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MODE OF TRANSMISSION Signs & Symptoms

usually begin 2-5days


after exposure with a
An acute but highly and life-threatening infectious bacterial dse. (Greek word: DIPTHERA = leather) range of 1-10days.
ᴥRespiratory Systemᴥ
•Responsible for gas exchange CAUSE: SYMPTOMS SIGNS
The bacteria are widely distributed in nature and can
between the individual and the
be found in the soil and water
environment.
•Responsible for breathing.
CAUSATIVE AGENT: 3 biotypes of C. diphtheriae:
•Responsible for the supply of
ᴥCorynebacterium •gravis •mitis •intermedius
O2 throughout the body. diphtheriaeᴥ ᴥcommon nameᴥ
ᴥ Respiratory Tract (URT: nose, •Gram-positive bacillus
Kleb Loeffler's
throat, tonsils, mouth) •Produces exotoxin
Bacillus DIAGNOSTIC TESTS TREATMENT
ᴥOccasionally, the MUCOSA of
the eyes, ears or genitals and •Nasopharyngeal swabs of the •Antitoxin:
skin may also be affected. PREVENTION inflamed areas
injection through IV or
-gram stain and culture IM to neutralize the
Infants and Toddlers: *gram stain and Loeffler-
INTERVENTION diphtheria toxin
•DTP vaccine (2, 4, 6 months) methylene blue (Chinese letters)
•CBC with Platelet count •Antibiotic:
•TSB in the presence of fever Non-immunized or incompletely
-↓platelet count/ Penicillin / erythromycin
immunized travelers should have up- to kill bacteria and clear
•give medications thrombocytopenia
to-date vaccination up infection
•Urinalysis -proteinuria
1•use ventilator to help them breathe COMPLICATIONS •ECG - electrocardiogram

•bed rest

•Encourage the child to eat and drink. If the


child has difficulty in swallowing, do nasogastric
feeding.

•Place patient in separate, isolation area away


from other.

•Avoid patient movement or transport out of


isolation area.

*If movement is necessary to be out of


isolation area, have patient use a medical-
surgical mask.