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INTERNET OF THINGS (IOT) BASED

WATER OVERFLOW INDICATOR AND


ALERTING SYSTEM

A thesis submitted by

MUNEER AHMED (GROUP LEADER) (16CS31)


DAYANAND BENJAL (16CS57)
MISBAH RAJPUT (16CS73)
SADIA CHANNA (16CS81)
SUNIL KUMAR (16CS53)

Supervised by
DR. SHAHNAWAZ TALPUR

Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of


Bachelor of Computer Systems Engineering

Faculty of Electrical, Electronics & Computer Engineering


MEHRAN UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, JAMSHORO

October 2019

i
ii

Dedicated to our parents and teachers for their endless


love, support and encouragement in our achievement
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CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the entire project report/thesis book on project titled as“Internet Of
Things (Iot) Based Water Overflow Indicator And Alerting System" is submitted
in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Computer Systems
Engineering by the following students:

MUNEER AHMED (GROUP LEADER) (16CS31)


DAYANAND BENJAL (16CS57)
MISBAH RAJPUT (16CS73)
SADIA CHANNA (16CS81)
SUNIL KUMAR (16CS53)

______________________
Supervisor
DR. SHAHNAWAZ TALPUR

_____________________________________
Chairman
Department of Computer Systems Engineering

Date: __________________
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First and Foremost, praise and thanks to the Almighty Allah, for His showers of
blessing and showing the righteous path to conduct the study and to develop the
project for betterment of humanity.

We would like to express our deep and sincere gratitude to our project Supervisor Dr.
Shahnawaz Talpur for his significant guidance, encouragement, appreciation and
inspiration. In particular, we are very much thankful for providing invaluable guide
throughout our project and the precious time he devoted for supervision of our
project.s

Our greatest thanks go to Prof. Dr. Sheeraz Memon, Chairman Computer System
Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro, who has
always been cooperative and supportive. His encouragement and appreciation made
us able to work effectively and efficiently.

Last, but not least, we are grateful to our parents for their love, caring, cooperation
and sacrifices for educating and preparing us for future.
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ABSTRACT
Flood counts in most common hazard of the world. A large number of populations
get affected by the floods including individual as well as government with the losses
of health and wealth both. The present workings of water overflow indicator and
alerting system are unable to generate timely alerts / warnings or Control the overflow
of water, which leads to massive losses. If the water overflows, the warning be
generated immediately and sent to the relative authority or by design of the model the
overflow can automatically be controlled. In both the situation the economy of the
country, the people health and wealth can be saved. The water overflow indicator and
alerting system is designed by using the internet of things (IOT) technology. This
project is targeting the dams, barrages and reservoirs of any particular area or the
place. On daily basis water flow readings, temperature readings are measured with the
help of sensor and the reading will be sent to server. If the flow of water increases,
from given limit, the proposed system will stop/control the flow of water at that
location with the help of GPS sensor. The proposed model is integrated with web and
all the reading will be sent to controller of department through the web.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................. v

LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................... ix

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ..................................................................................... x

LIST OF TABLES ...................................................................................................... xi

INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................ 1

1.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................... 1

1.2 POTENTIAL FLOOD HAZARDS IN PAKISTAN ....................................... 2

1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT ............................................................................. 3

1.4 EARLY WATER MONITORING AND WARNING SYSTEM ................... 5

1.4.1 ADVANTAGES OF THE SYSTEM ...................................................... 6

1.4.2 LIMITATIONS ........................................................................................ 7

1.4.3 DESCRIPTION........................................................................................ 7

1.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES ............................................................................. 7

1.6 PROPOSED SOLUTION ............................................................................... 7

RELATED WORK ...................................................................................................... 9

2.1 WATER LEVEL MONITORING & FLOOD ALERT SYSTEM ................. 9

2.2 FLOOD DETECTION USING SENSOR NETWORK AND


NOTIFICATION VIA SMS AND PUBLIC NETWORK ......................................... 9

2.3 INTERNET OF THINGS BASED REAL TIME FLOOD MONITORING


AND ALERT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM............................................................. 10

2.4 FLOOD DETECTION USING IOT ............................................................. 10

2.5 FLOOD ALERTING SYSTEM THROUGH WATER LEVEL METER .... 10

2.6 IOT BASED WATER LEVEL CONTROL SYSTEM................................. 11

TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGY ................................................................................ 15

3.1 HARDWARE TOOLS .................................................................................. 15

3.1.1 ARDUINO ............................................................................................. 15


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3.1.2 WI-FI MODULE ................................................................................... 17

3.1.3 WATER FLOW SENSOR ..................................................................... 17

3.1.4 DHT11 HUMIDITY SENSOR .............................................................. 18

3.1.5 GPS SENSOR ........................................................................................ 18

3.1.6 BREAD BOARD ................................................................................... 19

3.2 SOFTWARE TOOLS ................................................................................... 19

3.2.1 JAVA ENTERPRISE EDITION (J2EE) ............................................... 19

3.2.2 AJAX ..................................................................................................... 19

3.2.3 JASON ................................................................................................... 20

3.2.4 THINGSPEAK ...................................................................................... 20

3.2.5 MYSQL SERVER: ................................................................................ 21

3.3 INTRODUCTION TO IOT ........................................................................... 22

3.3.1 BASIC CONCEPT OF IOT ................................................................... 23

3.3.2 A SIMPLE VIEW OF IOT .................................................................... 24

3.4 FEATURES OF IOT ..................................................................................... 25

3.4.1 WIRELESS COMMUNICATION ........................................................ 25

3.4.2 SENSORS .............................................................................................. 26

3.4.3 NEAR FILED COMMUNICATION (NFC) ......................................... 26

3.4.4 APPLICATIONS OF IOT ..................................................................... 26

3.5 IOT TAXONOMY ........................................................................................ 27

3.5.1 IOT COMPONENTS ............................................................................. 27

METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS........................................................................ 18

4.1 DESIGN ........................................................................................................ 18

4.2 PROJECT DIAGRAM .................................................................................. 18

4.2.1 FLOW CHART ...................................................................................... 19

4.2.2 CLASS DIAGRAM ............................................................................... 20

4.2.3 DEPLOYMENT DIAGRAM ................................................................ 21


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4.2.4 USE CASE DIAGRAM ......................................................................... 22

4.3 THE USER INTERFACE ............................................................................. 23

4.4 METHODOLOGY ........................................................................................ 23

4.4.1 QUALITATIVE METHOD................................................................... 23

4.4.2 QUANTITATIVEMETHOD ................................................................. 24

4.5 OUR MODEL FOR THE PROJECT ............................................................ 24

4.6 PHASES OF PROJECT EXECUTION MODEL ......................................... 25

4.6.1 DEFINE ................................................................................................. 25

4.6.2 MEASURE ............................................................................................ 26

4.6.3 ANALYZE ............................................................................................. 26

4.6.4 IMPROVE.............................................................................................. 26

4.6.5 CONTROL............................................................................................. 26

4.7 RESULTS...................................................................................................... 27

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RECOMMENDATIONS ................................... 32

5.1 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................. 32

5.2 FUTURE RECOMMENDATIONS .............................................................. 34

REFERENCES ........................................................................................................... 35
ix

List of Figures
Figure 1.1: Flood Affected Areas[11] ............................................................................ 2
Figure 1.2: Historical flood damages in Pakistan .......................................................... 3
Table 1: Flood affect on people’s health in 2010 .......................................................... 4
Figure 1.3: Aftermath of Flood 2013 [3]. ...................................................................... 4
Figure 1.4: Overview of water overflow indicator and alerting system ........................ 9
Figure 3.1: Arduino. .................................................................................................... 15
Figure 3.2: Wi-Fi Module ........................................................................................... 17
Figure 3.3: Water Flow Sensor .................................................................................... 17
Figure 3.4: DHT11 Humidity sensor ........................................................................... 18
Figure 3.5: GPS sensor ................................................................................................ 18
Figure 3.6: Bread Board .............................................................................................. 19
Figure 2.1: IOT System [20]. ....................................................................................... 23
Figure 3.2: IOT Scenario. ............................................................................................ 24
Figure 4.1: Flow chart .................................................................................................. 19
Figure 4.2: Class Diagram. .......................................................................................... 20
Figure 4.3: Deployment Diagram. ............................................................................... 21
Figure 4.4: Use Case Diagram. ................................................................................... 22
Figure 4.5: Web Interface ............................................................................................ 23
Figure 4.6: Main Interface ........................................................................................... 29
Figure 4.7: Readings for temperature .......................................................................... 30
Figure 4.8 Readings for Humidity temperature ........................................................... 30
Figure 4.9: Readings for Current flow ......................................................................... 31
Figure 4.10: Graphical representation for Humidity temperature ............................... 31
Figure 4.11: Graphical representation for location ...................................................... 31
Figure 4.12: Flow readings of water ............................................................................ 32
Figure 4.13: Total temperature .................................................................................... 32
x

List of Abbreviations
IoT Internet of Things

Ion Internet of Everything

SDK Software Development Kit

API Application Program Interface

WLAN Wireless Local Area Network

JSP Java Server Page

J2EE Java Enterprise Edition

IDE Integrated Development Kit

HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol

MCU Micro Controller Unit

UTC Universal Time Constant

GPS Global Positioning System

NFC Nearest field communication

Wi-Fi Wireless fidelity


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LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Flood affect on people’s health in 2010 .............................................................................. 4
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION

There is no any suitable solution declared currently from government of Pakistan for
flood. The flood threats may not decrease in future days. As the climate change the
intensity and frequency of flood will damage the different region of world. It is
understandable that the notification alert system like flood warning system should
take a positive step by notifying the peoples of the world. It must play an active role
to save the humanity. Now a day’s the social media communication is most popular
way to convey the information [3].

In 20th century world the flood is at the most top of the natural disaster [2].

Pakistan counts in the one of the most flood threatening country of the world since
many years.

Flood has damaged the economy of the country and also destroys the physical
infrastructure of the country like house hold things, educational institutes, land,
agriculture and many other livestock. Floods has caused of difficulty in mobility,
increased more chances of risk for living one at houses, turn into fear and harmful
situation and despoliation of social assets like brotherhood, neighborhood, and strong
bounding of relationship. Like the loss of stored food or grain and spreading of water
borne cause diseases that are other distresses.

Increased health and wealth hazards, increased the invest in treatment and farming,
increase in cost of seed, less return from animal husbandry, poor performance of
social institutions, occurs changes in cropping procedure and less production of crop
[8].

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Following are the flood affected areas of Pakistan [11].

Figure 1.1: Flood Affected Areas[11]

1.2 POTENTIAL FLOOD HAZARDS IN PAKISTAN

Since 1947 Pakistan were knock by sixteen major floods almost that destroyed the
economy of country and cause the other major loses..

These floods disaster had strictly influence the basin of many rivers in Punjab and
Sindh areas including Baluchistan and NWFP had harshly damage that is caused
mainly from the strong stream of water from hill due to heavy rain falls.

Mostly areas of NWFP, Balochistan and districts of Charade,Marian get affected by


the hill torrents that are showing the risky areas of flood hazards including in the
Kabul river.

Some other cities of Pakistan such as Lahore, Karachi and Rawalpindi have qualified
flooding source powerlessness of waste water system to deal with deep exaggerated
rains.

Damages in Pakistan areas cause of flooding in last sixty one years in Pakistan are
terrific to the individual as well as government in which more than seven thousands
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peoples loss their life and get lose their wealth and properties besides affecting the
almost 1,00,654 villages tremendously. The heavy damages of flood in Pakistan
mostly occur to the properties and physical infrastructure including public utilities.

Following table shows the historical flood damages of Pakistan till 2008 [6].

Table for historical damages in Pakistan

Figure 1.2: Historical flood damages in Pakistan

1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT

It is understood that the natural disasters happens without any prior warning or alert to
the public and there is no time to warn for this situation that caused damages [1].

Flood hazards can occurs anywhere in any country of the world that can destroy the
economy of country physical infrastructure and prosperity, lives of people it had the
cause of heavy damages to the most of countries in the world with lots of disturbances
and major loss of wealth and properties to the individuals as well as government.

Most of the peoples who lose their properties and lives due to water overflow and due
to heavy rain or other flooding, were not received Any SMS or notification alert from
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the controller department at the critical situation when water level were increases
rapidly due to the heavy rainfall and overflow of the river water [3].

Figure 1.3: Aftermath of Flood 2013 [3].

Flooding occurs caused when water overflows from the lakes, rivers, dam and from
heavy stream of water due to heavy rains and it can happens naturally in any clock of
time without warning. Flooding can be very dangerous and can be the cause of health
and financial loss including the economy of country.

Following are the results of flood damages that affects on people’s health in 2010.

Table 1: Flood affect on people’s health in 2010

Incidents Number of deaths Estimated financial loss

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and The worst floods in The cost of rebuilding


Punjab, Pakistan Pakistan’s history have hit roads there was put at
at least 14 million people some 5bn Pakistani rupees
(august 2010)
($59m), also 1.m acres
(557,000 hectares) and
more than 10,000 cows
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have perished.

The southern coast of china Killing at least 31 people, 75 million dollars


with 23 people missing
(October 2010)
and 100,000 people to
leave their homes over the
weekend

Southern city, Heavy flooding has 1.6 billion dollars


already killed more than
Thailand
100 people around the

(November 2010) country

If the people of these particular areas get alert in advance then they have at least time
to leave their living places before damage has been occurs and they also manage their
stuff and properties [1].

1.4 EARLY WATER MONITORING AND WARNING SYSTEM

A flooding is mostly cause of the damage to the peoples those lives near the river
areas and they suffer the trouble when heavy rainfall occurs so to prevent the material
and utilities from the damages and for the safety of health from flood hazards we
require an expert early warning system. For that reason it massive need of
implementing a system that give warnings to the peoples of particular areas preceding
the flood disaster at early stages of water overflow [10].

An early warning system provides the advanced/early warning of considerable flash


floods and flood stages for potential flood victims of the areas by combining and
analyzing rainfall situations and stream level of data on real basis, by providing means
for disseminating alerts signs direction and instructions to individuals in flooding
areas [9].

“IOT based Early Flood Detection & Avoidance System” is a very expert system
which keeps the records of various natural factotums to predict the flood at early
stages, so we can save ourselves from disasters, in order to decrease the chances of
damage that are caused by the flooding.
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Many disasters such as flood hazards can be harshly leading to the property damage
and loss of innocent lives. Early water monitoring system uses the various natural
factors to detect and eliminate the impacts of the flood.

With the real time flood information system on the basis of real collected data will
share the part to facilitate the safety of humanity and other urgent situation solutions
so, that organization can effectively manage their resource of deployment within the
limited time duration of alert and take safety before it occurs that helps to save the
peoples from the loss of health and wealth. The simple and targeted purpose of this
system should be useful towards human beings. [4].

The system should design for the purpose that it has the capability of percept the
increasing flow of water and should send the appropriate warnings to the authorities
and the public. In general, such an alert notification and social network especially at
the critical situation is very beneficial to take the safety of humanity.

In majority the peoples who lost their lives and wealth by water overflow causes they
were not received any alert from the flood control center or from the controller about
the increasing of water from rainfall and river overflows [3].

1.4.1 ADVANTAGES OF THE SYSTEM

1. One benefit of water overflow indicator and alerting system the system can helps
to warn the peoples of particular area before bed situation occurs and humanity
suffer from loss of health and property.

2. Measuring water flow to monitor the flood in areas and keep record of everyday
readings helps to prevent the individuals as well as government from the flood
hazards.

3. If flash flood occurs immediately in the nearest portion of the area the next nearest
area can be protected with the help of water overflow indicator and alerting
system because of early detection and avoidance system with early warning.

4. The system has Wi-Fi connectivity thus the collected data can be accessed
anywhere.
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1.4.2 LIMITATIONS

Sometimes the irrigation department or the controller may not be able to access the
warning, flash flood may happens to quickly for a warning to be effective, but not all
the time.

1.4.3 DESCRIPTION

Flood monitoring system is the way of detecting the condition of water overflow in
dams or reservoirs that may be the cause of heavy damages to the individuals as well
government and give lose to the properties and health of peoples.

Flood warning system is the way of detecting the root causes and warns the peoples of
public places before flooding occurs so that the irrigation department can handle the
situation and they should take safety before it occurs [4].

1.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

1. We can prevent the public places from the loss of health and wealth it is the
safety for humanity from natural disasters flood reach in particular area before
it occurs.

2. Proposed System provide water monitoring and alerting system on the real
time based datasets that will provide real-time information about water flow at
dams/reservoir and barrages along with location of that area.

3. Proposed Model generates and sends the Alert notification to the relative
authority in order to handle the situation.

1.6 PROPOSED SOLUTION

Basically a water flow indicator can be easily described as the automatic system by
which we can receive the real time data or information regarding water with in the
dams or may be in the reservoirs and on the second hand Water flow indicator
systems are completely beneficial to reduce the risk of wastage of water [24].

As a solution the purpose of the project water overflow indicator and alerting system
is provide the device that is capable to sense the flow of increasing water on daily
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basis and then generates message alerts to the authorities and the resident of that areas
that may be affected by water overflow.

The aims of our project to design and develop an (IOT) based system for water
overflow hazards in Pakistan with in particular areas because of heavy rainfall and
other reasons that may cause of danger.

System generate the notifications and send via internet to the controller system that is
useful for approaching the bashful brought by bad weather or heavy rainfall at
reservoirs and barrages. Sensor will sense the flow of water condition accordingly and
data will be sends on clouds with the help of (Wi-Fi) module. Sensors will sense and
process the data and measure the water flow, humidity temperature from rivers and
barrages on the daily basis and store in database.

IOT is physical device integrated with web based. The system will automatically
generate the warnings and alerts when water overflows from dams/reservoirs and
barrages.

It is massive need to take safety measure before it occurs in particular areas by


implementing system that can warn the people of areas on the basis of early flood
detection [4].

Which is used in homes or in some particular areas by using the water overflow
indicator and alerting system we can overcome situation when water flow increases
from the tankers, rivers and reservoirs or etc?

The model WATER OVERFLOW INDICATOR AND ALERTING SYSTEM is very


useful to avoid the disaster of flood before it occurs.

For this reason we introduce the model water overflow indicator and alerting system
which will sense the water flow in flooding area/rivers/canals/dams & reservoirs at
early stages of water overflow.

The system will be integrated with web based send show the water flow reading,
humidity temperature readings and location on the daily basis on that web based.
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Figure 1.4: Overview of water overflow indicator and alerting system


CHAPTER 2

RELATED WORK

This chapter contains descriptions of previous works related to this thesis.

2.1 WATER LEVEL MONITORING & FLOOD ALERT SYSTEM

The system controls the water level and convey signal of warning. The device
additionally keeps an eye on the water height in database along date and moment of
water height shift. It send warning message toward all people that are registered in
database. This system consists of the Data collection module, client system and Server
system. The data collection module consists of level gauge, Arduino Uno board and
Raspberry Pi. The client system send request to sever for connection and send
sensor’s reading to it. As a operating system Caspian OS, defiant OS derivate, which
is commonly used with Ubuntu. The server receives sensor reading from the client
and stores it in the Database and also registers and unregisters mobile number of the
user upon user request. This is done using a web page. Send alert SMS to the users
registered in the database if the water level is critical.[1]

2.2 FLOOD DETECTION USING SENSOR NETWORK AND


NOTIFICATION VIA SMS AND PUBLIC NETWORK

This paper presents the prototype model of alert generating and flood detection.

The system determines the water level with the help of sensing element and utilizing
the WSN (wireless sensor network), will then come up with the alert via global
System for mobile modem. The system also sends notification to facebook and
twitter.

Hardware part contains five main components: water level sensor, PIC16F877A, radio
frequency, global system communication mobile (GSM). In software part, PIC is
programmed since the project is PIC based. The PWC language is used in this project.
Every single solution is created and constructed and then saved in EPROM
programmer.

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Ozeki message server is used as a SMS gateway application that is able to send SMS
from website to mobile by GSM modem. In GSM modem will insert subscriber
identity module (SIM card) to send alert message when he is not present at flood
control center. [3]

2.3 INTERNET OF THINGS BASED REAL TIME FLOOD


MONITORING AND ALERT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Flood monitoring system is advanced which observe water height, flow change in
rivers and this can help to compute water height at Dams and Reservoirs. The
computed values put on the web server on daily basis. The system constitutes a
wireless sensor node that said to be mote and this is set at the river bottom to observe
water height. Each node is attached with GSM module. The computed variables like
temperature, flow, water level and rain fall which are sensed by sensor are processed
by the Rasbperry Pi3. Google spread sheet application program interface (API) is
employed as the systematic recorder. The Google spread sheet is transferred to free
analytics software which is said to be the alert management system and this keep track
of readings and convey the early alert notification to the individuals.[25]

2.4 FLOOD DETECTION USING IOT

The arduino flood detector system is advanced to detect flood which will give
assistance to the motorist and roadway users to prevent an issue. When flood occur,
utilizing ultrasonic sensor the flood detecting system was created and that was
connected to microcontroller for processing analog signal of sensor to usable digital
range value. The system powered by solar power. When flood occurs, it sent SMS to
recognized resident. The system functions when the admin activate the system.The
height of water is removing the height of sensor from ground minus the sensed
distance from the flood water to sensor.[26]

2.5 FLOOD ALERTING SYSTEM THROUGH WATER LEVEL


METER

The system measures the water level in rivers, streams and lakes. For this purpose the
Micro model is intended and builds with sensing element for experimental
11

measurement of water holder in the controlled setting. The micro model is carried out
on programmable electronic board (NODEMCU 8266). Micro model is placed at the
specific dimension on the water holder at place where water level scaling for different
heights. The sensor information (Ultrasonic sensors, Rain sensors, temperature
sensors) is transmitted with the help of Wi-Fi to clouds and then with the help of GUI
(Graphical user interface) client can see the water level in water way.[27]

2.6 IOT BASED WATER LEVEL CONTROL SYSTEM

The project superintends the water level in container. Generally we fail to remember
to shut the pump/valve of the water holder, so water overflow or water container
became empty and we have to fill container. So proposed system controller will close
or open the pump or valve automatically. The project consists of MCU Wemos
D1_R2 that is ESP8266 based, pump, adapter, ultrasonic sensor and latch module for
monitoring hardware side of this. The MCU interacting through Wi-Fi or internet to
linked with the BlynkIoT server and PHP web server and sends data after every 4
second to system using protocol GET. In water holder observing information system
the data of water level and valve/pump estimation is saved with date and time record,
so each data got its record. Microcontroller sends readings to server and furthermore
receives the layout of readings from server like water height, peak, bottom and current
status (on/off the pump). It can be operated in auto mode and semi-auto mode. [28].
CHAPTER 3

TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGY


This chapter contains descriptions of hardware and software tools and the technology.

3.1 HARDWARE TOOLS

3.1.1 ARDUINO

Electronic projects are made on Arduino board, which is very mandatory to build such
type of projects. It contains the microcontroller and a piece of intangible or IDE
which works on computer. The functionality of these is to write and upload the
computer generated logics to the physical board. The Arduino has come to be quite
popular with human beings simply beginning out with electronic and for proper use.
Unlike most of the previous circuit, it now does not require separate equipment to
load the programming to the circuit.

Figure 3.1: Arduino.

3.1.1.1 Power/USB Jack

Every board of arduino must be connected with electricity. Through USB cable the
power is provided to the microcontroller (Arduino). In the photograph above the USB
is connected. Code can be loaded into Arduino board.

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16

3.1.1.2 Pins

Pins are location in Arduino where you can join wires to assemble a circuit. They
usually have dark plastic type of header that permits to link a wire properly into the
board. The Arduino’s got numerous special type of pins, everypin perform distinctive
functions.

3.1.1.3 Power LED Indicator

There is a word “UNO” in the circuit, to the right side of it, there is small LED
subsequent to the word which indicates that system is ON. LED should mild up every
time and plugs the arduino with source of power. If this mild doesn’t turn on,
something is incorrect there is right risk. Time to check circuit again.

3.1.1.4 Tx/Rx LED

The full form of TX is to transmit, similarly receive is often abbreviate as RX. Serial
Communication is made on the though the help of pins. In this case, Arduino UNO
has two places for TX and RX which are connecting through12 digital and repeat the
subsequent. Light Emitting diode supplies us some high-quality visible symptoms.
Whenever Arduino is transferring information.

3.1.1.5 Main IC

The dark side with all the legs of metal sort is an IC. It can be termed as brain of
Arduino. The fundamental Integrated circuit on the Arduino is lightly one of a kind
from board type to Voltage Regulator.

3.1.1.6 Voltage Regulator

The potential difference controller no longer something that can have interaction with
the programmable board. It is doubtlessly beneficial to recognize. The voltage
regulator does precisely what it says – it brings in control the limit of potential
difference and allows it into the arduino board. It is kind of gatekeeper it will
flip two away a more two voltage that would maybe harm the circuit. Of course, it is
bounded to some limit so take care of arduino limit should not exceed than 20.
17

3.1.2 WI-FI MODULE

Esp8266 is a microcontroller made by way of Espress. It is loaded with features. The


most important being Wi-Fi. The fine section is that they are filth lower priced and
more powerful than an Arduino. There is a range of programming resources for these
chips but one glaring gap. Basic and that the place we come in. You are searching at
the web page for the first ESP8266 basic interpreter handy and let you make
internet enabled GUI interfaces. Various corporations have in consequence created a
variety of modules at their core. Whilst extraordinary module would possibly be ill-
Labeled and in easy terms referred to with the resource two of accepted description.

Figure 3.2: Wi-Fi Module

3.1.3 WATER FLOW SENSOR

Water waft is utilized with arduino board. Plastic valve are part of the water sensor.
When the water flowsthru the rotor, it cycles are measured with special rate of flow.
The hall-effect sensor produces the pulse signals.

Figure 3.3: Water Flow Sensor


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3.1.4 DHT11 HUMIDITY SENSOR

The quantity of water existing in the surrounding air is termed as the Humidity. The
content material of water in the air is a key aspect in the well-being of mankind. The
measuring, sensing and monitoring and controlling humidity is very essential task.

Figure 3.4: DHT11 Humidity sensor

3.1.5 GPS SENSOR

The Global Positioning System contains satellites and floor primarily based
manipulate installation. Two GPS sensors consist of of surface mount chip which
tactics alerts from GPS satellites the usage of small antenna, regularly established on
the pinnacle of GPS chip. GPS as memory for information storage in addition to its
GPS module. While installing the Water Overflow Indicator and Alerting System at
reservoirs or barrages, it is needed to be aware of the vicinity where the systems are
installed. So, in order to recognize the position where danger or water overflow is
occurring. It helps to overcome or keep away from disaster.

Figure 3.5: GPS sensor


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3.1.6 BREAD BOARD

Bread board is tool used for the graph and check of circuit. It contains a large current
passing chip, the place each clip is injected with every other clip. Its structure
contains2 kind of place called Bus strip and socket strip.

Figure 3.6: Bread Board

3.2 SOFTWARE TOOLS

3.2.1 JAVA ENTERPRISE EDITION (J2EE)

J2EE is acronym of Java Enterprise Edition. J2EE is a platform impartial , Java-


centric environment from Sun For development , construction and deployment of
Web-based organization online. Java Enterprise Edition include number of service,
APIs, and Protocols that provide multi-tiered creation feature, few key factor are
discussed here:
• On the customer side, J2EE enables as pure Mark-up language

• Enterprise JavaBeans give any other the common sense of the platform is stored.
• JDBC (Java Database Connectivity) is the modern interface for java Database.

• Java Enterprise Edition Application are hosted by the server side, examples of Java
EE customers consist of an inter of matters (IoT) devices, smart phone etc.

3.2.2 AJAX

AJAX is Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. A new technology for which improves
the speed and effectiveness and extra interactive internet purposes .As cited above, the
“j” in AJAX stands for JavaScript. It is a kind of scripting language used to
mechanize site techniques so net developers don’t have to personally software every
occasion of the process that seems on a page.
20

The AJAX’s “X” is XML (Extensible Markup Language) language. As its name
indicates, XML is a markup language that is capable of being used in the same family
as languages like HTML and CSS.

Main feature of AJAX:

• Read information from a net server - after a net page has loaded.

• Update a net page barring reloading the page.

• Send information to a web server - in the background.

3.2.3 JASON

JavaScript Object Notation is often termed as Jason. It is a method to store facts in an


structured, easily accessible way. In short, it provides us a collection which is human-
readable that we can get into in a obviously logical way. When changing data between
a browser and a server, the statistics can solely be text. JSON can be converted
acquired from the server into JavaScript objects. This way we can work with the
statistics as JavaScript objects, with no tricky parsing and translations.

Keys/values are the two predominant components that join and form JSON. Together
they create a key / value couple.

 Key: The key is a continuous closed in the quotation mark.

 Value: String, number, Boolean and array are values.

3.2.4 THINGSPEAK

ThingSpeak is a supplier of IoT analytics platforms that approves the ability to add,
show and evaluate remain data in cloud. It gives on-site visualizations of documents
that have been published to ThingSpeak via phones. As it has is given the ability to
execute the high level language and show the online processing and comparison. It is
mostly utilized for proof of cross examination of IoT gadgets requiring investigation.

Web of Things (IoT) portrays developing fashion that put expansive number of
implanted gadgets (things) is connected to the Web. These connected units talk with
individuals and different issues and normally supply sensor data to distributed storage
21

and distributed computing assets. The spot the measurements is prepared and broke
down to procure fundamental bits of knowledge.

 Key Feature of ThingSpeak:

 Through IoT protocols devices can easily be configured.

 Real-time facts are provide or visualized.

 It works on demand based as required by any other party’s.

 Use the electricity of MATLAB to make experience of your IoT data.

 Prototype and construct IoT structures without putting up servers or growing


net software.

3.2.5 MYSQL SERVER:

MySql is an Oracle-backed and relation based database management machine


(RDBMS) primarily based on the Structured Query Language (SQL). Linux, UNIX
and Windows operating system can run MySql. Despite the fact that it tends to be
utilized in a huge fluctuate of utilizations, MySql is mostly used now and again
related with web applications and on the web. MySql is basically founded on a
customer server model. All the database directions are dealt with by the MySql.
MySql server is reachable as a different program for use in a customer server organize
environment and as a library that can be inserted into discrete applications.

MySql works alongside several utility programs that assist manage the MySql
database. The commands are sent to the MySql server via the MySql client, which is
mounted on computer. MySql was first created to deal rapidly with a big database.
Although MySql is usually only available on one machine, it is capable of sending the
database to a number of places, as clients are able to access it through a particular
MySql client interface. These Interfaces send SQL statements to the server then
displays the results
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3.3 INTRODUCTION TO IOT

As in previous years since1988 sir “Weiser” were give the idea of “Ubiquitous
Computing”.

In which sir “Weiser” introduces the concept of various ubiquitous computing


machines that were designed to facilitate the various kinds of services to the users
such as time of service ,location of any particular destination and etc. then many
changes were occurs after this updating in the power of computational machines
because these are founds in many fields in today;\’s technology as time goes it
increases the scope of computational world that with ability of networking and switch
of information [21].

Touching the point “internet of things” in today’s technology is “everywhere


conception where physical objects having connection with internet and specified by
some particular identification specifies to make possible their individual identity to
the other nodes in the IOT network connection field of IOT grows as time goes
because of interconnected ability and data exchange [22].

As ever-increasing with the amount services and IOT applications which facilitate the
various kinds of data collection and great opportunities to get interaction with the
physical objects that is grows as time goes in technology [23].

In IOT the term things is leads to the concept of interconnected physical devices or
things like various physical machines or sensors connected through gateways in
internet accessibility or devices exchange information via Bluetooth.

Internet available in exclusive interconnected systems which provides access to the


various devices to enable the two ways communication in order to exchange the data
with the help of various standards of communication protocols sets.

In the initial days of internet technology the internet was only gives appearance only
as document services stationary web site and mail communication services but
today’s scope of internet technology increased everywhere in the world on big scale
in many angles also as part of our life by contributing the various beneficial services
to the different end users and providing facilities to the human beings in many aspects
23

that match with the wish of each individual end users and also with less cost and
issues in[13].

As it is point to be realize that the growing technology of internet is brilliantly


reflecting different devices in different ways as smart devices technology is reflecting
the world highly that provides the internet connectivity and also meets with the needs
of each individual users in the various aspects now a day’s internet is considered as
the very essential part of an each user’s life therefore the scope of IOT is increasing
very rapidly day by day that allows the access of autonomous communication to the
physical devices [13].

The internet of things (IOT) technology is considered as an efficient solution to the


internet technologies as IOT is the joint connection of various physical devices with
some information interconnectivities that allows the services to establish
communication between these networks and enable the exchange of data through an
internet connection with help of objects specifies [13].

3.3.1 BASIC CONCEPT OF IOT

Figure 2.1: IOT System [20].

The term Internet of Things (IOT) shows a great future scope of interconnected
networks where several physical objects can connect by internet in many different
forms.
24

The successful image of IOT will involve computing to the modernized past
traditional arrangement of devices including moveable devices and smart phones
technology to the addition on of everyday physical things and the connection of
intelligent system with the environment activities [20].

IOT is the network of physical things joint over a connection in any organization or
company and other systems that are embedded with hardware like sensors and etc.
and setup the communication in the network and enables the exchange of information.
[12]

The technology of IOT is highly influencing our lifestyle from the manner we act to
the means we behave in our daily routine.

From the wired to wireless technology from auto control doors, television remote
control, autonomous car, tracking, monitoring, smart phones and etc. And there are
the many other examples where IOT is reflecting the lifestyle of end users and
guiding the way to get interaction with internet technologies in today’s world [12].

The term “things” in the perspective of (IOT) is any physical devices which is
embedded in network with specific identifier and have the ability of convey the
exchange of information over the network [12].

3.3.2 A SIMPLE VIEW OF IOT

Figure 3.2: IOT Scenario.

IOT is joint network of physical devices connected with internet facility and are
capable of collecting and sharing the information via internet connectivity in the
context how they are used and which system these devices are being operated for the
25

exchange of data. It’s all done using sensors that are embedded in every physical
device and that is can be smart phone, digital watch, electronic devices like door
control remote , washing machines and etc. almost many different things you are a
crossing in your daily life usage nut how these devices works for particular reason and
how these sensors operates in order to collect and maintain the data over network
continuously and how this collected data will be beneficial for our purposes or what is
worthier working state so, the IOT technology is sharing part by providing common
platform for various physical devices in different sense with unique specifies and by
providing common language for all different devices so that the communication issue
will resolved.

The records from various sensors will sends to the IOT display place and protection,
then IOT platform put together the collected data from a variety of resources and then
further analysis is performed on the information collected and then irrelevant
information will take out from the data and useful information will send to the user
according to their requirements then the finalized result will shared with other devices
in the interconnected network for better user understanding automation and
progressive efficiencies experience [12].

3.4 FEATURES OF IOT

3.4.1 WIRELESS COMMUNICATION

IOT provides the wireless fidelity communication for devices.

Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) is an interconnection technology that allows different


devices to communicate with each other via wireless signal such as computers [19].

Now days there are almost persistent Wi-Fi that convey the high rate Wireless Local
Area Network (WLAN) connectivity to millions of organizations such as company
and etc.

The addition wireless fidelity in smart phones, electronic appliances has increased the
scope of Wi-Fi [14].
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3.4.2 SENSORS

Sensors are the electronic devices that are capable of percept the information from the
environment for certain tasks as per need of a user for example aweightystream of
water may destroy the pipe and cause the leakage of water in the system so the
sensors are used to detect the flow of water in pipe or tank and send data regarding
water level [17].

In either case it will deliver an auto-generated notification describing the findings


regarding the current situation of environment and the system’s activities. [14]

Let take an example For example, you are away on vacation and the house is empty
and you forget to switch off the systems sensor results are processed by an
application, which had received another report from a temperature sensor that detects
the water in the main water pipe [18].

3.4.3 NEAR FILED COMMUNICATION (NFC)

The term NFC means nearest field communication which is wireless technology and
used for online payments purpose and it also used to setup the wireless
communication between portable devices like mobiles and handheld computers.

3.4.4 APPLICATIONS OF IOT

 Smart cities: It is all about the internet of things like smart cars, smart phone
and etc.

 Security & Emergencies

Use to perceive and control the peoples in unconstitutional and locality areas, used to
check the level of water detect the conditions of liquid in particular areas and etc.

 Domestic & Home Automation

IOT is play very important role in daily life and used in various home and domestic
appliances like air conditions, washing machines, remote control doors and etc.
27

 Industrialized power

IOT technology is used to sense the air quality and various toxic gases used to sense
the pollution and also used to sense the temperature conditions of the organizations or
industry.

Also uses for the sensing of ozone levels presence in food industries [14].

3.5 IOT TAXONOMY

It is general thing for considerations regarding to the concept of IOT that main
concentrate on only the activities of single object.

Generally it is understood that the IOT eco system in the combination of different
collectable electronic devices in the giant network.

3.5.1 IOT COMPONENTS

There is the variety of components embedded within the IOT eco system as follows.

 Smart Devices

 Persistent Nodes

 Collectables

 Loose Perishables

 Gateways

3.5.1.1 Smart devices:

The smart devices in IOT eco system are specify the systems having the capability of
communicate its own existence in the presented system or network smart devices are
embedded with other devices within the network and also embedded with sensors in
order to exchange the data related to its environment.
28

3.5.1.2 Persistent nodes

Any node in the network is termed as persistent nodes that provides the facility to the
network storage and to the system service as a part of a network.

These nodes also have the unique identifiers these nodes almost works in a closed
network system in which the communication setup is done by using the gateways.

3.5.1.3 Collectables:

Data collectable means data gathering from different objects in a network collectables
are demonstration of abroad set of objects arrangement that are specifies by the
unique identifiers.

3.5.1.4 Loose perishables:

Loose perishables are devices that are the collection of different physical objects such
as fruits data and labeled data, things, stuff and etc.

3.5.1.5 Gateway

Any hardware device in a network that act as a source between the different networks
and devices is called as gateways and the gateways plays a very essential role in the
IOT eco system.

For example router is work as a gateway to enables the internet access to mobile
phones, computers and other devices [16].
CHAPTER 4
METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS
The objective of this section is to present clear picture of methods which are used to
complete the thesis work. Models which are used to execute the project also included.

4.1 DESIGN

This portion of the thesis work is the description of the or the illustration of the
Design of the System “Water Overflow Indicator and Alerting System”. The design of
any project really matters. A project must be designed in effective way and with
attractive look. Specially, when system is embedded because the software portion or
API (Application Program Interface) must have attractive look and easy to reach the
difficult options.

All the relevant diagrams of the system are shown here including the circuit diagram,
UML diagram and GUI (Graphic User Interface) design of System. Also define how
the phases are executed.

4.2 PROJECT DIAGRAM

This is entire diagram of flow of hardware along with its components and containing
Software with its cloud structure. The diagram defines the whole phenomenon of the
Water Overflow Indicator and Alerting System. The sensors which are connected with
the arduino boards are Water sensor, water level sensor, control sensor and humidity
temperature sensor. Data is sent to clouds with the help of Wi-Fi module.

18
19

4.2.1 FLOW CHART

Figure 4.1: Flow chart


20

4.2.2 CLASS DIAGRAM

One type of UML (Unified Modeling language) that shows the static structure by
showing attributes and relation amongst the classes.

Figure 4.2: Class Diagram.


21

4.2.3 DEPLOYMENT DIAGRAM

The diagram is aimed to represent execution architecture of a system, Software and


hardware are acting as node and the middleware connecting them. The Physical
visualization of the system is:

Figure 4.3: Deployment Diagram.


22

4.2.4 USE CASE DIAGRAM

A user can communicate with scheme is called as Use Case Diagram.

The Following is shown the description of the System.

Figure 4.4: Use Case Diagram.


23

4.3 THE USER INTERFACE

As the Water Overflow Indicator and Alerting is embedded system and web Based.
Therefore, Graphic User Interface is also designed for it.

Figure 4.5: Web Interface

This web contains the two main User Interfaces:

 ThingSpeak

 MySql

4.4 METHODOLOGY

Methods chosen for the project:

4.4.1 QUALITATIVE METHOD

While interviewing with client detail questions are being asked for the purpose of
gaining deeper insight into problem. Similar is the objective here to understand the
problem which will be encountered in each process step while executing the process.
24

Internal factor or external factors which can create problem while running Water
Overflow Indicator and Alerting System for an unplanned maintenance.

4.4.2 QUANTITATIVEMETHOD

As the word quantitative itself employee that something which can be counted or
measured, therefore, this method is used for the purpose of measurable quantities Just
like the measure of flow of water, the amount of temperature recorded every day, the
humidity temperature and percentage of moisture exist in the air.

Quantitative
Quantitative
method
method

Dealing with numbers Measurable

However, quantitative method highlights the importance of number which must be


handled carefully because wrong readings can creep into the measurements which
can cause disaster. Almost quantitative methods are statistical & are two types of it
namely: descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

4.5 OUR MODEL FOR THE PROJECT

The model selected for the project works according to Hall Effect which can be
defined as “Electrical conductor voltage production once a magnetic flux is applied
during a direction perpendicular to the present flow". Why we have chosen this
model? The answer of this question is simple. The goal behind choosing this model is
that it is effective in working and structured. Water Overflow Indicator and Alerting
System consist of various process steps, during the initial stages of the thesis work, no
specific process step in Water Overflow Indicator and Alerting System was identified
with a non-conformance problem. So, the thesis work had to analyze every process
step in Water Overflow Indicator and Alerting System. Due to this reason, using a
pure scientific approach in the thesis would be less feasible. In other words there
would be hypothesis at each process step and will result in multiple scientific
problem, which can complicate the work.
25

4.6 PHASES OF PROJECT EXECUTION MODEL

It can be termed as the lifecycle of the Project “Water Overflow Indicator and
Alerting System”. Execution of any project is the steps, from where the project starts
and where it ends. What functionalities it performs and reaches to the final phase.
What kind of disturbance can occur and in which phase there are most chances of
occurring of problem. And what steps are taken in project to handle those problems if
any unpleasant situation occurs. Is there any phase designed for problem
improvement? Yes the phase namely Improve is designed for it.

Five phases are defined are as under

 Define

 Measure

 Analyze

 Improve

 Control

4.6.1 DEFINE

From the name of this phase, it can be estimated that simply things are described here.
From the description one can come to know that what kind of functionalities are going
to be performed in this project. The description of following things can occurs in this
phase:

I. Process map

II. Literature survey

III. Problem understanding

IV. Project Planning

V. Problem definition

VI. The Project aim


26

4.6.2 MEASURE

The measurement of each process is important to bring the system to statistical


control. A proper measurement of system has to be established and evaluated firstly.
All the process steps require to measure and recorded. The measurements are then
visualized to understand the processes using charts. Proper measurement methods
like, Process measurement, special Measurement, Measurement plan & measurement
procedure.

4.6.3 ANALYZE

In this phase the results of measurement are analyzed to identify cause for the
problems. The problem is analyzed and handled here accordingly. Flow Calculations
of water, alarming situation or flow calculation chart are made here. There is also
some kind of modification if there is need of modification.

4.6.4 IMPROVE

The proposed modifications or improvements are tested in this phase to validate if the
desire results are achieved. Improvement cycles are implemented at each process step
to validate the effect of modification that was proposed to eliminate the root cause.
This phase improves by the experiments. Based on Experiments it improves the
System, that’s why it is termed as Experimental Modification.

4.6.5 CONTROL

All the other phases are good, but the functionality of this phase is unique. Because
this phase is the main phase, every condition is set-up here. Water flow and other
environmental factor are coded in this section. If flow of water increases or other
environmental factor effect the System then simply it will control the flow of water
according to condition made. It is also designed in such a way that if the situation
becoming worse it will automatically stop functioning and close the flow of water.
27

4.7 RESULTS

4.7.1.1 Introduction

This chapter provides deep information regarding implementation of the project. How
to connect hardware with software and send the data to the cloud with the help of Wi-
Fi module, how to assemble the circuit and make things work. It also specifies how
everything will be physically implemented using combination of hardware and
networking capabilities. Proposed system is also designed to provide the real-time
information based on the real-time datasets that are sent to cloud at that time. If real
time information is received then proposed model will accordingly generate the
alerting message and send it to the relative authority along with the location, which
will be easy to inform the people of that specific area. Which is responsibility of
authority to convey the message to the people of that area as they can take successive
measures to save their lives and property. The system also designed with the ability to
automatically control the overflow flow of water by using control sensor, which acts
as control valve.

Proposed System is designed with two capabilities. Overflow of water can be dealt
with two ways:

1. On the basis of volume limit: Arduino is coded on the basis of Amount of


water passes through the Hall effect sensor. Proposed system itself stops the
flow of water if the limit of water exceed from set-up limit. For now, it is been
coded up to One (1) liter for checking purpose which can be extended.
2. On the basis of flow speed of water: First of all water will pass through Hall
Effect sensor, which contains fan inside. The flow speed of water can be
measured by number of cycles per second. Then condition is also set-up here
that if the flow speed of water exceeds from the given speed limit then activate
the control valve and stop the flow by sending flow speed to the cloud.

4.7.1.2 Algorithm for using System

STEP 1: Start

STEP 2: Pour the water in Hall Effect sensor


28

STEP 3: Reading of water measured

STEP 4: Reading sent to Arduino board.

STEP 5: Overflow (If Yes)

STEP 6: Activate the control valve

STEP 7: Stop the flow of water

STEP 8: Generate alert notification

STEP 9: End

STEP 5: Overflow (If NO)

STEP 6: Send data to cloud

STEP 7: All the sensed data will appear at webpage

STEP 8: Repeat until overflow occurs

STEP 9: End
29

4.7.1.3 The main interface of webpage:

Figure 4.6: Main Interface


30

4.7.1.4 Reading Shown at Webpage

4.7.1.4.1 Temperature

Figure 4.7: Readings for temperature

4.7.1.4.2 Humidity Temperature

Figure 4.8 Readings for Humidity temperature


31

4.7.1.4.3 Current flow

Figure 4.9: Readings for Current flow

4.7.1.5 Graphically Representation:

4.7.1.5.1 The graphical Representation of Humidity Temperature

Figure 4.10: Graphical representation for Humidity temperature

4.7.1.5.2 Graphical Representation of location

Figure 4.11: Graphical representation for location


32

4.7.1.5.3 Total Temperature and the Flow Reading of Water:

Figure 4.13: Total temperature Figure 4.12: Flow readings of water

The Reading of Temperature, Humidity Temperature, Flow and Flow Rate along with
date and time are shown in following table:

Table 4.1 Readings of Temperature, Humidity Temperature, Flow and Flow Rate along with date and
time

Date & Time Temperature Humidity Flow Flow Rate


Temperature
2019-09-07 33.4 58 30 73
08:26:51 UTC
2019-09-07 33.6 44 78 23
08:27:05 UTC
2019-09-07 34.8 9 40 65
08:29:15 UTC
2019-09-07 35.1 92 42 78
08:28:19 UTC
2019-09-07 34.9 76 45 76
08:29:11 UTC
CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RECOMMENDATIONS


5.1 CONCLUSION

The cardinal aim of this research work is to develop a real-time Water overflow Indicator
and Alerting System avoid the catastrophic losses.

The purposes of sensor, which are connected with other electronic devices, detect the
changes in environments and send the information to the cloud through the attached
electronic device often Computer Processor.

Major building blocks of developed system are under:

1. Arduino board

2. Sensors which collect data and transmit it with the help of Wi-Fi module,

3. GPS locator

4. Water Controller, and

5. API (Application Program Interface)

 The Wi-Fi module is implemented which connects the hardware with Application
Program Interface.

 Water sensor measures water related data and transmit it to the cloud via Wi-Fi
module.

 Alerting notification will be generated at software side if any unusual or


unpleasant situation occurs.

OR

 Water controller sensor will stop the flow of water without human Interaction.

32
33

A brief wrap up

 For realizing sustainable social development, this research has flourishing


demonstration of Water overflow Indicator and Alerting System with the feature
to generate notification and send alerting message to the relative authority.
Previously, local authorities were measuring the water using conventional remote
technology and reports were very late, which was not useful for responding to
flood events.

 Because of having water overflow notification and alerting messages, It enable


authorities to take appropriate steps in order avoid the flood or any other such
disaster.

 While installing the system at the remote areas, it must be kept in mind that there
must be strong Internet connection available for Wi-Fi module as the connection
between the Software and Hardware be maintained. The internet connection
failure can cause difficulty in sending the data from the Hardware to the cloud and
which can cause some disaster. As no notification message will be generated by
software.

 Flow speed of water can be measured by using water sensor, which works on the
principle of Hall Effect.

 System will be monitored at barrages and reservoirs. It will observe the flow of
water, the temperature, the amount of moisture exists in air on daily basis and the
reading will be uploaded to the cloud via Wi-Fi module.

 Through GPS (Global Positioning System), it can easily be learnt that from which
barrage or reservoir the reading are coming and what are chances of water
overflow.

 The water level and volume of river can be estimated as to generate early warning
of catastrophic losses. It will predict the condition of atmosphere for a given
location and Time.
34

If flow of water increases rapidly in the nearest barrages and reservoirs then an
immediate notification be generated and an alerting condition will be informed to the
relative authority and the next nearest area can be protected with help of water overflow
indicator and alerting system.

5.2 FUTURE RECOMMENDATIONS

It is well known that temperature is increasing day-by-day and glaciers are melting,
therefore amount of water increasing. It is clear that the risks of flood will not decrease in
future days with climate changes. Glaciers are melting all around the world. This concept
led us to believe that flood magnitude and hence risk are also increasing. It is
understandable that the notification alerts system like flood warning system should take
successful measures to notify the people of the world and play an active role in saving the
economy of any country, educational institutes, Agriculture and other fatal loses.

Following Feature be added to flood warning system to improve its performance and
saving of human lives and other catastrophic losses:

 Time predication factor be added to timely warn the people of any area before the
flood occurs, which can save from many disaster.

 An early warning must reach to the nearest area, if flash flood occurs in near-by
with the help of early detection and avoidance systems.

 The system must be accessed from everywhere, with the help of Wi-Fi
connectivity, and provide each and every detail regarding flow speed of water and
temperature.
35

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