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4/27/16

Childhood  
Chapter  12  
Life  Cycle:     •  Category  of  Childhood:  
–  Toddlers:  1-­‐3  years  old  
From  Childhood    
–  Preschoolers:  4-­‐5  years  old  
Through  Older  Adulthood  
–  School-­‐aged  children:  6-­‐10  years  old    
BIOL  103,  SP16   •  Childhood  vs.  Adolescence:  
–  Childhood:  age  1  to  onset  of  puberty  
–  Adolescence:  onset  of  puberty  to  
adulthood  

Energy  and  Nutrient  Needs  During   Childhood  


Childhood  
•  Energy  and  Protein   •  Vitamin  and  Mineral  
–  Total  energy  requirements  gradually  increases   Supplements  
–  Kilocalories  and  grams  protein  per  kg  of  body   –  Recommended  
weight  decreases  from  infancy   balance  of  food  groups  
•  Vitamins  and  Minerals   for  kids  is  the  same  as  
–  Variety  of  foods  needed   adults.  
–  Assess  iron  intake   –  Who  should  receive  
• Iron  deficiency  can  impair  a  child’s  growth,   supplements?  
mood,  aWenXon  span,  focus,  ability  to  learn.    
• American  children  do  not  consistently  met  
dietary  recommendaXons  for  fruits,  grain,  and  
dairy  group.  

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Childhood   Childhood  
•  Influences  on  childhood  food  habits  and  intake  
–  Toddler’s  food  habits  are  usually  temporary  
–  Caregivers  have  increased  role  in  the   •  Television  
development  of  child’s  health  and  nutriXon    
habits    
• Safe,  sanitary,  and  supporXve  environment    
  •  Environmental  factors  
 
 
–  Kids  are  responsible  for  when  and  how  much  
to  eat  

Childhood  
•  NutriXonal  Concerns  of  Childhood  
–  MalnutriXon  and  hunger  
• Food  insecurity  

• Federal  assistance  programs  


– WIC  
– NaXonal  School  Lunch  
– Breakfast  and  Summer  Food  Service  
Programs  Summer  Food  Service  

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Childhood   Childhood  
•  NutriXon  Concerns  of  Childhood   •  Childhood  and  Teenage  Obesity  
–  Food  and  behavior   –  16-­‐33%  of  children  and  adolescents  obese  
• Foods  associated  with  hyperac6vity   –  Overweight  children  likely  to  become  
– Caffeine   overweight  adults  
– Energy  drink/Soda   –  The  Path  to  Obesity  
  • Most  commonly  begins  between  ages  5-­‐6  
–  A8en6on-­‐deficit  hyperac6vity  disorder  (ADHD)   or  during  adolescence  
•  Sugar  
•  Food  preservaXves  and  colorings  

Childhood   Childhood  
•  Childhood  and  Teenage  Obesity   •  Childhood  and  Teenage  Obesity  
–  What  Causes  Obesity?   –  Risks  and  ComplicaXons  
• GeneXc,  biological,  behavioral,  and   • Increased  risk  of  heart  disease  
cultural  factors   • High  blood  pressure  
• 80%  chance  for  children  with  two  obese   • Diabetes  
parents   • Breathing  problems  
• Trouble  sleeping  

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Childhood   Childhood  
•  NutriXon  and  chronic  disease  
•  Childhood  and  Teenage  Obesity  
–  Dietary  Guidelines  for  Americans  
–  Management  
• Screening  children  with  family  history  of  
• Start  a  weight-­‐management  program   high  lipid  levels  
• Change  eaXng  habits   •  Lead  toxicity  
• Plan  meals  and  make  beWer  selecXons   –  Slow  growth  
• Control  porXons   –  Iron-­‐deficiency  anemia  
• Increase  physical  acXvity   –  Damage  to  brain  and  CNS  
• Limit  snacking   –  Low-­‐iron,  calcium,  and  zinc  intakes  increase  
lead  absorpXon  

Lead  Poisoning  in  Michigan   NutriXon  Concerns  of  Childhood  


•  Vegetarianism    
•  When  Michigan  officials   •  Nutrients  to  emphasize  
switched  water  sources  
for  Flint,  it  introduced  iron   1.  Calcium    
and  lead  into  the  water   2.  Iron    
supply   3.  Zinc  
•  Forgot  to  add  anX-­‐ 4.  Vitamin  B12  (vegan  forXfied  soy-­‐milk)  
corrosive  agent;  water  
was  eroding  iron  the  iron   5.  Vitamin  D    
water  mains   – 20-­‐30  min  of  sunlight  3x/week  

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Adolescence   Adolescence  
•  Adolescence:  Xme  between  onset  of  puberty   •  Physical  growth  and  development  
and  adulthood   –  Height:  
• For  girls:  begins  between  10-­‐12yrs    
–  Puberty:  period  of  life  during  which  the   –  6  inches  in  height,  35  lbs  in  weight  
secondary  sex  characterisXcs  develop  and   1.  Peak  one  year  before  menarche  (onset  of  
the  ability  to  reproduce  is  aWained.   menstruaXon)  
2.  2-­‐4  inches  during  the  remainder  of  adolescence  
•  MaturaXon  process  includes  both  physical   • For  boys:  begins  between  12-­‐14  yrs  
growth  and  emoXonal  maturaXon   –  8  inches  in  height,  45  lbs  in  weight  
–  Thus,  an  malnourished  adolescent  may  not  
achieve  his/her  full  potenXal  height  when  growth  
period  is  over.  

Adolescence   Adolescence  
•  Adolescents    
• Physical  growth  and  development   –  Energy  and  protein  
– Changes  in  body  composiXon   • Highest  total  calories  
• Boys:  increase  in  lean  body  mass   and  protein  grams  
• Girls:  increase  in  body  fat,  specifically   per  day  
around  hips,  buWocks,  upper  arms,   –  Vitamins  and  minerals  
breasts,  upper  back.   • Nutrients  of  concern  
– Changes  in  emoXonal  maturity   – Vitamin  A  
• Psychological  development  affects  food   – Calcium  
choices,  eaXng  habits,  body  images.  
– Iron  

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Adolescence  
•  NutriXon-­‐Related  Concerns  for  Adolescents  
–  Fitness  and  sports  
• Provide  catalyst  for  learning  about  nutriXon  
and  improve  daily  habits  
–  Acne  
• InvesXgaXng  the  connecXons  between  diets  
and  acne  
– High-­‐glycemic-­‐index  foods,  fat  intake,  
and  faWy  acid  composiXon  
–  EaXng  disorders  
• Become  preoccupied  with  weight,  
appearance,  and  eaXng  habits  

Adolescence  

•  Adolescent  Obesity  
–  Increased  risk  for    
• Developing  high  blood  pressure  
• Abnormal  blood  glucose  tolerance  and  
type  2  diabetes  
• Breathing  problems,  joint  pain,  and  
heartburn  
• Poor  self-­‐esteem  
• Metabolic  syndrome  

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Adolescence   Staying  Young  While  Growing  Older  


•  Age-­‐related  changes  
•  Tobacco,  alcohol,  recreaXonal  drugs   –  Weight  and  body  composiXon  
–  Period  of  experimentaXon   • Add  fat;  lose  lean  body  mass  
–  Alcohol  and  drug  use  may  take  priority  over  
adequate  food  intake   –  Physical  acXvity  
–  Teens  who  use  drugs  are  usually  underweight  and   • Reduced  muscle  and  skeletal  strength  
report  poor  appeXtes   • Regular  physical  acXviXes  reduces  disease  
• Marijuana  à  “the  munchies”  à  empty  calories   risk  and  improves  mental  health.  
• Tobacco  à  decreased  appeXte  
 
–  Immunity  
• Alcohol  à  empty  calories  
• Decline  in  defense  mechanisms    

Staying  Young  While  Growing  Older  


•  Age-­‐related  changes  
–  Taste  and  smell  
• Decline  in  sensiXvity  à  tend  to  favor  foods  
high  in  sugar/salt  
 
–  GastrointesXnal  changes  
• Reduced  saliva  producXon  à  gum  disease  
• Reduced  acid  secreXon  à  B12  absorpXon  
• Reduced  moXlity  à  consXpaXon  

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Nutrient  Needs  of  the  Mature  Adult   Nutrient  Needs  of  the  Mature  Adult  
•  Energy   •  Carbohydrate  
– Reduced  needs     –  45-­‐65%  of  calories  in  diet  
• Decreased  acXvity;  decreased  lean  body   –  Fiber  à  consXpaXon,  diverXculosis,  diabetes,  
healthy  body  weight  
mass  
•  Fat  
•  Protein  
–  Maintain  moderate  low-­‐fat  diet  
– Same  needs  per  kg  body  weight  as  younger   •  Water  
adults   –  Reduced  thirst  response  
Ø  Physical  ac6vity  increases  energy  requirements   –  Fluid  recommendaXons  are  same  as  young  adult  
while  also  helping  to  delay  some  loss  in  lean  mass.  
 

Nutrient  Needs  of  the  Mature  Adult  


•  Vitamins  of  concern  
–  Vitamin  D  
• Needed  for  bone  health,  calcium  balance  
• Reduced  skin  synthesis,  acXvaXon  

–  B  vitamins  
• Reduced  ability  to  absorb  vitamin  B12  
• Folate,  B6,  B12  may  help  reduce  heart  
disease  risk  

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Nutrient  Needs  of  the  Mature  Adult   Nutrient  Needs  of  the  Mature  Adult  
•  Minerals  of  concern  
–  Calcium:  bone  health  
•  AnXoxidants  
• Reduced  ability  to  absorb  calcium  
–  Found  in  fruits  and  vegetables  
–  Zinc:  immunity  and  wound  healing  
–  Important  to  reduce  oxidaXve  stress  and  
• Marginal  deficiencies  likely  
degeneraXve  diseases  such  as  cataracts  
• Avoid  excess  supplementaXon  (interferes  
and  Alzheimer’s  disease  
with  immune  system)  
–  May  protect  against  damage  to  the  brain     –  Iron  
• Elders  may  have  limited  intake  

NutriXon-­‐Related  Concerns     NutriXon-­‐Related  Concerns    


of  Mature  Adults   of  Mature  Adults  
•  Drug–drug  and  drug–nutrient  interacXons   •  Anorexia  of  aging  
–  Can  affect  use  of  drugs  or  nutrients   –  Loss  of  appeXte  with  illness  
–  Possible  interacXons  should  be  idenXfied   –  Can  lead  to  protein-­‐energy  malnutriXon  
and  avoided   •  ArthriXs  
–  Herbal  supplements  and  micronutrient   –  May  interfere  with  food  preparaXon  and  
overdosing  à  viewed  as  “drugs”   eaXng  
•  Depression   –  MedicaXons  may  interfere  with  nutrient  
–  May  reduce  food  intake   absorpXon  
–  Alcoholism  can  interfere  with  nutrient  use   –  Dietary  changes  may  improve  symptoms  

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NutriXon-­‐Related  Concerns     NutriXon-­‐Related  Concerns    


of  Mature  Adults   of  Mature  Adults  
•  Bowel  and  bladder  regulaXon   •  Vision  problems  
–  Increased  risk  of  urinary  tract  infec6on   –  Can  affect  ability  to  shop  and  cook  
–  Chronic  consXpaXon  more  common  with  age   –  AnXoxidants  may  reduce  macular  
• Need  for  increased  fluids  and  fiber   degenera6on  
•  Osteoporosis  
•  Dental  health   –  Common  in  elders,  especially  women  
–  May  interfere  with  eaXng  ability  or  food   –  Maintain  calcium,  vitamin  D,  and  exercise  
choices  

NutriXon-­‐Related  Concerns    
Meal  Management  for  Mature  Adults  
of  Mature  Adults  
•  Managing  independently  
9.  Alzheimer’s  disease:  accumulaXon  of  plaques   •  Wise  eaXng  for  one  or  two  
in  certain  regions  of  the  brain  and  
•  Finding  community  resources  
degeneraXon  of  a  certain  class  of  neurons  
–  Services  for  elders  
–  Affects  ability  to  obtain,  prepare,  and  
consume  an  opXmal  diet.   • Meals  on  Wheels  
• Elderly  NutriXon  Program  
–  Reduced  taste  and  smell  
• Food  Stamp  Program  
–  Risk  for  weight  loss  and  malnutriXon  

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