Sei sulla pagina 1di 45

The

from

Psychological Perspectives
THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SELF
1. What do you know about the self
from a psychological perspective?

2. What do you want to know about the


self from a psychological perspective?
PSYCHOLOGY
Definition:
- It is the study of human behavior and mental processes.
- This includes the physical state and the mental state and
how this all relates to the environment of the individual.
Etymology:
- It comes from the Greek words PSYCHE meaning “soul” or
“spirit” & LOGOS meaning “study” (Bonstingl, 1996, 206).
OBJECTIVE
To outline the psychological
theories that influence the way
people understand the self.
Sigmund Freud’s

of

ID, EGO, AND SUPEREGO


This guy
ASSUMPTIONS
Levels of Mental Life:
▪ UNCONSCIOUS
▪ It contains all those drives, urges, or
instincts that are beyond our
awareness but that nevertheless
motivate most of our words,
feelings, & actions.
▪ It is the explanation for the meaning
behind dreams, slips of the tongue,
and certain kinds of forgetting,
called repression.
ASSUMPTIONS
Levels of Mental Life:
▪ SUBCONSCIOUS
▪ It contains all those elements that
are not conscious but can become
conscious either quite readily or with
some difficulty.
▪ Two sources:
▪ conscious perception. What a
person perceives is conscious for
only a transitory period
▪ unconscious. Freud believed that
ideas can slip past the vigilant
censor and enter into the
preconscious in a disguised form.
ASSUMPTIONS
Levels of Mental Life:
▪ CONSCIOUS
▪ It is the only level of mental life directly
available to us.
▪ Ideas can reach consciousness from
two different directions.
▪ Perceptual conscious system
▪ what we perceive through our
sense organs, if not too
threatening, enters into
consciousness
▪ Within the mental structure
▪ includes nonthreatening ideas
from the preconscious as well as
menacing but well-disguised
images from the unconscious.
ASSUMPTIONS
Three structures of the mind:
▪ ID
▪ Basic urges & desires
▪ It operates on the pleasure principle
▪ Two sets of instincts
- Life instincts (sex)
- Death instincts (aggression)
▪ EGO
▪ It operates on the reality principle
- It controls the ID.
▪ It refers to I-aspect
▪ Its goal to help ID satisfy its needs.
ASSUMPTIONS
Three structures of the mind:
▪ ID
▪ Basic urges & desires
▪ It operates on the pleasure principle
▪ Two sets of instincts
- Life instincts (sex)
- Death instincts (aggression)
▪ EGO
▪ It operates on the reality principle
- It controls the ID.
▪ It refers to I-aspect
▪ Its goal to help ID satisfy its needs.

NOTE: Both the ID and the EGO have no morals.


ASSUMPTIONS
- Three structures of the mind:
▪ SUPEREGO
▪ It is guided by moralistic & idealistic
principles
ASSUMPTIONS
- Three structures of the mind:
▪ SUPEREGO
▪ It is guided by moralistic & idealistic
principles
▪ It has two subsystems:
- Conscience
- What we should NOT do
- Ego-ideal
- What we should do.
▪ It closely monitors & judges ego’s
actions and intentions.
▪ Results
- Guilt
- Inferiority
ID SUPEREGO

EGO
Id Ego Superego

A pleasure-seeking person dominated by


Id
Id Ego Superego

A guilt-ridden or inferior-feeling person dominated


by SUPEREGO
Id Ego Superego

A psychologically healthy person dominated by


EGO.
Id Ego Superego

EGO STRENGTH
It refers to ego's ability to resolve the conflict between the three structures.
Erik Erikson’s

of

psychosocial crisEs
This guy
ASSUMPTIONS
• Our ego is a positive force that
creates a self-identity, a sense of “I”.
• Three interrelated aspects:
BODY EGO
▪ It refers to experiences with our body
EGO IDEAL
▪ It represents the image we have of
ourselves in comparison with an
established ideal
EGO IDENTITY
▪ It is the image we have of ourselves in
the variety of social roles we play.
ASSUMPTIONS
Stages of Psychosocial Development
• Events in earlier stages do not cause
later personality development.
• Ego identity is shaped by a multiplicity of
conflicts and events—past, present, and
anticipated.
• Each stage is characterized by an
identity crisis, which Erikson (1968)
called “a turning point, a crucial
period of increased vulnerability &
heightened potential”
ASSUMPTIONS
Adolescence:
• One of the most crucial developmental
stages
▪ By the end of this period, a person
must gain a firm sense of ego identity.
• It is a period of social latency
▪ They are allowed to postpone lasting
commitment to an occupation, a sex
partner, or an adaptive philosophy of
life.
• It is an adaptive phase of personality development
▪ It is a period of trial and error
ASSUMPTIONS
IDENTITY VS. IDENTITY CONFUSION
▪ The search for ego identity reaches a
climax during adolescence
▪ young people strive to find out who
they are and who they are not.
▪ Identity emerges from two sources:
▪ adolescents’ affirmation or
repudiation of childhood
identifications, and
▪ their historical & social contexts,
which encourage conformity to
certain standards.
ASSUMPTIONS
IDENTITY VS. IDENTITY CONFUSION
▪ SUCCESSFUL
▪ Commitment to particular identity
▪ Career path
▪ Social groups to associate with
▪ Sense of personal style
▪ UNSUCCESSFUL
▪ Unsure of who they are or what
they like
▪ Drift from one job to another
▪ Drift from one relationship to
another
▪ Unsure of what to do in their lives
▪ Disappointment; confusion
ASSUMPTIONS
FIDELITY
▪ It is the psychological virtue
characterized by the ability to relate
to others & form genuine
relationships.
▪ It raises and answers important
questions: "What is so important in my
life that I am willing to commit to it?“
ROLE REPUDIATION
▪ It blocks one’s ability to synthesize
various self-images and values into a
workable identity.
▪ It can take the form of diffidence or
defiance.
ASSUMPTIONS
SUPPORT SYSTEM
▪ Proper encouragement and
reinforcement → personal exploration
→ independence and self-control
“Yung sinasabi nila sa akin
na may obligasyon akong
sumunod sa kanila dahil
nag-invest sila sa akin.
Parang sinasabi nila sa
akin na investment lang
ang anak.
Ayaw ko po maging
investment lang kasi
hawak ko ang sarili kong
buhay. May sarili akong
mga desisyon. Buhay ko
ito eh.” –Alicia Lucena
Carl Rogers’

of

REAL AND IDEAL self

This guy
ASSUMPTIONS
- The self is a flexible and changing
perception of personal identity.
▪ It is the center of experiences (Rathus, 2017)

- Social interactions are important for:


▪ Self-development
▪ Awareness of one’s own characteristics
▪ Level of functioning

- Self-concept & Self-actualization


- We always strive for self-actualization
(It is our need to achieve our full potential)
- The development of self-concept is
central to achieving self-actualization.
- Self-concept
- It is the image of oneself
ASSUMPTIONS
- Two subsystems of the self:
▪ REAL SELF
- It consists of all the ideas including the
awareness of what one is & what one can do.
▪ IDEAL SELF
- It is the conception of what one should or what
one aspires to be including goals and ambitions
in life.
- Congruence between the two
components.
▪ Congruent (Real & Ideal Self)
- The more happy and fulfilled we become
▪ Incongruent (Real & Ideal Self)
- The more unhappy and dissatisfied we become
SELF

Real Ideal
Self Self

The closer our self-image & ideal self are to each other,
the more consistent & congruent we are and the higher
our sense of self-worth.
SELF

Real Ideal
Self Self

The farther our self-image & ideal self are to each other,
the less consistent & congruent we are and the lower
our sense of self-worth.
BECOMING A PERSON
UNCONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD
We perceive that other people accept, love, like, care for,
prize, or value us, UNCONDITIONALLY.

Positive Self-Regard
Prizing or valuing one’s self.

Congruence → Self-Actualization
BECOMING A PERSON
CONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD
Provision of warmth, affection, acceptance, and the like when certain
conditions, standards, and/or expectations are met.

CONDITIONS OF WORTH
People perceive that their parents, peers, or partners love and accept
them only if they meet those people’s expectations & approval.

INCONGRUENCE
BECOMING A PERSON
CONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD
Provision of warmth, affection, acceptance, and the like when certain
conditions, standards, and/or expectations are met.

CONDITIONS OF WORTH
People perceive that their parents, peers, or partners love and accept
them only if they meet those people’s expectations & approval.

Conditions of Worth → Incongruence →


Failure to Self-actualize
MAHAL KITA
MAGING SINO KA MAN.
THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SELF
1. What do you know about the self
from a psychological perspective?

2. What do you want to know about the


self from a psychological perspective?

3. What did you learn about the self


from a psychological perspective?