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and Meredith Puryear  

By: Alyssa Hazlegrove, Elizabeth Redford, 


Social/Emotional 
Developmental 
There is a transition from strict 
Characteristics of 8 to 9  ●
adherence to rules into rules being 
year old adolescence  negotiated 
● They start to form stronger, more 
complex friendships and peer 
relationships. It becomes more 
emotionally important to have 
friends, especially of the same sex. 
Peer pressure begins to emerge.  
● They may begin to desire more 
privacy. 
● They seek direct physical contact 
from caregivers when under stress, 
  but may resist physical contact at 
other times. 
● They become more balanced in 
Cognitive  coping with frustration, failure, and 
disappointment. 
● They recognize differences between  ● They begin to understand how 
behavior and intent. 
someone else feels in a given 
● They are able to focus on a task for an  situation and understand empathy. 
hour or more.  ● They exhibit a wide spectrum of 
● They understand more about their place  pro-social skills, which include: 
in the world.  generosity, supportiveness, kindness. 
● They have a greater capacity to do   
mental math, as well as to work with 
abstract and larger (three-digit) numbers. 
● Concrete operations: Accurate 
perception of events;rational, logical 
thought; concrete thinking; reflect upon 
self and attributes; understands concepts 
of space, time,dimension. 
● They have more effective coping skills.  
● They understand how their behavior 
affect others. 
Parent Tips:  
● Help your children develop a sense of 
responsibility. Ask for help with 
household tasks like setting the table. 
● Encourage your children to read 
every day. Talk about their 
homework with them. 
● Use discipline to guide and protect 
your children rather than punishment 
to make them feel bad about 
Communication/Speech   themselves.  
● Most 8-year-olds continue to rapidly  ● Follow up any discussion about what 
develop their vocabularies, with an  not​ to do with a discussion of what ​to 
estimated 3,000 new words learned  do instead. 
during the year. Children who read a  ● Spend time with your children. Talk 
lot, rapidly expand their vocabularies.  about their friends and recognize 
● Children begin to show the ability to  their accomplishments. 
use play on words and verbal humor.  ● Help your children set achievable 
goals—they will learn to take pride in 
They develop a better sense of 
themselves and rely less on approval 
irony—the use of a word to convey  or reward from others. 
the opposite of its literal meaning. 
 

Motor/Physical 
● There is a potential for early onset of 
puberty. 
● Physical activities are used to refine 
motor skills. 
● More fluid combination of locomotor 
and motor skills emerge. (Children 
can turn, spin and jump, and perform 
Resources:  
tasks that help them in sports.)  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (February 20th, 
● Coordination continues to improve.  2018). ​Middle childhood (9-11) years of age. R
​ etrieved  
from: ​https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/child  
● Improved small muscle control  development/positiveparenting/middle 
continues to be refined, making  html 
Morin, A. (November 3rd., 2018). ​8-year-old child 
activities such as playing musical  developmental milestones. R​ etrieved 
instruments or using tools much  from:​https://www.verywellfamily.com/8-year-old-devel
opmental-milestones-620729  
easier and more enjoyable.  Walker, R. (January, 2019). ​Developmental milestones during 
early school-age/adolescence. [pptx.] 
Walker, R. (January, 2019). ​Theories of adolescence. [pptx.]