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DRILLING PRACTICES

IADC Drilling Manual 12th Edition

IADC Drilling Manual • Copyright © 2015


DRILLING PRACTICES DP-i

CHAPTER

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DRILLING PRACTICES

he IADC Drilling Manual is a series of reference guides assembled by volunteer drilling-industry professionals with
T expertise spanning a broad range of topics. These volunteers contributed their time, energy and knowledge in developing
the IADC Drilling Manual, 12th edition, to help facilitate safe and efficient drilling operations, training, and equipment mainte-
nance and repair.

The contents of this manual should not replace or take precedence over manufacturer, operator or individual drilling company
recommendations, policies or procedures. In jurisdictions where the contents of the IADC Drilling Manual may conflict with
regional, state or national statute or regulation, IADC strongly advises adhering to local rules.

While IADC believes the information presented is accurate as of the date of publication, each reader is responsible for his own
reliance, reasonable or otherwise, on the information presented. Readers should be aware that technology and practice advance
quickly, and the subject matter discussed herein may quickly become surpassed. If professional engineering expertise is re-
quired, the services of a competent individual or firm should be sought. Neither IADC nor the contributors to this chapter warrant
or guarantee that application of any theory, concept, method or action described in this book will lead to the result desired by
the reader.

Contributors
Fred Dupriest, Texas A&M University
Iain Hutchison, Merlin ERD Ltd.
Eric van Oort, University of Texas at Austin
Neil Armstrong, Merlin ERD Ltd.

Reviewers
David Chen, Hess Corporation
Gregory Devinish, Baker Hughes Inc.
John DeWardt, DEWARDT & Company
Blaine Dow, Schlumberger
Dennis Moore, Marathon Oil Corporation
Sam Pickett, Chesapeake Energy Corporation
Paul Scott, ConocoPhillips
Boyd Waechter
Aron Deen, Ulterra Drilling Technologies L.P.
John Willis, Occidental Oil & Gas Corporation
DP–ii DRILLING PRACTICES

This is a chapter of the IADC Drilling Manual, 12th edition.

Copyright © 2015 International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC), Houston, Texas.


All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form
without the prior written permission of the publisher.

International Association of Drilling Contractors


10370 Richmond Avenue, Suite 760
Houston, Texas 77042
USA

ISBN: 978-0-9906220-9-3

Printed in the United States of America.

IADC Drilling Manual Copyright © 2015


DRILLING PRACTICES Contents DP-iii

CHAPTER DP

DRILLING PRACTICES
Contents
Drilling mechanics and performance........................DP-1 Shaker material monitoring.....................DP-32
Bit mechanics............................................................ DP-1 Remedial hole cleaning practices..........DP-32
Testing bit performance......................................... DP-3 Avalanche regime practices
Causes of drilling dysfunctions............................DP-5 (40-65° inclination)........................................DP-33
Bit balling.........................................................DP-5 Tripping practices....................................................... DP-34
Bottomhole balling (BHB).......................... DP-7 Low-angle intervals (<40°).................................DP-35
Interfacial severity........................................ DP-7 Preparation and tripping�������������������������� DP-35
Vibrations........................................................ DP-7 Tight hole or drag at low angle������������� DP-35
Connection practices................................................. DP-13 High- and intermediate-angle intervals
Applying and removing weight on bit..............DP-13 (>40°).................................................................DP-35
Applying WOB............................................DP-14 Tripping with partial bed removal ....... DP-36
Removing WOB..........................................DP-14 Response to pack-offs...............................DP-37
Applying WOB to motor or turbine......DP-14 Tripping with complete bed removal... DP-39
Surge and swab......................................................DP-14 Wellbore stability management............................. DP-39
Torque and drag data collection.......................DP-16 Instability and hole enlargement...................... DP-39
Reaming to condition hole......................................... DP-16 Shales............................................................DP-40
General reaming practices..................................DP-17 Sands.............................................................DP-40
Reaming rotary speed..........................................DP-17 Salt and tar................................................... DP-41
Ductile closure (swelling formations)..............DP-18 Hard formations.......................................... DP-41
Vibrationally induced borehole patterns........DP-18 Mud weight and downhole pressure
Undergauge filter cakes.......................................DP-20 management..................................................... DP-41
Reaming high-strength filter cake���������DP-21 Borehole surveillance and response............... DP-43
Instability and enlarged hole..............................DP-21 Fluid chemistry and stability............................. DP-45
Pack-offs at low angle...............................DP-21 Lost circulation ...........................................................DP-46
Pack-offs at high angle.............................DP-22 Types of lost circulation and responses......... DP-46
Hole-cleaning practices............................................ DP-24 Seepage losses...........................................DP-46
Low-angle practices (0-40°)..............................DP-25 Induced fracture losses...........................DP-46
High-angle practices (40-65°)..........................DP-26 Vugular formations and open
Equilibrium beds.........................................DP-26 natural fractures................................... DP-49
Flow rate and rotation...............................DP-27 Fracture or formation breathing........... DP-49
Hole cleaning with borehole breakout.DP-28 Lost circulation practices....................................DP-50
Surface verification of acceptable hole Drilling and tripping.................................. DP-50
cleaning.................................................. DP-29 Running casing........................................... DP-52
Torque and drag monitoring.................. DP-29 Cementing................................................... DP-52

IADC Drilling Manual Copyright © 2015