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and Meredith Puryear  

By: Alyssa Hazlegrove, Elizabeth Redford, 

There is a transition from strict 
Characteristics of 8 to 9  ●
adherence to rules into rules being 
year old adolescence  negotiated 
● They start to form stronger, more 
complex friendships and peer 
relationships. It becomes more 
emotionally important to have 
friends, especially of the same sex. 
Peer pressure begins to emerge.  
● They may begin to desire more 
● They seek direct physical contact 
from caregivers when under stress, 
  but may resist physical contact at 
other times. 
● They become more balanced in 
Cognitive  coping with frustration, failure, and 
● They recognize differences between  ● They begin to understand how 
behavior and intent. 
someone else feels in a given 
● They are able to focus on a task for an  situation and understand empathy. 
hour or more.  ● They exhibit a wide spectrum of 
● They understand more about their place  pro-social skills, which include: 
in the world.  generosity, supportiveness, kindness. 
● They have a greater capacity to do   
mental math, as well as to work with 
abstract and larger (three-digit) numbers. 
● Concrete operations: Accurate 
perception of events;rational, logical 
thought; concrete thinking; reflect upon 
self and attributes; understands concepts 
of space, time,dimension. 
● They have more effective coping skills.  
● They understand how their behavior 
affect others. 
Parent Tips:  
● Help your children develop a sense of 
responsibility. Ask for help with 
household tasks like setting the table. 
● Encourage your children to read 
every day. Talk about their 
homework with them. 
● Use discipline to guide and protect 
your children rather than punishment 
to make them feel bad about 
Communication/Speech   themselves.  
● Most 8-year-olds continue to rapidly  ● Follow up any discussion about what 
develop their vocabularies, with an  not​ to do with a discussion of what ​to 
estimated 3,000 new words learned  do instead. 
during the year. Children who read a  ● Spend time with your children. Talk 
lot, rapidly expand their vocabularies.  about their friends and recognize 
● Children begin to show the ability to  their accomplishments. 
use play on words and verbal humor.  ● Help your children set achievable 
goals—they will learn to take pride in 
They develop a better sense of 
themselves and rely less on approval 
irony—the use of a word to convey  or reward from others. 
the opposite of its literal meaning. 

● There is a potential for early onset of 
● Physical activities are used to refine 
motor skills. 
● More fluid combination of locomotor 
and motor skills emerge. (Children 
can turn, spin and jump, and perform 
tasks that help them in sports.)  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (February 20th, 
● Coordination continues to improve.  2018). ​Middle childhood (9-11) years of age. R
​ etrieved  
from: ​  
● Improved small muscle control  development/positiveparenting/middle 
continues to be refined, making  html 
Morin, A. (November 3rd., 2018). ​8-year-old child 
activities such as playing musical  developmental milestones. R​ etrieved 
instruments or using tools much  from:​
easier and more enjoyable.  Walker, R. (January, 2019). ​Developmental milestones during 
early school-age/adolescence. [pptx.] 
Walker, R. (January, 2019). ​Theories of adolescence. [pptx.]