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GUIMARAS STATE UNIVERSITY

GRADUATE SCHOOL

McLain, Buenavista, Guimaras

First Semester, A.Y. 2019-2020

Professor: ETHEL P. JUNCO

Discussant: RENE T. GALANZA, MATM

Learning Objectives:

1. Illustrate the measures of central tendency (mean, median, and mode) of

statistical data;

2. Calculate the measure of central tendency of ungrouped and grouped data; and

3. Use appropriate statistical measure in analyzing and interpreting data.

Numbers that describe what is average or typical of the distribution.

You can think of this value as where the middle of a distribution lies.

An important part of data analysis is to find the average value, middle value, or

the most frequent value of a set of data, which are commonly known as the mean,

median, and mode, respectively.

For the mean, we use the symbol “ X́ ”, read as “X-bar”, for the median, “

~

X ”, for the median, read as “X-tilde”, and for the mode “ ^

X ”, read as “X-hat”.

Definition

Measures of Central Tendency

The mean (commonly called the average) of a set of n numbers is the sum

of all numbers divided by n.

The median is the middle number when the number in a set of data is

arranged in descending order. When there are even numbers of elements, the

median is the mean of the two middle numbers.

The mode is the numbers that occurs most often in a set of data. A set of

data can have more than one mode. If all the numbers appear the same of times,

there is no mode for that data set.

The Mean X́

The mean is the most popular among the measures of central tendency for it

is widely used. It indicates a point around with the values in the distribution balance.

This can easily be justified by showing that the sum of the differences from the

mean is equal to zero. It is also affected by extreme values.

The computation of the mean is very simple. To get the mean, simply add all

the scores in a distribution and divide by the total number of values. The formulas

for the computation of the mean are as follows:

Formula:

Mean (Ungrouped Data)

X́ =

∑ Xi where: X́ = mean ∑ Xi = sum of the scores

N

Xi = scores N = total frequency

Example 1:

The following is a list of the weekly savings of ten students.

Studen Abe Brend Carlo Donn Edwi Fre Gin Han Izz Jaco

t l a s a n d a s y b

Weekly 60 50 40 50 70 50 50 80 70 70

Saving

s

Solution:

X́ =

∑ Xi =

60+ 50+40+50+ 70+ 50+50+80+70+70

=59

N 10

The value of 59 is the mean of the set of values that represent the savings of

the students.

Formula:

Weighted Mean

X́ =

∑ fX where: X́ = mean f = frequency

N

X

= score N = total frequency

∑ fX= sum of the product of frequency and score

Let us represent the data in Example 1 in a frequency table.

Number of Students (f) 1 4 1 3 1 N = 10

(fX) 40 200 60 210 80 ∑ fX =

590

Solution: X́ =

∑ fX = 590 =59

N 10

Formula:

Mean (Grouped Data)

X́ =

∑ f Xm where: X́ = mean f = frequency

N

Xm = class mark (average of lower interval and upper

interval

∑ m = sum of the product of frequencies and class

f X

marks

N = total frequency

Example 2:

Calculate the mean score of 40 students given in the Table below.

Scores f Xm f Xm

98 – 100 2 99 198

95 – 97 1 96 96

92 – 94 1 93 93

89 – 91 6 90 540

86 – 88 6 87 522

83 – 85 5 84 420

80 – 82 9 81 729

77 – 79 2 78 156

74 – 76 3 75 225

71 – 73 5 72 360

N=40 ∑ f X m=3339

Solution:

X́ =

∑ f X m = 3339 =83.475

N 40

Alternative Formula:

Mean (Grouped Data)

∑ f Xc

(

X́ =X 0 +

N ) i where: X́ = mean f = frequency

X0 = coded value ( X −i X )∨ X

m 0

c

N = total frequency

Use example 2:

Scores f Xm Xc f Xc

98 – 100 2 99 4 8

95 – 97 1 96 3 3

92 – 94 1 93 2 2

89 – 91 6 90 1 6

86 – 88 6 87 0 0

83 – 85 5 84 -1 -5

80 – 82 9 81 -2 -18

77 – 79 2 78 -3 -6

74 – 76 3 75 -4 -12

71 – 73 5 72 -5 -25

N=40 ∑ f X m=−47

Solution:

X́ =X 0 + (∑ ) f Xc

N

i=87+

−47

40 ( )

3=83.475

~

The Median X

arranged (ascending or descending) distribution into two equal parts. The

arrangement of data in this manner is called an array. We use the median when we

want to know the value in which half of the scores are more extreme and half are

less extreme.

To find the median, we arrange the measurements in ascending

order and take the middle term.

The median of the 5 numbers 20, 40, 70, 80, and 90 is the third

number, 70.

If the sixth number, 95, is added to the sequence, there is no

middle number. In this case, the median is taken to be the mean of the third and

70+ 80

fourth number, or 75.

2

Example 3:

The scores of the 9 students in Example 1 are arranged in

ascending order as follows. Find the median of the distribution.

Studen Fre Brend Gina Donna Abel Edwin Izzy Jacob Hans

t d a

Weekly 50 50 50 50 60 70 70 70 80

Savings

Since there are 9 scores and it is odd, simply get the middle score

which is 60. Therefore, the median is 60.

th

N

1. If N is odd, the median is the middle position which is ( )

2

position.

2. If N is even, the median is the mean of the two middle data which are the

th th

N N

( )

2

and ( 2

+1 ) data.

The first step in the computation of a grouped data is to determine

th

N

the class interval which contains the ( )

2

score. This can be located under the

column <cf of the cumulative frequency distribution. The class interval that contains

th

N

the ( )

2

score is called the median class of the distribution. To calculate for the

Formula:

N

~

X= X LB +

interval

2

( )

−cf b

fm

i where:

~ = median

X i = size of the

X LB = the lower boundary or true limit of the median class

f m = frequency of the median class

N = total frequency

Example 4:

Cumulative Frequency Distribution of a 30-point Math Quiz

Scores f <cf

28 – 29 1 60

26 – 27 3 59

24 – 25 3 56

22 – 23 3 53

20 – 21 6 50

18 – 19 6 44

16 – 17 8 38

14 – 15 6 30 Median class

12 – 13 10 24

10 – 11 14 14

N = 60

Solution:

N 60

2

th score= ( )

2

thscore=30 th score

N

~

X= X LB +

2

( )

−cf b

fm

i=13.5+

30−24

6 ( )

2=13.5+2=15.5

This means that 50 percent of the students got scores below 15.5 or if the

passing score is 50 percent of the total number of points, almost one-half of the

class failed in that particular quiz.

Example 5:

Find the median of the grouped data in the table below.

Birth Weight (in ounces) f <cf

134 – 139 10 50

Median class

128 – 133 9 40

122 – 127 8 31

116 – 121 1 23

110 – 115 5 22

104 – 109 2 17

98 – 103 9 15

92 – 97 5 6

86 - 91 1 1

N = 50

Solution:

N 50

Locate the

2

th score=

2( )

thscore=25 th score

N

~

X= X LB +

2

( )

−cf b

fm

i=121.5+

25−23

8 (

6=123 )

The Mode ^ X

The mode of a distribution is the data with the highest frequency. The mode

of the data can be more than one. It is also possible that there can be no mode in a

set of data.

Example 6:

Find the mode of the data below.

Studen Abe Brend Carlo Donn Edwi Fre Gin Han Izz Jaco

t l a s a n d a s y b

Weekly 60 50 40 50 70 50 50 80 70 70

Saving

s

Since, 50 appeared four times, therefore 50 is the mode of the set of data above.

In the computation of the mode given a frequency distribution, the first step

is to get the modal class. The modal class is that the class interval with the highest

frequency. To compute the mode, we use the formula below.

Formula:

∆1

^

X =X LB + ( ∆1+∆2

i) where: ^

X = mode i = size of the interval

∆1 = difference between the frequency of the modal class

and the frequency of the class interval preceding it

∆ 2 = difference between the frequency of the modal class

and the frequency of the class interval succeeding it

Example 7:

Find the mode of the grouped data in the table below.

Scores f

98 – 100 2

95 – 97 1

92 – 94 1

89 – 91 6

86 – 88 6

83 – 85 5

80 – 82 9 Modal class

77 – 79 2

74 – 76 3

71 – 73 5

N=40

Solution:

∆1

^

X =X LB + ( )

∆1+ ∆2

i=79.5+( )7

7 +4

3=81.41

Example 8:

Find the mode of the grouped data in the table below.

134 – 139 10 Modal class

128 – 133 9

122 – 127 8

116 – 121 1

110 – 115 5

104 – 109 2

98 – 103 9

92 – 97 5

86 - 91 1

N = 50

Solution:

∆1

^

X =X LB + ( )

∆ 1+ ∆ 2 (

i=133.5+

1

)

1+10

6=134.05

You should use the mean when

the data are interval or ratio scaled

Many people will use the mean with ordinally scaled data too

and the data are not skewed

The mean is preferred because it is sensitive to every score

If you change one score in the data set, the mean will change

The median is often used when the distribution of scores is either positively

or negatively skewed

The few really large scores (positively skewed) or really small scores

(negatively skewed) will not overly influence the median

The mode is not a very useful measure of central tendency

It is insensitive to large changes in the data set

That is, two data sets that are very different from each other can

have the same mode

The mode is primarily used with nominally scaled data

It is the only measure of central tendency that is appropriate for

nominally scaled data

In symmetrical distributions, the median and mean are equal

For normal distributions, mean = median = mode

In positively skewed distributions, the mean is greater than the median

In negatively skewed distributions, the mean is smaller than the median

PRACTICE AND APPLICATION

Find the mean, median, and mode for each set of data.

3. 13, 11, 10, 12, 14, 9, 11, 8, 11 4. 10.5, 7, 10, 9.1, 10, 9.1

5.

x 13.5 13.7 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.8

f 2 6 22 29 12 4

6.

x 2 2 2 2 2 2

f 3 5 20 31 10 6

7. 8.

x f

95 – 109 8 x f

80 – 94 10 65 – 69 7

65 – 79 12 60 – 64 8

50 – 64 45 55 – 59 9

35 – 49 20 50 – 54 15

20 – 34 5 45 – 49 12

40 - 44 7

35 – 39 4

30 – 34 8

ENRICHMENT

1. The ages of 20 guests at a party are 22, 23, 24, 32, 27, 28, 29, 27, 7, 20, 22, 81,

33, 27, 26, 24, 19, 20, 21, and 33. Which average best describes the typical age and

what is it?

2. Edna’s Math test scores were 79, 51, 83, 76, 99, 75, 73, 84, and 77. What is

Edna’s average test scores? If her teacher drops the lowest score, what will Edna’s

average be?

preferred Brand B, 29 people preferred Brand C, and 12 people preferred Brand D.

Which brand did the “average” customer prefer?

4. Two friends own a small business. The partners pay themselves P32 000.00 each

of their 12 employees, one earns P25 000.00, one earns P19 000.00, two earn P16

000.00 each, five earn P13 000.00 each, and three earn P11 000.00 each. The two

friends want to make the average salary sound as great as possible. Which average

would they choose and how much is it?

Taken from: E-MATH Worktext in Mathematics 7, Oronce, Orlando A. & Mendoza, Marilyn O., pp.598 - 613

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