Sei sulla pagina 1di 9


Due to the desire of the Filipinos to form a pure Filipino organization, Filipino liberals who were
exiled in 1872 and students attending Europe’s universities stand together and composed an organization
which they called La Solidaridad. It was created for the sole purpose of increasing the Spanish awareness
of the needs of its colony, the abolition of censorship, and to disseminate a closer relationship between
the Spain and its colony, Philippines. The first list of officers to guide and handle the organization La
Solidaridad were: Galicano Apacible, who is the cousin of Rizal and who stand as its president: Graciano
Lopez-Jaena, as vice president: and Mariano Ponce, as its treasurer. Although Rizal was in London at that
time, he was still named as the honorary president of the organization. There were some problems that
Apacible encountered for being incapable of holding the wrangling reformists together. However, due to
the prestige of Rizal and political wisdom of del Pilar, they united the Filipinos in Spain and coordinated
all their efforts. (Zaide, 2009)

In order to achieve their goal, the Filipino propagandists stand together on February 15, 1889 to
establish a new publication which is the same name as their organization La Solidaridad. This became their
principal organ for their propaganda movement. It existed up to November 15,1895 and became known
as a “political propaganda paper with a liberal, reformist orientation dedicated to the task of fighting
reaction in all its form” (Zaide, 2009). However, there were a lot of factors that limits that influence of the
propagandist such as using the Spanish language which is unknown to the target audience and most
importantly, the censorship that seriously limited the inflow of such literary pieces and also made
possession of such very dangerous. But despite all the factors that limits the influence, La Solidaridad and
Rizal’s novel didn’t budge at all and “reached the local ilustrados which in most instances came to lead
the revolutionary forces in their province” (La Solidaridad & La Liga Filipina, 2019). Because of the
readership occurred and what Rizal and the other propagandists wrote were accurate reflections of
reality. They were given a lot of support and Thus, started the revival of the soul of the Filipinos and the
start of the continuity of reformism and revolution without using violence as what Rizal.

Jose Rizal was known as the most revered figures in the Philippines. He was a multifaceted
intellectual and a political activist. Rizal as a writer is known to be a leader, an eloquent spokesperson,
and the most outstanding propagandist at the time. As he was known to be a political activist, his goal as
he started the propaganda movement and political activities, is to revive the national consciousness
between the Filipinos. During the time that he finished writing his novel Noli me Tangere and came back
to the Philippines, he was harassed and threatened from the Spaniards which resulted to Rizal Leaving
Philippines again on 1888. He traveled through Hong Kong, America, Europe, and Japan to focus on his
scholarly research and political writing. Over the course of his travels, he wrote articles for the La
Solidaridad. As stated above, La Solidaridad is a Filipino reformist newspaper based in Madrid which is the
same name as its organization.

Today, Jose Rizal is known as the national hero of the Philippines because he fought for freedom
in a brave silent way but turns out to be the most effective and powerful way. By simply using only his
writings to open the eyes and the national consciousness of the Filipinos which also symbolizes him as
goodness. One of the “tears and laughter” blah blah
Methods and Approach

The study shall be using Qualitative Research through Content Analysis (Bayron Jr., 2018) by
means of deconstruction. It is a post-modern literary means of textual analysis presented as a systematic
approach to understanding the meaning of an advertising text (Toman, 2016). The method of analysis
that shall be chosen would thus preserve the distinction and hierarchization of the literal over the
rhetorical in the analysis of a text to be scrutinized (McQuillan, 2010).

The study prefer the use of deconstruction analysis is to contribute a sense of behavioral and
cultural research on advertising by allowing researchers to “read” arguments as expressions of
contemporary consumer culture (Toman, 2016).

Review of Related Literature

A Journal on The La Solidaridad and Philippine Journalism in Spain (1889-1895)

Marcelo del Pilar, a fellow proponent of the following publication would label La Solidaridad as “Nuestros
periodiquito” or “Our little newspaper”. The mentioned periodical, that would later serve as the organ of
the Philippine reform movement in Spain. For the next seven years, the La Solidaridad serves as the
respected Philippine newspaper in the peninsula (Torres, 2017) that voiced out the reformists’ demands
and perforated their attempts to open the eyes of the Spaniards to what is currently happening to the
Philippine society.

The contributors of the La Solidaridad were mostly Filipinos (Zaide, 1994), such as:
Marcelo H. del Pilar (Plaridel), Dr. Jose Rizal (Laon Laan), Mariano Ponce (Naning, Kalipulo, Tigbalang),
Antonio Luna (Taga Ilog), Jose Ma. Panganiban (Jomapa), Dr. Pedro Paterno, Antonio Ma. Regidor,
Isabelo delos Reyes, Eduardo de Lete, Jose Alejandrino
There are other notable foreign people that contributed to the formation of the mentioned
publication, notably Professor Blumentritt (Austrian) and Dr. Morayta (Spanish).
Despite its significant place in our history, the story of the publication has not entirely been told. An
account would tell that “Madalas pag-usapan pero hindi alam ang kasaysayan.” (Saber, 2017). There
haven’t been any clear evidences on the La Solidaridad’s beginnings, the hardships to endure to survive
as a printing press and its bitter ending.

There exists a singular work which studied the La Solidariad and he was recognized as John N. Schumacher.
In his works (The Propaganda Movement (1972) that was published in and in 1997), presented and
mentioned as part of the history of the reformist movement (Saber, 2017). The paper aims to explicate
ideas and facts about La Solidaridad and parts of its history that is often overlooked.

A Journal on Philippine Higher Education and the Origins of Nationalism

According to Schumacher (1975), in order to write of the beginnings of nationalism seems to be a paradox
to an individual acquainted with the nationalist literature of the remainder of the last two decades of the
century. Exceptional pieces like Rizal’s El Fili and Panganiban’s dissection in the La Solidaridad that is open
to Filipinos of the 1880s is the most systematic of the critiques (Schumacher, 1975) of Philippine higher

In one of Schumacher’s journals (1975) indicated that the chief complaint of the young Filipinos against
education is their narrow limits of commerciality imposed on them (Filipino students) on which they call
it as lack of academic freedom (Schumacher, 1975)

The Propaganda Movement (1880s and 1890s) was the period in time in which the Filipinos became fully
aware of their being as a Filipino, not merely Tagalogs, Visayans, and Ilokanos, not merely a people united
under a Spanish colonial rule in lieu to Schumacher (1975). The mentioned national consciousness,
accounted to the Propaganda movements which is its catalyst, came into existence as the primary cause
of the Philippine institutions of higher education.

If it is indeed a fact that Philippine higher education was significant in the growth of Filipino nationalism,
and that if it did provide competent leaders transitioning a radical change in Philippine society, it remains
to be questioned on what are the “ways” have they paved the way for it to be successful. Though Jesuits
and Dominicans who provided education were not consciously promoting any movement towards Filipino
emancipation from Spanish captive, which is ironically a fact. Rizal understood it more vividly than his
fellow colleagues what the significance of education is when he sent a letter to Blumentritt in 1887 about
the Filipinos’ state in Madrid and then revising a predecessor of La Solidaridad, España en Filipinas which
is shortlived either way.

A Content Analysis of Jose Rizal’s selected Compositions

The heroism of Dr. Jose P. Rizal is a manifestation of fortitude of the Filipinos to face the tests of time with
valor. His contributions to reach diplomacy bring about changes in the lives of the Filipinos and that makes
him everyone’s epitome. Ocampo (2006) said that the life of Dr. Jose P. Rizal is a living testament among
Filipinos to live with their intelligence and help bring the country to the pedestal through intellectual
excellence as well as in the technical.
The study seeks to analyze the literary elements embedded on Dr. Jose Rizal’s selected poems “Imno sa
Talisay”, “Josefina”, “Awit ng Manlalakbay”, and “Kay Don Ricardo Carcinero” which he composed during
his exile in Dapitan City, Zamboanga Del Norte. The research relied solely on Qualitative research through
Content Analysis (Bayron Jr., 2018) to analytically scrutinize the in-depth evaluation of the aforesaid genre
of Rizal (Bayron Jr., 2018).

The content of the study below comprises of a table that classifies the chosen poem, literary figure, the
actual meaning and the lines that imply that literary figure in the given poem.

Title Description
“Awit ng Maglalakbay” Rizal exile from Dapitan, he made it like he was in
Calamba. During his exile he did not waste his
time, he studied about different types of plants
and animals. He raised a school and taught some
of the children. Rizal composed this poem for
himself inspired by his journey during his stay in
other countries.
“Kay Don Ricardo Carnicero” Rizal eventually wrote a poem entitled “A Don
Ricardro Carnicero”, on the occasion of
commandant’s birthday on the 26th of August,
1892. Rizal temporarily lived in the house of the
Commandant in the Calle Real. This poem is
offered by Rizal of his respect and admiration for
the Captain.
“Imno sa Talisay” The poem was written during the exile of Dr. Jose
Rizal, he conducted his school at his home in
Talisay, near Dapitan. It is also where he had his
farm and hospital. His favorite meetings with his
students who are mostly boys was under a Talisay
tree, after which the place was named in honor of
Talisay. He wrote a poem entitled “Himno a
Talisay” for his pupils to sing. However, the
Spaniards find the poem subversive, having this
poem being used by his opponents against him
during his trial.
“Sa Aking Kinaligpitan” Rizal describes his exile in Dapitan, where 1892 to
1896, he lived an unexciting but fruitful life. In his
exile Rizal proved that life can still be abundant
and full of achievements. He lived as a merchant
and a farmer and built three houses made from
bamboo, wood, and nipa. Interestingly, his houses
were of varied geometrical shapes.

Title Personification Textual Meaning Hyperbole Textual Meaning

“Awit ng “Buhay niyong To travel or “At ang To keep feelings
Maglalakbay” naglalayag” venture other naglalayag, hidden.
places. kinaiinggitan sa
bilis ng lipad
“Ngunit ang Downfall/failure kapag
ligaya’y lumayo nagdaraan.”
“Bayan at daigdig To forget all the
siya’y good things
nalimutan...” happened.

“Kay Don Ricardo “Iginala ang To widen the

Carnicero” pagtingin aspects.

“Ngayon ay Prosperity
nagngiti’t may
ilaw ng lugod”

“Sa bukang- Happiness /hope

liwayway na
lubhang masigla”

“Gayundin ang Sorrow/Sadness

araw at langit na
“Imno sa Talisay” “Mabuhay, The strength and “Ikaw’y Victory/hope
Talisay! integrity of the matagumpay Sa
Matiyaga’t Filipinos are un- lahat ng bagay
matibay Laging sa match. Lupa’t karagatan,
unahan Talo mo, hangin
Maglalakad ikaw.” man.”
“Talisay ay walang Fearless
“Lawa namin Stability as a
dito’y wala pang Filipino people.
katukol, Ang talon
ng tubig, banging
di manuynoy”

“Sa paa ng Abundance and “Ay nalulukuban Popularity

“Sa Aking bundok na purity of the ng libong
Kinaligpitan” nababalutan Ng place. luningning”
isang talukbong
na kulay-luntian”
“Ang hinahanap Sorrow and “Siya ang sa Giving hope and
ko sa kapayapaan peace. kalulwa ko’y happiness.
Niring aking nagbibigay-sigla’t
diwa’t nang ningas”
mapipi naman
Ang mga sakit
kong walang
“Ay himig- Purity and peace. “Ang init ng Reminiscing the
kundiman ang dating bulong sa past.
kanyang lagaslas,” noo ko’y
humahalik, Ang
“Pati ang alon ay Restoration of dating
may mga lihim” vitality. nagpapaningas sa
“Na buntong Silence sigla kong nag-init
hininga sa At siyang
hanging nagpapakulo sa
mahinhi’y” dugo ng pusong
“Halik ng Broken dreams
umagang lupa ang
Noong libu-libong
nalalang at sukat,
Na mula sa wala’t
di abot ng hagap
Ay nagsipanayam
sa bangin at

“Nguni’t kung ang Problems and

gabi ay lubhang sadness in life.
masungit, At ang
hangin nama’y
nagngangalit, At
ang mga alo’y

Llanto Y Risas (Tears and Laughters)

This essay composed by Rizal is one of his articles in the La Solidaridad publication. Dated
November 30, 1889, this article was a condemnation of the racial prejudice of the Spanish against the
brown race. Rizal remembered that he earned first prize in a literary contest in 1880. He narrated
nonetheless how the Spaniard and mestizo spectators stopped their applause upon noticing that the
winner had a brown skin complexion.

His essay is a satire where Rizal conveys his gratitude and tribute for the agony of his country and
compatriots in the hands of the Spaniards. He reflects on events of his childhood and adolescent years,
up to his stay in Europe. But then, Rizal sarcastically expresses his delight over the country’s fate and tears
fall in his heart as rain falls on his beloved country. It is such a secret place, the land of tears.

A Review on Derrida, Deconstruction and Social Theory

The article primarily focused on deriving what is deconstructionism in accordance to Derrida, a French
philosopher and the proponent of this theory. Deconstruction, a theory about language and literature,
was introduced in the 1970s, in large part as a reaction to the primacy of French structuralism and a
repressive academic system that strictly administered a unique interpretation of literary text (Hendricks,
2016). The essence of this literary theory is to question the fundamental conceptual distinctions, or
“oppositions” by means of thorough contemplation of the language and the logic of literary as well was
philosophical texts.

Derrida sought to overthrow the purpose of structuralism, as deconstruction opens new suggestions on
ways on how we analyze things that oppose to become oddly unified. Thus, making everything that is
argued meaningless. Derrida argues that logocentric (words and language as fundamentally critical in
expressing an external reality) interpretive interest in theology and philosophy is widely held and
contradict by the West, as this somehow reveals the Western belief of the metaphysics of presence
(Hendricks, 2016).

Derrida noted that deconstruction as a means of a technique rather than a process of breaking down. It
[deconstruction] is a significant tool in creating new ideas with regards to the text (Derrida, 1970).
Derrida’s critical analysis of Rousseau clearly shows the relation between writing and linguistics, which
Derrida marks with the expression of supplementation in the text. Writing can be deduced as a ‘dangerous
factor’ (Rheinberger, 2008:85).

As with the opposition between society and the nature, however, the essence of the deconstructive
analysis is not to portray that the terms of the speech/writing opposition should interchange—that writing
is really prior to speech—nor is it to show that there are no differences between speech and writing.
Rather, it is to dismantle the latter to show that neither term is above.

SPAIN (1889-1895). Luz y Saber,11(2). Retrieved from

Hendricks, G.P., 2016, ‘Deconstruction the end of writing: “Everything is a text, there is nothing outside
context”’, Verbum et Ecclesia 37(1), a1509. http://dx.doi. org/10.4102/ve.v37i1.1509

SCHUMACHER, J. (1975). Philippine Higher Education and the Origins of Nationalism. Philippine Studies,
23(1/2), 53-65. Retrieved from

Xiaoli Fang (2017) A Review on Deconstruction and Criticism, Comparative Literature: East & West, 1:1,
134-139, DOI: 10.1080/25723618.2017.1339515

La Solidaridad & La Liga Filipina. (2019, Jan 12). Retrieved from Philippine History:

Zaide, S. M. (2009). La Solidaridad. Retrieved from

Jose Rizal and the Propaganda Movement. (2019). Retrieved from Country Studies:

Mañebog, J. D. G. (2014, May 5). Jose Rizal's Essays and Articles. Retrieved from’s-essays-and-articles.

Co, J. (2013). Jose Rizal's Llanto Y Risas. Retrieved from

Ravin TB. José Rizal: Philippine National Hero and Ophthalmologist. Arch
Ophthalmol. 2001;119(2):280–284. doi: ISSN-

Mouffe, Chantal (ed.) (1996) Deconstruction and pragmatism. London/New York, Routledge.

Suzanne G. Philosophy Before Literature: Deconstruction, Historicity, and the Work of Paul de Man, 1983.
retrieved from

Abraham B. Bayron, Jr. 2018. “Selected poems of dr. Jose P. Rizal: an analysis”, International Journal of
Current Research, 10, (08), 72795- 72800.