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The gaseous layer of Earth is its atmosphere. It is

composed of about 78 percent Nitrogen, 21 percent
Oxygen, and 1 percent mixture of minor gases
dominated by Argon.
Layers of Atmosphere
 Troposphere
 Stratosphere
 Mesosphere
 Thermosphere
 Exosphere
The hydrosphere is the liquid water component of the
Earth. It includes the oceans, seas, lakes, ponds, rivers
and streams.
 Oceans
 Freshwater
 Glaciers and Ice Caps
 Ground Water
 Surface Water
 Lakes
 Swamps
 Rivers
The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or
the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous
movement of water on, above and below the surface of
the Earth

The cycle of processes by which water circulates between

the earth's oceans, atmosphere, and land
Stages of Water Cycle
 Evaporation and Transpiration
 Condensation
 Precipitation
 Collection and Infiltration
Global ecological system integrating all living beings
and their relationships, including their interaction
with the elements of the lithosphere, hydrosphere,
and atmosphere

 Biosphere is composed of several ecosystems

An ecosystem includes all of the living things (plants,
animals and organisms) in a given area, interacting
with each other, and also with their non-living
environments (weather, earth, sun, soil, climate,
 Scales of Ecosystems
 Micro
 Messo
 Biome
 Classification
 Aquatic
 Terrestrial
Levels of Organization in an
1. Individual, Species, Organism
2. Population
3. Community
4. Ecosystem
5. Biome
6. Biosphere
Biomes are very large ecological areas on the earth’s
surface, with fauna and flora (animals and plants)
adapting to their environment.
Major Biomes
 Desert
 Aquatic
 Forest
 Grassland
 Tundra
Earth's lithosphere includes the crust and the uppermost
mantle, which constitute the hard and rigid outer layer
of the Earth

 The lithosphere is subdivided into tectonic plates

Plate Tectonics
 Below the lithosphere, the temperature is believed to reach
1,000°C which is warm enough to allow rock material to
flow if pressurized
 Seismic evidence suggests that there is also some molten
material at this depth (perhaps about 10%)
 This zone which lies directly below the lithosphere is called
the ’asthenosphere’
 The weaker, less rigid asthenosphere seems to be in
continual motion, forcing the plates of the lithosphere
against eachother
 This motion of the lithospheric plates is known as plate
A rock is a natural substance composed of solid crystals
of different minerals that have been fused together
into a solid lump

 For example, granite is a combination of the

minerals quartz, feldspar and biotite
 The Earth's outer solid layer, the lithosphere, is made of
Types of Rocks
1. Igneous
 form from the cooling of magma
2. Sedimentary
 form from sediment deposits
3. Metamorphic
 form out of sedimentary or igneous rocks that have
undergone changes due to extreme pressure and heat
Rock Cycle
Atmospheric pollution occurs when gases, dust particles,
fumes or odour are introduced into the atmosphere in
a way that it makes it harmful to humans, animals,
plants and the environment
Types of Pollutants
 Primary
 Emitted directly into the air from air pollution source
 Secondary
 Formed when primary pollutants undergo chemical
changes in the atmosphere
 Example: Smog
 Sources of Air Pollution
 Natural
 Man-made
 Effects of Air Pollution
 Acid Rain
 Global Warming
 Ozone Depletion
Acid rain, or acid deposition, refers to any form of
precipitation with acidic components, such as sulfuric
or nitric acid that fall to the ground from the
atmosphere in wet or dry forms
 Acid rain results when sulfur dioxide (SO2) and
nitrogen oxides (NOX) are emitted into the
atmosphere and transported by wind and air currents
 SO2 and NOX react with water, oxygen and other
chemicals to form sulfuric and nitric acids
 These then mix with water and other materials before
falling to the ground
Forms of Acid Rain
 Wet Deposition
 sulfuric and nitric acids formed in the atmosphere fall to
the ground mixed with rain, snow, fog, or hail
 Dry Deposition
 Acidic particles and gases deposit from the atmosphere
in the absence of moisture
 Ozone Layer: The
ozone layer is a belt
of the naturally
occurring gas
"ozone“ that serves
as a shield from the
harmful ultraviolet
radiation emitted
by the sun
Phenomenon of Ozone
Effects Of Ozone Depletion
 Damage to human health
 Devastation to environment
 Threat to marine life
 Effect on animals
 Impacts certain materials
The greenhouse effect is a natural process that warms
the Earth’s surface
Enhanced Greenhouse
 Solar radiation reaches the Earth's atmosphere - some of
this is reflected back into space.
 The rest of the sun's energy is absorbed by the land and the
oceans, heating the Earth.
 Heat radiates from Earth towards space.
 Some of this heat is trapped by greenhouse gases in the
atmosphere, keeping the Earth warm enough to sustain
 Human activities such as burning fossil fuels, agriculture
and land clearing are increasing the amount of greenhouse
gases released into the atmosphere.
 This is trapping extra heat, and causing the Earth's
temperature to rise.
Global Warming is the increase of Earth's average
surface temperature due to effect of greenhouse gases
which trap heat that would otherwise escape from
 Average temperatures have mounted 0.8 degree Celsius
around the world since 1880.
 The last two decades of the 20th century were the hottest
in 400 years.
 Wooly mammoths became extinct because of climate
change, not hunting.
 Sea levels have risen about 7 inches in the in the last 100
years, which is more than the previous 2000 years
 Since the industrial revolution in 1700, the level of carbon
dioxide on earth has increased by 34%.
 Each year of the 21st century ranks amongst 14 hottest years
since 1880.
 Natural Occurrences
 Volcanic Eruptions
 Human Activity
 Emission of greenhouse gases
 Deforestation
Effects of Global Warming
 Melting of glaciers
 Rising sea levels
 Changing ‘albedo’
 Wildlife habitats
 Ocean acidification
 Spread of disease
 Floods and droughts
Water pollution is
the contamination of water bodies due to discharge of

 Point Source vs. Non-point Source of Water Pollution

 Nutrients pollution
 Surface water pollution
 Oxygen-depleting
 Ground water pollution
 Suspended matter
 Chemical water pollution
 Oil spillage
 Solid Waste Management:
The collecting, treating, and disposing of solid material
that is discarded because it has served its purpose or is
no longer useful