Sei sulla pagina 1di 12

Mechanical Design Mechanical joints

Mechanical joints

Welded joints

Methods of joining materials

1. Mechanical joints
2. Adhesives
3. Welding
Uses of welding:
1. Ship building, industrial and commercial buildings.
2. Oil pipe -line construction.
3. Automobile, railways and bridges.
4. Machine tools.
5. Farm equipment, home appliances, and air-conditioning units.
6. Computer components.
7. Mining equipment.
8. Boilers, furnaces and vessels.
9. Maintenance and repair of equipment
Welding and cutting processes:
The most popular processes are:
Oxy-fuel gas welding (OFW)
A mixture of oxygen and acetylene is used to melt both parent metals.
Shield metal arc welding (SMAW) it is the most popular method because:
1. High quality weld
2. Excellent uniformity
3. High rate
4. It can be used for variety of materials and thickness.
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW):
Advantages:
1. Clean
2. High quality weld
3. No post weld finishing is required
4. Performed on variety of material
Gas metal arc welding (GMAW):
1. Fast
2. Economical

Dr. Salah Gasim Ahmed YIC 1


Mechanical Design Mechanical joints

3. Welding on thin as well as thick plates


4. Reduced post-weld cleanup
Forge welding:
It is an old method of welding where manual or machine hammering is used
to weld the two pieces together
Pressure welding or resistance welding
In this method an electric current is passed through the two parent material
until it causes a localized melting and a pressure is applied.
1. Spot welding
2. seam welding

Welding joints:
Figure(7.1) shows main types of welding joints

Butt joint Lap joint

Double butt joint


Edje joint

Tee joint Corner joint

Fig. (7.1)

Welding terminology

Dr. Salah Gasim Ahmed YIC 2


Mechanical Design Mechanical joints

Figure (7.2) shows geometrical


terminology used in describing welding Reinforced
a
dimensions
Flush

b
a: throat
b: leg
Concave

Illustration of welding in engineering Fig. (7.2)


drawing
Figure (7.3) shows how different types of welding are shown in engineering
drawings

ax L
a
Butt,single reinforced,
visible-near side

ax L
a
ax L
Butt,double, flush

ax L

Fillet, flush, near- side


Reinforced -far side

ax L

Fillet , concave, far-side ax L

bx L
Fillet , concave,visible ax L
flush - far-side
a b

Fig. (7.3) Representaion of welding on an engineering drawing

Dr. Salah Gasim Ahmed YIC 3


Mechanical Design Mechanical joints

Welding strength:
In fig.(7.4) Three welding joints subjected to tension are shown. Under such
conditions the welding joints are classified under three classes according to the
stress exerted on the joint:
F
Class 1 - Longitudinal shear
Area of shear = 2aL (7.1) Class 1
h
Class 2- transverse shear + tension
Area of shear = 2hL (7.2)
Class3 -pure tension F
Area of tension = hL (7.3)
Where, Class 2
a = 0.707 h

Class 3
Fig.(7.4)
Design of welding joint:
The allowable stress value shown in
table (7.1) are applied in obtaining the dimension of the weld if the welding rods
are coated with flux, other wise it should be reduced by 20%. Half of an inch
should be added to the length of weld to compensate for the defects which may
occur at the beginning and end of welding. For more accurate results Table (7.3)
can be used.
Table (7.2) shows the stress concentration factors for various types of joints.

Table (7.1) Allowable loads on mild steel shielded arc-weld in shear


Size of fillet weld (in)
Type of weld
1 3
16 1 516 3 8 1 2 5 8 3 4
8 4
Transverse weld 1325 198 265 331 397 530 662 795
5 0 0 5 0 0 0
Longitudinal weld 1000 150 200 250 300 400 500 600
0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Table (7.2) Stress concentration factor (K) for welds


Type of load K
Reinforced butt weld 1.2

Dr. Salah Gasim Ahmed YIC 4


Mechanical Design Mechanical joints

Toe of transverse fillet weld 1.5


End of longitudinal weld 2.7
T-butt joint with sharp corners 2
Table (7.3) Strength of Shielded-Arc Flush Steel Welds
Safety factor 2 Safety factor 2 Safety factor 2.75
Kind of Stress Static load Load varies from 0 to F Load varies from -F to +F
Tension 16000 14500 8000
Compression 18000 16000 8000
Bending 18000 16000 9000
Shear 11000 10000 5000
Shear and tension 11000 10000 5000

Eccentric loads:
When the load on a welded joint is applied eccentrically, the welds will be
subjected to a combination of shear caused by the direct load and shear caused by
torque. The state of stress in such a joint is complicated; and in order to determine
the value of the significant stress even approximately, it is necessary to assume

O1

S
r1
r

Fig.(7.5) Eccentric loading


that the torsional shear stress at any point is proportional to its distance from
centroid of all weld areas.
If the weld shown in fig.(7.5) is one of several forming a joint with the centroid of
weld areas at O, the torsional shear stress s on an element dA of the weld will be
perpendicular to r and can be expressed as:
s = nr
where n is a constant of proportionality and r the distance from the element to O.
The external torque T is equal to the torque resistance of the element, sdAr,
integrated over all the welds in the joint. Thus,

Dr. Salah Gasim Ahmed YIC 5


Mechanical Design Mechanical joints

T = ∫ sdAr

T = n ∫ r 2 dA = nJ
Where J is the polar moment of inertia with respect to O for all elements of the
weld. The stress in any element can be found by the relation:
Tr
s = (7.4)
J

Example(1)
Determine the load which an arc-welded joint of class 1, fig.(7.4), can safely
carry if it joints 0.375 in plates and each fillet is 4.5 in long and reinforced. The
load varies from zero to a certain maximum value.

Solution:
The cross-sectional area of a flush fillet weld resisting shear would be a(l-0.5), and
the area of a fully reinforced fillet may be taken as 1.2 a(l-0.5). Thus the total
cross-sectional area of both fillets is:
A1 = 0.707h x 1.2 a(l-0.5)x2 = 0.707 x0.375 x 1.2 x (4.5 -0.5) x 2 = 2.55
The working stress from table (7.) is Ss = 10000 psi, the safe load is,
F1 = A1Ss = 2.55 x 10000 = 25,500 lb

Example(2):
Determine the loads which welded joints of class 2 and class 3 Fig.(7.4) can
safely carry using the conditions and data of the previous example and compare
them with the strength of the strip.

Solution:
In the joint of class 2 the section area in tension is equal to that in shear. Therefore
the strength in shear is smaller. The area of the weld is:
A2 = 0.375 (4.5 – 0.5) x 2 = 3 in2
And the safe load with S =10000 psi is:
F2 = A2xSs = 3 x 10000 = 30000 lb

Thus one may say that class 2 joint is considerable stronger than a class 1 joint
although they are not quite comparable.
In the joint of class 3 the area of the dangerous section with a reinforced joint is :
A3 = 0.375 x 1.2 x (4.5 -0.5) = 1.8 in2
From table (7.) allowable stress in tension is S = 14500 psi and the safe load is:
F3= A3S= 1.8 x 14500 = 26100 lb

Dr. Salah Gasim Ahmed YIC 6


Mechanical Design Mechanical joints

The class 1 joint is the weakest one, although its strength is only 2% below what
of class 3

Assume that the base metal is SAE 1010 steel with endurance limit of S e=
14500 psi. The safe load amplitude with a safety factor of 2 is:
0.375 x4.5 x14500
Fa= = 12200lb
2
Hence Fmax = 2Fa=24400 lb

2200 lb
2 in 2 in 4.5 in
6 in

¼ in weld

Fig. (7.6)

Thus arc welded joints are theoretically stronger than the strip

Example(3):
Determine the maximum stress in the reinforced weld of the bracket plate in
fig.(7.6) . Assume that the load varies from zero to the maximum value
Solution:
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….

Dr. Salah Gasim Ahmed YIC 7


Mechanical Design Mechanical joints

………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….

Dr. Salah Gasim Ahmed YIC 8


Mechanical Design Mechanical joints

………………………………………………………………………………….

Dr. Salah Gasim Ahmed YIC 9


Mechanical Design Mechanical joints

Ex. 1:
Fig. (7.7) below shows a welding joint under a tension of 20000 Lb. The
ratio of the weld length (A) to the weld width (B) equals 1.5. The thickness of
the plates is 3 8 Find suitable dimensions for the joint.

F B F

F
F

Fig. (7.7)
Ex. 2
A steel bracket is shown in fig.(7.8). The thickness of steel plates is ¼ in.
A reinforced weld of ¼ is used to join the two plates. A force which varies from
0 to 2540 Lb is exerted at angle of 30 0 with the horizontal axis of the joint. Find
the maximum stress in the weld.

2 in 2 in 4.5 in

6 in O
300

2540 Lb
1/4 in
weld
Fig. (7.8)

Dr. Salah Gasim Ahmed YIC 10


Mechanical Design Mechanical joints

Ex. 1:
Fig. (7.7) below shows a welding joint under a tension of 20000 Lb. The
ratio of the weld length (A) to the weld width (B) equals 1.5. The thickness of
the plates is 3 8 Find suitable dimensions for the joint.

F B F

F
F

Fig. (7.7)
Ex. 2
A steel bracket is shown in fig.(7.8). The thickness of steel plates is ¼ in.
A reinforced weld of ¼ is used to join the two plates. A force which varies from
0 to 2540 Lb is exerted at angle of 30 0 with the horizontal axis of the joint. Find
the maximum stress in the weld.

2 in 2 in 4.5 in

6 in O
300

2540 Lb
1/4 in
weld
Fig. (7.8)

Dr. Salah Gasim Ahmed YIC 10


Mechanical Design Mechanical joints

Ex. 1:
Fig. (7.7) below shows a welding joint under a tension of 20000 Lb. The
ratio of the weld length (A) to the weld width (B) equals 1.5. The thickness of
the plates is 3 8 Find suitable dimensions for the joint.

F B F

F
F

Fig. (7.7)
Ex. 2
A steel bracket is shown in fig.(7.8). The thickness of steel plates is ¼ in.
A reinforced weld of ¼ is used to join the two plates. A force which varies from
0 to 2540 Lb is exerted at angle of 30 0 with the horizontal axis of the joint. Find
the maximum stress in the weld.

2 in 2 in 4.5 in

6 in O
300

2540 Lb
1/4 in
weld
Fig. (7.8)

Dr. Salah Gasim Ahmed YIC 10