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1. CHARACTERISTICS OF AUDIBLE SOUND.

 PITCH IS PERCEIVED AS HOW "LOW" OR "HIGH" A SOUND IS AND REPRESENTS THE CYCLIC,
REPETITIVE NATURE OF THE VIBRATIONS THAT MAKE UP SOUND. FOR SIMPLE SOUNDS, PITCH
RELATES TO THE FREQUENCY OF THE SLOWEST VIBRATION IN THE SOUND (CALLED THE
FUNDAMENTAL HARMONIC). IN THE CASE OF COMPLEX SOUNDS, PITCH PERCEPTION CAN VARY.
SOMETIMES INDIVIDUALS IDENTIFY DIFFERENT PITCHES FOR THE SAME SOUND, BASED ON THEIR
PERSONAL EXPERIENCE OF PARTICULAR SOUND PATTERNS.
 LOUDNESS IS PERCEIVED AS HOW "LOUD" OR "SOFT" A SOUND IS AND RELATES TO THE TOTALLED
NUMBER OF AUDITORY NERVE STIMULATIONS OVER SHORT CYCLIC TIME PERIODS, MOST LIKELY
OVER THE DURATION OF THETA WAVE CYCLES. THIS MEANS THAT AT SHORT DURATIONS, A VERY
SHORT SOUND CAN SOUND SOFTER THAN A LONGER SOUND EVEN THOUGH THEY ARE
PRESENTED AT THE SAME INTENSITY LEVEL. PAST AROUND 200 MS THIS IS NO LONGER THE CASE
AND THE DURATION OF THE SOUND NO LONGER AFFECTS THE APPARENT LOUDNESS OF THE
SOUND.
 FREQUENCY OF SOUND IS THE QUICKLY VARYING PRESSURE WAVE TRAVELLING THROUGH A
MEDIUM. WHEN SOUND TRAVELS THROUGH AIR, THE ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE VARIES
PERIODICALLY. THE NUMBER OF PRESSURE VARIATIONS PER SECOND IS CALLED THE FREQUENCY
OF SOUND, AND IS MEASURED IN HERTZ (HZ) WHICH IS DEFINED AS CYCLES PER SECOND.
 LOUDNESS AND THE DECIBEL SCALE ANOTHER PROPERTY OF SOUND OR NOISE IS ITS LOUDNESS.
A LOUD NOISE USUALLY HAS A LARGER PRESSURE VARIATION AND A WEAK ONE HAS SMALLER
PRESSURE VARIATION. PRESSURE AND PRESSURE VARIATIONS ARE EXPRESSED IN PASCAL,
ABBREVIATED AS PA, WHICH IS DEFINED AS N/M2(NEWTON PER SQUARE METRE).
2. SHORT NOTES:
 ABSORBTION OF SOUND:
 ACOUSTIC ABSORPTION REFERS TO THE PROCESS BY WHICH A MATERIAL, STRUCTURE,
OR OBJECT TAKES IN SOUND ENERGY WHEN SOUND WAVES ARE ENCOUNTERED, AS
OPPOSED TO REFLECTING THE ENERGY. PART OF THE ABSORBED ENERGY IS
TRANSFORMED INTO HEAT AND PART IS TRANSMITTED THROUGH THE ABSORBING
BODY. THE ENERGY TRANSFORMED INTO HEAT IS SAID TO HAVE BEEN 'LOST'
 WHEN SOUND FROM A LOUDSPEAKER COLLIDES WITH THE WALLS OF A ROOM PART OF
THE SOUND'S ENERGY IS REFLECTED, PART IS TRANSMITTED, AND PART IS ABSORBED
INTO THE WALLS. JUST AS THE ACOUSTIC ENERGY WAS TRANSMITTED THROUGH THE AIR
AS PRESSURE DIFFERENTIALS (OR DEFORMATIONS), THE ACOUSTIC ENERGY TRAVELS
THROUGH THE MATERIAL WHICH MAKES UP THE WALL IN THE SAME MANNER.
DEFORMATION CAUSES MECHANICAL LOSSES VIA CONVERSION OF PART OF THE SOUND
ENERGY INTO HEAT, RESULTING IN ACOUSTIC ATTENUATION, MOSTLY DUE TO THE
WALL'S VISCOSITY. SIMILAR ATTENUATION MECHANISMS APPLY FOR THE AIR AND ANY
OTHER MEDIUM THROUGH WHICH SOUND TRAVELS.
 THE FRACTION OF SOUND ABSORBED IS GOVERNED BY THE ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCES OF
BOTH MEDIA AND IS A FUNCTION OF FREQUENCY AND THE INCIDENT ANGLE.[1] SIZE AND
SHAPE CAN INFLUENCE THE SOUND WAVE'S BEHAVIOR IF THEY INTERACT WITH ITS
WAVELENGTH, GIVING RISE TO WAVE PHENOMENA SUCH AS STANDING WAVES AND
DIFFRACTION.
 SOUND INSULATION AND INSULATING MATERIALS :

 TO PREVENT YOU FROM BEING DISTURBED BY THE ACTIVITY IN THE NEXT ROOM,
WHETHER THE ROOM IS UPSTAIRS OR IN LINE, THE CONSTRUCTION HAS TO PREVENT
SOUND FROM BEING TRANSMITTED. THIS DOESN’T HAVE TO BE A MASSIVE CONCRETE
SLAB OR WALL. SOUNDPROOFING RELATES TO THE OVERALL ABILITY OF A BUILDING
ELEMENT OR BUILDING STRUCTURE TO REDUCE THE SOUND TRANSMISSION THROUGH
IT. TWO TYPES OF SOUND INSULATION MIGHT BE REFERRED TO – AIRBORNE SOUND
INSULATION AND IMPACT SOUND INSULATION.

 TYPES OF SOUNDPROOFING MATERIALS


 THESE ARE THE MOST USED SOUNDPROOFING MATERIALS; EACH CATEGORY HAS
DIFFERENT BEST USE SCENARIOS. EACH OF THESE ACOUSTIC MATERIALS FALLS INTO ONE
OF THESE CATEGORIES: SOUND ABSORBING, SOUND INSULATION, SOUND DAMPENING,
AND DECOUPLING.
 ACOUSTIC FOAM – THIS MATERIAL, COMMONLY CALLED STUDIO FOAM, HAS A
DISTINCTIVE WEDGE OR PYRAMID SHAPE THAT IS HIGHLY EFFECTIVE AT ABSORBING
SOUND. THEY ATTACH TO WALLS AS PANELS, HANG FROM CEILINGS AS BAFFLES, OR SIT
IN CORNERS AS BASS TRAPS.
 SOUND INSULATION – SOUND INSULATION ARE BATTS MADE OF MINERAL WOOL, ROCK
WOOL, AND FIBERGLASS, DESIGNED TO FIT IN BETWEEN THE STUDS OF WALLS. THE
BATTS FIT SNUGLY BETWEEN STUDS TO TAKE UP AIRSPACE THAT CAN TRANSMIT SOUND.
 ACOUSTIC PANELS/BOARDS – THESE ARE DECORATIVE VERSIONS OF SOUND
INSULATION AND SOUND ABSORBING FOAM. THEY CAN COME IN MANY APPEALING
COLORS, PATTERNS, AND FABRICS TO SERVE A DUAL PURPOSE IN THE HOME AND
WORKPLACE.
 ACOUSTIC FABRICS – ACOUSTICAL FABRICS ARE THICKER AND HEAVIER THAN OTHER
FABRICS AND USED IN THEATER CURTAINS, BLACKOUT CURTAINS, AND STUDIO
BLANKETS.
 ACOUSTIC COATINGS – MATERIALS LIKE MASS LOADED VINYL (MLV) IS A DENSE RUBBER
LIKE MATERIAL, USED IN MANY DIFFERENT SITUATIONS SUCH AS CAR SOUNDPROOFING,
MACHINERY, APPLIANCES, AND AS AN UNDERLAYMENT. THE MASS OF THE MATERIAL
ACTS AS A SOUND BARRIER.
 FLOOR UNDERLAYMENT – SOUNDPROOFING A HARDWOOD OR TILE FLOOR REQUIRES
THE DECOUPLING OF THE FLOORING SURFACE AND THE SUBFLOOR TO REDUCE THE
NOISE TRANSMISSION. CORK, FELT, AND POLYMERS ARE COMMONLY USED AS
UNDERLAYMENT MATERIALS.
 ARCHITECTURAL SOUNDPROOFING – THIS GROUP INCLUDES ANYTHING USED IN THE
STRUCTURE OF A BUILDING, SUCH AS SOUNDPROOF WINDOWS, SOUNDPROOF WALLS,
DOORS, AND DECOUPLING PRODUCTS USED TO INSTALL THEM
ALL OF THESE MATERIALS ARE AVAILABLE AT DIFFERENT RANGES OF SOUND
ABSORBTION AND THERE COST ALSO VARIES ACCORDING TO THERE USE.
3. SHORT NOTES:
 REQUIREMENTS OF GOOD ACOUSTICAL MATERIALS
THE BRANCH OF SCIENCE WHICH DEALS WITH THE PLANNING OF A BUILDING TO PROVIDE
THE BEST QUALITY AUDIBLE SOUND TO AUDIENCE IS TERMED AS ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS OR
ACOUSTICS OF THE BUILDING. A BUILDING OR THE HALL DESIGNED FOR THE LARGE AUDIENCE
SHOULD TAKE CARE OF CERTAIN FEATURES SO THE AUDIBLE SOUND IS EXACT REPLICA OF THE
SOURCE. ANY HALL HAVING THE GOOD ACOUSTICS SHOULD HAVE FOLLOWING FEATURES:

1. THE QUALITY OF THE SPEECH AND THE MUSIC REMAINS UNCHANGED IN EACH AND
EVERY PORTION OF THE HALL.
2. THE SOUND PRODUCED MUST BE SUFFICIENTLY LOUD.
3. THERE SHOULDN’T BE ANY ECHO.
4. THE REVERBERATION SHOULD BE PROPER.
5. THERE SHOULD NOT BE ANY FOCUSING OF SOUND IN ANY PART OF THE HALL.
6. THE WALLS SHOULD BE SOUND PROOF TO AVOID THE EXTERNAL NOISE IN THE HALL.

AS DISCUSSED IN PREVIOUS LECTURES THE SOUND WAVES ARE GENERATED AS A RESULT OF


RAPID FLUCTUATION OF PRESSURE THAT PROPAGATE IN AIR AS WELL AS IN SOLID AND LIQUID.
IN A BUILDING, THE SOUND WAVES FROM A SOURCE OR SPEAKER TRAVELS THROUGH AIR TO
BEGIN WITH AND AFTER TRAVELING CERTAIN DISTANCES MAY FALLS ON THE WALLS OR SOLID
SURFACE OF THE BUILDING AND HENCE TRAVEL INSIDE THE SOLID AND MAY BE RADIATED AGAIN
IN AIR TO TRAVEL IN NEW DIRECTIONS
2. REVERBERATION

WHEN A SOUND IS PRODUCED INSIDE A BUILDING, IT EXPANDS AND GETS REFLECTED FROM ALL
THE SURFACES, VIZ; WALLS, CEILING AND FLOOR OF THE HALL. AUDIENCE WILL RECEIVE A DIRECT
SOUND FROM THE SOURCE FOLLOWED BY SERIES OF SOUNDS REFLECTED AND TRAVELING
TOWARDS HIM. THESE SUCCESSIVE SOUNDS WILL BE OF DIMINISHING INTENSITY. THEREFORE
LISTENER WILL CONTINUE TO RECEIVE THE SOUND EVEN AFTER THE SOURCE OF SOUND HAS
STOPPED EMITTING. THIS IS CALLED AS REVERBERATION. IN OTHER WORDS REVERBERATION IS
DEFINED AS PERSISTENCE OF AUDIBLE SOUND AFTER THE SOURCE HAS BEEN SWITCHED OFF. THE
DURATION FOR WHICH SOUND PERSIST IS CALLED AS REVERBERATION SOUND. THE
REVERBERATION TIME DEPENDS ON THE VOLUME OF THE HALL AND THE SURFACE AREA OF
VARIOUS SURFACES (WALLS CEILING ETC.) AND THE ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT OF THE
SURFACES. AN ESTIMATE FOR THE OPTIMUM REVERBERATION TIME T IS GIVEN BY SABINS’
FORMULA:

(1)
WHERE V IS THE VOLUME OF THE BUILDING OR HALL UNDER CONSIDERATION, AI AND SI ARE THE
ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT AND THE SURFACE AREAS OF THE SURFACE ENCLOSING THE VOLUME
V

3. ABSORPTION OF SOUND
ABSORPTION OF THE SOUND IS VERY IMPORTANT FROM THE SURFACES TO REDUCE THE
REVERBERATION TIME. IT DEPENDS ON THE MATERIAL OF THE SURFACE. HIGHLY ABSORBING
MATERIALS ARE REQUIRED TO BE USED ON THE SURFACES FOR A GOOD ACOUSTIC HALLS SO AS
TO REDUCE THE REFLECTION AND HENCE REVERBERATION TIME.

3.1 ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT FOR SOUND

THE ABSORPTION OF THE SOUND FOR A MATERIAL IS MEASURED IN TERMS OF ABSORPTION


COEFFICIENT ‘A’. IT IS DEFINED AS

3.2 SOUND ABSORBING MATERIALS

NORMALLY SOUND ABSORBING MATERIALS CAN BE PUT INTO ONE OF THE FOLLOWING
CATEGORIES:

3.2.1. POROUS MATERIALS: POROUS ABSORBERS ARE THE MOST COMMONLY USED SOUND
ABSORBING MATERIALS. COMMONLY USED POROUS MATERIALS ARE WOOD WOOLS, SOFT
PLASTER, ASBESTOS FIBRE, GLASS WOOL, FIBRE BOARDS CARPET ECT. GENERALLY, ALL OF THESE
MATERIALS ALLOW AIR TO FLOW INTO A CELLULAR STRUCTURE WHERE SOUND ENERGY IS
CONVERTED TO HEAT. THICKNESS PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN SOUND ABSORPTION BY
POROUS MATERIALS. THIN FILM OF FABRIC APPLIED DIRECTLY TO A HARD, MASSIVE SUBSTRATE,
SUCH AS PLASTER OR GYPSUM BOARD DOES NOT MAKE AN EFFICIENT SOUND ABSORBER.
THICKER MATERIALS GENERALLY PROVIDE MORE BASS SOUND ABSORPTION OR DAMPING.

3.2.2. PANEL ABSORBER: PANEL ABSORBERS ARE NON-RIGID, NON-POROUS MATERIALS WHICH
ARE PLACED OVER AN AIRSPACE THAT VIBRATES IN A FLEXURAL MODE IN RESPONSE TO SOUND
PRESSURE EXERTED BY ADJACENT AIR MOLECULES. WHEN THE SOUND WAVE STRIKES THE
PANNEL DUE TO VIBRATION OF THE PANEL THE ENERGY IS ABSORBED AND FINALLY CONVERTED
INTO HEAT. COMMON PANEL (MEMBRANE) ABSORBERS INCLUDE THIN WOOD PANELING OVER
FRAMING, LIGHTWEIGHT IMPERVIOUS CEILINGS AND FLOORS, GLAZING AND OTHER LARGE
SURFACES CAPABLE OF RESONATING IN RESPONSE TO SOUND. PANEL ABSORBERS ARE USUALLY
MOST EFFICIENT AT ABSORBING LOW FREQUENCIES.

3.2.3. RESONATORS: RESONATORS TYPICALLY ACT TO ABSORB SOUND IN A NARROW


FREQUENCY RANGE. RESONATORS INCLUDE SOME PERFORATED MATERIALS AND
MATERIALS THAT HAVE OPENINGS (HOLES AND SLOTS). WHEN SOUND WAVES ENTERS
INTO THE RESONATOR, DUE TO MULTIPLE REFLECTION INSDE THE RESONATORS WAVES
ARE ABSORBED. THE CLASSIC EXAMPLE OF A RESONATOR IS THE HELMHOLTZ
RESONATOR, WHICH HAS THE SHAPE OF A BOTTLE. THE SIZE OF THE OPENING, THE
LENGTH OF THE NECK AND THE VOLUME OF AIR TRAPPED IN THE CHAMBER GOVERN
THE RESONANT FREQUENCY . TYPICALLY, PERFORATED MATERIALS ONLY ABSORB THE
MID-FREQUENCY RANGE UNLESS SPECIAL CARE IS TAKEN IN DESIGNING THE FACING TO
BE AS ACOUSTICALLY TRANSPARENT AS POSSIBLE. SLOTS USUALLY HAVE A SIMILAR
ACOUSTIC RESPONSE. LONG NARROW SLOTS CAN BE USED TO ABSORB LOW
FREQUENCIES. THE RESONATORS ARE SUITABLE FOR CERTAIN FREQUENCIES FOR WHICH
THEY ARE DESIGNED. THEREFORE RESONATORS HAVE TO BE DESIGNED FOR SPECIFIC
PURPOSE FOR EXAMPLE TO ABSORB NOISE FROM AIR CONDITIONER OR FROM PUMPS
ECT
4. TRANSMISSION OF SOUND

SOUND WAVES EMERGING FROM A POINT SOURCE INSIDE A HALL PROCEED IN A


SPHERICAL WAVE. WHEN IT STRIKES THE BOUNDARIES OF A HALL, IT UNDERGOES
REFLECTION, ABSORPTION AND TRANSMISSION. ALL THESE THRE PROCESS DEPENDS ON
THE BOUNDARIES OF THE HALL (E.G: MATERIAL, SURFACE STRUCTURE ETC)AND THE
FREQUENCY SPECTRUM OF SOUND WAVES. THE SOUND TRANSMITTED THROUGH THE
WALL IS MEASURED IN TERMS OF TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENT TC DEFINED AS

WHEN A SOUND IS TRANSMITTED FROM THE SOURCE TO THE ADJACENT ROOM


THROUGH BOUNDRIES OR ADJOINING WALLS, THERE IS A REDUCTION IN THE INTENSITY
OF SOUND. THIS IS KNOWN AS THE TRANSMISSION LOSS. THE TRANSMISSION LOSS TL IS
DEFINED AS

THE LARGER THE TRANSMISIION LOSS BETTER WILL BE THE SOUND INSULATION. THE
TRANSMISSION LOSS DEPENDS ON THE MATERIAL AND METHODE USED FOR
CONSTRUCTION OF WALLS.

4. FACTORS EFFECTING THE ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS

IN AN ACOUSTICALLY GOOD HALL THE LOUDNESS OF SOUND AND ITS CLARITY AT EVERY
POINT IN SIDE THE HALL IS AUDIBLE. THE SOUND DIES OUT QUICKLY WITH TIME TO MAKE
ROOM FOR NEXT SYLLABLE. THE FOLLOWING FACTORS AFFECT THE ARCHITECTURAL
ACOUSTICS:

4.1 REVERBERATION TIME: REVERBERATION TIME HAS TO BE OPTIMIZE FOR A GIVEN


HALL. IF THE TIME IS TOO LARGE THEN THERE WILL BE LOSS OF CLARITY DUE TO
OVERLAPPING OF SUCCESSIVE SOUND SIGNALS AND IF IT IS TOO SMALL THEN THE
LOUDNESS OF THE SOUND WILL BE LESS. THE OPTIMIZED TIME IS GIVEN BY EQ 1.
REVERBERATION CAN BE CONTROLLED BY
I. KEEPING THE WINDOWS AND VENTILATORS OPEN.
II. USING HEAVY CURTAINS
III. BY USING THE WOODEN OR CARPETED FLOOR.
IV. MAKING THE WALLS SURFACE ROUGH
4.2 FOCUSING OF SOUND WAVES: SOUND WAVES ON REFLECTION FROM A CURVED
SURFACE WILL GET FOCUSED AT SOME POINT JUST LIKE A LENS FOCUSES THE LIGHT. IN
THE FOCUSED REGION INTENSITY OF SOUND WILL BE LARGE WHERE AS IN OTHER
REGIONS WILL HAVE POOR AUDIBILITY. IN ORDER TO AVOID THE NON UNIFORM
DISTRIBUTION OF SOUND INTENSITY DUE TO FOCUSING, THE CURVED
CEILINGS/SURCEASES SHOULD BE AVOIDED.

4.3 ADEQUATE LOUDNESS: FOR THE GOOD AUDIBILITY THE LOUDNESS SHOULD BE
SUFFICIENT. THE LOW CEILING HELPS THE REFLECTED SOUND TO REACH THE AUDIENCE
WITH SUFFICIENT INTENSITY. TO IMPROVE THE UNIFORMITY OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF
INTENSITY OF SOUND WAVES AS WELL AS TO IMPROVE THE LOUDNESS, BEHIND THE
SPEAKER SPEAKER A PARABOLIC SOUND REFLECTOR AS SHOWN IN FIG 3 CAN BE PLACED
SUCH THAT SPEAKER IS AT THE FOCUS OF THE REFLECTOR. THE REFLECTED SOUND
WAVES WILL BE PARALLEL AND WILL YIELD BETTER UNIFORMITY..

4.4 ABSENCE OF ECHO: WHEN THE GAP BETWEEN THE ARRIVAL TIME OF DIRECT SOUND
AND THE REFLECTED SOUND IS MORE THAN 1/7 OF A SECOND. IF THIS TIME IS LESS THEN
1/7 THEN THE REFLECTED WAVE OVERLAPS WITH THE DIRECT WAVE AND IMPROVES THE
INTENSITY OF SOUND WAVES. THERE FORE THE MAJOR SOURCE OF ECHO IS THE SOUND
REFLECTED FROM THE LONG CEILINGS AND THE DISTANCE WALLS. IT CAN BE AVOIDED
BY COVERING THE CEILINGS AND WALLS WITH THE SUITABLE ABSORBING MATERIALS.

4.5 SOUND INSULATION FROM EXTERNAL SOURCES OR EXTRANEOUS NOISE: FOR A


GOOD ACOUSTICS ARCHITECTURE THE SOUND OR NOISE FROM OUTSIDE SHOULD NOT
BE AUDIBLE INSIDE THE HALL. THIS CAN BE MINIMIZE BY HAVING THE DOORS AT
APPROPRIATE PLACES. THE PIPES OPENING SHOULD BE AVOIDED NEAR THE
VENTILATORS AND WINDOWS. USE OF APPROPRIATE ABSORBENT MATERIAL ON THE
OUTER SIDE OF WALLS ALSO DAMPENS THE OUTSIDE NOISE.