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# Equation Applications Home Learning

ALL: 1-2
GREEN: 3-10
BLUE: 7-18
BLACK: 11-21

Read  the  following  example  to  help  you  understand  how  to  complete  the  remaining
problems in this assignment.

Example 1

Potato  Peeling  Problem.  Butch  starts  peeling  potatoes  at  the  rate  of  3  potatoes
per  minute.  Four  minutes  later  Janet  joins  him and peels at the rate of 5 potatoes
per minute. Butch continues at 3 per minute.

a. Define a variable for the number of minutes Butch has been peeling.

b. Write expressions for:
i the number of minutes Janet has been peeling;
ii the number of potatoes Butch has peeled;
iii the number of potatoes Janet has peeled;
iv the total number of potatoes that have been peeled.

c. Write  an  equation  stating  that  they  have  peeled  a  total  of  36  potatoes.  Then
solve  the  equation  to  find  out  how  long  Butch  has  been  peeling  when  36  have
been peeled.

d. How many of the 36 potatoes did each one peel?

_____ _ _ _ _ _

a.    Let    =  the  number  of  minutes  Butch  has
been peeling.  (See note 1.)

_____ _ _ _ _ _

b i  - 4 = number of minutes Janet has
.  been peeling.  (See note 2.)

ii  3 = number of potatoes Butch
has peeled.  (See note 3.)

iii  5( - 4) = number of potatoes Janet
has peeled.  (See note 4.)

iv  3 + 5( - 4) = total number of potatoes.

Think These Reasons

c.  3 + 5( - 4) = 36  Set total number of potatoes equal to 36.

3 +5 - 20 = 36  Distribute the 5.

8 - 20 = 36  Combine like terms.

8 = 56  Add 20 to each member.

= 7  Divide each member by 8.

Butch peeled for 7 min.  Answer the question.

_____ _ _ _ _ _

d.  Butch ​:  Janet :​
3(7)  5(7 – 4)  Substitute  7  for    in  the  appropriate
= 21  = 5(3)  expressions and evaluate.
= 15

## Butch peeled 21 potatoes.  Answer the question. (See note 5.)

Janet peeled 15 potatoes.

Notes:

1. You  should  a
​ lways  write  a  definition  of  the  variable,  even  if  it  is  given  in  the
problem.  This  way you will not forget which of the variable quantities it stands
for.
2. Since  Janet  starts  4  minutes  ​after  Butch,  she  has  been  peeling  for  4  f ​ ewer
minutes. So her time is 4 ​less​ than .
3. Three potatoes per minute for minutes gives 3 potatoes.
4. Multiply Janet’s rate, 5, by h ​ er​ time, ( - 4).
5. You  can  check  your  answers  by  seeing  that  21  and  15  have  a  sum  of  36,  the
total number of potatoes peeled.

Some  problems  involve  distances.  For  these  problems,  it  is  helpful  to  draw  a
diagram  showing  the  distances.  You  can  mark  the  expressions  representing  the
distances on the diagram.

1.  Coal Shoveling Problem. Doug Upp can shovel coal at the rate of 16 tons per
day. His brother, Sid, can shovel 10 tons per day.

a. Define  a  variable  for the number of days Doug has been shoveling. Then
write an expression for the number of tons Doug has shoveled.

b. Three  days  later  Sid  joins  Doug,  and  both  shovel  together.  Write  an
expression  for  the  number  of  ​days  Sid  has  been  shoveling  in  terms  of
the  variable  in  part  ​a​.  Then  write  an  expression for the number of t​ ons
Sid has shoveled.

c. Write  an  equation  stating  that  the  total  number  of  tons  Doug  and  Sid
have  shoveled  is  100. Then solve the equation to find out how many days
Doug dug when they have shoveled this much coal.

d. How much of the 100 tons did Sid shovel?

2.  Dishwashing  Problem.  Moe  Tell  starts  washing  dishes  at  the  Greasy  Spoon
Café.  Fifteen  minutes  later  Fran  Tick  joins  Moe,  and  both  wash until all the
dishes are done.

a. Define  a  variable  for  the  number  of  minutes  Moe  has  been  washing
dishes.  Then  write  an  expression  in  terms  of  that  variable  for  the
number of minutes Fran has been washing.

b. Moe  washes  9  dishes  per  minute  and  Fran  washes  16 dishes per minute.
Write  expressions  representing  the  number  of  dishes  Moe  has  washed
and the number of dishes Fran has washed.

c. Write  an  equation  stating  that  the  total  number  of  dishes  washed  is
760. Then solve it to find out how long Moe worked.

d. How many dishes did each one wash?

3.  Plumber  Problem.  ​Nick  O’  Time,  the  plumber,  charges  \$30  per  hour.  His
brother,  Ivan,  the  plumber’s  helper,  charges  \$20  per  hour.  Nick  starts
working  on  a  job.  Four  hours  later,  Ivan  joins  him  and  both  work  until  the
job is finished.

a. If Nick has been working for hours, how long has Ivan been working?

b. Write  expressions  for  the  number  of  dollars  Nick  has  earned  and  for
the number of dollars Ivan has earned after hours.

c. The  total  bill  for  the  job  is  \$470.  Write  an  equation  stating  this  fact,
and solve it to find out how long Nick worked.

d. How much of the \$470 does each one get?

4.  Your  normal  walking  rate  is  180  feet  per  minute.  How  far  can  you  walk  in
three hours at your normal walking rate?

5.  The kite shown below has an area of 120 square inches.
Find the unknown length .

6.  The  sum  of  three  numbers  is  65.  Let    be  the  first  number.  The  second
number  is  four  times  the  first  number  and  the  third  number  is  two  times
the second number. What are the three numbers?

Solve the problem by writing an equation and solving it. Check your answer.

7.  The  sum  of  two  numbers  is  24.  One  number  is  three  times  the  other.  Find
both numbers.

8.  The  length  of  a  rectangle  is 6 m more than the width. The perimeter of the
rectangle is 20 m. Find the length and width.
9.  Judy  is  five  years  older  than  Punch.  If  the  sum  of their ages is 47, how old
is each?

10.  The  difference  in  the  ages  of  two  people  is  8  years.  The  older  person  is  3
times the age of the younger. How old is each?

PROBLEMS INVOLVING CONSECUTIVE INTEGERS

11.  Find three consecutive integers whose sum is equal to 366.

12.  The  sum  of  three  consecutive  even  integers  is  equal  to  84.  Find  the
numbers.
13.  The  sum  of  an  odd  integer and twice its consecutive is equal to equal 3757.
Find the number.

14.  Find  four  consecutive even integers so that the sum of the first two added
to twice the sum of the last two is equal to 742.

15.  A  Case  of  Too  Little  Information.  ​Will,  Emma,  and  I  have  also  talked
about  the  problems  that  arise  when  a  client  leaves  out  information.  That
happens a lot, unfortunately. Take, for example, a case Will had recently.

It  was  9:30  in  the  evening,  and  Will  was  taking  a  last  look  at  his  e-mail
messages.  There  was  one  from  Ralph,  one  of  his  grandfather’s  oldest  and
dearest  friends.  Will  was  surprised.  He  hadn’t  even  known  that  old  Ralph
had  a  computer.  The  message  had  its  share  of  friendly chatter, but it also
contained a problem that had Ralph good and stumped.

Ralph,  it  seems,  was  in  a  charitable
mood  and  wanted  to  give  a  gift  of
money  to  each  of  his  grandkids.  He
had  decided  to  split  \$100  among
them.  His  idea  was  to  give  each
grandchild  \$5  more  than  the  next
younger  grandchild.  His  question  for
Will  was,  “How  much  do  I  give  to  my
youngest grandchild?”

It  was  late,  and Will was a little tired. The first thing he thought was, ​How
can  I  get  my,  grandfather  to  think  more  like  Ralph  here?  Then,  without
thinking,  Will  began  to  jot  down  some  computations.  He  figured  that  he
could  solve  this  little  puzzle  easily  by  writing  and  solving  an  equation.
Simple.  Will  wrote  the  following:    =  the  amount  of  money  the  youngest
lucky  grandchild  would  get.  Then  he  stopped.  He  put  down  his  No.  2  pencil
and  sighed.  Before  he  could  go  any  further,  he  had  a  question  that  Ralph

a. What  information  did  Will  need  before  he  could  solve  the  gift-giving
problem?

b. Assume that Ralph had 4 grandchildren. Solve the problem now.

16.  Membership Boom. ​There  was  a  surge  in  math  club  membership  after the
fun  Halloween  party.  When  the  principal  asked  Mrs.  Germain  how  many
students  were  currently  in  the  club,  she  replied,  “Three  times  our  number
plus  a  third  of  our  number  plus  a  fourth  of  our  number  plus  you  and  me  is
two hundred sixty.”

The  principal  smiled  and  nodded,  then  added,  “If  you  can  pick  up  another
eight  students  before  your  Christmas  party  you  will  have  exactly  10%  of
the student body involved in the club.”

a. How many students are enrolled in the math club?

b. How many students are in the school?

17.  An  Irritating  Inheritance.  ​Nat  Kudan  never  did  anything  the  easy  way.  He
never  did  things  the easy way when he was a boy. He never did things the easy way
when  he  was  a  young  man.  Now that he’s an old man, he certainly never does things
the easy way.

Nat’s  peculiar  ways  mean  more  clients  for  Emma  and  Will.  You  see,  Nat  has  a  big
family.  You  can  usually  find  one of them sitting in the detectives’ office with some
kind of mess to untangle. The other day it was Nat’s niece, Libby.

Libby  is  a  nice  niece  to  Nat.  No  one  would  say  that  she  wasn’t.  Her  brothers
Hector  and  Dave  are  nice  nephews  to  the  old  man,  too.  Yes,  Nat  has  a  nice  niece
and  two  nice  nephews.  He  knows  this  and  so,  when  he  made  his  will,  he  left  a
portion  of  his  wealth  to  the  three  of  them.  He  told  them,  too.  This  would  have
been well and good were it not for Nat’s naughty side.

“You  won’t  believe  this  will,”  said  Libby.  “We  hope
Uncle  Nat  lives  forever.  We  love  him.  But  also,  if  he
does,  that  may  give  us  enough  time  to  untangle  this
will  of  his.”  As  she  spoke,  Libby  slid  her  copy  of  the
will  out  a  large  envelope  and  placed  it  before  Emma
and  Will.  She  pointed  out  the  part  about  her  and  her
brothers.

The  twins  read  it  together.  What  it  said  was  that
Dave,  the  oldest,  was  to  inherit  five  times  as  much  money  as  Libby.  Libby,  the
youngest,  was  to  inherit  two-fifths  as  much  as  Hector,  the  one in the middle. The
will specified that the sum the three would share was \$102,000.

“According  to  what  we  read  here,  you  three  stand  to  inherit  a big pile of cabbage
from Uncle Nat,” said Will.

Libby  responded,  “That  may  be  true, but why can’t Uncle Nat do anything the easy
way? We can’t figure out how much money each of us will get. Help!”

How much money will Libby, Hector, and Dave get from Uncle Nat?

18.  When  two  people  are  on  opposite  ends  of  a teeter-totter, it will balance if
the  product  of  the  weight  of  person A and her distance from the middle is
equal  to  the product of person B’s weight and his distance from the middle.
When  Ray  sits  four  meters  from  the  middle  and  Fay sits five meters from
the  middle  on  the  other  side,  the  teeter-totter  will  balance  if  Fay  is
holding her son, Trey. Ray weighs 180 pounds, and Fay weighs 135 pounds.

How many pounds does Trey weigh?
Example

Train  Problem.  ​A  freight  train  leaves  point  A  going  50  km/h.  Two  hours
later,  a  passenger  train  leaves  A  going  in  the  same  direction  at  80  km/h.
How long will it take the passenger train to catch the freight train?

This is a ​relative rate ​problem.
Let ​t​ = number of hours for the passenger train to catch up.
In two hours, the freight train has gone 2 x 50 = 100 km.
The passenger train c ​ atches up ​at a rate of 80 – 50 = 30 km/h
So the passenger train must catch up 100 km at 30 km/h.

distance = rate x time
100 = 30​t

3​ = ​t
3 h 20 min.

This  example  shows  a  shortcut,  using  the  concept  of  relative  rate.  The
passenger  train  catches  up  100  kilometers  at  a  relative  rate  of  30  km/h.
There  are  other  algebraic  ways  to  do  this  problem,  but  the  relative  rate
technique is far superior.

19.  J  and  K  start  from  600  km  apart  and  approach  each  other at constant, but
different,  rates.  It  takes  12  hours  for  them  to  meet.  If  J  goes  10  km/h
faster than K, how fast does each one travel?

20.  Consuela  Lopez  drove  20 miles to visit a friend, averaging 25 miles per hour,
and  then  she  took  a  different  route  back,  averaging  the  same  speed.  Her
entire  trip  took  2  hours.  Write  and  solve  an  equation to find the distance ​d
that she drove on the way back.

21.  Linda  left  home  and  drove  for  2  hours.  She  stopped  for  lunch  then  drove
for  another  3  hours  at  a  rate  that  is  10  mph  higher  than  the  rate  before
she  had  lunch.  If  the  total  distance  Linda  traveled  is  230  miles,  what  was
the rate before lunch?

Solving Multi-Step Equations – Blue Solutions

1.  Coal Shoveling Problem.

a. 16

b. ​- 3, 10( - 3)

c. 5 days

d. 20 tons

2.  Dishwashing Problem.

a. m = minutes Moe working; Fran working: (m – 15)

b. Moe: 9m, Fran: 16(m-15)

c. 9m + 16(m-15) = 760; m=40

d. Moe – 360 dishes, Fran – 400 dishes

3.  Plumber Problem.

a. = Nick’s no. of hours
- 4 = Ivan’s no. of hour

b. 30 = Nick’s no. of dollars
20( - 4) = Ivan’s no. of dollars

c. 11 hours

d. Nick \$330, Ivan \$140

4.  32,400 ft

5.  12 inch

6.  First number: 5; second number: 20; third number: 40

7.  The numbers are 6 and 18

8.  2 and 8

9.  They are 21 and 26 years old

10.  They are 12 and 4
PROBLEMS INVOLVING CONSECUTIVE INTEGERS

11.  Let the three numbers be x, x + 1 and x + 2. their sum is equal to 366, hence
x + (x + 1) + (x + 2) = 366

Solve for x and find the three numbers
x = 121, x + 1 = 122 and x + 2 = 123

12.  The  difference  between  two  even  integers  is  equal  to  2.  let  x,  x  +  2  and  x + 4 be the three
numbers. Their sum is equal to 84, hence
x + (x + 2) + (x + 4) = 84

Solve for x and find the three numbers
x = 26, x + 2 = 28 and x + 4 = 30

The three numbers are even. Check that their sum is equal to 84.

13.  The  difference  between  two  odd  integers  is  equal  to  2.  let  x  be an odd integer and x + 2 be
its  consecutive.  The  sum  of  x  and  twice  its consecutive is equal to 3757 gives an equation of
the form
x + 2(x + 2) = 3757

Solve for x x = 1251

Check that the sum of 1251 and 2(1251 + 2) is equal to 3757.

14.  Let x, x + 2, x + 4 and x + 6 be the four integers. The sum of the first two
x + (x + 2)

twice the sum of the last two is written as
2((x + 4) + (x + 6)) = 4x + 20

Sum of the first two added to twice the sum of the last two is equal to 742 is written as
x + (x + 2) + 4x + 20 = 742

Solve for x and find all four numbers
x = 120, x + 2 = 122, x + 4 = 124, x + 6 = 126

As  an  exercise,  check  that  the  sum  of  the  first  two  added to twice the sum of the last two
is equal to 742

15.  A Case of Too Little Information.

a. He needs to know how many grandchildren Ralph has.
b. If  Ralph  had  4  grandchildren,  the  problem  could  be  solved  by  writing  and  solving  the
following equation:
Let = the amount the youngest grandchild gets:
+( + 5) + ( + 10) + ( + 15) = 100

16.  Membership Boom.
a. Let n = the number of students in the math club.

3n + n+ n + 2 = 260

3 n + 2 = 260

3 n = 258
n = 72
Then,  if  the  72  math club students gain 8 more members before the Christmas pageant they
would  have  a  total  of  80  members  in  the  Math  Club,  and  10% of the schools students,
also. 72 + 8 = 80 members.

b. Let n = student population in WHOLE school

=
n = 800 students in the student body.

17.  An Irritating Inheritance.

One  possible  equation  to  use  is    +    +  5   =  102,000,  where    represents  the
smallest inheritance, the amount of money Libby will receive.
Suggested Solution:
Libby - \$12,000; Hector - \$30,000; Dave - \$60,000
18.  Since  the teeter-totter is in balance, we can write an equation with the appropriate products
of  distance  and  weight  on  each  side.  We  can  use  ​T  for  Trey’s  unknown  weight.  4  x  180  =
5(135 + T​ )​ ; 720 = 675 + 5​T;​ 45 = 5​T;​ 9 = T
​ .​ Trey weighs 9 pounds.

​ ​: 20 km/h
20.

## Sample ​equation​: + = 2; 30mi

21.  If  x  is  the  rate  at  which  Linda  drove  before  lunch,  the  rate  after  lunch  is  equal  to  x  +  10.
The total distance D traveled by Linda is given by
D = 2​x​ + 3(​x​ + 10)
And is equal to 230 miles. Hence
2​x​ + 3(​x​ + 10) = 230
Solve for ​x​ to obtain
x ​= 40 miles/hour.

Bibliography Information
Teachers attempted to cite the sources for the problems included in this problem set. In some
cases, sources were not known.

## The Math Forum @ Drexel

16
(​http://mathforum.org/​)

Math Counts
18
(http://mathcounts.org)

Algebra I: Expressions,
Equations, and Applications
(Hardcover)~ ​Paul A.
1 – 3, 19 - 21
Publishing Company, Menlo
Park, CA, 1999
Larson, Ron, Laurie Boswell,
4 - 10 Timothy D. Kanold, and Lee
Stiff. A
​ lgebra 1 Concepts and
Skills​. Evanston: McDougal
Littell, 2001. Print.

## 15 , 17 Lee, Martin and Marcia Miller.

40 Fabulous Math Mysteries
Kids Can’t Resist​. Scholastic.
2001.