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# Week 2

MATHEMATICS
Came from Greek “mathema” = knowledge
Has no generally accepted definition
Definitions A study of numbers and arithmetic operations
-a process of A set of tools or collection of skills that can be applied to questions of how
thinking many or how much
-a set of A science involving logical reasoning
problem-solving Drawing conclusions from assumed premises
tools Strategic reasoning based on accepted rules, laws and
-an art probabilities
-a study of An art which studies patterns for predictive purposes or specialized
patterns language that deals with form, size and quantity
-a language
Defined differently by different people
Galileo Geometric perspective
“The universe cannot be read until we have learned the language and
become familiar with the characters in which it is written. It is written in
mathematical language, and the letters are triangles, circles and other
geometrical figures, without which means it is humanly impossible to
comprehend a single word. Without these, one is wandering about in a dark
labyrinth.”
David Hilbert Not like a game defined by rules
“We are not speaking here of arbitrariness in any sense. Mathematics is
not like a game whose tasks are determined by arbitrarily stipulated rules.
Rather, it is a conceptual system possessing internal necessity that can
only be so and by no means otherwise.”
AS A STUDY OF PATTERNS
Pattern An arrangement which helps observers anticipate what they might see or
happen next
Organized information so that it becomes more useful
LOGIC Sorting and classifying objects by diff properties
PATTERNS Ordering objects by some property
Recognizing the same pattern in diff manifestations
NUMBER Like counting, multiples, functions or trends
PATTERNS
GEOMETRIC Repeating shapes to create a patern
PATTERNS Like symmetry, tessellations
WORD In form and in syntax
PATTERNS Ex: form for plural nouns, tenses of verbs
FAMOUS MATHEMATICIANS
THALES Deductive mathematics: shaped theories of logic and math
624 BC – 547 “A man with general reputation for wisdom”
BC Thales theorem: there are 3 points in a circle (ABC=diameter AC)
Greek
FIVE GEOMETRIC Circle is bisected by its diameter
THEOREMS Angles in a triangle opposite two sides of equal
length are equal
Opposite angles formed by intersecting straight
lines are equal
Angle inscribed inside a semi circle is a right
angle
Triangle is determined if its base and the two
angles at the base are given
PYTHAGORAS Pythagorean theorem: the square of the hypotenuse of a right angle is
570 BC – 495 equal to the sum of the squares of the two other sides = c2 = a2 + b2
BC Egyptians already used this form even before him
Greek
EUCLID “Father of Geometry”
330 BC – 260 Treatise “The Elements”: deduced some of geometric principles using a
BC small set of axioms*
Greek Euclidean geometry: the study of plan and solid figures on the basis of his
axioms and theorem
*general truth
EUCLID’S AXIOMS Given two points, there is one straight line that
joins them
A straight line segment can be prolonged
indefinitely
A circle can be constructed when a point for its
center and a distance for its radius are given
All right angles are equal
DI KO GETS???
EUCLID’S COMMON Things equal to the same thing are equal
NOTIONS If equals are added to equals the wholes are
equal
If equals are subtracted from equals, the
remainders are equal
Things that coincide with one another are equal
The whole is greater than a part
ARCHIMEDES Pi accurate computation
287 BC – 212 “One of the three greatest mathematicians” with Carl Gauss and Isaac
BC Newton
Greek “Greatest mathematician of antiquity”
Created formula for volume of solid or an item of irregular shape and
volume of a sphere
LEONARDO Nickname: “Fibonacci”
PISANO Fibonacci number sequence (although her referenced it and not devised it)
BIGOLLO Instrument for the widespread of Arabic numerals to the west through his
1170-1250 book: “Liber Abaci” = Book of Calculation
Italian
JOHN NAPIER Logarithms: which he referred to as artificial numbers
1550 – 1617 Devised a special form of abacus for multiplication and division
Scottish Popularized the decimal point
RENE Cartesian coordinate system (cartesian plane)
DESCARTES Cartesian (analytical) geometry: the use of algebra to examine geometric
1596-1650 properties
French
PIERRE DE Last Theorem: there is no solution in integers of the equation xn + yn = zn (x,
FERMAT y, z ≠0, n>2)
1601-1665 Properties of curves and method of tangents > devt of calculus
French “Founder of the Theory of Probabilities” with Blaise Pascal
BLAISE Pascal’s triangle: binomial coefficients
PASCAL Developed one of the earliest calculators: Pascal calculator
1623-1662
French
ISAAC Binomial theorem
NEWTON Published “The Principia”: infinitesimal calculus in geometric form
1642-1727 “Father of Calculus” with Gottfried Leibniz
English Wrote “Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy”: became the catalyst
in understanding mechanics
Estimating roots of a function
GOTTFRIED Refined the binary system
LEIBNIZ Co-inventor of Calculus with Isaac Newton
1646-1716 First mechanical calculator: Stepped Reckoner which can perform the 4
German basic operations
CARL GAUSS One of the three greatest mathematicians
1777-1855 Regular polygon with 17 sides: heptadecagon which can be drawing using
German a compass and a straight edge > impossible until this time
Fundamental theorem of algebra: every algebraic solution has one root or
solution
AL- “Father of Algebra”
KHWARIZMI Hindu-Arabic numerals: Hindu place-value system of numerals based on 1,
Muslim 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 0
Persian Term algorithm derived from his name
al-Kitāb al-mukhtaṣar fī ḥisāb al-jabr wa-l-muqābala “The Compendious
Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing”: defined algebra
LEONHARD “Mechanica”: analysis of Newtomian dynamics in mathematical form
EULER Scientific notation
Swiss Euler’s number = e: irrational number
Euler’s formula
Popularized the ff:
π Pi Ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter
∑ Sigma Sum of all numbers
sin, cos, Sine, Trigonometric functions
tan cosine,
tangent
f(x) Function ‘f ‘is the function of variable ‘x’
of x
i Unit Square root of negative one (-1)
imaginary
number
e Base of natural logarithm
Basel theory: confirmed the sum of a specific zeta function to be
Introduced the concept of graphs from solving Seven Bridges of Königsberg
Problem
Other contributions include:
Calculus Formulae and solutions of differentiation and integration
Concept of function
Introduced the use of exponential function and logarithm in
analytic proofs
Algebra Proved the binomial theorem
Used scientific reasoning for fundamental processes
occuring
Geometry Properties of Euler line, Euler’s circle
Trigonometry Euler’s identity
Concept of imaginary logarithms of negative number and
infinite logarithms for complex numbers
JACOB First principles of the calculus of variation
BERNOULLI Bernoulli numbers: sequence of rational numbers
Pamphlets on the parallels of logic and algebra, probability and geometry
Infinite series and a law of large numbers concerning the probability theory
Ars Conjectendi “The Art of Conjecture”: foundation of probability
Discovered the constant ‘e’ used in mathematical problems

HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS

## EARLY FORMS OF COUNTING SYSTEMS

FINGERS AND Considered the earliest form of counting system
TOES Based on ones, tens and twenties due to the number of toes and fingers
COWRIE One of the first systems of counting developed from commerce
SHELLS Complex system based on 20 and fundamental operations except division
TIED KNOTS Developed by Persians and Incans
ON STRINGS Numbers depend on the kind of knot, number of knot, color and length of
the cord
NUMBERS 0-9 3rd century BC
The counting system being used today
It was not until the 800 years later that the number 0 has been constructed
to hold a place value in the counting system, such as in the number 1,000.

## DEVELOPMENT OF NUMBER SYSTEMS

PREHISTORIC Carved tallies for every seasonal change and inventory of livestock and
PEOPLE produce
Once vertical line = one tally count
30 000 years Ishango bone: tally stick in Central Africa
ago
SUMERANIANS Clay stones
4000 BC Small conical clay 1
stone
Spherical clay 10
stone
Large conical clay 60
stone
BABYLONIANS Reeds: Babylonian inscribed symbols that denote numbers on clay tablets
3300 BC Nail-shaped symbol 1
V-shaped symbol 5
(<)
ANCIENT Everyday objects to symbolize certain numbers
EGYPTIANS Rod 1
Cattle hobble 10
Coiled rope 100
Lotus flower 1000
CLASSICAL Devised own numeral system, base 10: Attic or Herodianic numerals
GREEKS I 1
450 BC II 2
III 3
III 4
Inverted L 5
Triangle 10
X 1000
HELENISTIC Hellenistic mathematics: Combined Greek mathematics with Egyptian and
GREEKS Babylonian
EARLY Developed the Roman Numeral System: Letters to represent a certain
ROMANS amount where their placement also affects the value
ANCIENT Developed vigesimal base 20 number system (based on the use of toes
MAYANS and fingers)
Applied multiplication in their number system
Shell 0
Dot 1
Horizontal bar 5
ANCIENT Small bamboo rods to represent numbers from 1 to 9
CHINESE Placed in columns that represented the place values > decimal place
system
Without concept of 0
I 1
II 2
III 3
IIII 4
IIIII 5
T 6
ANCIENT Developed the current numeral system: Hindu-Arabic number system
INDIANS Responsible for the concept of zero: originated from Hindu Symbol of void
and negativity> bindu: a circle with dote inside
MATH AS A LANGUAGE: non-instinctive system of communication using symbols
WORDS Symbols: 0, 1, +, /
LETTER Fixed values: a, b,c
CONVENTIONS For counting: i,j,k
Unknowns: x,y,z
NOUNS Numbers
Expressions with numbers: 2(3-1/2)
VERBS Equal sign
Ineguality
PRONOUNS Variables: x,y
Expressions: 5x-7
SENTENCES With equal sign
DECLARATIVE Yes or no
*The truth may depend on the value of the variable
PROPOSITION A statement which is either true or false but not both
PROPOSITIONAL Truth that depends on the value of the variable
FUNCTION
OPEN SENTENCE
PROPOSITIONAL Represented by lower or upper case denots an
VARIABLE arbitrary proposition with an unspecified truth value
Propositional form: assertion which contains at lease
one propositional variable
LOGICAL NEGATION Not P
OPERATORS CONJUNCTION Or
*may be unary: PQ: conjuncts
involves only DISJUNCTION Or inclusive
one proposition PQ: disjuncts
and is governed IMPLICATION Conditional
by a rule P: premise, antecedent, hypothesis
Q: Conclusion, consequent
BICONDITIONAL Material equivalence
Iff: if and only if
TYPES OF CONVERSE P > Q= Q > P
PROPOSITION INVERSE -P > -Q
CONTRAPOSITIVE -Q > -P
TAUTOLOGY A proposition that is always true = T buong row
except PQ
CONTRADICTION A proposition that is always false
ABSURDITY