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(CMG Landscape Architecture, 2019)


Session 2016-2020

Divya Modi

Mr. Apurv Prakash

School of Design,
Pearl Academy, Jaipur

With the concern for the quality of education imparted through the popular and established system of
standardized curricula. This thesis will emphasis on exploring new possibilities within education system
that aims at developing children mental, emotional and social skills.
During my primary learning stage, I faced specific learning issues. Also, I have been observing closely a case
where my immediate family member is facing similar issues. I want to research on this particular aspect
and try to find possible solutions for the schooling problem mostly faced by this particular age group.
The children of age group between 6 & 12 are very curious and questionable towards each and everything
they come across. Focusing on the most crucial base of life this age develops a lot of interests, skills and
ethics. This age group prepares them for adulthood and adolescence. Moreover inculcating the sense of
what’s wrong or right for them as a being.
I would put forward my aim of introducing child-centric strategies and non-traditional pedagogical approach
which help in holistic development of a student. By redesigning a hybrid, interactive, individualized and
experiential curriculum. I would further put forward a space, which in return that proposes to solve the
problem for the one who don’t really know it’s a problem.
Rethinking and Redesigning of Learning Space for children in age 6 to 12, inspired by the philosophy
of Waldorf System.

I. To study and understand, how learning space can improve the quality of learning.
II. To offer a solution to the problem of immediate transition from casual learning (Pre-primary) to
formal education (Elementary or primary)
III. Trying to change the rigid schooling system and rather changing it into comfortable, flexible
learning strategies by redefining the system and spreading awareness.
IV. Helping students to reach full potential
V. To make their childhood life stress-free and happy.


I. I am stating an approach which inculcates a big change yet it cannot be nationally standardized.
II. My research is limited to a particular age group (6-12), with solutions to existing problem and
for people who are open to these change

To provide a space where all the children of this age group 6-12, who face a lot of problems
while learning and studying are provided with stress-free and self growing environment which in
exchange is flexible and unconventional.
I. Through books, online reading of research paper, articles, chapter and also by watching videos and
TED Talks regarding:
-School v/s A place for learning
-Looking into history of Indian Education and its growth from past to present
-Comparing it with countries like Sweden, Japan etc to know better
-Focusing on current education system ( different board study, curriculum, ideology,
pedagogy study)
-Studying about different alternate education system

II. Literature study - To study the issues in current learning environment of conventional education way
III. Comparative analysis of education system observating good practices
(Through Qualitative and Quantitative data)


I. Observing and discussing with students
II. Case Study - Visiting schools to identify issues in current environment/ spaces and then studying the

III. To inquiring for philosophy and educationists who talk about learning environment through literature
review, interviews and case study of the same which are on such guidelines.

IV. Taking inferences through critical analysis, deriving general guidelines which would help to design space
for learning environment.
During my primary learning stage, I faced specific
learning issues. Also, I have been observing closely
a case where my immediate family member is
facing similar issues. I want to research on this
particular aspect and try to find possible solutions
for the schooling problem mostly faced by this
particular age group.
The children of age group between 6 & 12 are SOCIAL &
very curious and questionable towards each EMOTIONAL
and everything they come across. Focusing on SKILL
the most crucial base of life this age develops a
lot of interests, skills and ethics. This age group
prepares them for adulthood and adolescence.
Moreover inculcating the sense of what’s wrong COGNITIVE SKILL PHYSICAL SKILL
or right for them as a being.

Middle childhood is the time when the child’s LANGUAGE &
knowledge horizon expands and there is exposure LITERACY SKILL
to external environment and interaction with the
outside world. The child’s roles are defined and
expanded. This is the stage of life in which the
child spends more time away from home and is
involved in school and extra-curricular activities.
Through these experience they learn and develop
their own identity.
This age group children are entering the ‘age of
reason’ because they begin to:
• be more flexible in their thinking, DEVELOPMENTAL SKILLS
• develop self-awareness, and Fig 1 : Problems Faced in Childhood (Divya Modi, 2019)
• identify and understand others’ feelings or
emotions. ( Manitoba, 2019)

CHILD DEVELOPMENT ideas,or images or concepts of external objects important aspects of physical development during
not present to the senses. middle childhood as in previous developmental
Child development is a process every child goes REASONING : Action of thinking about something stages. (CliffsNotes, 2016)
through. The Process involves various learning and in a logical, sensible way.
mastering skills. Children learn these skills, called LISTENING : Making an effort to hear something; FINE MOTOR : Child’s ability to use small muscles,
developmental milestones, during predictable actively. specifically their hands and fingers.Example -
time periods.( Develop skills, 2008) CONCENTRATION : Power of focusing something cutting with scissors, model making etc.
During middle childhood, children work towards in the same place. GROSS MOTOR :Child’s ability to use large
four important milestones, including: muscles. Examples - balancing, climbing, jumping
(i) adjusting to school; IMAGINATION etc.
(ii) achieving new academic skills such as learning COORDINATION : Ability to use different parts
to read of the body together smoothly and efficiently.
(iii) learning to get along with peers; and CONCENTRATION Mastery of fine motor skills requires precision and
(iv) learning the rules of our culture or society. LISTENING coordination.(, 2019)
SENSORY : Related with the physical senses of
Five main areas of Developmental Skills: touch, smell, taste, hearing, and sight.

1. Cognitive Development Fig 2 : Cognitive Skill Clipart (CLEANPNG, 2019)

Child’s ability to construct the thought processes,
including remembering, problem solving, 2. Physical Development
imagination and decision-making. Also refers Physical development in children refers to the
to how a person think, perceives,and gains development of their motor skills, which involves
understanding of his or her world through using their bodies. It is defined by the fine motor,
the interaction of genetic and learned factors. gross motor, sensory and coordination skills. Fig 3 : Physical Skill Clipart (Pinterest, 2019)
Children’s memory capacity and the ability to use Activities that includes Physical play use physical
their memory also increases and improves during movements to allow children to use their energy,
middle childhood. and it gives children the chance to develop gross 3. Social & Emotional Development
The mental (cognitive) changes children undergo and fine motor skills, learn new things and socialize
during the middle childhood era are often more (Wonderly, 2018). Physical development in middle Social-emotional development is a child’s ability
noticeable than their physical changes. Children’s childhood is identified by considerable variations to understand the feelings of others, control their
thinking style gradually becomes more logical, in growth patterns. These variations may be due own feelings and behaviors, and get along with
flexible, and organized as well.(Helen Farabee to gender, ethnic origin, genetics, hormones, peers. In order for children to attain the basic skills
Center, 2019) nutrition, environment, or disease. Physical they need such as cooperation, following
changes, brain and nervous system development, directions, demonstrating self-control and paying
IMAGINATION : Ability of the mind to form new gross and fine motor skills, and health issues are attention, they must have social-emotional skills.

Feelings of trust, confidence, pride, friendship, EMPATHY : Ability to share or understand the Schools in India, at large, aquire an academic-
affection and humor are all a part of a child’s feelings of another. centric model of Education. For the most part
social-emotional development. CONFIDENCE : Feeling that you can do something of schools, the learning process is limited only
Social and emotional development involves the well or succeed at something to classrooms. In fact, this process is more
addition of a set of skills. Key among them are the RELATIONSHIPS : The way in which two or more about gaining facts & less about learning. Skills
ability to: people or things are connected (Cambridge development always leads to competitive
• Identify and understand one’sown feelings Dictionary, 2019) advantage. In order to be the best, you need
• Accurately read and comprehend emotional CULTURE:The ideas, customs, and social behaviour to have something that nobody else has. These
states in others of a particular people or society. Developmental skills can be improved and
• Manage strong emotions and their expressions operated well through the flexible, interactive -
in a constructive manner 4. Language & Literacy Development pedagogy, curriculum and learning enviornment
• Regulate one’s own behavior Language development involves the development of a learning space.
• Develop empathy for others of the skills used to communicate with others
• Establish and sustain relationships through languages. Language is developed when
children interact with other people around them.
A child’s social-emotional development provides Literacy development involves the ability to
them with a sense of who they are in the world, read and write. Literacy develops through the
how they learn, and helps them establish quality interactions of child experiences with others. For
relationships with others. It moves an individual example, literacy can develop through hearing
to communicate, connect with others, and stories read from books and showing children
more importantly, helps resolve conflicts, gain pictures with words.(Universalclass, 2019)
confidence and reach goals. Building a strong
social-emotional foundation as a child will help
the child health and obtain happiness in life.
They will be better equipped to handle stress and
persist through difficult times in their lives as an
adult.( Beauchamp & Carmody, 2013)

Fig 5 : Communication Clipart (Morelli, 2018)

SELF EXPRESSION: Expression of one’s feelings,

thoughts, or ideas.
COMMUNICATION : The act of communicating by
Fig 4 : Emotional Clipart (VectorStock, 2019)
speaking, writing, or using some other medium.


• Organised space where instruction is given • Physical setting for a learning enviornment.
in a particular discipline.
• promotes starting by looking for answers • promotes starting with questions
• standardized • personal
• prescribed curriculum/ teacher-centric • child-centric
• fixed and pre-decided, role of student & • flexible according to the need of teachers
teacher is very less and student.
• can be dull and no fun in class • stimulating and fun
• promotes surface-level thinking • exploring and expirencing
• sequential • random and non-linear
• Conventional • Unconventional
• Classrooms • alternate to classrooms
• learning under pressure • learning with interest
• Trend is toward consolidation: large, more • low teacher to student ratio
centralized schools that accommodate • Institution that provide learning spaces
more students. in different way: Student age, academic
(Couros, 2014) level, pedagogy, subject or focus, special
education, location, organisation type
(Couros, 2014)

Understanding the terminology between the

School and a place for learning to know the
gap between them, as whenever you heard the
name “School”, it creates a feeling that implies a
traditional square building with classroom where
students sit in row of desk are led by a teacher
but it’s important for students to offer a creative
Fig 6 : School Building (TURBOSQUID, 2019) Fig 7 : Learning space (Pinterest, 2019)
learning spaces to expand and challenge their
knowledge and ability to create.
In the Ancient Period (1500BCE - 500AD), education in India 1500 BCE - 500AD
has an ancient tradition. By the time European colonists arrived, ANCIENT PERIOD
education mostly took place in traditional Hindu village schools (Vedic or Brahmanic or
Gurukula system, Jaina
called gurukuls, or in Muslim schools called maktabs and madrasas.
system, Buddhistic system)
600AD - 1300AD
Then in Modern India ( 1813-1947), british ruled the education MEDIEVAL PERIOD
system which is based on british system and introduced English (Islamic system of
as a language of instruction. They established the education Education)
departments for the schools teaching British curricula. 1813 - 1947
On 1947, India become independent and period after
(British Rule the
independence was described by a rapid expansion of teaching Education system)
institution across India as the country attempted to create
Education In India Before
a modern mass education system under the leadershi of its Independence
first prime minster, Pandit Jawarlal Nehru. In 1950, India’s
first constitution adopted called the provision of free public Education In India After
and compulsory education for all children until the age of 14. Independence
Central government established Federal department, University
Grant Commission (UGC) instituted in 1953, and the Central 1947
Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), founded in 1962. In 1986, (Become Independent
Government declared new education policy called National created Modern mass
education system)
Policy on Education 1986. To fulfil the goals of universalization 1950
of Elementary education, elevation of poverty, national (India’s first
integration, population control, promotion of women’s equality constitution adopted) 1953
and education for women, the National Policy of Education was (Central government
established Federal
modified in 1992.(Trines, 2018) department, University
More than sixty years post independence the education system 1962 Grant Commission)
has not been able to evolve effectively. The system still focused (Founded CBSE)
on high marks in examination rather testing the range of skills. 1986
There is dire need for revolutionary change in India’s education (Government declared
system. Not just the syllabus and pedagogy, but also the attitude National Policy on
change towards the mark system need to be changed. With the
1992 Education)
(Modified the National Policy
effective learning system, India can successfully utilize its vast of Education)
human resources.
Fig 8 : Timeline - History of Indian Education (Divya Modi, 2019)
ANCIENT PERIOD (1500BCE-500AD) • Growth of higher learning credit goes to MEDIEVAL PERIOD (600AD - 1300AD)
I Brahmanic & Buddhistic Education. I
& Nadia (Chaudhari & Chaudhari, 2017)
Vedic or Brahmanic or Gurukul
system (Chaudhari & Chaudhari, 2017)
- MAKTABS (Primary Education)
Jaina System of Education - MADRASSAHS (Higher Education)
Buddhistic system of Education
Maktabs are the primary education, attached
IDEALS OF THE KNOWLEDGE SYSTEM to mosques. The children of wealthy family did
• Development of Devotional and religiousness not go to these institution as they are educated
through education at home. their main objective is to provide mass
• Development of Character education
• Complete development of the personality • Rule of Delhi Sultanate from 1191-1560AD,
• Social & Vocational efficiency approximetely led to change in formal
• Preservation & transmission of culture education but no change in informal education,
was enriched by new ideas of new religion,
A gurukula or gurukulam was a type of education language & culture brought by Muslims to
system in ancient India with shishya living near or India (in Art, Literature, Architecture, Music)
with the guru, in the same house. • No state Administrative machinery to regulate
Fig 9 : Gurukul System (NIKHIL CHAND­WANI, 2018) Islamic Education
• Brahmanic Knowledge System • Muslim ruler support Institution
- To Upper castes - to enhance the status
- Dependence on rituals & animal sacrifices - felt as a religious duty
- Aim to achieve the freedom from all worldy • Mughal Period observe developments in
desire & become one with universe also to Islamic Education due to individual efforts of
become self-sufficient in life. the ruler.
• Jaina & Buddhistic Knowledge System • Akbar - important contributor - medieval
- opportunity for all caste education
- believe in tolerance & non-violence (Secular attitude can be noticed under his rule)
- opposed vedic rituals & violence • Hindus took admission to get jobs in the
• Buddhist education was popular due to liberal administrative posts of the Islamic rule.
attitude, logical way of understanding life & its • Important centers were Delhi, Bidar, Agra,
problem Fig 10 : Maktabs (Khane Kord, 2019) Jampur, Malwa
MODERN INDIA (1813 - 1947)

• Focused mainly on trade activities and the

development of higher education.
• Purpose of education was to ensure that Indians
to gain familarity with western modes of living,
culture, values, principles & standards.
• Various development that took place were
primarily related to development of colleges &
Educational Institutions - they were not in well
developed state, required no. of improvement.
• In 1835, Lord William Bendict(1st Governor ANCIENT PERIOD
(Leisure dedicated to Learning)
General of India) appointed commission
Thomos Macaulay -- Macaulay Minutes (
English taught to upper & middle class in mass,
ignored women education)
• Wood’s Dispatch was the committee formed
in 1854, which aims at increase in mental,
moral and socio-economic status to come out
from poverty and enable the individual to earn
their livelihood.
• Main Objective
- focuses on the proper development of Education (Group of Students attending
system place of Learning)
- Also, introduced subjects such as mathematics,
science, social science, law, astronomy, public
administration etc.(to enrich Individual living
• Purpose of education was ultimately to acquire
employment opportunity + to get engaged in
(INSTITUTE, 2019) (Identified with a Physical Building)
Fig 11 : Transition in Education Spaces (Divya Modi, 2019)
Earlier education in Ancient India happens with
shishya living near or with the guru, in the same
house far away from the city surrounded with
the nature - where meaning of school is “ leisure
dedicated to learning” or “ place for intellectuals
to gather to dicuss issues”. Over the year, meaning
evolved in Middle age where sense of a group of
students attending a place of learning. The belief of
conformity was emphasized. In Late Renaissance,
school was identified with a physical building. The
work schooling finally in reference to learning
has taken on negative meaning of reprimanding
and discipling. (Bernstein, December 22, 2014) The
meaning of school today is same as organisned
space where instruction is given in particular
discipline, trend is towards consolidation is large,
more centralized schools that accommodate
more students.

• Education System (Curriculum, pedagogy)
should be changed according to the time
period or present society need rather than
being conventional.
• Educational spaces should be molded as per
the needs and requirements.
• Learning should work on the philosophy of
holistic development where child is prepared
with skills to face the challenges of life.
• People should realize the importance of
developmental skills ( physical, mental,
language, social and emotional) without
neglecting it from life.
Education is the stepping stone for high flying ICSE BOARD Education has been a problem in our country
career. Education system in India is managed ICSE is associated with the Council of Indian and lack of it has been blamed on past years.
and controlled government well, providing to School Certificate Examination (CISCE). It was Few things have changed from the past colonial
all without any discrimination had become the formed to adapt to the University of Cambridge period. We have established IITs, IIMs, law schools
priority of the government. Various steps has examinations system, in India. It conducts 3 and other institutions of excellence; students now
been taken by Indian constitution to do so. examinations listed below: routinely score 90% marks so that even students
As per the world bank report in India there are -- ICSE (Indian Certificate of Secondary Education) with 90+ percentage find it difficult to get into
more than 7,40,000 formal schools; more than for Class 10th the colleges of their choice; but we do more of
3.6 million teachers are working on full time basis; -- CVE (Certificate for Vocational Education) for the same old stuff. Rote learning still tourtured
there are more than 175 Universities offering Class 12th our system, students study only to score marks in
under graduate level and post graduate courses -- ISC (Indian School Certificate) for class 12th exams, and sometimes to crack exams like IIT JEE,
and about 6000 colleges affiliated to these AIIMS or CLAT.
universities. Education is designed by the state International Baccalaureate (IB) If things have changed a little bit, they have
where government is responsibility for quality International Baccalaureate is an educational sunk into further inactivity, corruption and lack
education. foundation formed in 1968. It has over 3000 of goal. Creating a few more schools or allowing
Indian education system is divided into different schools in more than 140 countries. Around 130 hundreds of colleges and private universities
levels such as pre-primary level, primary level, schools in India have been associated with this to expand is not going to solve the crisis of
elementary education, secondary education, board. It is most accepted in cities where high- education in India. And a crisis it is – here in the
under graduate and postgraduate level. end education is widely accepted. It has a very country people are spending their parent’s life
(StudyGuideIndia, 2019) innovative way of learning and teaching. savings and borrowed money on education – and
even then not getting standard education, and
Education in India is provided by public schools State Board struggling to find employment of their choice.
(controlled and funded by three levels: central, State boards are associated with their local state In this country, millions of students are victim of
state and local) and private schools. governments, for e.g. in Maharashtra, they have an unrealistic, pointless, mindless rat race. The
SSC (10th board exams), HSC (12th board exams). mind numbing competition and rote learning
Education Governing Bodies : do not only crush the creativity and originality
CBSE IGCSE (International General Certificate of of millions of Indian students every year, it
CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education) is Secondary Education) also push brilliant students to commit suicide.
the most popular and widely accepted board in This is a rigorously specialized English language
India and across many countries in the world. This curriculum, which is offered to students preparing We also live in a country where the people see
board emphasizes mainly on Science and Maths. for IB- CIE – A Level. education as the means of climbing the social and
Most of these schools are approved by the Central (Baxter, 2017) economic ladder.(Ramanuj Mukherjee, 2017)
Government of India.
• Through exams, it teaches them to analyse strengths and weekness consistently.
• System emphasizes competitive spirit - teaches to unleash their full potential
• Teaches basic knowledge in all subjects
• Positive changes are happening - emphasis on practical knowledge is increased.
Fig 12 : Problem
faced by child
(Sarva, 2019)
(xx, 2017)
Fig 13:
(Allen, 2018) DRAWBACKS
• Rote Learning (Emphasis on memorising the facts rather than thoroughly
understanding the concept)
• Completely dependent on textbook
• More importance to textbooks than the teacher
• No freedom to think creatively & to question the textbook content
• taking marks as a assessment/priority
• No idea- learning particular subjects and topic, its relevance in practical life.
• No motivation for teachers to encourage critical thinking in children
LACK-ETHICS • Lack of Infrastructure
NO INNOVATION • Most of the syllabus in theoretical form
NO MOTIVATION • Pressurizing students for marks & grades ( leads to increase in suides)
• Students are learning the subjects just to reach to the next level.
CRITICAL • low salary/lack of capable teachers
THINKING • Indian government spend only 3% of its GDP on education whereas USA spend
5.4% and Brazil 5.7% (Srva, 2019)
• Government unable to invest enough on education sectors, private insitution
roped in therefore result in high cost of education
• Ethics aren’t being taught in schools
Fig 14 : Problem
• Very low-teacher student ratio, acc. to Right to Education, there should be 1:30
faced by child but it is reaching upto 1:65
(CLEANPNG, 2019) • Not encouraging research & innovation, also the importance of physical activity
Fig 15 : Exams and extracurricular activity.
(Holland, 2017)
• No teaching- how to deal with daily life struggle
• Motivate for extremely competative rather than co-learn
• In the top 100 universities list by ‘Times Higher Education World Reputation
Rankings 2016’, none of the Indian universities could make into the list.
(Sarva, 2019)

India’s missing millions of out of school children:

A case of reality not living up to estimation?

• Census of India 2011 numbers dealing with

education released about 32 million children in
India aged between 6-13 years have never attended
any educational institution.
• Out-of-school numbers consist of both the children
who dropped out and the children who have never
attended schools.
• In its Millennium Development Goals (MDG)
assessment in 2015, UNDP stated that India has
made significant progress in universalising primary
Fig 16 : Graph (oxfamadmin, 2015) education, and is moderately on track to achieve
this goal.
• UNDP cautions about the large numbers of children
still out of school and failing to complete primary
education. This is particularly the case of girls;
children living in rural areas and; children from
marginalised and minority communities.
• The main factor responsible for High Drop-outs and
Low enrolment in schools: Poverty and Child Labour,
Household Decisions, School Quality and village
factors (oxfamadmin, 2015)

Fig 17 : Graph (oxfamadmin, 2015)

Three myths about Indian education system (Menon, Feb 6, 2017)

MYTH#1 : All mighty syllabus

• No idea about pratical implication of things you are taught to do in real life
• Memorizing is more important rather than understanding
• Forced to take test to check their memory power
• Fails to teach the moral values and ethics that could evolve them into responsible beings of the future

MYTH#2 : Art is not Important

• Art is an integral part of what makes us human
• At that time, they require people for factories so the education & syllabus focused on STEM System
Fig 18 : PNG Logo (STEM>Humanities>Art)
(Dutch Pancake Event, 2018) • STEM is a curriculum based on the idea of educating students in four specific disciplines — science, technology,
engineering and mathematics — in an interdisciplinary and applied approach)
• Creativity is about making mistakes and learning from it
• Creativity is not important in our Education system

MYTH#3 : Discipline require Punishment

• Students are not allowed to make mistakes in our education system and they’re afraid to make mistakes.
• Socrates was a philosopher who said that we should always question everything.

Fig 18 : Delhi Public School, VDN, Jaipur (Divya Modi, 2019)

Architect : Architect Meena Mani

Started : 2006
Location : Branch R-7,Sector 6, Vidyadhar Nagar,Jaipur
Total Built-up area : 8605 SQMT
Proposed Floor area : 6139 SQMT
2 3 Total No. of Students : 1646
Composition 1 : Universally Accessible (Divya Modi, 2019) Student & Teacher Ratio : 30-35 : 1
Grades : Playgroup - 8th grade with 6 sections
The School works on the philosophy of providing holistic education to all its
pupils where every child is provided with the skills to face the challenges of
Activity Hall, Classes(VII & VIII)
life. Mission is to provide world class education, with core conept “Each child
IInd FLOOR matters” & the motto is “Service before self”. Affiliated to Central Board of
Science, Computer & Maths Secondary Education (CBSE) (School, Delhi Public,2019)
Lab, Classes(IV-VI)
Junior Labs(Science, maths, Educational : Classrooms, Art, Dance, Library, Maths lab, Science lab,
computer), Library, Art room, GROUND FLOOR Computer lab, Music room
Classes(I-III) Recreational : Play Area (Badminton court, garden), Amphitheatre, Canteen,
store,Pre-Primary classes,Dance multi-purpose hall
& Music, Games Room Service : Toilets, medical facility, Book store
Taken a Case Study of Delhi Public School, to study the 1:CANTEEN
issues in current learning enviornment of conventional
education way. This school is adaptable and also works
on the philosophy of providing holistic education, after
analysing everything founded that there is some issue
which is stoping them to achieve that goal as school has
strict rules and regulations which is followed systematically,
CBSE curriculum is followed strictly and some part in
campus spaces.Also, Student found barrier in each step 5:JUNIOR SCIENCE LAB
as they have to take permissions to do activities. Students
don’t get enough time to work individually according 2:LIBRARY
to themselves because of planned schedule made by
schools. Its looks working like a race with 8 classes each



Fig 19 : FIRST FLOOR PLAN (School, Delhi Public, 2019)


Composition 2: Different spaces in school (Divya Modi, 2019)
Hexagonal Shape Classroom INFERENCES
(10ft each side) with large
wall area for soft board, white
board & windows

Flexibility in Curriculum/
padagogy to make use of the
available resources & spaces
(Taking permissions at each step
Some classes should take place to go out from classroom space)
beyond these 4 walls as each 1: PRIMARY CLASS
activity is taking place inside
the building
Well ventilated class with big
windows but no provision to stop
direct sunlight.

They should get some time to

think from their busy schedule

Spaces should differentiate/be

unique from one another.

Different connecting blocks at

horizontal level rather than 2: UPPER-PRIMARY CLASS
vertical building (feel enclosed)
. Horizontally circulation ensure
access to open space Some breakout spaces where
child can sit and enjoy the
beauty of learning space.

Universally accessible ramps

but no Universally Accessible

Composition 3: Classes & Amphitheatre (Divya Modi, 2019)

An education is supposed to prepare children to continuously improve products, processes and 4. Curiosity and imagination
for the future. Traditionally, that meant services. And to do this they need workers to
learning certain facts and skills, like how to do have critical thinking skills and to be able to ask Curiosity is the strong desire to learn or know
multiplication and long division and some history the right questions to provide solution to get the something. Imagination is the process of forming
dates. Today, curriculums have shifted to focus problem solved.(Charlotte Edmond, 2017) ideas of concepts to be as creative, innovative, or
on a more global and digital world, like cultural forward in thinking.
history,writing code and basic computer skills. 2. Agility and adaptability Curiosity and imagination are what handle
Yet the challenges that today’s kids will face will innovation and are key to problem solving.
be much different and many of the things a typical Agility is the ability and willingness to learn Wagner said that “We’re all born curious, creative
student learns in school today will no longer be from experience, and then apply that learning and imaginative,”.Reviving children’s curiosity
relevant by the time he or she graduates college. to perform successfully under new situations. is a wonderful gift because it enables them to
In fact, Universiy of Oxford study found that 47 Adaptability is the quality of being able to adjust continually learn, grow, and question the world
percent of today’s jobs will be eliminated over the to new conditions. they live in. Helps them to develop a healthy
next 20 years. The ability to modify and pick up new skills quickly imagination and sense of creativity, and sets them
Within 20 years, much of what we “know” about is essentail for success: workers must be able to up for a successful future.(Charlotte Edmond,
the world will no longer be true. The future use a range of tools to solve a problem. This is 2017)
computers will not be digital. Software code also known as “learnability”. (Charlotte Edmond,
itself will disapper , or at least becoming far less 2017) 5. Collaborating and working in teams
relevant. Many of what are considered good jobs
today will be either completely automated or 3. Effective oral and written communication Working in teams enables children to be quicker
greatly underestimated . It is important to rethink and more effective in their work, as compared
about future skills requirement and importance to Oral Communication is an informal one which is to people who work individually. Collaborating
prepare kids for the world to come. (Greg Satell, normally used in personal conversations, group also makes employees more responsible, which
2018) talks, etc. Written Communication is formal goes a long way in raising their motivation
communication, which is used in schools, colleges, levels, especially when teams work virtually.
1. Critical thinking and problem-solving business world, etc. Traditionally, school work has been based on
Thinking and inability to articulate the thoughts individual performance. Students were supposed
Critical thinking is ability of thinkers to take charge are common issues. Both communication skills to study at home, come in prepared, and taken a
of there own thougths. Problem solving is a mental are important in order to deliver and understand test without help or cheating . (Charlotte Edmond,
process that involves discovering, analyzing, and information quickly and accurately. Wagner 2017)(nutcache, 2019)
solving problems to overcome obstacles and find said that “If you have great ideas but you can’t
a solution that resolves the issue. communicate them, then you’re lost,”. (Charlotte
In order to compete, companies need to be able Edmond, 2017)
More than sixty years post independence the
education system has not been able to evolve
effectively. The system still focused on high marks
in examination rather testing the range of skills.
There is dire need for revolutionary change in
India’s education system. Not just the syllabus and
pedagogy, but also the attitude change towards
the mark system need to be changed. With the
effective learning system, India can successfully
utilize its vast human resources.
Core problem is all the educational spaces are not
made according to the user, due to which problem
is faced and needs are not estentially solved, they
are made according to rigid education system.
Hence there is need to soften the system. There
should be an aim to develop the children mental,
social, and emotional skills. It should be child
centric, and should have flexible/ interactive
padagogy with flexible learning spaces. Alternate
education is the pathway to alternate vission and
“ Change is the end result of all true learning” Choosing a school for a child is one of the most Qualities for Distinguishing Educational
- Leo Buscaglia important decision parents make. The school- its Alternatives :
Alternative education is a collective term used teacher, curriculum, educational philosophy, and (Robin Ann Martin,2000)
for the form of education which includes many value both directlu and indirectly will affect the
pedagogical approches that are differing from child’s day to day life. It will help to shape the • Philosophical Alternatives are not Ideal Learning
mainstream pedagogy. child’s personality, view of life, behavior & destiny Communities -- They arev as open to conflicts, as
Alternative is the available possibilities, option as an adult. And it will also deeply affect the lives any other organization. Alternative are Unique as
choice, way out given to students. They are know of the parents & the life of a family as a whole. the way it is approached & resolved, along with
as Alternative as they are designed to educate (Robin Ann Martin,2000) the value that is found within each conflict.
students who have not been successful i regular
schools, often because of behavior, didciplinary & • Their Long & Unique history within well-
safety concern. rooted philosophical foundation -- Explained
“ Every Child is different. Every child responds in by Educational Historian “ Ron Miller” that
a different way” throughout the 200- year history of public
schooling, a widely scattered group of critics have
Sticking with “ Alternatives” for simplicity’s sake. pointed out that the education of young human
Other word used in place of “ alternative” by being should involve much more than simply
different authors include non-traditional, non- molding them into future workers or citizen.
conventional, or non-standardized. Unfortunately,
these words have negative impact/meaning as • Diversity -- Traditional private & public schools
well as multiple meanings. Also some alternatives are similar across time & space but alternative
may look traditional, conventional, or even WHY? create & maintain its own methods & approaches
standardized to the untrained eye, untill you see to learning & teaching.
inside more closely.
Many Educational alternatives do not call Common Philosophical of all alternative
themselves “School”, feeling that implies a education are: (Robin Ann Martin,2000)
traditional square building with classroom where • Individualized and child centric approach
students sit in a row of desk are led by a teachers. COMMONALITIES? • Non- traditional evaluation methods
But “School” for him implies those place where • Low Student- teacher ratio
people gather intentionally to learn. Thus, the only • Integrated approch to various disciplines
real thing that most schools still have in common TYPES? • Experiential Learning
are people & the untentionally for learning. • Creative instructional stuff
An alternate is the one that employs non- education based on the beliefs and testimonies of approach based on scientific observations of
taditional methods to educate students. The non- the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers). Friends children. Based on self-directed activity, hands-
traditionality could be in the type of curriculum schools vary greatly, both in their interpretation of on learning and collaborative play. This school
they offer, teaching and administrative system Quaker principles and in how they relate to formal is successful in the world of preschool.(Heidi
they employ or their techniques of evaluation. organizations that make up the Society of Friends. Murkoff,2019)
Most Friends schools provide an academically
Types of school based on such philosophies are : sound education while also promoting values of
- Democratic & Free Schools community, spirituality, responsibility and care in Open Schools
- Friends (Quaker) Schools their students. (Chicago Friends School,2019) In open schooling anyone can learn at their own
- Homeschooling, Unschooling & Deschooling pace as it allows students to choose subjects they
- Folk Education Homeschooling, Unschooling & Deschooling want to learn from list of subjects and does not
- Krishnamurti Schools Unschooling is often seen as a homeschool need to attend classes regularly. Moreover, they
- Montessori Schools method or educational philosophy where a child do not need to give exams of all the subjects at
- Open Schools is allowed to lead in their learning. Deschooling is the same time.
- Waldorf Schools the adjustment period between leaving school and
joining homeschooling (Jacqueline Wlison,2017) Waldorf Schools
Democratic & Free Schools Waldorf education, also known as Steiner
A democratic school is a school where students Folk Education education, is based on the educational philosophy
are trusted to take responsibility for their own Folk education is learning that happens when of Rudolf Steiner, the founder of Anthroposophy.
lives and learning, and for the school community. individuals and communities come together to The learning process is essentially threefold,
At such a school, students choose their own celebrate culture and life in order to critically engaging head, heart, and hands—or thinking,
activities and associate with whom they please. analyze challenging situations. (Robin Ann feeling, and doing. Waldorf teachers work
Many free schools are structured in ways that Martin,2000) to nurture and engage each child through a
often lead them to be democratic schools as well, curriculum and methodology that integrates
where staff as well as students get an equal vote. Krishnamurti Schools academics, arts, and practical skills.(Waldorf
Some schools allow votes on all matters, including The Krishnamurti Schools were founded with Education,2015)
financial, conflict resolution, staffing, and minor the aim of bringing a radical transformation in The architecture of such a school plays an integral
administrative decisions. Students are expected human consciousness. While imparting academic part by making physically possible the alternatives
to serve as responsible community members, proficiency, the school tried to awaken intelligence ways working of such schools and new modes of
following the rules of the community or facing the and sensitivity in the child in a non-competitive learning through new pdegogical approaches.
consequences. (,2019) enviornment.(,2019) School architecture reflects the society in which
(Robin Ann Martin,2000) it functions.
Montessori Schools
Friends (Quaker) Schools The Montessori Education, developed by Maria
Friends schools are institutions that provide an Montessori, is a child-centered educational

By taking care of all three aspect of
childhood problems and inferences
from Indian education history, also
skills which will be needed in future.
Found the Rudolf Steiner philosophy
(Waldorf System) relevant for middle
childhood age group, founded it as
NEED IN FUTEURE a unique & distincitive approach to
(Charlotte Edmond,2017)
(Greg Satell,2018) educating children, “ head, heart and
I hands”.
Critical Thinking & Problem- Solving
Agility and adaptability
Effective oral and written communication
Curiosity and imagination
Collaborating and working in teams
“ Waldorf Education is not a padagogical lives”. Learning is based on the study of Humanity • Using art & activities in order to teach
System but an art - the art of awakening what is with developing awareness of self and the • Internal motivation is developed
actually there within the human being” surrounding world.
(,2019) AIM • No academic content in early years
In 1919, Rudolf Steiner, the Austrian philosopher, • To educate the whole child, “head, heart & • Teachers stay with the class for number of
scientist and artist, was invited to give a series of hands” consecutive years (grade 1-8)
lectures to the workers of the Waldorf-Astoria • Balances academics subjects with the artistic & • Activities are central : art, music, gardening &
cigarette factory in Stuttgart, Germany. practical activities. foreign language
As a result, the factory’s owner, Emil Molt, • Teachers are dedicated in creating a genuine • Subjects are introduced through artistic medium
asked Steiner to establish and lead a school for love of learning within each child. as children respond better to this medium than to
the children of the factory’s employees. Steiner dry lecturing and rote learning.
agreed to do so on four conditions:
- the school should be open to all children;
- it should be coeducational; (Pinterest, 2019)
His Philosophy called
- it should be a unified twelve-year school; and Anthroporophy
- the teachers, those who would be working Human Windom
directly with the children, should take the leading I
Using natural means to optimize (, 2019)
role in the running of the school, with a minimum physical, mental health & well-
being Emphasize kids to play
of interference from governmental or economic I I (Rossi, 2019)
ART OF MOVEMENT music, handwork,art Story telling
concerns. I I I
Creativity Imagination + Creativity
Molt agreed to the conditions and, after a training Connect, child’s Imagination

period for the prospective teachers, die Freie

Waldorfschule (the Free Waldorf School) was
opened September 7, 1919.
Childhood isn’t meant to be
a race
Waldorf education is unique & distincitive I
Each Child is different
approach to educating children. No centralized I
(, 2019) teaches to be attentive to the
administrative but established association which Establish Routines (Vectors and Vectors, 2019) (, 2019) needs of each individual child
provide resources, publish material, sponsor I Connecting with Nature
Morning begins with “Circle everday
conferences, promote the movement. Unique Time” I
thing about waldorf education is its goal of rituals and routines give
Playing, observing the
schooling “to produce individuals who are able, children a sense of security and
provide them with roots
Calming effect on children
in and of themselves, to impart meaning to their Fig 20 : Principles of Waldorf Education (Divya Modi, 2019)
• No “textbook” as such in 1-5 grades ( have “ • Curriculum designed accordingly with drama
main lesson books” which are their own workbook established routines. • Norse myths, history and stories of ancient
and record their experiences about what they’ve • School should cater the need of children rather civilizations.
learned) than demand of government or economic forces, • Review of the four mathematical processes,
• Learning in a Waldorf school is a non- so he developed a school that encourage creativity fractions, percentages, and geometry.
competitive activity. There are no grades given & thinking • Local and world geography, comparative zoology,
at the elementary level; the teacher writes a botany and elementary physics.
detailed evaluation of the child at the end of each CURRICULUM
school year. The Waldorf curriculum is designed to be Upper Grades 7 - 8
• No use of electronic media, as it hamper child’s responsive to the various phases of a child’s
imagination. development. The relationship between student • Creative writing, reading, spelling, grammar,
• More emphasis put on festivals and ceremonies: and teacher is recognized to be both crucial and poetry and drama.
Seasonal festivals serve to connect humanity with changing throughout the course of childhood and • Medieval history, Renaissance, world
the rhythms of nature and of the cosmos. To join early adolescence. exploration, American history and biography.
the seasonal moods of the year, in a festive way, The main subjects, such as history, language arts, • Geography, physics, basic chemistry, astronomy,
benefits the inner life of the soul. Celebrating science and mathematics are taught in main geology and physiology.
is an art. There is joy in the anticipation, the lesson blocks of two to three hours per day, with
preparation, the celebration itself, and the each block lasting from three to five weeks. Special subjects also taught include:
memories. The total Waldorf curriculum has been to an Handwork: knitting, crochet, sewing, cross stitch,
ascending spiral: subjects are revisited several basic weaving, toy making and woodworking.
PHILOSOPHY times, but each new exposure affords greater Music: singing, pentatonic flute, recorder,
• His philosophy called Anthroposophy. The depth and new insights into the subject at hand. string instruments, wind, brass and percussion
term “anthroposophy” comes from the Greek Typical Lower School curriculum : instruments.
“anthropos-sophia” or “human wisdom” which Foreign Languages (varies by school): Spanish,
means theraperitic & creative system established Primary Grades 1 - 3 French, Japanese and German.
by Rudolf Steiner to use mainly natural mean to • Pictorial introduction to the alphabet, writing, Art: wet-on-wet water color painting, form
optimize physical, mental health & well being. reading, spelling, poetry and drama. drawing, beeswax and clay modeling, perspective
• Folk and fairy tales, fables, legends, Old drawing.
“Anthroposophy has its roots in the perceptions, Testament stories. Movement: eurythmy, gymnastics, group games.
already gained, into the spiritual world. Yet • Numbers, basic mathematical processes of Eurythmy is a dance-like art form in which music
these are no more than the roots. The branches, addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. or speech are expressed in bodily movement. It
leaves, blossoms, and fruits of Anthroposophy • Nature stories, house building and gardening. has also been called “visible speech” or “visible
grow into all the fields of human life and song”. It enhances coordination, strengthens the
action.” Middle Grades 4 - 6 ability to listen.
- Rudolf Steiner • Writing, reading, spelling, grammar, poetry and

Fig 20 : Aarambh Waldorf Front Garden, Delhi (Divya Modi, 2019)

1 - Way to building
2 - Front Garden Started : 2013
3 - Garden with swings
Location : Block A, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi, INDIA
4 - Classroom building
Total No. of Students : 50
5 - Changing Room
6 - Swimming Area Student & Teacher Ratio : Kindergarden - 20: 2 & 1st grade onward 5-8:1
7 - Backyard Grades : Playgroup - 5th grade
8 - Open space (Playarea)
Aarambh is a Waldorf school based on Waldorf Education’s philosophy. The
school’s mantra is “Receive the children in reverence, educate them in love,
and send them forth in freedom.” Each child is treated as a unique being, lov-
ingly taught through play based and experiential learning with the belief that
one day s/he will bloom into a well balanced, creative and humane individual.

Reason of choice : Translation of philosophy and pedagogy into space


Educational : Classrooms, kitchen
Recreational : Different Play Areas , garden
Fig 21 : Zoning of spaces (Divya Modi, 2019) Service : Toilets
Entry pathway

1st Grade

Pathway to main
Main building
with classrooms

Garden adjacent
to Building
Swimming Area &

Composition 4 : Spaces of learning space (Divya Modi, 2019)


Yellow Train School, Coimbatore (Vivek Muthuramalingam, 2015)

Architects : Biome Environmental Solutions
Area : 1334.0 sqm
Year : 2013
Grades : Kindergarden- 10th Grade

Yellow Train is a progressive school inspired by the philosophy of

Rudolf Steiner. The school is also influenced by the thinking of great
Teachers like Shri Aurobindo and Rabindranath Tagore. Located in
an organic farm, on the outskirts of Coimbatore, the school is a
growing community of teachers and parents in search of unhurried
childhood and holistic education. (yellowtrainschool,2016)
Reason of choice : Translation of philosophy and pedagogy into
(Vivek Muthuramalingam, 2015)

Fig 22 : Ground Floor Plan (Biome Environmental Solution,2015)

-- Play is a very important part of the system. -- Since basements as classrooms were not
-- Coimbatore being a hot climate play spaces allowed we decided to get the classrooms
have been brought in within the building to as well as play spaces to be close to 1.5
make them accessible to children at all times. meters below the road level whereby the
-- Caves and unusually lit spaces like through soil for construction was sourced. The
jalis allow for explorations and creation of entire roof’s water is harvested and stored
fantasy. as well as recharged. (Biome Environmental
Interesting Places
to discuss

Ramp has Jali

work, play of
light to make
the pathway
interesting and
Open Play area also let in cool air
which is shaded
most of the time.
It gives everyone
place to gather

Indoor Play area

Multi functional
Caves - Space to
encourage group
Composition 5: Spaces of learning space (Vivek Muthuramalingam, 2015)
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