provincial Department of Tourism recorded 81
rooms across seven accommodation establishments in the
district.

Sampoiniet has been identified as one of nine sub-districts


in Aceh Jaya with ecotourism potential due to its immense
biodiversity. Located only a two-hour drive (129km) from
Banda Aceh or 30 minutes (30km) from Calang, the local Image 4: CRU Sampoiniet
community could benefit from diversifying their income sources with an understanding of the potential
of nature conservation through tourism. The potential of this area to be developed for tourism is helped
by the relative proximity to Banda Aceh and a very scenic drive along the west coast of Aceh making this
a practical day trip destination.

The Conservation Response Unit (CRU) Sampoiniet located in le Jeureungeh village has the purpose of
managing conflict issues between wildlife, particularly elephants, and humans. The CRU currently has 13
staff. The CRU has the potential to develop as a tourist destination with an estimated 40-50 international
tourists visiting each year since the Unit’s establishment in 2010. This is despite limited amenities,
trained local guides or active promotion of the area. Visitors currently pay IDR 300,000 for trekking and
a donation if they just want to come and have a look around. There are four elephants that are housed
at the CRU which care used for elephant patrols and for taking tourists trekking. It is also possible to do
tubing nearby and the CRU has two basic rooms that can be used for overnight stays. The surrounding
area of the CRU is in a pretty location with a mix of crops including coffee and cocoa which could also

Ecotourism Assessment 23
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

be interesting tours for visitors in the future. The growth in commercial “voluntourism”, where travellers
pay for volunteer experience, may also be an interesting opportunity for CRU Sampoiniet as well as
other CRUs in Aceh. The access road into CRU Sampoiniet from the main coastal road is unsealed and
not able to be accessed by standard cars during times of heavy rain. Improving this road could be a
beneficial investment to underpin growth in visitors.

8.5. Sarah Raya, Aceh Jaya District


While not included in the field assessment, Sarah Raya was raised in a tourism industry workshop of
having ecotourism potential based on its natural attractions including rivers, waterfalls, forests and karst
hills which are the main attraction for tourists coming to Sarah Raya Village. Sarah Raya is approximately
three hours from Banda Aceh by road, once in the village river transport can be used to reach the key
attractions which would also be around three hours’ duration.

The lack of tourism facilities including accommodation, restaurants, and visitor information in the village
is impeding tourism development. The area would benefit from support in awareness raising of tourism
within the local community, training of the community and connections with the tourism industry.

8.6. Takengon, Aceh Tengah District


Whilst tourism does not have a high priority with the Aceh Tengah government, locals are very amenable
to both domestic and international travellers. There are two primary attractions for potential tourists -
Lake Laut Tawar and coffee tourism. The Lake is currently the key drawcard for visitors to the area. Four
caves have been discovered around the lake and these may further boost tourism to the area.

The district is well known for the quality of its coffee. There is a fledgling coffee tourism industry
with some cafes providing visitors with a sense of the process from tree to espresso. With better
interpretation there could be much greater opportunity to attract larger numbers of domestic and
international tourists. One local business, Seladang, located approximately half an hour drive from
Takengon had a very atmospheric café surrounded by coffee trees where visitors can taste coffee and
learn about the process. A local roaster that was visited as part of the assessment was also potentially
interesting tourism product despite it not being geared specifically for tourists. The assessment team
while in Takengon came across a tour group of coffee roasters that were visiting from Europe – while this
was mostly business related it shows there is some potential to build on coffee as a tourism asset. A
speciality coffee event in the area could be of interest to a broad range of visors.

There are many ethnic groups including Gayo, Aceh


coast, Batak Karo Batak Toba, Java, Padang and
Chinese living in the Aceh Tengah District. This is
evident in the cultural diversity of the district with
regional dances such as the Guel, Saman, Bines and
Didong which could be developed to help create local
employment and also be another attractor for visitors.

According to the local government there are 380 rooms


across 18 establishments in the district. The hotels are
currently relatively basic and they do not make use of
the views to Lake Laut Tawar. The number of domestic
visitors has increased in recent years with the number
Image 5: Café Seladang
of international visitors remaining small.

24 Ecotourism Assessment
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

Table 5: Tourist Visits to Aceh Tengah

Year International Visitors Domestic Visitors

2011 849 22,324

2012 629 25,880

2013 604 30,197

2014 643 33,891

2015 920 35,325

Source: Aceh Provincial Department of Tourism data, 2016

8.7. Gayo Lues District


Gayo Lues District lies in the middle of Leuser Mountain with 80% of the area protected. Almost 30%
of the area is located at an altitude of 1,500-2,000 metres and a further 27% between 500-1,000 metres
above sea level. Currently agriculture is the primary economic driver of the area despite only 16% of
the land designated as agricultural land (the rest s forest or protected land). The area is home to almost
85,000 people representing many ethnic groups including Gayo (majority), Batak, Javanese, Karo and
Acehnese.

The Gayo people have strong cultural heritage which is particularly evident in their dancing. For example,
one Gayo dance, Saman, was recognised by UNESCO in 2011 as an intangible cultural heritage of
humanity in need of urgent safeguarding.

It has been identified locally that of the 11 sub-districts in Gayo Lues, eight have prime tourism potential,
especially for nature, culture and adventure. The identified districts are Tripe Jaya, Rikit Gaib, Pantan
Cuaca, Blang Kejeren, Blang Jerango, Pining, Plang Pegayon and Putri Betung. Currently Blang Jerango
has attracted a significant number of domestic and foreign tourists as Kedah is one of the major entry
points to Mt Leuser National Park. In addition, the Kedah trail is the most popular of the three hiking
routes to the peak of Mt Leuser. The 10-12 day trek is likely to enable hikers to see orangutan, honey
bears and birds endemic to Aceh. In addition, the river system offers rafting activities.

Twice weekly flights are available to Gayo


Lues’ Senubung Airport from Medan and
Banda Aceh on Susi Airlines (max 10
passengers). Alternatively, it is a 10-12 hour
trip from Medan or Banda Aceh respectively.
In 2015, In 2015, Aceh Provincial Department
of Tourism recorded 187 rooms across 14
accommodation establishments in the district
with the majority in Blangkejeran City. These
rooms are of a fairly basic standard.

The current tourism visitation to Gayo Lues is


low and it will be critical to work on creating
demand before there is any significant
Image 6: Arial View of Gayo Lues investment in the sector.

Ecotourism Assessment 25
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

Table 6: Tourist Visits to Gayo Lues

Year International Visitors Domestic Visitors

2011 45 1,812

2012 65 1,978

2013 74 2,824

2014 158 1,095

2015 147 1,017

Source: Aceh Provincial Department of Tourism Data, 2016

The district government is keen to grow tourism and has asked for support to develop its tourism
strategy including ecotourism and for helping to train community groups as well as branding/marketing.
The Forest Management Unit V, has ecotourism highlighted in its strategy. It sees potential for support
for tourism through carbon trading and payment for environmental services. Key planned activities in
the strategy include coaching of community groups and promotion. The owner of Kedah Rainforest
Lodge identified certification of guides as one of the most critical issues.

8.8. Ketambe, Aceh Tenggara


Much of the district of Aceh Tenggara is in the Gunung Leuser National Park and surrounding buffer
zones. The area is hilly with an altitude of 25-1000 meters above sea level. Ketambe is directly adjacent
to Gunung Leuser National Park and has primates including orangutans, gibbons and Thomas Leaf
Monkey. In addition to the very rich biodiversity around Gunung Leuser National Park, the Alas River (the
longest river in Aceh) is a drawcard for rafting trips. Ketambe is approximately seven hours from Medan
by road and three from Gayo Lues. The District Capital Kutacane is around one hours drive away and
does have an airport with occasional flights to Medan
and Banda Aceh.

Ketambe has a cluster of seven guest houses that act


as staging points for trekking trips into the adjacent
forest and also for white water rafting. While visitation
is highly seasonal, because there is some critical mass,
there is the potential to build further on this area. There
is the potential to encourage greater cooperation
between local businesses to grow professionalism and
to cooperatively promote the area. The owner of Wisma
Cinta Alam Guest House identifies certification of guides
Image 7: Wisma Cinta Alam Guest House
as a critical issue.

8.9. CRU Unit Trumon, Aceh Selatan


South Aceh district stretches along 100 kilometers of the west coast of Aceh. The district has an
estimated 80% forest cover and is close to the Gunung Leuser National Park. The landscape includes
mountainous rainforest through to peat swamp forests and is rich in biodiversity. The district has an
altitude of between 50-2078m above sea level with the highest peak being Mount Seudong Ujeun.

26 Ecotourism Assessment
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

Trumon CRU is located in the Trumon Wildlife Corridor which has 2,700 hectares acting as a buffer zone
and migration link of species between Singkil Swamp Wildlife Reserve Region with the Northern Forest
Area of Singkil and onwards to the Gunung Leuser National Park.

CRU Trumon can be reached in approximately 11 hours from the provincial capital Banda Aceh, 1 and
a half hours from district capital Tapaktuan and around 7 hours from Medan. Interestingly, Ketambe
can be reached in four hours by boat (around seven by car) which could be an attractive way to link
the destinations. Access to the corridor area can be reached from Trumon CRU by elephant and on
foot. Within the CRU there are four elephants that could be used for taking visitors and there are locally
trained guides.

CRU Trumon has simple accommodation consisting of five rooms for travellers lodging. If tourists
undertake trekking outside the camp CRU, the CRU can provide tents and camping equipment. Currently
the CRU is attracting the occasional international visitors but has had 30 school groups visiting in the past
year. While the current facilities are basic, the local community is supportive of developing ecotourism.

9. Key Issues
Through the assessment a number of key issues have been identified that may impact on the potential
to harness ecotourism in a way that promotes a low carbon tourism sector, protects the province’s
biodiversity and creates local jobs.

Local communities are not yet benefitting significantly from tourism in areas of high conservation
value: This is a critical issue as feedback from stakeholder workshops made it clear that local
communities felt that they were maintaining forested areas but not seeing any real benefits. A key factor
is that current visitation to Aceh is low so it is important to work on demand side factors to increase
visitation but then also make sure communities are benefitting from tourism in terms of local employment
and increased business. There is definitely potential to increase tourism to Aceh but it is important that
false expectations aren’t created by training local communities without providing support to market
and promote the destination. New investment also tends to be circular, increased tourism demand will
attract new investment and new investment will often increase demand due to the marketing channels
of the new business.

Low Awareness of Aceh as a Tourism Destination: Due to its recent history, there is a low awareness
of Aceh as a tourism destination. This is also due to limited marketing by both the public and private
sector and the relatively limited investment in tourism. There is the opportunity to both build on the
overall Cahaya Aceh brand as well as sub-brand destinations to capitalise on the growing popularity
of Sabang as a destination. There is also the opportunity to build the profile of specific destinations,
journeys or experiences within Aceh to help create awareness and counter any negative sentiments of
Aceh as a travel destination.

Limited investment in Tourism Sector: The lack of major hotel brands and new hotels and other
tourism services is potentially limiting growth in the sector.

Attitudes towards tourism: A general lack of community awareness of the benefits of tourism appears
to be limiting the sector’s growth. This is exacerbated by the idea that tourism has to develop along
the “Bali or Phuket” models. There is an opportunity to better articulate how tourism can be developed
consistent with the community’s Sharia principles. This can include the broad reaching benefits of
developing the sector if it is done in a manner that protects the environment, creates new jobs and
improves incomes.

Ecotourism Assessment 27
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

Management of Tourism Assets: The consulting team


identifies that key tourism assets including the Tsunami
Museum and PLTD Apung 1 need better ongoing
management. The Government owned and community
owned assets such as guest houses in Sabang are in
need of investment/renewal and potentially improved
management systems.

Information Provision: There is limited information


in Aceh about potential tourism destinations and trip
itineraries. Increasingly visitors access this type of
information online but there is also a strong role for
visitor information centres and tour desks to increase
Image 8: Lookout Tower PLTD Apung I
local spend. There was also very limited cross
promotion of destination such as promotion of the Leuser in Sabang.

Limited Interpretation: Interpretation even at key sites, such as the Tsunami museum was limited.
There is the need to improve interpretation of destinations in Aceh including natural attractions through
signage, brochures and local guides.

Energy Use, Renewable Energy and Waste Management: There was very limited evidence that
accommodation and other tourism establishments have put in place policies to reduce energy
consumption, utilise renewable energy or manage waste properly. Investment in energy efficiency and
waste management have demonstrated to show a good return on investment in a relatively short time
frame. There is a program, a clean Green Sabang program that had billboard advertising. There is a real
opportunity to reduce emissions in the accommodation sector as there is also generally cost savings
which improves the businesses bottom line.

Lack of Capacity of Government and FMUs: Within the FMUs and district governments, there is an
acknowledged limited understanding of the potential of ecotourism as well as tourism promotion and
marketing.

Human Resource Development: Industry and government have identified low skills as a constraint for
the sector. There is the need for both more formally trained staff as well as informal training to improve
the service quality and other skills of workers in the tourism sector. Many workers such as in non-star
hotel properties will not have formal training.

9.1. Certification of Local Guides


There is a challenge that local guides who work in natural environments in Aceh are often not certified.
Barriers include lack of budget, lack of support from local government and training/certification that is
not practical for “informal guides”.

9.2. Benefitting from Cruise Tourism


Given the boom in cruise travel worldwide, it ls likely that cruise ships arrivals to Sabang will continue to
grow. Studies in other areas have identified for cruise passengers there is a direct correlation between
spend, enjoyment of the destination and the intention to return. In addition, visitors who pre-book
tours are more likely to spend more at the destination but arguably the economic leakage is higher.

28 Ecotourism Assessment
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

There is an opportunity to enhance the tour and shopping opportunities for cruise ships coming to Sabang
by working with the cruise companies, inbound operators and local businesses and communities.

Capitalising on the New Road Linking the West Coast to Central Aceh: Depending on the tourism
attractions along the new road to open up between Meulaboh, Beutung Ateuk to Aceh Tengah there
could be an opportunity to develop tourism. Access elsewhere in the province and in Indonesia, often
new roads open up exploitation of the natural resources and reduce the tourism potential.

Lack of Product Diversification: In all destinations including Banda Aceh and Sabang, there is the
need to diversify experiences which will encourage visitors to stay longer, spend more and return.

10. Recommendations 
To promote low carbon growth and to protect biodiversity, if tourism can be developed in and around
the Leuser Ecosystem it would potentially provide the best return on investment given the projects
objectives. The area is challenging in terms of access and limited supporting tourism infrastructure but
given its unique flora and fauna it certainly has potential. The key will be to work on the demand side
as it is unlikely there will be significant investment until tourism visitation increases from its low base.
Specific recommendations for areas such as Pulau Weh can help diversify product and highlight the
need to better manage natural assets but the environmental impact will be limited.

The following recommendations are divided into broader higher level recommendations that could be
taken up by the GoA and the relevant departments as well as more specific recommendations that could
potentially be implemented almost immediately by the GoA or district governments, potentially with
support of the SICCR-TAC project or other donors where applicable. Outlines of specific projects that
SICCR -TAC could support are contained in Annex 3 and cover Aceh Adventure Trail, CRU Strengthening,
Ecotourism/Adventure Investment Attraction, Specific Nature Based Attraction Development in Sabang
and support for Gayo Lues in Ecotourism Development.

10.1. Broader Policy


Recommendations
Tourism Policy
There is a need to strengthen the Province’s
planning tourism documents to provide clearer
guidance on how tourism can be developed.
This can include zones for tourism development,
management of tourism assets with fee structures,
concessions or public private partnership models.

• Consideration should be given to maintaining


the small scale nature of the industry
through zoning. “Bigger is not necessarily
better” – maintaining smaller scale tourism
enterprises often has less environmentally Image 9: Small Scale Accommodation in Sabang
impact and a greater percentage of revenue
flows through to local communities. This needs to be balanced with the bigger job creation of larger
establishments such as four or five start hotels.

Ecotourism Assessment 29
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

• Encourage industry to have more efficient energy use and improved waste management in the
tourism sector through polices and government programs.
• Consider adopting the Global Sustainable Tourism Council Criteria for destinations in developing
tourism in the province.

Human Resource Development


• Introduce a province wide training for the informal sector that is likely to account for the majority of
employment. Embedded in this training can be key environmental messages. This can be based
on the High Impact Tourism Training approach where master trainers are trained and can implement
the training at a local level. This can include service level training as well as entrepreneurship to tap
into the sharing economy.

Access and Transport linkages


• Continue to work to improve air access from international destinations, as well as from Jakarta and
flights within the province. There are considerable distances between key attractions in Aceh so
intra-province flights with increased capacity are going to be important to help grow the industry
as well as continual investment in roads.
• Given the proximity to Malaysia and Thailand, ferry access linking the countries could help open
the region up as a destination for independent travellers. The feasibility of these services needs
to be assessed in terms of demand, potential operators and what other infrastructure would be
needed such as immigration and customs.

Investment Attraction
For any destination, attracting new investments is critical. This is not only a source of capital, which is
often an issue in developing countries, but can also help with knowledge transfer and improved market
access. Particular strategies that the GoA can out in place to attract investment that promotes green
growth includes:
• Providing and packaging up information on tourism potential in Aceh.
• Pro-active outreach to get qualified investors - this could be one-on-one meetings or an investor
forum.
• Competitive tenders for high potential sites which have been well researched.
• Establishing strong partnerships with local tourism industry, local investors and land owners.
• Increasing tourism knowledge and contacts within relevant province agencies that cater to investor
inquiries.
• Solid data potentially with benchmarking data comparison with other destinations.
• Providing useful contacts for investors such as legal firms. The Aceh Investment and Promotion
Board has done some analysis of potential sites which this could be built on. It would be beneficial
to attract quality accommodation that can help build the image of Aceh. Quality hotels tend to
have a synergistic effect on a destination as they have their own marketing channels often raise
the quality of staff through in house training and also work with suppliers to improve quality. In
the longer term, it would be ideal to be able to attract an upmarket operator in addition to local
investors such as the Four Seasons lodges in Serengeti, Tanzania and Northern Thailand or the
type of lodges that feature in National Geographic Unique Lodges (www.nationalgeographiclodges.
com.) Building tourism assets near a national park can be a good investment due to certainty that
the national park will remain, however it is important to ensure community partnerships.

30 Ecotourism Assessment
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

Aceh Adventure Trail


Develop an Aceh adventure trail that links key nature based attraction in Aceh. The objective is top
position Aceh as an attractive adventure destination and link disparate attractions that by themselves
currently attract few visitors. This is to address the issue of demand which needs to increase for supply
of quality tourism infrastructure to increase. This would include areas such as Gayo Lues, Ketambe,
Takengon, CRUs as well as marine attractions in Sabang and Pulau Banyak. While the focus is obviously
on Aceh, itineraries need to include the common entry point of Medan and potentially links to Lake Toba
which is a priority focus for investment and promotion of the Government of Indonesia. The trail can
also look at connecting areas such as Ketambe and CRU Trumon by boat which would be an attractive
offering for visitors. Specific benefits of an Adventure Trail can include:
• Developing cooperation within and across destinations
• Tying in with key strengths of Aceh
• Helping develop points of difference for destinations along the route
• Be a hook for publicity
• Be a vehicle for industry training and investment attraction

Community Benefits
• Support the development of supply chains to the tourism industry so that communities benefit
through employment and increased income. This includes vegetable supply chains and local
handicrafts.
• Further develop and promote cultural attractions such as dances as it is of interest to visitors and
helps create local employment.

General Services
• Government needs to continue to invest in basic infrastructure and services that helps create a
thriving tourism industry and facilitates trade and movement of goods. This includes roads, port
facilities, and basic services such as toilets, shelters etc.

New Road
Assess the potential of having a tourism awareness program along the new road central Aceh to enable
local communities to benefit from the traffic flow and also highlight the need to protect natural resources.
Similar programs have been implemented elsewhere such as the ADB Route 9 linking Thailand, Laos
and Vietnam.

Kampung Iklim
The Programme Kampung Iklim operates under the Ministry of Forestry and Environment. It aims to
encourage and recognize active participation of local communities in implementing climate change
mitigation and adaptation activities which contribute to national greenhouse gas reduction targets and
increases community resilience. Aceh Province has been established as one of the pilot project areas
with four villages in Aceh, namely: Kampung Ule Lheu (Banda Aceh), Kampung Iboih (Sabang), Kampung
Saree (Aceh Besar) and Kampung Kelitu (Central Aceh).

Ecotourism Assessment 31
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

There is a potential to use the Kampung Ilkim project to support community awareness of ecotourism and
environmental management. Iboih in Sabang would be a good pilot area given its existing tourism base
and fragile ecosystem.

Destination Planning
• Destination management is critical to developing a low carbon tourism sector that protects
biodiversity.
• Establish a destination management training program in a key destination that others can be
invited to attend. This could include four modules with mentoring support in between.

Marketing
It is important to create an increased awareness of Aceh as a tourist destination for visitation to increase.
Given that the industry is made up of small players, both the provincial and district governments have
a role to play to work with the private sector to develop tourism. While budgets are limited, there are
a number of costs effective ways to increase awareness and visitor spend in the destination. These
include:
• Public relations activities such as media visits.
• Improve the provision of information including ensuring the visitor information centre at the
airport is staffed and has a more comprehensive range of information.
• Online marketing and train local businesses on how to use social media and capitalise on
marketing channels such as Tripadvisor and Air BnB.
• Branding of sub-destinations such as Sabang or experiences such as the “Aceh Adventure Trail”
concept to help cut through any negative perceptions of the Province as a whole.

Interpretation
• Improved interpretation of sites such as Tsunami museum.
• Training of community and professional guides.

Events
• Support the strategic development of events that help address seasonal peaks, attract publicity
and promote key brand strengths such as nature, coffee, Halal tourism and adventure tourism.

Tourism Awareness - Build Local Understanding of Tourism


• Host an annual tourism summit/forum to bring together government and private sector
stakeholders. This can be an opportunity to share strategic plans, identify key private sector
issues and potentially highlight case studies from our Islamic destinations that have successfully
developed tourism such as the Maldives and Oman.
• Introduce a short 1 day “Aceh Host” training course based on the successful New Zealand Kiwi
Host model that explains the benefits of tourism and enhances basic service skills.

32 Ecotourism Assessment
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

Capitalising on the Cruise Market


Work with the port authorities, cruise companies, inbound operators and local businesses and
communities to enhance local tours and shopping. This can include a more interesting island tour
on Pulau Weh (Weh Island) as well as a local market. Clothing and local handicrafts are appealing to
tourists but increasingly visitors are interested in consumable products that won’t clutter the home such
as virgin coconut oil and local coffees, teas and chocolates.

Management Structures and Fees


Ensure there is clear management structures and plans for tourism assets such as the Tsunami Museum
and PLTD Apung I. Consider introducing fees which can create revenue streams to properly manage
attractions.

10.2. Specific Recommendations


FMU Recommendations
• Provide capacity building to interested FMUs in ecotourism development as well as guidelines
on how to best develop tourism whilst protecting the environment. Capacity building could
be based in the UNESCO PUP model which has a modular approach on how to develop a
destination.

Banda Aceh Recommendations


• Attract improved higher end hotels to better service the business and travel market.
• Ensure attractions in the city are maintained with improved interpretation.
• Capitalise on the coffee culture as a “tourism product”.
• Continue to promote the city and tsunami attractions to the cruise market by working with port
authorities, cruise companies and inbound operators - this is a good entry point to attract a
broader international markets. This can include improved information no board ship, better
services at key tourism sites such as clean bathrooms and ATM facilities and improved product/
tour itineraries with quality interpretation.

Lampuuk Beach (Aceh Besar) Recommendations


• Encourage the ongoing operation of home stay accommodation.
• Support networking between local businesses to improve marketing and quality of service.
• Potentially support low key cottage development that is suitable to the environment and the
aspirations of the local community.

10.3. Sabang, Pulau Weh Recommendations


• Assess the potential to build a mangrove walk near the new marina at Iboih – this has potential for
the local, regional and international market and can be an education tool as well as diversifying
tourism product.
• Assess the potential to build a forest canopy walk and ziplines to create a soft nature based
adventure experience and educate visitors about the environment.

Ecotourism Assessment 33
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

• Potentially build “trekking routes” that are suitable


for the local and Malaysian market – these need to
be not very challenging, preferably built using natural
material, and have clear guidance in terms of timing
and appropriate interpretation.
• Better define branding to avoid confusion in
marketplace over Sabang and Pulau Weh.
• Improved waste management regulations.
• Better tap into the cruise market through:
o Improved tour product for Sabang
o Local shopping opportunities such as
consumables (soap, coffee, tea) as well as
handicrafts
Image 10: Canopy Walk Example Australia
o Training in interpretation for local guides
o Improved information for visitors on board cruise

10.4. Takengon (Aceh Tengah) Recommendations


• Potential to have ecolodge style accommodation as well as restaurants facilities that can tap into
the coffee theme as well as capture lake views, potential location includes:
o Kelitu Village, Subdistrict Bintang
o Mengaya Village, Subdistrict Bintang
o Towereen Village, Subdistrict Lut Tawar
• Work with Kampung Iklim Kelitu Village to train local community on tourism services such as
homestay/local café and need to protect the environment.
• Consider hosting a coffee event to help position the area as a coffee tourism destination.
• Develop a “coffee trail” that shows where coffee roasters and other attractions are located.

10.5. Gayo Lues Recommendations


• Support district government in development of ecotourism and broader tourism strategy.
• Support tourism polices and regulations that are environmentally friendly.
• Support district government and private sector partners to develop capacity in marketing and
communications.
• Support training of local communities in tourism e.g. wait staff.

34 Ecotourism Assessment
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

10.6. Ketambe, Aceh Tenggara Recommendations


• Support training of local communities in jungle treks, rafting, flora and fauna and environmental
protection.
• Support cooperation amongst the cluster of seven guest lodges in Ketambe.
• Provide support to connect with the travel industry and associations to better market the tourism
product.

10.7. Sampoiniet CRU Unit, Aceh Jaya District Recommendations


• Support district government to develop the CRU as a tourism asset. This can include
interpretation, marketing and service skills.
• Potential to expand training and support to other five CRUs in Aceh.
• Work with the Provincial Department of Tourism in developing training for community guides that
can be used in Sampoiniet and other destinations.
• Encourage district government to have policies that support the CRU and ecotourism more
generally.
• Improve access from main road – currently not navigable by car if there is significant rainfall.

10.8. Trumon, CRU Unit, Aceh Selatan District Recommendations


• Capacity development of manager and staff of CRU Trumon including marketing and interpretation.

• Development of a travel package that connects the CRU Trumon - Singkil, Gayo Lues, and
Ketambe possibly as part of the “Aceh Adevnture Trail”.

• Promotion of the cooperation between the Gunung Leuser National Park, South Aceh District
Tourism Department and Tourism Department of Aceh Province.

Ecotourism Assessment 35
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

Annex 1: Terms of Reference

STUDY OF ECOTOURISM POTENTIAL IN THE


PROVINCE OF ACEH
Support to Indonesia’s Climate Change Response
(SICCR) - Technical Assistance Component (TAC)

Type of contract: One Senior Short Term Non-Key Senior Expert (NKE) and one Junior Short
Term Non-Key Expert (NKE).
Location: Aceh Province with some additional work and de/briefing at Jakarta level
Reports to: SICCR-TAC Team Leader
Languages Required: Bahasa Indonesia, English (working language of the project is English)
Duration of Contract: Up to 50 working days for Senior NKE and 50 working days for Junior NKE
within the period 15.9.16 – 15 12.16
Funding source: DCI/ASIE/2011/022-499

1. BACKGROUND
The ‘Support to Indonesia’s Climate Change Response – Technical Assistance Component’ (SICCR-
TAC) project, under the auspice of the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MOEF) at central level
and the Government of Aceh (GoA) at provincial level, is implemented by GIZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft
für Internationale Zusammenarbeit) in consortium with AHT Group AG and SNV (Stichting Nederlandse
Ontwikkelingsorganisatie).

The project started in February 2016 and is part of a larger action including two civil society oriented
projects in Aceh and Papua concluded in 2016. In addition, results of four EU funded studies, carried on
in Aceh prior to the implementation of the SICCR-TAC, support project design and its implementation.

The overall objective of the SICCR programme is: “Indonesia achieves its climate change response
objectives in the LULUCF (Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry) sector through low carbon,
resource efficiency, biodiversity and livelihoods optimal development planning and implementation”.

While the national level is the main recipient of experiences gained, the locus of the project is in the
Province of Aceh, with the special autonomy status as well as its substantial natural resources.

The purpose of the Technical Assistance Component is: “Aceh province contributes in an effective
and coherent way to the national REDD+ Strategy (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest
Degradation) by designing and streamlining provincial REDD+ strategies with existing development
planning frameworks and by implementing and monitoring sustainable, participatory, transparent and
economically sound land-use decisions”.

Activities are focused on building the capacity of the GoA in its effort towards low-carbon/low-emission
economic development. The project promotes sharing of lessons learned among other provinces, with
experience on REDD+ and climate change mitigation strategies. At central level the project supports

36 Ecotourism Assessment
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

capacity building within the Directorate General of Climate Change Control (DGCC) at the MOEF as well
as its “deconcentrated” regional office (Balai PPI) in Palembang, covering the whole of Sumatra. 

In the context of achieving its third result in promoting new investments and economic development
initiatives compatible with low-carbon, biodiversity and livelihood concerns the SICCR-TAC will look
into the tourism sector of the region and the ways tourism in Aceh already supports or could be able to
support Indonesian’s climate change response and environmental vision and goals of Aceh.

While it is true that certain forms of tourism have a deep ecological footprint contributing to resource
depletion, disrupting social conditions and the alienation of local cultures, it is a widely shared view that
tourism can play an important role in supporting economic, social and ecological goals in a responsible
and sustainable way. Similarly, tourism can serve as an economic alternative for local populations with
positive effects on existing biodiversity and support achievement of low-carbon goals.

2. ASSIGNMENT
Objectives of the Assignment:

To provide understanding of the current situation of tourism and especially ecotourism policies,
practices and products in the province of Aceh and by gaining insights into existing and emerging
tourism development potentials whose realization can have positive effects on the province’s climate
change goals.

In order to achieve the above objective, the following approach will be used:
- Identification of important tourism stakeholders of the region, both public and private, and their
roles and responsibilities.
- Identification and evaluation of the region’s main ecotourism related policy documents, both on
provincial and district level.
- Identification of how these policies connect and support implementation of the National and
Provincial REDD+ strategy.
- Identification and mapping of the provinces’ main ecotourism products and services, past and
present.
- Assessment of the region’s ecotourism competitiveness, in terms of the status of its main
influencing factors (e.g. natural assets, cultural assets, infrastructure, accessibility, hospitality,
safety, special events, destination image etc.) and identification of existing and potentially
attractive market segments and competitors in the area of ecotourism products.
- Conclusions from the study on the importance of ecotourism for the region and for the national
and provincial REDD+ strategy implementation.
- Determination of development potentials for competitive ecotourism products and services, and
outlining of several promising product development scenarios as well as prioritising the potential
in the target FMUs.
- The research insights gained about opportunities in developing suitable ecotourism products
and activities goals should contribute to the provincial policy development including FMU
development.

The consultants are expected to conduct the following activities:

Ecotourism Assessment 37
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

The tasks of the Senior NKE:

- Lead development of research approach and methods in consultation with the TA team and
project partners.
- Coordinate and conduct screening of available documents and media information about
stakeholders, policies, products, markets etc.
- Coordinate and conduct field research and evaluation of main ecotourism destinations and
locations within the region.
- Manage and conduct interviews and discussions with main stakeholders within the region including
public administrations, private ecotourism industry representatives and other stakeholders.
- Manage documentation and analysis of the results and produce draft report.
- Lead communication of the results among project partners, formulation of recommendations,
and next steps.
- Finalise the report based on comments received and conduct final briefing.

The tasks of the Junior NKE:

- Support consultations with the project partners.


- Support screening of available documents and media information about stakeholders, policies,
products, markets etc.
- Conduct field research and evaluation of main ecotourism destinations and locations within the
region.
- Interview and discuss with main stakeholders within the region including public administrations,
private ecotourism industry representatives and other stakeholders.
- Document and analyse the results.
- Provide agreed inputs to draft report.
- Support communication of the results among project partners and formulation of
recommendations.

3. CONTRACT PERIOD, FURTHER REQUIREMENTS AND


SCHEDULE OF DELIVERABLES
Contract period:

The consultant’s assignment will commence after 15st September 2016, and ends before 15th December
2016, with a maximum number of up to 50 (fifty) working days for the Junior NKE and 50 (fifty) working
days for the Senior NKE. Each consultant will have 5 days for preparation/reading documents, 25
working days in Aceh and 10 working days in Jakarta, 10 days for consultation and discussing project
results with project partners and initial de/briefings in Jakarta.

38 Ecotourism Assessment
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

Schedule of deliverables:
The consultant is expected to submit a report covering:
- The general state of affairs of the ecotourism sector including stakeholders, policies, products
and services (past and present) and its competitiveness, market segments and competitors;
- development potentials for competitive ecotourism products including promising product
development scenarios and connecting these to target FMUs;
- specific recommendations for project partners connected to implementation of the REDD+
strategies;
- proposal for follow up measures in the context of SICCR-TAC (mainstreaming, partnership
promotion, policy/strategy development etc).

The report will include the relevant materials, documents and data gathered during the assignment,
including working schedule and timesheet), as well as people and relevant institutions met during the
assignment.

Proposed schedule for submission of required deliverables (to be confirmed in the detailed workplan).

No Milestones/output Due date

1 Agreed workplan and activities 7.10.

2 Preliminary findings/analysis, including a proposed report structure and list 15.11.


of activities/workshops/interviews etc. conducted
3 Draft report with all findings/analysis 30.11.

4 Final report (with SICCR-TAC feedback) 15.12

A detailed workplan with activities and timeframe will be elaborated with the Team Leader in coordination
with the Provincial Coordinator for Aceh within the first working days and presented to the partner. The
agreed workplan will be attached to the first deliverable of the assignment.

4. REMUNERATION
The consultant will be paid based on an agreed daily rate, plus day and night allowances for the time in
Aceh.

The payment schedule is specified in the contract.

Tickets and other means of transportation will be provided by the project or reimbursed according to
project rules and regulations.

5. EXPERTS PROFILE or EXPERTISE REQUIRED


The Senior NKE hired to conduct the tasks outlined above is expected to have following qualifications,
requisite skills and experience:

Ecotourism Assessment 39
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

Qualifications

• University degree in one of the following fields: Ecotourism, Natural Resources Management,
Forestry or any other related areas
Professional experience

• At least 10 years of professional experience in the field of ecotourism development.


• At least 5 years’ research experience leading and managing review and evaluation processes
in the context of International Development Cooperation preferably with different international
donors.
• Excellent coordination, management, data-analysis skills and track record of quality reporting in
English.
• In-depth understanding on REDD+, Indonesian forestry sector, local government structures and
integrated local-level development planning is preferred.

Other knowledge, additional competences

• Willingness to travel to Aceh to meet the project partners and beneficiaries.


• Sufficient knowledge of Bahasa Indonesia.

The Junior NKE hired to conduct the tasks outlined above is expected to have following qualifications,
requisite skills and experience:

Qualifications

• University degree in one of the following fields: Ecotourism, natural resources management,
forestry or any other related areas.
• Indonesian national.

Professional experience

• At least 5 years of research experience in tourism development, natural resource management


or forestry.
• Excellent research, interviewing and data analysis skills.
• In-depth understanding on ecotourism development and Indonesian forestry sector is preferred.
• Experienced in communicating with government actors both at national and sub-national level.

Other knowledge, additional competences

• Willingness to travel to Aceh to meet and interview the project partners and beneficiaries.
• Good command of English language.

40 Ecotourism Assessment
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

Annex 2: List of Meetings

Date Location Organisation Attendees

SICCR-TAC Management Heinrich Terhorst (TL), Luc de


27/10/2016 Jakarta
Team Meester (DTL), Rizki Permana (SNV)
Dadang Rizki Ratman (Deputy
02/11/2016 Jakarta Ministry of Tourism Director Destination Development
and Tourism Industry)
GIPI (Indonesia Tourism
02/11/2016 Jakarta Didien Junaedy (Ketua Umum)
Association)
Reza Fahlevi (Director), Amiiruddin
GIPI (Indonesia Tourism
14/11/2016 Banda Aceh Tjoet Hasan (Private Sector
Association)
Develoment)
Aceh Provincial
14/11/2016 Banda Aceh Husaini Syamaun (Director)
Department of Forest

15/11/2016 Banda Aceh Bappeda Sabang Sariizhar (Staff Bappeda Sabang)

15/11/2016 Banda Aceh FMU 1 Fazri (Head FMUs 1)


GIPI (Indonesia Tourism
22/11/2016 Gayo Lues Mr Jalli
Association)
GIPI (Indonesia Tourism
23/11/2016 Aceh Tenggara Johan
Association)

30/11/2016 Aceh Jaya CRU Sampoiniet Rijal (CRU Ranger Leader)

16/12/2016 Jakarta Ministry of Forestry Ibu Mira Soedjono


Gayo Lues Department of
20/01/2017 Jakarta Bapak Syafrudin
Tourism
Aceh Adventure
24/01/2017 Banda Aceh Hasbi Azhar
Association
26/01/2017 Aceh Jaya CRU Sampoiniet Team CRU Sampoiniet
27/01/2017 Aceh Selatan CRU Trumon Team CRU Trumon
Badan Otorita Danau
30/01/2017 Samosir Team BOP Danau Toba
Toba
2/01/2017 Jakarta UNESCO Siti Rachmania, Joana Victorica

Ecotourism Assessment 41
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

Annex 3: Specific Project Recommendations


The following are five potential pilot activities that the project can implement to support the creation of
ecotourism that is low carbon, promotes biodiversity and helps create local employment. The outline
for each concept includes key tasks, estimated budget (in Euro), and Senior and Junior Non Key Expert
(NKE) days.

Aceh Adventure Trail


Objective: To position Aceh as an attractive adventure destination and link disparate attractions that by
themselves currently attract few visitors. This is to address the issue of demand which needs to increase
for supply of quality tourism infrastructure to increase. This would include areas such as Gayo Lues,
Ketambe, Takengon, CRUs as well as marine attractions in Sabang and Pulau Banyak. While the focus
is obviously on Aceh, itineraries need to include the common entry point of Medan and potentially links
to Lake Toba which is a priority focus for investment and promotion of the Government of Indonesia.

Partners: Aceh Provincial Department of Tourism, District/Cities Tourism Offices, Aceh Adventure,
Association (HPI), Private Sector.

Ancillary Budget Senior Junior


Tasks
(EURO) NKE NKE
Organize stakeholders meeting to generate 1,000 3 5
support and finalise planning
Organize travel trade and stakeholders’ familiarisation 10,000 7 10
visit to “test concept” and get input
• In conjunction with stakeholders, develop brand for 2,000 5 5
Aceh Adventure
• Trail and a clear point of difference for each sub –
destination
Map adventure itineraries and touring routes across Aceh 10,000 5 5
Prepare map, brochure, other basic promotional material 5,000 5 5
inholding material for existing websites and media kit
Launch concept including media familiarisation trip 10 15
Total 28,000 35 45

CRU Strengthening
Objective: To build capacity of the 7 CRUs in Aceh with a focus on interpretation, guiding, basic hospitality
and low cost marketing. There will be a primary focus on CRU Sampoiniet, with a secondary focus on
CRU Trumon. The other CRUs in Aceh will be invited to attend training activities.

Partners: Aceh Provincial Department of Tourism, District/City Office of Tourism, Center for Conservation
of Natural Resources (BKSDA), Forest Management Unit (KPH/FMU), tourism associations and the
private sector.

42 Ecotourism Assessment
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

Ancillary Budget Senior Junior


Tasks
(EURO) NKE NKE

Stakeholder meeting with CRU, Tourism Offices, 1,000 2 3


BKSDA, FMU, Tourism Associations

Mapping of capacity and training needs 1,500 1 3


assessment

Prepare curriculum and training material based on 1,000 3 6


existing material from CRU Tangkahan, SNV etc

Implement training in 4 modules of 3 days 14,000 5 18

Mentoring support to help promote CRUs as part of 1,500 2 10


Aceh Adventure Trail

Evaluation of training and recommendations 1,000 1 2

Total 20,000 14 42

Aceh Ecotourism/Adventure Investment Attraction


Objective: Promote investment in Aceh focusing on ecotourism and adventure product and supporting
services to work on the supply side issue. Quality investment can help to increase demand through the
marketing channels of the business and positive “word of mouth” promotion and media coverage.

Partners: Aceh Investment Board, Provincial Bappeda, Tourism Office, FMU, Aceh Adventure and
Tourism Associations.

Tasks Ancillary Senior Junior


Budget (EURO) NKE NKE

Identify high potential opportunities in conjunction 1 10


with partners e.g. accommodation, new tour product,
supporting amenities such as roads

Prepare supporting material including statistics, 2,500 5 10


investment process, specific opportunities and
investment support services e.g. legal

Prepare list of potential investments and promote 5,000 5 5


forum

Host forum with site visits 5,000 2 5

Follow up with potential investors, evaluation of 2,500 2 5


forum and future recommendations

Total 15,000 15 35

Ecotourism Assessment 43
Indonesia - SICCR - TAC

Nature Based Attraction in Sabang


Objective: Assess potential of nature based attractions such as mangrove walk forest or forest canopy
walk that will diversify tourism product, support managing tourism in a sustainable way and educate
visitors about the environment.

Partners: BPKS, Tourism Office, FMU, BKSDA, Association (HPI), Sabang Tourism Governance Forum
(FTKP), Local Tourism Working Group in Sabang.

Ancillary Senior Junior


Tasks
Budget (EURO) NKE NKE

Stakeholder meeting to discuss potential 1,000 1 3

Assessment and prioritization of potential attractions 1,000 3 5

Preliminary design of highest priority attraction 1,000 15 10

Recommendation on next steps, budget, management 1 2


and promotion

Total 3,000 20 20

Capacity Building of Gayo Lues in Ecotourism


Objective: Prepare Gayo Lues to be able to promote the destination and service visitors with a focus on
environmental management. Training can be used as a pilot for other destinations in Aceh. There was a
specific request from the Kabupaten Gayo Lues for support.

Partners: Bappeda, Provincial and District/City Tourism Offices, FMU and Tourism Associations.

Ancillary Budget Senior Junior


Tasks
(EURO) NKE NKE
Training needs assessment and stakeholders’ forum 1,000 2 3

Support government in ecotourism planning destination 1,000 7 10


e.g. zoning, carrying capacity building
Prepare curriculum and training materials such as 3,000 10 15
• interpretation and guiding (target government and
private sector)
• Marketing promotion (target government and private
sector)
• “Aceh host” customer service training including
environment (target community)
Implement training 5,000 10 30

Evaluation and recommendations 1 2


Total 10,000 30 60

44 Ecotourism Assessment
Support to Indonesia’s Climate Change Response
Technical Assistance Component (SICCR-TAC)

Implemented by: Consortium Partners:

Deutsche Gessellschaft
für Internationale
Zussamenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH