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BASIC ELECTRONICS

(TMT 3343)
DIODE AND ITS APPLICATIONS
NO. NAME MATRICS NO.
1 SYED FADHIL BIN SYED JAAFFAR 2170098
2 ANATI AQILAH BINTI KHAIRUL ANUAR 2180656

CLASS: 2 TMT 2

LECTURER :SIR SURESH A/L THANAKODI


CONTENT

NO CONTENT PAGES

1 INTRODUCTION 1

2 BIAS IN RECTIFIER 1
INTRODUCTION

RECTIFIER

Rectifiers are primarily categorized into three kinds: Half-wave rectifier, Center t
apped full-wave rectifier and Bridge rectifier. All these three rectifiers have a
common goal of converting Alternating Current (AC) into Direct Current (DC).

Not all of these three rectifiers efficiently convert the Alternating Current (AC) in
to Direct Current (DC), only the center tapped full-wave rectifier and bridge rectif
ier efficiently converts the Alternating Current (AC) into Direct Current (DC).

Only 1 half cycle is allowed in half wave rectifier and the remaining half cycle is
blocked. As a result, nearly half of the applied power is wasted in a half-wave
rectifier. In addition, the output current or voltage generated by half-wave
rectifier is not a mere DC but a pulsating DC that is not very helpful.

Figure 1:Rectifier

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BIAS IN RECTIFIER
Generally,there are 2 types of bias in rectifier:

1) Forward bias

2) Reverse bias

1) Forward bias:-

When the voltage is applied to the P-N junction diode in such a manner that the b

attery positive terminal is attached to the p-type semiconductor and the battery's adver

se terminal is linked to the n-type semiconductor, the diode is said to be forward biase

d.

When this forward bias voltage is applied to the P-N junction diode, a big number

of free electrons (majority carriers) in the n-type semiconductor experience a repulsiv

e force from the battery's adverse terminal, likewise a big number of holes (majority c

arriers) in the p-type semiconductor experience a repulsive force from the battery's fa

vorable terminal.

Figure 2 : Forward Bias

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As a consequence, the free electrons in the n-type semiconductor begin moving fr

om n-side to p-side likewise the holes in the p-type semiconductor begin moving from

p-side to n-side.

We understand that electric current implies the flow of charging carriers (free

electrons and holes). Therefore, electrons flow from n-side to p-side and holes flow

from p-side to n-side conduct electrical current. Most carriers generate the electrical

current in forward bias condition. So the electric current produced in forward bias

condition is also known as majority current.

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2) Reverse bias:-

When the voltage is applied to the P-N junction diode in such a manner that the b

attery's positive terminal is attached to the n-type semiconductor and the battery's adv

erse terminal is linked to the p-type semiconductor, the diode is said to be reverse bias

ed.

When this reverse bias voltage is applied to the P-N junction diode, a big number

of free electrons (majority carriers) in the n-type semiconductor experience an appeali

ng force from the battery's favorable terminal likewise a big number of holes (majorit

y carriers) in the p-type semiconductor experience an appealing force from the battery

's adverse terminal.

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Figure 3:Reverse-bias

As a consequence, the free electrons (majority carriers) in the n-type semiconduct


or move away from the P-N junction and attracted likewise the holes (majority carrier
s) in the p-type semiconductor to the battery's positive terminal moving away from the
P-N junction and attracted to the battery's adverse terminal.

Therefore, the electrical current flow does not happen across the P-N junction.
However, the minority carriers (free electrons) in the p-type semiconductor
experience a repulsive force from the battery's adverse terminal likewise the minority
carriers (holes) in the n-type semiconductor experience a repulsive force from the
battery's favorable terminal.

As a consequence, the minority carriers in the p-type semiconductor free


electrons and the minority carriers holes in the n-type semiconductor start flowing
across the intersection. Thus, owing to the minority carriers, electrical current is
generated in the reverse bias diode. However, the electrical current generated by the
minority carriers is very low. The present minority carrier in the reverse bias situation
is therefore overlooked.

The P-N junction diode thus enables electrical current in forward bias condition
and blocks electrical current in reverse bias condition. Simply put, a P-N junction
diode enables electrical current in just one direction. This distinctive property of the
diode enables it to act as a rectifier.

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The forward bias and reverse bias voltage applied to the diode is nothing more
than a DC voltage. A DC voltage generates a current that always flows in one
direction (either forward direction or backward direction).

But an AC voltage generates a current that always reverses its direction many
times a second (forward to backward and forward). We have noted how a diode acts
when DC voltage (forward bias voltage and reverse bias voltage) is applied to it.