Sei sulla pagina 1di 14

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
A. Background

English as one of the subjects in schools has an important role because English is a
foreign language, an international language which is widely used in communication by
people in most countries in the world. Furthermore, English is often used in writing science
books, journals, or articles about knowledge and technology. Therefore, in order to be able to
develop science, knowledge, and technology, and to communicate with people from other
countries, English is taught in Indonesia as a foreign language from junior high schools until
universities. English is taught at schools in order that students are able to master the four
skills, they are listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Harmer (2007: 265).

During the 70s poetry was very popular with poets. The evidence is there, for
example, in the past there were songs whose lyrics were from poetry. During the heyday of
poetry, poetry was not only an expression of love for the opposite sex but also as a criticism
of the government, for someone who meritorious, or someone they hate. But now poetry is
not too popular anymore because the comparison of technological advances is not
comparable with the thoughts and feelings of the people so that someone prioritizes the
installation rather than a process.

Because the comparison is not balanced so that people, especially teenagers, are no
longer too interested in poetry, that's not all that very famous poetry has begun to be
forgotten. More and more people will forget about poetry such as: the types, the structure, the
differences, and so on.

For that we made this paper titled "poetry" so that we can remember it, study it, and
also understand the differences, and the structure is clearer so that we can make our own
poetry. What if we can make poetry and better understand the difference in structure so that
we new generations can popularize poetry again.

B. Purpose Formulation

1. What is poetry?
2. What is the type of poetry?
3. What is the element of poetry?
14
4. What is the basic approach to poetry?

C. Purpose of Paper

1. To know the meaning of poetry


2. To know the type of poetry
3. To understanding the elements of poetry
4. To understanding the basic approach to poetry

14
CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION
A. Definition of Poetry

Poetry is one of the oldest genres in literary history. Its earliest examples go back to
ancient Greek literature. In spite of this long tradition, it is harder to define than any other
genre. Poetry is closely related to the term “lyric,” which derives etymologically from the
Greek musical instrument “lyra” (“lyre” or “harp”) and points to an origin in the sphere of
music. In classical antiquity as well as in the Middle Ages, minstrels recited poetry,
accompanied by the lyre or other musical instruments. The term “poetry,” however, goes back
to the Greek word “poieo” (“to make,” “to produce”), indicating that the poet is the person
who “makes” verse. Although etymology sheds light on some of the aspects of the lyric and
the poetic, it cannot offer a satisfactory explanation of the phenomenon as such.

Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of
literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic. Poetry is a form in literary works that comes from
the results of a feeling expressed by poets with languages that use rhythm, rhymes, matras,
stanzas and the preparation of lyrics that contain meaning.

According to poetry experts are:

 Herman Waluyo: Understanding poetry according to Herman Waluyo is the earliest


written literary work written by humans

 Sumardi: Understanding poetry according to Sumardi is a literary work with a


language that is compacted, abbreviated, and given a rhythm with unified sounds and
the selection of kias (imaginative) words

 Thomash carlye: Understanding poetry according to Thomas Carlyle is a musical


expression of thoughts.

 James Reevas: Understanding poetry according to James Reevas that the meaning of
poetry is an expression of language that is rich and full of charm.

 Pradopo: Definition of poetry is a recording and interpretation of important human


experiences, changed in the most memorable form.
14
 Herbert spencer: Understanding poetry is a form of pronunciation of emotional ideas
by considering the beauty.[3]

Based on definition above we can conclude that poetry is a written art written by a poet
using a language that contains aesthetic values and has semantic meaning.

B. Types of Poetry

In spite of the seemingly never-ending search for the definition of poetry, there are several
types of poetry to know. For the sake of clarification and simplification, poetry can be
classified into three types: lyric, narrative and dramatic. Classifications of this kind are not
exclusive. Poems in each of these categories may have elements characteristics of the other.

a. Lyric poetry
It is the most popular form of poetry today. It is characterized by the expression of the
speaker‘s innermost feelings, thoughts, and imagination. The word lyric is taken from a
stringed musical instrument called the lyre, which was used in classical and medieval times to
accompany a singer. In addition to the very subjective stance of the speaker, lyric poems are
melodic-melody not derived from a lyre but from the words and their arrangement. It‘s not
mere coincidence that the words that accompany the melody in a song are called lyrics
(Pickering and Hoeper, 1980).

Lyric poetry includes pastoral poem, love poem which is perhaps the most familiar to us,
poem of praise, ode, elegy etc. Pastoral poem is a poem telling the life in the countryside such
as shepherds, cattle, hills, and mountains. Ode is a lyric poem that expresses a noble feeling
with dignity. Elegy is a poem of lamentation.

b. Narrative poetry

A narrative poem tells a story. The poet takes on a role similar to of a narrator in a work of
fiction. Ballad is narrative poem which is quite popular. It is strongly marked by rhythm
suitable for singing. Traditional British ballads are written in quatrains, or four-line stanzas.
Lines 1 and 3 have four beats; lines 2 and 4 have three beats and rhyme. The traditional
ballad is usually an anonymous. It deals with the comedies and tragedies of everyday life.
The example of traditional ballad is Barbara Allan.
Barbara Allan
Anonymous (printed in Literature: Reading Fiction, Poetry, Drama and the
Essay by Robert DiYanni)
14
It was in and about the Martinmas time,
When the green leaves were a falling,
That Sir John Graeme, in the West Country,
Fell in love with Barbara Allan.

He sent his man down through the town,


To the place where she was dwelling:
"O haste and come to my master dear,
Gin ye be Barbara Allan."

O hooly, hooly rose she up,


To the place where he was lying,
And when she drew the curtain by:
"Young man, I think you're dying."

"O it's I'm sick, and very, very sick,


And 'tis a' for Barbara Allan."
"O the better for me ye s' never be,
Though your heart's blood were a-spilling.

"O dinna ye mind, young man," said she,


"When ye was in the tavern a drinking,
That ye made the healths gae round and round,
And slighted Barbara Allan?"

He turned his face unto the wall,


And death was with him dealing:
"Adieu, adieu, my dear friends all,
And be kind to Barbara Allan."

And slowly, slowly raise she up,


And slowly, slowly left him,
And sighing said, she could not stay,
Since death of life had reft him.

She had not gane a mile but twa,


When she heard the dead-bell ringing,
And every jow that the dead-bell geid,
It cried, "Woe to Barbara Allan!"

"O mother, mother, make my bed!


O make it saft and narrow!
Since my love died for me to-day,
14
I'll die for him to-morrow."

When there is a traditional ballad, there must be the modern one. Indeed, the popularity of
ballad continues. Unlike the traditional one, which is anonymous, the modern one is
composed by a certain poet. The structure is generally the same. An example of modern
ballad is Ballad of Birmingham written by Dudley Randall.
Another narrative poetry is epic. It is the longest narrative. Unlike the ballad, it does not
simply tell a single action but record a way of life. Like traditional ballad, the traditional / old
epic is anonymous. Beowulf, which consists of around 3000 line is an example of English old
epic. Later, some poets their own, such as Dante‘s Divine Comedy and John Milton‘s
Paradise Lost.

c. Dramatic poetry
When a poet tries to break out of his or her own consciousness and reach into the world of
another, it results in dramatic poetry. Dramatic poetry provides the reader an opportunity to
hear the imagined thoughts of characters who lack the poet‘s opportunity of expression. The
simplest form of dramatic poetry is soliloquy. In soliloquy, the speaker is merely overheard,
talking to no one in particular. This form of poetry is also called dramatic monologue
(Bergman and Epstein, 1987,p.477-478). Some examples of dramatic poetry are William
Carlos William‘s The Widow’s lament in Springtime, and William Blake‘s The Little
Vagabond.

C. Elements of Poetry

Poetry have some element that used to write down by the poets in theirs poetry, for more
explanation we can see the material bellow with the example from this poetry.

IN THE TRAIN BY JAMES THOMPSON

we rush, as we rush in the Train,


The trees and the houses go wheeling back,
But the starry heavens above the plain
Come flying on our track.

All the beautiful stars of the sky,


The silver doves of the forest of Night,
Over the dull earth swarm and fly,
Companions of our flight.
14
We will rush ever on without fear;
Let the goal be far, the flight be fleet!
For we carry the Heavens with us, dear,
While the Earth slips from our feet!

1. Sound Stratum

a) Sounds orchestration

In this poet, the poets use euphonhy(the word that having pleasant and harmonious
effects) to get the poetics and value of art in his poet. We can see in the poet thare are some
sound that having harmoniuos like : the example of euphonhy can be seen in the following
poetries.

we rush, as we rush in the Train,


The trees and the houses go wheeling back,
But the starry heavens above the plain
Come flying on our track.

(in the train, by james thomson)

rush(r) – Train(r) in the first line and then

trees (s) – houses(s) in the second line

starry(s) - heavens(s)/(v) – above(v)

b) Combination of certain vocal and consonant

1) Assonance

Assonance takes place when two or more words close to one another repeat the same
vowel sound but start with different consonant sounds. Assonance is primarily used in poetry
in order to add rhythm and music, by adding an internal rhyme to a poem.

In this poetry we can find that any assonance here, example in third stanza.

We will rush ever on without fear;


Let the goal be far, the flight be fleet!
For we carry the Heavens with us, dear,
While the Earth slips from our feet!

(in the train, by james thomson)


14
Let(et) the goal be far, the flight be fleet(et)

For we carry(ar) the Heavens with us, dear(ar)

2) Alliteration

Alliteration is derived from Latin’s “Latira”. It means “letters of alphabet”. It is a


stylistic device in which a number of words, having the same first consonant sound, occur
close together in a series.

Based on theory above we can conclude that Two or more words which have the same
initial sound.

3) Repetition

In this poetry we can find the word that use twice in one line for example we can see
in the first stanza in this poetry.

we rush, as we rush in the Train,


The trees and the houses go wheeling back,
But the starry heavens above the plain
Come flying on our track.

c) Sound symbol

Anomatopoea is words that sound like that which they describe - Boom! Crash! Pow!
Quack! Moo!Caress...[6]

In this poet did not have the annomatopoea or the poets did not use anomatopoea here.

d) Rhyme

Rhyme is the repetition of similar sounds. In poetry, the most common kind of rhyme is
the end rhyme, which occurs at the end of two or more lines. It is usually identified with
lower case letters, and a new letter is used to identify each new end sound.[7] Take a look at
the rhyme scheme for the following poem :

The rhyme scheme or pattern of rhyme in this poetry is:

we rush, as we rush in the Train,


The trees and the houses go wheeling back,
But the starry heavens above the plain
14
Come flying on our track.

The rhyme scheme or pattern of rhyme in first stanza is AAAA

All the beautiful stars of the sky,


The silver doves of the forest of Night,
Over the dull earth swarm and fly,
Companions of our flight.

The rhyme scheme or pattern of rhyme in Second stanza is BABA

We will rush ever on without fear;


Let the goal be far, the flight be fleet!
For we carry the Heavens with us, dear,
While the Earth slips from our feet!

The rhyme scheme or pattern of rhyme in last stanza is AAAA

e) Rhythm

Rhythm is a literary device which demonstrates the long and short patterns through
stressed and unstressed syllables particularly in verse form. Rhythm in writing acts as beat
does in music. The use of rhythm in poetry arises from the need that some words are to be
produced more strongly than others. They might be stressed for longer period of time.

f) Line length

In this poetry the each of line has around about 8(eight) word. We can see in the poetry :

we rush, as we rush in the Train, (8 words)


The trees and the houses go wheeling back,(8 words)
But the starry heavens above the plain (7 words)
Come flying on our track. (5 words)

All the beautiful stars of the sky, (7 words)


The silver doves of the forest of Night, (8 words)
Over the dull earth swarm and fly, (7 words)
Companions of our flight. (4 words)

We will rush ever on without fear; (7 words)


Let the goal be far, the flight be fleet! (9 words)
For we carry the Heavens with us, dear, (8 words)
While the Earth slips from our feet! (7 words)
14
In conclusion, the poets use 4 (four) until 9(nine) words in line of each stanza.

2. Words

1) Word and diction

We can see in this poetry the poets use the words that can often serve multiple purpose,
given their presence and arrangement. As a result the readers should be know about the
meaning but have the different view. For example “Come flying on our track”. All of readers
should be consider different meaning.

2) Vocabulary

In this poetry the poets use the complex word to draw his purpose of this poetry, the poets
choose the word that have multiple meaning. We can see in this poetry in the first line we
rush, as we rush in the Train,

“Rush” is word that is used by poets that have multiple meaning. “Rush” can be “fast” ,
“soon” , “chase away” etc.

3) Syntax

The poets use the ordinary syntax, i think it use to make the readers easy to know about
the meaning of this poetry. We can see in the first line of third stanza.

“We will rush ever on without fear”

The poets pure follow the structure and grammar in writing literary work.

4) How vocabulary and syntax interact

Vocabulary in this poetry is so complex, but the syntax is follow the rule of grammar, it
mean that the poets give the way to readers to understand what he said.

5) Denotation (literal) and connotation (suggestive meaning)

In this poetry the word that include in denotation or literal meaning are:

we rush, as we rush in the Train,


The trees and the houses go wheeling back,
But the starry heavens above the plain
Come flying on our track.
14
All the beautiful stars of the sky,
The silver doves of the forest of Night,
Over the dull earth swarm and fly,
Companions of our flight.

We will rush ever on without fear;


Let the goal be far, the flight be fleet!
For we carry the Heavens with us, dear,
While the Earth slips from our feet!

And the another words have the suggestion meaning. Its mean that they include in
connotation.

D. Basic Approaches to Poetry

Reading poetry is an activity that can be done by anyone, but analyzing it is another
activity. The latter one is not merely to know what it means but also to explain aspects
embedded in a poem. To analyze poetry can be carried out through various approaches. Even,
we are supposed to examine a poem from as many angles as possible to minimize the
potential bias. However, there are only three approaches will be discussed here because they
are included the fundamental ones. They are: objective, subjective, and thematic approaches.

1. Objective approach
This approach is considered the oldest and traditional one. An objective approach to a
poem begins with a complete description of the poem‘s physical properties such as its length,
rhyme scheme and figures of speech. The analysis does not stop at describing the physical
properties or the basic information of the poem. It should proceed to give more complex
information about why the poet chooses to include them and also how is the meaning of the
poem conveyed through the use of the technical devices.

2. Subjective approach
This approach begins with personal interest in the poem. We respond to a poem based on
our experience. When we use this approach, we do not intend to be involved deeply in
analyzing the poem‘s structure. We are concerned exclusively with what the poem means to
us. This approach therefore is the most like to produce a variety of interpretation. This
approach, however, has weakness in term of its relativity. Of course merely depending on
one‘s own private experience will raise a situation that any interpretation is correct. Thus, it
14
would be wrong if we take an exclusively subjective approach in analyzing a poem. We
should consider the various possible responses (Reaske, 1966). In addition, this approach can
lead to the ignorance of literary clues that one should take into account.
3. Thematic approach
Applying subjective approach sometimes also deals with the theme of the poem because
that is what we search for when we read a poem. When we are reading or analyzing a poem,
we always try to come to a certain conclusion about its theme. As theme is the main idea of a
work. It is the poet‘s view about phenomena presented in the poem. It usually provides an
insight about human life. Thus thematic approach attempts to find what a poem is saying.

14
CHAPTER III
CLOSING
A. CONCLUSION

Poetry is a form in literary works that comes from the results of a feeling expressed
by poets with languages that use rhythm, rhymes, matras, stanzas and the preparation of
lyrics that contain meaning. There are three types of poetry, they are: Lyric poetry, Narrative
poetry, and Dramatic poetry. Poetry have some element that used to write down by the poets
in poetry, are as follows: Sound Stratum and Words. Sound is divided into several parts,
namely sounds orchestration, combination of certain vocal and consonant, sound symbol,
rhyme, rhythm, and line length. While the words section consists of word and diction,
vocabulary, syntax, how vocabulary and syntax interact, and denotation (literal) and
connotation (suggestive meaning). To analyze poetry can be carried out through various
approaches. Even, we are supposed to examine a poem from as many angles as possible to
minimize the potential bias. However, there are only three approaches will be discussed here
because they are included the fundamental ones. They are: objective, subjective, and thematic
approaches.

14
REFERENCES

Klarer Mario,2004. An Introduction to Literatury Studies.

Poetry. Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. 2013.

https://satujam.com/pengertian-puisi/

http://literarydevices.net/assonance/

http://literarydevices.net/alliteration/

https://learn.lexiconic.net/elementsofpoetry.htm

https://learn.lexiconic.net/elementsofpoetry.htm

https://learn.lexiconic.net/elementsofpoetry.htm

14