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MATHEMATICS

Came from Greek “mathema” = knowledge

Has no generally accepted definition

Definitions A study of numbers and arithmetic operations

-a process of A set of tools or collection of skills that can be applied to questions of how

thinking many or how much

-a set of A science involving logical reasoning

problem-solving Drawing conclusions from assumed premises

tools Strategic reasoning based on accepted rules, laws and

-an art probabilities

-a study of An art which studies patterns for predictive purposes or specialized

patterns language that deals with form, size and quantity

-a language

Defined differently by different people

Galileo Geometric perspective

“The universe cannot be read until we have learned the language and

become familiar with the characters in which it is written. It is written in

mathematical language, and the letters are triangles, circles and other

geometrical figures, without which means it is humanly impossible to

comprehend a single word. Without these, one is wandering about in a dark

labyrinth.”

David Hilbert Not like a game defined by rules

“We are not speaking here of arbitrariness in any sense. Mathematics is

not like a game whose tasks are determined by arbitrarily stipulated rules.

Rather, it is a conceptual system possessing internal necessity that can

only be so and by no means otherwise.”

AS A STUDY OF PATTERNS

Pattern An arrangement which helps observers anticipate what they might see or

happen next

Organized information so that it becomes more useful

LOGIC Sorting and classifying objects by diff properties

PATTERNS Ordering objects by some property

Recognizing the same pattern in diff manifestations

NUMBER Like counting, multiples, functions or trends

PATTERNS

GEOMETRIC Repeating shapes to create a patern

PATTERNS Like symmetry, tessellations

WORD In form and in syntax

PATTERNS Ex: form for plural nouns, tenses of verbs

FAMOUS MATHEMATICIANS

THALES Deductive mathematics: shaped theories of logic and math

624 BC – 547 “A man with general reputation for wisdom”

BC Thales theorem: there are 3 points in a circle (ABC=diameter AC)

Greek

FIVE GEOMETRIC Circle is bisected by its diameter

THEOREMS Angles in a triangle opposite two sides of equal

length are equal

Opposite angles formed by intersecting straight

lines are equal

Angle inscribed inside a semi circle is a right

angle

Triangle is determined if its base and the two

angles at the base are given

PYTHAGORAS Pythagorean theorem: the square of the hypotenuse of a right angle is

570 BC – 495 equal to the sum of the squares of the two other sides = c2 = a2 + b2

BC Egyptians already used this form even before him

Greek

EUCLID “Father of Geometry”

330 BC – 260 Treatise “The Elements”: deduced some of geometric principles using a

BC small set of axioms*

Greek Euclidean geometry: the study of plan and solid figures on the basis of his

axioms and theorem

*general truth

EUCLID’S AXIOMS Given two points, there is one straight line that

joins them

A straight line segment can be prolonged

indefinitely

A circle can be constructed when a point for its

center and a distance for its radius are given

All right angles are equal

DI KO GETS???

EUCLID’S COMMON Things equal to the same thing are equal

NOTIONS If equals are added to equals the wholes are

equal

If equals are subtracted from equals, the

remainders are equal

Things that coincide with one another are equal

The whole is greater than a part

ARCHIMEDES Pi accurate computation

287 BC – 212 “One of the three greatest mathematicians” with Carl Gauss and Isaac

BC Newton

Greek “Greatest mathematician of antiquity”

Created formula for volume of solid or an item of irregular shape and

volume of a sphere

LEONARDO Nickname: “Fibonacci”

PISANO Fibonacci number sequence (although her referenced it and not devised it)

BIGOLLO Instrument for the widespread of Arabic numerals to the west through his

1170-1250 book: “Liber Abaci” = Book of Calculation

Italian

JOHN NAPIER Logarithms: which he referred to as artificial numbers

1550 – 1617 Devised a special form of abacus for multiplication and division

Scottish Popularized the decimal point

RENE Cartesian coordinate system (cartesian plane)

DESCARTES Cartesian (analytical) geometry: the use of algebra to examine geometric

1596-1650 properties

French

PIERRE DE Last Theorem: there is no solution in integers of the equation xn + yn = zn (x,

FERMAT y, z ≠0, n>2)

1601-1665 Properties of curves and method of tangents > devt of calculus

French “Founder of the Theory of Probabilities” with Blaise Pascal

BLAISE Pascal’s triangle: binomial coefficients

PASCAL Developed one of the earliest calculators: Pascal calculator

1623-1662

French

ISAAC Binomial theorem

NEWTON Published “The Principia”: infinitesimal calculus in geometric form

1642-1727 “Father of Calculus” with Gottfried Leibniz

English Wrote “Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy”: became the catalyst

in understanding mechanics

Estimating roots of a function

GOTTFRIED Refined the binary system

LEIBNIZ Co-inventor of Calculus with Isaac Newton

1646-1716 First mechanical calculator: Stepped Reckoner which can perform the 4

German basic operations

CARL GAUSS One of the three greatest mathematicians

1777-1855 Regular polygon with 17 sides: heptadecagon which can be drawing using

German a compass and a straight edge > impossible until this time

Fundamental theorem of algebra: every algebraic solution has one root or

solution

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICIANS

AL- “Father of Algebra”

KHWARIZMI Hindu-Arabic numerals: Hindu place-value system of numerals based on 1,

Muslim 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 0

Persian Term algorithm derived from his name

al-Kitāb al-mukhtaṣar fī ḥisāb al-jabr wa-l-muqābala “The Compendious

Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing”: defined algebra

LEONHARD “Mechanica”: analysis of Newtomian dynamics in mathematical form

EULER Scientific notation

Swiss Euler’s number = e: irrational number

Euler’s formula

Popularized the ff:

π Pi Ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter

∑ Sigma Sum of all numbers

sin, cos, Sine, Trigonometric functions

tan cosine,

tangent

f(x) Function ‘f ‘is the function of variable ‘x’

of x

i Unit Square root of negative one (-1)

imaginary

number

e Base of natural logarithm

Basel theory: confirmed the sum of a specific zeta function to be

Introduced the concept of graphs from solving Seven Bridges of Königsberg

Problem

Other contributions include:

Calculus Formulae and solutions of differentiation and integration

Concept of function

Introduced the use of exponential function and logarithm in

analytic proofs

Algebra Proved the binomial theorem

Used scientific reasoning for fundamental processes

occuring

Geometry Properties of Euler line, Euler’s circle

Trigonometry Euler’s identity

Concept of imaginary logarithms of negative number and

infinite logarithms for complex numbers

JACOB First principles of the calculus of variation

BERNOULLI Bernoulli numbers: sequence of rational numbers

Pamphlets on the parallels of logic and algebra, probability and geometry

Infinite series and a law of large numbers concerning the probability theory

Ars Conjectendi “The Art of Conjecture”: foundation of probability

Discovered the constant ‘e’ used in mathematical problems

HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS

FINGERS AND Considered the earliest form of counting system

TOES Based on ones, tens and twenties due to the number of toes and fingers

COWRIE One of the first systems of counting developed from commerce

SHELLS Complex system based on 20 and fundamental operations except division

TIED KNOTS Developed by Persians and Incans

ON STRINGS Numbers depend on the kind of knot, number of knot, color and length of

the cord

NUMBERS 0-9 3rd century BC

The counting system being used today

It was not until the 800 years later that the number 0 has been constructed

to hold a place value in the counting system, such as in the number 1,000.

PREHISTORIC Carved tallies for every seasonal change and inventory of livestock and

PEOPLE produce

Once vertical line = one tally count

30 000 years Ishango bone: tally stick in Central Africa

ago

SUMERANIANS Clay stones

4000 BC Small conical clay 1

stone

Spherical clay 10

stone

Large conical clay 60

stone

BABYLONIANS Reeds: Babylonian inscribed symbols that denote numbers on clay tablets

3300 BC Nail-shaped symbol 1

V-shaped symbol 5

(<)

ANCIENT Everyday objects to symbolize certain numbers

EGYPTIANS Rod 1

Cattle hobble 10

Coiled rope 100

Lotus flower 1000

CLASSICAL Devised own numeral system, base 10: Attic or Herodianic numerals

GREEKS I 1

450 BC II 2

III 3

III 4

Inverted L 5

Triangle 10

X 1000

HELENISTIC Hellenistic mathematics: Combined Greek mathematics with Egyptian and

GREEKS Babylonian

EARLY Developed the Roman Numeral System: Letters to represent a certain

ROMANS amount where their placement also affects the value

ANCIENT Developed vigesimal base 20 number system (based on the use of toes

MAYANS and fingers)

Applied multiplication in their number system

Shell 0

Dot 1

Horizontal bar 5

ANCIENT Small bamboo rods to represent numbers from 1 to 9

CHINESE Placed in columns that represented the place values > decimal place

system

Without concept of 0

I 1

II 2

III 3

IIII 4

IIIII 5

T 6

ANCIENT Developed the current numeral system: Hindu-Arabic number system

INDIANS Responsible for the concept of zero: originated from Hindu Symbol of void

and negativity> bindu: a circle with dote inside

MATH AS A LANGUAGE: non-instinctive system of communication using symbols

WORDS Symbols: 0, 1, +, /

LETTER Fixed values: a, b,c

CONVENTIONS For counting: i,j,k

Unknowns: x,y,z

NOUNS Numbers

Expressions with numbers: 2(3-1/2)

VERBS Equal sign

Ineguality

PRONOUNS Variables: x,y

Expressions: 5x-7

SENTENCES With equal sign

DECLARATIVE Yes or no

*The truth may depend on the value of the variable

PROPOSITION A statement which is either true or false but not both

PROPOSITIONAL Truth that depends on the value of the variable

FUNCTION

OPEN SENTENCE

PROPOSITIONAL Represented by lower or upper case denots an

VARIABLE arbitrary proposition with an unspecified truth value

Propositional form: assertion which contains at lease

one propositional variable

LOGICAL NEGATION Not P

OPERATORS CONJUNCTION Or

*may be unary: PQ: conjuncts

involves only DISJUNCTION Or inclusive

one proposition PQ: disjuncts

and is governed IMPLICATION Conditional

by a rule P: premise, antecedent, hypothesis

Q: Conclusion, consequent

BICONDITIONAL Material equivalence

Iff: if and only if

TYPES OF CONVERSE P > Q= Q > P

PROPOSITION INVERSE -P > -Q

CONTRAPOSITIVE -Q > -P

TAUTOLOGY A proposition that is always true = T buong row

except PQ

CONTRADICTION A proposition that is always false

ABSURDITY

CONTINGENCY Neither tautology or contradiction

LOGICAL

EQUIVALENCE

ARGUMENT Sequence of propositions: premises and a conclustion

VALID: if at least one row is a tautology

INVALID: if at least one row is a contradiction or contingeny

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