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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO.

ABSTRACT iii
LIST OF TABLES xix
LIST OF FIGURES xxv
LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS xxviii

1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1

1.1.1 Quality in Construction Industry 2


1.1.2 Safety in Construction Industry 3
1.1.3 Productivity in Construction
Industry 4

1.2 NEED FOR THE STUDY 6

1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 7

1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 8

1.5 STRUCTURE OF THE THESIS 8

2 LITERATURE REVIEW 12

2.1 INTRODUCTION 12

2.2 QUALITY 12

2.2.1 Importance of Quality in


Construction 13
2.2.2 Quality Award Models 15
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2.2.2.1 EFQM Model 16

2.2.2.2 MBNQA Model 18

2.2.3 Factors Influencing Quality 19

2.2.3.1 Leadership 20

2.2.3.2 People 23

2.2.3.3 Policy and Strategy 26

2.2.3.4 Partnership and Resources 29

2.2.3.5 Process 31

2.3 SAFETY 34

2.3.1 Importance of safety in the


construction 35
2.3.2 Factors Influencing Safety 36

2.3.2.1 Leadership 37

2.3.2.2 People 39

2.3.2.3 Partnership and Resources 41

2.3.2.4 Policy and Strategy 43

2.3.2.5 Process 45

2.4 PRODUCTIVITY 47

2.4.1 Importance of Productivity in


Construction 48
2.4.2 Factors Influencing Productivity 49

2.4.2.1 Leadership 50

2.4.2.2 People 52
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2.4.2.3 Strategic Planning 55

2.4.2.4 Process Management 56

2.4.2.5 Use of Information and


Analysis 59

2.5 INFERENCE FROM LITERATURE 61

3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 63

3.1 INTRODUCTION 63

3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN 63

3.3 DEVELOPING CONCEPTUAL


FRAMEWORK 65

3.4 DATA COLLECTION BY


QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY 73

3.5 DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 74

3.5.1 Descriptive analysis 74


3.5.2 One Way ANOVA Test 75
3.5.3 Structural Equation Modelling 75
3.5.4 Partial Least Squares Structural
Equation Modelling 76

3.5.4.1 Assessment of Outer


Measurement Model 77

3.5.4.2 Assessment of Inner


Structural Model 80

3.5.4.3 Overall quality of


conceptual model 82
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3.5.4.4 Power analysis 83

3.6 APPLICATIONS OF THE MODEL 83

3.7 CONCLUSION 84

4 FACTORS INFLUENCING QUALITY 85

4.1 INTRODUCTION 85

4.2 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN 85

4.2.1 Type of Respondents 86


4.2.2 Type of Work Executed by the
Respondent‟s Organization 86
4.2.3 Experience of Respondents 87
4.2.4 Number of Projects Executed by
the Respondent 87
4.2.5 Number of Technical Staff 88
4.2.6 Value of Projects Executed by the
Organization 89

4.3 RANKING OF QUALITY FACTORS 89

4.3.1 Leadership 89
4.3.2 People 91
4.3.3 Policy and Strategy 92
4.3.4 Partnership and Resources 94
4.3.5 Process 96

4.4 DISCUSSION ON OVERALL RANKING OF


QUALITY FACTORS 97
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4.5 ONE WAY ANOVA AND POST HOC


ANALYSIS OF QUALITY FACTORS 101

4.5.1 ANOVA Results of Quality Factors


in the Group Leadership 102
4.5.2 ANOVA Results of Quality Factors
in the Group People 106
4.5.3 ANOVA Results of Quality Factors
in the Group Policy & Strategy 110
4.5.4 ANOVA Results of Quality Factors
in the Group Partnership &
Resources 113
4.5.5 ANOVA Results of Quality Factors
in the Group Process 115

4.6 CONCLUSION 117

5 PLS PATH MODEL OF QUALITY 118

5.1 INTRODUCTION 118

5.2 CONCEPTUAL MODEL 119

5.3 ANALYSIS AND VALIDITY OF OUTER


MODEL OF QUALITY 120

5.4 ANALYSIS AND VALIDITY OF INNER


MODEL OF QUALITY 125

5.4.1 Multicollinearity Assessment of


Structural Model 125
5.4.2 Path Coefficient and T- Statistics
Value 126
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5.4.3 Measuring the Value of R2 127


5.4.4 Effect Size 128
5.4.5 Predictive Relevance of the Model 129
5.4.6 Mediating Effects in the Model 130
5.4.7 Global Fit Index of the Model 131
5.4.8 Power Analysis 132

5.5 DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS 133

5.6 APPLICATIONS OF QUALITY MODEL 137

5.6.1 Quality Assessment Approach 138


5.6.2 Steps in Quality Assessment 139
5.6.3 Quality Maturity Levels 140
5.6.4 Results of Quality Assessment 141

5.7 CONCLUSION 153

6 FACTORS INFLUENCING SAFETY 154

6.1 INTRODUCTION 154

6.2 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN 154

6.2.1 Type of Respondents 155


6.2.2 Type of Work Executed by the
Respondents 155
6.2.3 Experience of the Organization 155
6.2.4 Number of Projects Executed in the
Last 5 Years 155
6.2.5 Number of Employees in the
Organization 156
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6.2.6 Value of Projects Executed in the


last 5 Years 156
6.2.7 Capital of the Company 157
6.2.8 Qualification of the Respondent 157
6.2.9 Years of Experience in the Field of
Safety 157
6.2.10 Availability of Separate
Department of Safety 158
6.2.11 Safety Programs 158
6.2.12 Safety Knowledge of the
Respondents 158
6.2.13 Number of Casualties in the Last 5
Years 159
6.2.14 Financial Savings 159
6.2.15 Number of Injuries in the Last 5
Years 159
6.2.16 Type of Accidents 159
6.2.17 Rate of Accidents 160

6.3 RANKING OF SAFETY FACTORS 160

6.3.1 Leadership 160


6.3.2 People 162
6.3.3 Policy and Strategy 163
6.3.4 Partnership and Resources 164
6.3.5 Process 165

6.4 DISCUSSION ON THE OVERALL


RANKING OF SAFETY FACTORS 166
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CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO.

6.5 ONE WAY ANOVA AND POST HOC


ANALYSIS OF SAFETY FACTORS 170

6.5.1 ANOVA Results of Safety Factors 170

6.6 CONCLUSION 175

7 PLS PATH MODEL OF SAFETY 176

7.1 INTRODUCTION 176

7.2 CONCEPTUAL MODEL 176

7.3 ANALYSIS AND VALIDITY OF OUTER


MODEL OF SAFETY 177

7.4 ANALYSIS AND VALIDITY OF INNER


MODEL OF SAFETY 182

7.4.1 Multi Collinearity Assessment of


Structural Model 183
7.4.2 Significance of the Path Coefficient
(β) 183
7.4.3 Direct, Indirect Effects and Total
Effect 184
7.4.4 Evaluating the Value of R2 185
7.4.5 Evaluating the Effect Size f2 186
7.4.6 Predictive Relevance of the Model 187
7.4.7 Global Fit Index of the Model 188
7.4.8 Power Analysis 188

7.5 DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS 189

7.6 APPLICATIONS OF THE SAFETY MODEL 192


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7.6.1 Safety Assessment Approach 192


7.6.2 Results of Safety Assessment 195

7.7 CONCLUSION 204

8 FACTORS INFLUENCING PRODUCTIVITY 205

8.1 INTRODUCTION 205

8.2 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN 205

8.2.1 Type of respondents 206


8.2.2 Type of Work Executed by the
Respondent‟s Organization 207
8.2.3 Experience of Respondents 207
8.2.4 Number of Projects Executed by
the Respondent 208
8.2.5 Number of Technical Staff 208
8.2.6 Cost of Projects Executed by the
Organizations 209
8.2.7 Size of the Organization 210

8.3 RANKING OF PRODUCTIVITY FACTORS 210

8.3.1 Leadership 210


8.3.2 People 211
8.3.3 Strategic Planning 213
8.3.4 Information and Analysis 214
8.3.5 Process 215

8.4 DISCUSSION ON THE OVERALL


RANKING OF PRODUCTIVITY FACTORS 216

8.5 ONE WAY ANOVA AND POST HOC


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CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO.

ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTIVITY FACTORS 220

8.5.1 ANOVA Results of Productivity


Factors 221

8.6 CONCLUSION 224

9 PLS PATH MODEL OF PRODUCTIVITY 225

9.1 INTRODUCTION 225

9.2 CONCEPTUAL MODEL 225

9.3 ANALYSIS AND VALIDITY OF OUTER


MODEL OF PRODUCTIVITY 227

9.4 ANALYSIS AND VALIDITY OF INNER


MODEL OF PRODUCTIVITY 232

9.4.1 Collinearity Among Predictors 232


9.4.2 Significance of the Path Coefficient
(β) 233
9.4.3 Investigation of Total Effects in the
Model 234
9.4.4 Evaluating the Value of R2 236
9.4.5 Evaluating the Effect Size f2 236
9.4.6 Predictive Relevance of the Model 237
9.4.7 Global Fit Index of the Model 238
9.4.8 Power Analysis 239

9.5 DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS 240

9.6 APPLICATIONS OF PRODUCTIVITY


MODEL 243
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9.6.1 Productivity Assessment Approach 243


9.6.2 Results of Productivity Assessment 246

9.7 CONCLUSION 248

10 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 250

10.1 INTRODUCTION 250

10.2 STUDY CONCLUSION AND


RECOMMENDATIONS 250

10.2.1 Ranking of Key factors influencing


quality, safety and productivity 251
10.2.2 Perceptions of client, contractor and
consultant on relative importance of
key factors 252
10.2.3 Partial least squares path model of
quality 253
10.2.4 Partial least squares path model of
safety 254
10.2.5 Partial least squares path model of
productivity 255

10.3 CONTRIBUTION TO KNOWLEDGE AND


CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES 256

10.4 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER


WORK 257

APPENDIX 1 258
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CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO.

APPENDIX 2 280

REFERENCES 288

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 309