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MODIFIABLE: SPECIFIC PATHOPHYSIOLOGY NON-MODIFIABLE:

SEDENTARY LIFESTYLE
AGE 50 YEARS OLD & ABOVE
HYPERTENSION
FAMILY HISTORY OF HEART PROBLEMS
EXPOSURE TO CHEMICAL IRRITANTS
POST MENAOUPAUSAL WOMEN
STRESS
Decreased elasticity of blood vessels and formation of plaques on
EXCESSIVE INTAKE OF SATURATED FAT AND SALT blood vessels

Narrowing of the blood vessels


Necrosis and scarring of the
vascular endothelium
Activation of Baroreceptors Activation of renin-
Excessive stretching of myocardial muscle Decrease stroke
Aortic arch and carotid sinus angiotensin-aldosterone
system volume and
Impediment of blood flow
decreased
to the body Ineffective cardiac muscle
Stimulation of vasomotor cardiac output
contraction and increase oxygen Adrenal cortex will
regulatory center (medulla)
demand of cardiac muscle cells produce increased
Increased workload of the aldosterone and Decreased
heart cardiac output
Activation of sympathetic cytokines
Decreased contraction of cardiac related to
nervous system
muscle altered
Dilation of Cardiac myocardial
ventricles remodeling contractility
Increase Catecholamine
Decreased cardiac output and
(Epinephrine and
systemic perfusion
norepinephrine)
Increased in preload Decreased blood Ineffective
filling tissue
perfusion

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Inadequate perfusion PALLOR

KIDNEY HEART Increased Altered myocardial LUNGS


pulmonary metabolism converting
workload aerobic metabolism to
Activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
Decreased anaerobic Impaired gas exchange
perfusion in the LEFT related to deficit in
coronary VENTRICULR oxygenation
LIVER KIDNEY ADRENAL CORTEX HYPERTHROPH ATP depletion and
Y intracellular
Deprivation of depletion
Angiotensin I Renin Aldosterone cardiac muscle Increase
cells of nutrients diastolic
needed for pressure Decreased
Increase survival adenosine
Angiotensin II
aldosterone phosphate

Normal Balance
VASOCONSTRICTION between oxygen Increased lactic
Sodium and water
supply and acid production
INCREASE BP retention
demand is
INCREASE HEART RATE disrupted
Irritation of
EDEMA myocardial cells
ISCHEMIA

Risk for Impaired Skin Integrity CHEST PAIN Acute pain

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Pulmonary congestion

CRACKLES Increase fluid in alveolar space Weakened body defenses


& COUGH

Impaired gas exchange Bacterial infection

PNEUMONIA
Decreased ventilation
and perfusion
Productive cough

Acute respiratory failure Hypoxemia

DIFFICULTY OF BREATHING; Activity intolerance; fatigue


WEAKNESS AND EASY And
FATIGABILITY Self-care deficit

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