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DISCRETE MATHEMATICS

Data Science and Engineering


Test 7
December 10, 2019

SOLUTIONS

Problem 1: (1 point)

If A is any nonempty set, prove that (P(A), 4 ) is an abelian group.


note: Remember that X 4 Y = (X ∩ Yc ) ∪ (Y ∩ Xc ) and that this operation is associative.

Answer:
P(A) is closed under 4 because if X, Y ⊂ A, then X 4 Y ⊂ A, and is also associative. The
identity is ∅, because

X 4 ∅ = (X ∩ ∅c ) ∪ (Xc ∩ ∅) = X ∩ A = X.
| {z }
=∅

The inverse of X is X, because

X 4 X = (X ∩ Xc ) ∪ (Xc ∩ X) = ∅.

Finally, X 4 Y = Y 4 X. Therefore (P(A), 4 ) is an abelian group.

Problem 2: (1 point)

Let G = {e, a, b, c, A, B, C, E} be a group with respect to some product ∗ defined by the


Cayley table

∗ e a b c C B A E (a) Explain why all subgroups of G are


e e a b c C B A E normal.
a a e C B b c E A
(b) Find all subgroups of order 2.
b b C e A a E c B
c c B A e E a b C (c) Find at least one subgroup of order 4.
C C b a E e A B c
(d) Choose one subgroup H of order 2 and
B B c E a A e C b
obtain its cosets.
A A E c b B C e a
E E A B C c b a e (e) Write down the Cayley table of G/H.

Answer:
(a) Since G is abelian, all its subgroups are normal.

(b) They are all of the form {e, x}, where x is any other element of G. The reason is that
x2 = e for any element of G.

(c) For instance {e, a, A, E}. Its Cayley table is

∗ e a A E
e e a A E
a a e E A
A A E e a
E E A a e
(d) Let us choose H = {e, a}. Its cosets are

e ∗ H = H, b ∗ H = {b, C}, c ∗ H = {c, B}, A ∗ H = {A, E}.

(e) The Cayley table of G/H is constructed as (x ∗ H) ~ (y ∗ H) = (x ∗ y) ∗ H:

~ H b∗H c∗H A∗H


H H b∗H c∗H A∗H
b∗H b∗H H A∗H c∗H
c∗H c∗H A∗H H b∗H
A∗H A∗H c∗H b∗H H