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State of Israel

Ministry of Energy and Water


Natural Gas Authority

Natural Gas Authority

Assessment and mitigation of potential damage to steel


pipelines and personnel safety resulting from the
interference effects of nearby high voltage electrical
infrastructure

Prepared for
Natural Gas Authority
Qiryat Hamada 6
POB 45140
Jerusalem 90451

Prepared by
Parsons Brinckerhoff
Beit Bareket 1
Airport City
POB 1032
Airport City 70100
Israel
www.pbworld.com
State of Israel
Ministry of Energy and Water
Natural Gas Authority

AUTHORISATION SHEET

Current Revision: P1

Status: ISSUE

Client: State of Israel, Ministry of Energy and Water, Natural Gas Authority

Project: AC Induced Corrosion

Address: Qiryat Hamada 6, Har Hotzvim, Jerusalem

PREPARED BY

Name: James Pope

Position: Lead Engineer – PB Oil and Gas Projects

Date: March 2013

CHECKED BY

Name: David Hanley and Ronen Marko

Position: Principal Engineer and Engineering Manager – PB Oil and Gas Projects

Date: March 2013

APPROVED AND AUTHORISED FOR ISSUE

Name: Cobi Ben Shetrit

Position: General Manager - PB Israel

Date: March 2013


State of Israel
Ministry of Energy and Water
Natural Gas Authority

Revision Description Date


D0 Initial Draft for Internal review June 2012
D1 Draft for NGA Comments/Approval June 2012
D2 First Revision Following NGA Review June 2012
D3 Second Revision Following NGA Review July 2012
P0 Issue January 2013
P1 Issue January 2013
State of Israel
Ministry of Energy and Water
Natural Gas Authority

CONTENTS
Page

1 Preface 1

2 Introduction 2

3 Scope 2

4 References 3

5 Definitions 4

6 General Requirements 6

7 Assesment of Induced AC 6
7.1 Existing Pipelines 7
7.2 New Pipelines (Existing HV Routes) 7
7.3 New or Existing Pipelines with New HV Routes 8

8 Conductive Influence 8

9 Electric Traction Systems 9

10 Mitigation 9
10.1 Avoidance 9
10.2 Design of Mitigation System 10

11 Construction 10

12 Monitoring 11

13 Records 11

14 Appendix 1 – Example Process 12

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State of Israel
Ministry of Energy and Water
Natural Gas Authority

1 PREFACE

The NGA require all gas systems to be safe and to operate within tolerable levels of individual and
societal risk as defined by standards and law. Operators of these gas systems are responsible for the
integrity and the safe operation and maintenance the of gas systems throughout their operational life.
The state of Israel has implemented safety orders and international standards for the design,
operation, maintenance and emergency response associated with all natural gas transmission
pipeline systems.

All gas pipeline system operators must produce and demonstrate compliance with operational and
maintenance philosophies, which must include integrity management policies, condition monitoring
policies, procedures and safe systems of work. They must identify all hazards that may impact the
system integrity with respect to tolerable individual and societal risk. Risk assessment must be
undertaken, mitigation measures established and any residual risk associated with the management
of each risk mitigation strategy must be defined and risk ownership established.

A credible integrity risk is associated with Alternating Current (AC) induced corrosion of steel pipelines
that are routed in close proximity to high voltage overhead electrical power systems. This document is
provided to give guidance to pipeline system operators to allow them to demonstrate a credible risk
mitigation strategy associated with the integrity management and condition monitoring of any pipeline
system affected by AC induced corrosion.

It shall be emphasised that the owner/operator bears the sole responsibility for the safe operation and
maintenance of the pipeline system and shall implement the required means and methods, as a
prudent operator, assuring that the system integrity is maintained throughout the design life of the
pipeline system.

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Natural Gas Authority

2 INTRODUCTION

Where a steel pipeline is routed in close proximity to overhead high voltage electrical power systems
or other electrical infrastructures such as electric traction systems, AC voltages can be induced onto
the buried pipeline. This presents several problems for the pipeline operator; firstly there arises a risk
of electrocution to personnel or members of the public who come into contact with an energised
pipeline and secondly, an effect known as ‘AC Corrosion’ may occur.

The mechanism behind AC corrosion is not fully understood, however case studies throughout
Europe and the United States indicate that where the AC voltage potential on a pipeline is >15V or AC
current density is between 30-100 Amps/m² as measured on a 1cm² test coupon constructed from the
same materials and coating as the pipeline, the corrosion risk is moderate. For values exceeding 100
Amps/m² however, the risk of AC corrosion occurring is high.

The purpose of this document is to provide a guideline for operators to ensure pipeline integrity is
maintained through the safe design and operation of steel pipe line systems, within the vicinity of HV
AC electrical systems.

3 SCOPE

The purpose of this document is to provide protection from the following hazards, where the hazard is
instigated as a result of proximity to HV electrical infrastructure:

1. Danger to people through contact with exposed metallic surfaces of steel pipeline equipment.
2. Damage to the pipeline or connected equipment through AC corrosion.
3. Damage to electrical/electronic equipment connected to the pipeline.
4. Damage to the pipeline itself and/or injury sustained to people in contact with or in proximity
to the pipeline or pipeline systems.

All steel gas pipelines within the vicinity of HV AC systems as defined in section 7 shall be assessed,
designed and monitored in accordance with this document.

The owner/operator shall develop and implement appropriate construction and operational and
maintenance procedures which mitigate any risks of electrocution during all activities which comply
with the codes and national laws and regulations requirements.

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State of Israel
Ministry of Energy and Water
Natural Gas Authority

4 REFERENCES

SI 5664 parts 1 and 2 Natural gas transmission pipeline system

SI 5664 part 3 Natural gas distribution system

BS EN 50443:2011 Effects of electromagnetic interference on pipelines caused


by high voltage a.c. electric traction systems and/or high
voltage a.c. power supply systems

PR EN 15280:2011 Evaluation of a.c. corrosion likelihood of buried pipelines


applicable to cathodically protected pipelines

CIGRE TB 095 Guide on the influence of high voltage AC power systems on


metallic pipelines

BS EN 31010:2010 (or equivalent) Risk Management, Risk Assessment Techniques

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Ministry of Energy and Water
Natural Gas Authority

5 DEFINITIONS

AC Alternating Current Electricity.


Attenuation A process by which a quantity is reduced in magnitude.
Cathodic Protection A system designed to provide Cathodic (i.e. DC) corrosion
protection for a pipeline or buried steel structure.
Competent Person One who has demonstrable competence/experience in identifying
existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working
conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to
employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective
measures to eliminate them
Coupon A small piece of metal buried alongside the pipeline, used for
testing purposes. For AC Corrosion, the coupon is used to monitor
the presence of the conditions which permit AC corrosion.
Current Density A calculated parameter based upon electrical measurements from a
buried test coupon.
DC Direct Current Electricity.
DC Leakage Current The small DC current that is allowed to flow through a de-coupling
device.
De-Coupled In this context, de-coupled refers to providing a means of grounding
pipeline AC whilst blocking DC (CP) currents.
Design Capacity The maximum amount of current the conductors are capable of
carrying. (as designed)
Electromagnetic Field A field of stored energy created around electrical conductors.
Gradient Control Wire An AC corrosion mitigation technique involving burying a grounded
parallel wire alongside a pipeline.
HV High Voltage Electricity. Voltage values exceeding 1kV are
considered High Voltage.
Induction A process by which an electrical current is created in one
conductor, simply by its presence in an electromagnetic field of
another.
May Indicates a function or process that may be undertaken, with
discretion based upon the selective criteria given in the sentence.
Mitigation System A system designed to reduce or eliminate the effects of AC
interference.

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Ministry of Energy and Water
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Online Inspection Intelligent Pigging run of the transmission system or parts thereof
and comparison with the base run.
Operator An entity responsible for the operation and maintenance of a
Natural Gas system and for the safe conveyance of Natural Gas.
Parallelism A section of pipe which either runs parallel to a high voltage
electrical system or crosses it at an angle lower than 45 degrees.
Pipeline Touch Voltage The AC voltage measured on the pipeline with respect to earth.
Quantitative Risk A process of quantifying and assessing risk for industrial
Assessment equipment.
Should Indicates a function or process that should be undertaken, unless
not deemed impossible based upon the selective criteria given in
the sentence.
Shall Indicates a function or process that must be undertaken.
Solid State De-coupler A modern device used to ground AC potentials on a pipeline, whilst
preserving DC (CP) potentials.
Zone of Influence An area of calculated proportions within which AC interference can
take place.
Worst Case Scenario Worst possible environment or outcome out of the several
possibilities in planning or simulation

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Ministry of Energy and Water
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6 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Standards BS EN 50443:2011 and PR EN 15280:2011 shall be used to provide protection against the
effects of AC interference on pipelines. Where contradictions are encountered, the requirements of
this document shall take precedence.

The preferred solution for mitigating the effects of AC interference on pipelines is to route the pipeline
such that it is far enough away from the HV AC system to ensure no interference effects are present.
Technical brochure CIGRE TB 095 and/or suitable software approved by the NGA shall be used to
establish the effect of above ground AC electrical power systems on pipelines before construction,
and a program of monitoring by means of buried coupons shall be undertaken following construction.

HV AC systems of 33 kV and below do not present an AC interference risk, but minimum safety
distances and full coordination with infrastructure owners must be maintained in order to ensure
personnel safety. The proximity distances from 33Kv (and lower), 161kV and 400 kV buried cables
shall be 5 meters, 10 meters and 15 meters respectively. The possibility of combining utility
infrastructure, e.g. water, communications, insulated electricity cables etc in a tunnel, does not pose a
significant risk provided that all code requirements are met.

New pipelines designed to operate within 500m of a HV AC overhead system shall be classified as
'Area Class 4' according to SI 5664-2, or 'Location Class 4' as per SI 5664-3.

7 ASSESMENT OF INDUCED AC

Any steel pipeline located within 500m of a high voltage (HV) AC electrical system operating at above
33kV shall be assessed to ensure that induced AC voltages and measured current density are below
2
the threshold of 15VAC and 20A/m respectively. Borderline cases shall be assessed as well as the
owners/operators are required to use a conservative approach and to implement best engineering
practice.

It shall be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the NGA that AC interference has been considered,
evaluated and if necessary mitigated in line with the following sub-sections before a pipeline route is
selected and approved. This shall be undertaken by a competent body or person. Pipelines located
beyond 500m do not require assessment with respect to AC corrosion, as the level of attenuation of
the electromagnetic field shall at this point, be sufficient to ensure no interference effects on the
pipeline.

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State of Israel
Ministry of Energy and Water
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Upon identification of a pipeline requiring further assessment, the algorithms provided within CIGRE
TB095 or suitable software approved by the NGA shall be used to calculate the zone of influence
surrounding the HV system. For electricity transmission systems, the value of 50% design capacity of
the system should be used when undertaking the calculations. For electric railway power, a similar
average value should be chosen by the operator that accurately represents the peak load conditions
of the system. In either case, the value chosen shall represent the highest peak loads foreseeable for
the design life of the pipeline.

If the pipeline or pipeline equipment lies within the zone of influence, the requirements set out in the
following sections shall be undertaken.

Buried HV AC cables are not considered to be a source of AC interference, as the additional


mechanical protection and electrical insulation layers provide sufficient attenuation of the cable’s
electromagnetic field. The proximity distances from 33kV (and lower), 161kV and 400 kV buried
cables shall be 5 meters, 10 meters and 15 meters respectively.

In all cases, the requirements of BS EN 50443:2011 and PR EN 15280:2011 shall be met, subject to
the provisions of this document.

7.1 Existing Pipelines

If any existing steel pipeline identified as being within the zone of influence of the HV AC system,
does not have AC corrosion monitoring and/or mitigation installed and has been subject to the
electromagnetic field for more than two months, the pipeline shall be subject to the requirements of
section 7.2 of this document and shall undergo online inspection to establish if any damage has
already occurred. If damage is found and wall thickness is reduced below the designed value (not
including corrosion allowance), this situation poses a severe safety concern and the sections affected
shall be replaced by the operator immediately.

7.2 New Pipelines (Existing HV Routes)

For new pipelines, the interference effect of nearby HV AC equipment shall be calculated using the
algorithms within CIGRE TB095 or suitable software approved by the NGA and should the resulting
AC pipeline voltage be greater than 15VAC, a mitigation system shall be designed and installed
accordingly. For electricity transmission systems, the value of 50% design capacity of the system
should be used when undertaking the calculations. For electric railway power, a similar average value
should be chosen that accurately represents the peak load conditions of the system. In either case,
the value chosen shall represent the highest peak loads foreseeable for the design life of the pipeline.

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Ministry of Energy and Water
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AC corrosion test coupons manufactured from the same material and coating as the pipeline and to
the requirements of PR EN 15280:2011 shall be installed when the pipeline is built as specified in the
afore mentioned standard and the results examined to ensure that the AC voltage and current density
2
are below the required values of 15VAC and 20A/m respectively. If the current density and/or
pipeline touch voltage is found to exceed the limits established in section 7 of this document,
additional mitigation shall be provided to reduce the values to an acceptable level.

Although this document’s threshold for pipeline touch voltage is 15VAC, pipeline operators are
encouraged to consider for reasons of cost, to apply their own ‘margin of error’ to further reduce the
15VAC threshold. This would help to reduce situations where (for example) an induced pipeline touch
voltage was calculated by software to be 13.5VAC so no mitigation was required, but following
construction and commissioning the voltage was subsequently measured as 15.5VAC, and so
expensive re-work to install an AC mitigation system would be required.

In light of the previous paragraphs, any mitigation scheme installed shall be designed in such a way
as to allow the installation of further measures if required in the future.

7.3 New or Existing Pipelines with New HV Routes

Where no HV infrastructure currently exists (for example on a new power station where the gas and
electricity services are both in design, or where a HV electrical power system is to be installed in
proximity to an existing pipeline), the requirements of section 7.2 of this document shall be met.

8 CONDUCTIVE INFLUENCE

Conductive influence of HV AC power systems occurs where and when faults are present on HV AC
equipment in the vicinity of steel pipelines. The effects of these fault conditions could pose a serious
risk for both personnel and the pipeline system.

The operator shall assure that the effects of conductive influences, including distances, under fault
conditions are evaluated and mitigated by the means and criteria specified in BS EN 50443:2011.

It should be noted that protective systems for the Israeli electrical transmission systems will
disconnect a load under fault in up to 500ms.

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In the event of a fault occurring on a HV electricity system located within 500m of a gas pipeline, the
electricity operator shall inform the natural gas pipeline operator and NGA of the location and time of
the fault, to allow the natural gas pipeline operator to check the pipeline and systems for damage.

The natural gas pipeline operator shall have procedures in place to evaluate any possible damage to
the pipeline.

9 ELECTRIC TRACTION SYSTEMS

Electrical trains and other fixed electrical transit systems can be a source of interference on pipelines.

The influence of Electrical Trains and Fixed Electrical Transit Systems shall be evaluated and where
necessary mitigated using the means and criteria specified in BS EN 50443:2011.

The risks associated with construction, operations, maintenance, monitoring etc. of a natural gas
pipeline which is in close proximity to an electrified railway system are to be identified and mitigated.

10 MITIGATION

10.1 Avoidance

Due to the risks detailed in the introduction to this document, the preferred solution for mitigating the
effects of AC interference on pipelines is to route the pipeline such that it is far enough away from the
HV AC system to ensure no interference effects are present. If this distance is greater than 500m no
further calculations are required. If the distance is less than 500m, the zone of influence shall be
calculated using the algorithms within CIGRE TB095 or suitable software approved by the NGA.

If it is impossible to avoid proximity to a HV AC system, and the induced AC voltage in the pipeline is
likely to be above 15VAC, a mitigation system shall be installed. Before any AC mitigation schemes
are approved, it shall be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the NGA that no other routes are
practical.

This shall be achieved by performing a quantitative risk assessment by a competent person using the
principals described in BS EN 31010:2010 or an equivalent standard. The existing Individual and
societal risk criteria applied in Israeli natural gas projects shall be applied.

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10.2 Design of Mitigation System

The design, measurement and test requirements laid out in BS EN 50443:2011, PR EN 15280:2011
and this document shall be applied to any AC mitigation systems. This mitigation system shall be
designed in a manner which will not affect any other components or aspects or the system and will not
impede its maintenance.

A description of mitigation techniques is given in PR EN 15280:2011. The preferred mitigation system


is the ‘gradient control wire’ technique. The wire shall be de-coupled from the pipeline by a solid-state
de-coupler.

The marginal DC leakage current associated with the solid state de-coupler shall be taken into
account in the cathodic protection system design.

11 CONSTRUCTION

The effects of AC interference are not restricted to pipe buried in the ground, in fact pipe located
above ground awaiting fabrication can present a significant electrocution hazard to people on
construction sites.

It shall be ensured by the construction contractor that voltages on line pipe sections and equipment
are not allowed to rise above 50VAC.

A safe system of work must therefore be provided and approved by an appointed certified safety
officer of the pipeline operator on all pipeline construction sites which specifically address the
increased electrocution risk. This shall include (but not be restricted to) temporary earth bonding for all
metallic equipment that could be affected.

Specific approved engineering documents regarding the safe bonding of the gradient control wire and
de-couplers for either live pipelines, if applicable, or new pipeline systems, shall be developed.

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State of Israel
Ministry of Energy and Water
Natural Gas Authority

12 MONITORING

Monitoring systems and test coupons shall be installed on all pipelines which lie within 500m of HV
AC equipment and wherever a mitigation scheme has been installed. Locations for monitoring
stations shall be as specified in PR EN 15280:2011 section 8.1.2.

The pipeline operator shall determine the best time to undertake monitoring, taking into account
diurnal load cycles for the HV system.

2
Where a pipeline AC voltage in excess of 15V or a coupon current density of more than 20A/m is
identified during routine monitoring, electronic data capture for at least 7 days shall be carried out.

2
Where a steady state AC voltage of >15V or coupon measured current density of >20A/m is
confirmed, then additional AC mitigation, or a remedy of the existing system, shall be installed to
2
reduce the voltage to <15V and <20A/m respectively. It is the responsibility of the operator to assure
that no metal loss will occur.

13 RECORDS

All records of AC levels shall be kept for a minimum of 12 years.

All records of the system design shall be retained for the entire life of the pipeline.

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State of Israel
Ministry of Energy and Water
Natural Gas Authority

14 APPENDIX 1 – EXAMPLE PROCESS

The following has been provided as an example of the process that should be followed to deal with an
HV AC proximity issue. It is based on the following example conditions:

- Pipeline runs parallel with existing 400KV AC Transmission lines for 4km, at a horizontal
distance of 65m.
- QRA has been performed and hence demonstrated that a pipeline re-route is not possible.
(See BS EN 31010:2010)

Step 1: Establish Soil Resistivity Along Route.


Perform a soil resistivity test every 500m along the pipeline route. Where a change of more than
10Ω/m is identified between two measurements, the distance between test locations should be
reduced until sufficient resolution is provided to determine the exact extent of the low resistivity area.
The depth for which the measurements are taken shall be the same depth as the pipeline.

These tests shall comply with the industry standards for performing soil resistivity tests and to depict
'worst case' scenarios (Wenner Method or similar).

Upon finishing this step, you should have a complete description of the soil resistivity along the entire
pipe route. This is required for both the AC corrosion assessment and the pipeline CP system design.

Step 2: Use CIGRE TB095 Calculations or NGA approved software to Establish HV Zone of
Influence
Feeding in the results for the soil resistivity survey, 50% of the design capacity of the HV system and
any other required parameters, calculate the zone of influence of the HV system for any section
where the HV equipment and gas pipeline/equipment are located within 500m of each other.

Step 3: Determine if Pipeline Needs AC Mitigation


Using the results of step 2, perform an assessment of AC interference in the following order.
1) If the zone of influence is less than 500m, is it now feasible to reroute the pipeline outside the
zone of influence?
2) Use CIGRE TB095 or NGA approved software to establish AC potential levels in the pipeline.
If above 15VAC, is it possible to reroute pipeline to area where levels would be below
15VAC?
3) If 1 and 2 both yield ‘no’, then an AC Corrosion mitigation system is required.

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Step 4: Design CP & Mitigation System


Using the calculated AC voltage levels (Step 3 above) and proximity of HV Systems as defined in BS
EN 50443:2011 in the case of conductive influence as a guide, establish which sections of the
pipeline require mitigation. Remember that the requirements of 7.2 will apply, and later on calculated
values will be verified against measured data. It is recommended that conservative values are used
for design criteria here to avoid costly modification to the mitigation system at a later date.

The following should be addressed in the design:


1) AC Levels present in the pipeline through induction
2) AC Levels present in the pipeline due to HV system faults
3) AC Corrosion Protection
4) Electric Shock Prevention
5) Damage to pipeline Isolation Joints
6) DC Leakage from de-coupling devices fed into CP system design
7) Monitoring (provision of coupons and test points)
8) Maintenance

Step 5: Install and Commission System


Ensuring a safe system of work is in place to ensure that there is no risk of electrocution from metallic
equipment within the HV system zone of influence, install and commission the system.

Step 6: Compare Theoretical and Measured Values and Take Corrective Action if Required
Once the pipeline is commissioned and its potentials stabilised, measurement of pipeline touch
voltage should be undertaken. The time at which each measurement is taken should be recorded.
The calculations carried out in step 2 above should be undertaken again, this time using the live
current value which should be taken from the electrical transmission grid data.

If the calculations reveal a discrepancy between the calculated and measure values, the source of the
error should be identified, and the original calculations re-run (this time accounting for the error) to
ensure all sections of the pipeline which require AC mitigation, are protected.

During this step, current density measurements should also be taken to ensure that they are below
2
the allowed level of 20A/m .

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Step 7: Operate and Maintain


On-going monitoring of the AC touch voltages and AC current density will next be established.
Consideration should be given to electronic monitoring, which should include both regular monitoring
(weekly) and report by exception.

Any instances of AC voltage and AC Current density excursions should be investigated and if
necessary, further mitigation systems installed.

Online inspection of the pipeline system is to be carried during the commissioning of the pipeline and
on intervals to assess the pipeline health.

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