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DOI:10.3233/IFS-130810

IOS Press

Pinaki Majumdara,b,∗ and Syamal Kumar Samantab

a Department of Mathematics, M.U.C. Women’s College, Burdwan, West-Bengal, India

b Department of Mathematics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan, West-Bengal, India

Abstract. In this paper we have introduced the notion of distance between two single valued neutrosophic sets and studied its

properties. We have also defined several similarity measures between them and investigated their characteristics. A measure of

entropy of a single valued neutrosophic set has also been introduced.

Keywords: Single valued neutrosophic set, Hausdorff distance, similarity measure, weights, entropy, cardinality

involving incomplete information. Hence further gen-

In many practical situations and in many complex eralizations of fuzzy and intuitionistic fuzzy sets are

systems like biological, behavioral and chemical etc., required. After that many theories have been evolved

we encounter different types of uncertainties. Our which are successful in their respective domains.

classical mathematics does not practice any kind of Recently a new theory has been introduced and

uncertainty in its tools, excluding possibly the case which is known as neutrosophic logic and sets. The

of probability, where it can handle a particular kind term “neutro-sophy” means “knowledge of neutral

of uncertainty called randomness. Therefore new tech- thought” and this ‘neutral’ represents the main distinc-

niques and modification of classical tools are required tion between ‘fuzzy’ and ‘intuitionistic fuzzy’ logic and

to model such uncertain phenomenon. In 1965, L. A. set. ‘Neutrosophic logic’ was introduced by Florentin

Zadeh [14] coined his remarkable theory of Fuzzy sets Smarandache [10] in 1995. It is a logic in which each

that deals with a kind of uncertainty known as “Fuzzi- proposition is estimated to have a degree of truth (T),

ness” and which is due to partial membership of an a degree of indeterminacy (I) and a degree of falsity

element in a set. Later this “Fuzziness” concept leads (F). A Neutrosophic set is a set where each element of

to the highly acclaimed theory of Fuzzy Logic. After the universe has a degree of truth, indeterminacy and

the invention of fuzzy sets many other hybrid concepts falsity respectively and which lies between ]− 0, 1+ [,

begun to develop. In 1983, K. Atanasov [1] introduced the non-standard unit interval. Unlike in intuitionistic

the idea of Intuitionistic fuzzy sets, a set with each fuzzy sets, where the incorporated uncertainty is depen-

member having a degree of belongingness as well as dent of the degree of belongingness and degree of non

a degree of non-belongingness. This is again a general- belongingness, here the uncertainty present, i.e. indeter-

ization of fuzzy set theory. Although Fuzzy set theory is minacy factor, is independent of truth and falsity values.

very successful in handling uncertainties arising from In 2005, Wang et al. [12] introduced an instance of

vagueness or partial belongingness of an element in a neutrosophic set known as single valued neutrosophic

set, it cannot model all sorts of uncertainties prevailing sets (SVNS) which were motivated from the practical

point of view and that can be used in real scientific

and engineering applications. The single valued neutro-

∗ Corresponding author. Pinaki Majumdar, E-mail: pmajumdar2 sophic set is a generalization of classical set, fuzzy set,

@rediffmail.com. intuitionistic fuzzy set and paraconsistent sets etc.

1064-1246/14/$27.50 © 2014 – IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved

1246 P. Majumdar and S.K. Samanta / On similarity and entropy of neutrosophic sets

n

xi

which is due to partial belongingness of an element to A= or

< tA (xi ), iA (xi ), fA (xi ) >

a set. The term ‘entropy’ as a measure of fuzziness was i=1

first coined by Zadeh [15] in 1965. The entropy measure

n

< tA (xi ), iA (xi ), fA (xi ) >

of fuzzy sets has many applications in areas like image A= .

xi

processing, optimizations etc. [4, 9]. Actually a mea- i=1

sure of imperfectness of information represented by a

set is measured in terms of entropy. So measuring of In case of SVNS the degree of truth membership (T),

entropy of single valued neutrosophic sets will be use- indeterminacy membership (I) and the falsity member-

ful in cases whenever modeling of uncertain situations ship(F) values lies in [0, 1] instead of the non standard

is done through SVNSs. On the other hand similarity is unit interval ]− 0, 1+ [ as in the case of ordinary neutro-

a key concept in a number of fields such as linguistics, sophic sets.

psychology and computational intelligence. In several An example of SVNS is given below:

problems we often need to compare two sets. We are

Example 2.2. Assume that X = {x1 , x2 , x3 }, where

often interested to know whether two patterns or images

x1 is capacity, x2 is trustworthiness and, x3 is price of a

are identical or approximately identical or at least to

machine, be the universal set. The values of x1 , x2 , x3

what degree they are identical. Similar elements are

are in [0, 1]. They are obtained from the questionnaire of

regarded from different points of view by using resem-

some domain experts, their option could be a degree of

blances, distances, closeness, proximity, dissimilarities

“good service”, a degree of indeterminacy and a degree

etc. So it is natural and very useful to address the issues

of “poor service”. A is a single valued Neutrosophic set

similarity measure for this new set, viz. single valued

of X defined by

neutrosophic set.

The rest of the paper is constructed as follows:

Some preliminary definitions and results were given A = < 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 > x1 + < 0.5, 0.2, 0.3 > x2

in Section 2. In Section 3, different types of distances + < 0.7, 0.2, 0.2 > .

between two single valued neutrosophic sets have been x3

introduced. Different measures of similarity and their

Next we state the definitions of complement and con-

properties have been discussed in Section 4. In Section

tainment as follows:

5, the notion of entropy of a single valued neutrosophic

set has been given. Section 6 briefly compares the

methods described here with earlier available methods. Deﬁnition 2.3. The complement of a SVNS A

Section 7 concludes the paper. is denoted by Ac and is defined by tAc (x) =

fA (x); iAc (x) = 1 − iA (x) & fAc (x) = tA (x) ∀x ∈ X.

2. Preliminaries

Deﬁnition 2.4. A SVNS A is contained in the

In this section we recall some definitions, operations other SVNS B, denoted as A ⊂ B, if and only if

and properties regarding single valued neutrosophic tA (x) ≤ tB (x); iA (x) ≤ iB (x) and fA (x) ≥ fB (x) ∀x ∈ X.

sets (SVNS in short) from [12], which will be used Two sets will be equal, i.e. A = B, iff A ⊂ B & B ⊂ A.

in the rest of the paper. Let us denote the collection of all SVNS in X as

A single valued neutrosophic set has been defined in N(X).

[12] as follows: Several operations like union and intersection has

been defined on SVNS’s and they satisfy most of the

Deﬁnition 2.1. Let X be a universal set. A Neutrosophic common algebraic properties of ordinary sets.

set A in X is characterized by a truth-membership func-

tion tA , a indeterminacy-membership function iA and a Deﬁnition 2.5. The union of two SVNS A&B is a SVNS

falsity-membership function fA , where tA , iA , fA : C, written as C = A ∪ B, which is defined as follows:

X → [0, 1], are functions and

∀x ∈ X, x ≡ x(tA (x), iA (x), fA (x)) ∈ A, is a sin- tC (x) = max(tA (x), tB (x)); iC (x)

gle valued neutrosophic element of A.

= max(iA (x), iB (x)) &

A single valued neutrosophic set A over a finite uni-

verse X = {x1 , x2 , x3 , .... , xn } is represented as fC (x) = min(fA (x), fB (x)) ∀x ∈ X.

P. Majumdar and S.K. Samanta / On similarity and entropy of neutrosophic sets 1247

Deﬁnition 2.6. The intersection of two SVNS • The normalized Hamming distance between A and

A & B is a SVNS C, written as C = A ∩ B, which is B is defined as follows:

defined as follows:

1

n

lN (A, B) = {|tA (xi ) − tB (xi )| + |iA (xi )

tC (x) = min(tA (x), tB (x)); iC (x) 3n

i=1

− iB (xi )| + |fA (xi ) − fB (xi )|} (2)

= min(iA (x), iB (x)) &

• The Euclidian distance between A and B is

fC (x) = max(fA (x), fB (x)) ∀x ∈ X. defined as follows:

n

eN (A, B) = (tA (xi ) − tB (xi ))2 + (iA (xi ) − iB (xi ))2 + (fA (xi ) − fB (xi ))2 (3)

i=1

B is defined as follows:

1 n

qN (A, B) = {(tA (xi ) − tB (xi ))2 + (iA (xi ) − iB (xi ))2 + (fA (xi ) − fB (xi ))2 (4)

3n

i=1

Now for equations (1)–(4) the following holds:

For practical purpose, throughout the rest of the (i) 0 ≤ dN (A, B) ≤ 3n (5)

paper, we have considered only SVNS in a finite uni-

(ii) 0 ≤ lN (A, B) ≤ 1 (6)

verse.

√

(iii) 0 ≤ eN (A, B) ≤ 3n (7)

(iv) (iv) 0 ≤ qN (A, B) ≤ 1 (8)

3. Distance between two neutrosophic sets

In this section we introduce the notion of distance Example 3.2. Let X = {a, b, c, d} be the universe and

between two single valued neutrosophic sets A and B A and B be two single valued neutrosophic sets in X

in the universe X = {x1 , x2 , x3 , .... , xn }. defined as follows:

a b

Deﬁnition 3.1. Let A= , ,

< 0.5, 0.2, 0.9 > < 0.8, 0.4, 0.2 >

n

xi

A= and c d

< tA (xi ), iA (xi ), fA (xi ) > , .

i=1 < 0.3, 0.8, 0.7 > < 0.6, 0.3, 0.5 >

n

xi a b

B= B= , ,

< tB (xi ), iB (xi ), fB (xi ) > < 0.7, 0.4, 0.2 > < 0.5, 0.5, 0.3 >

i=1

c d

be two single valued neutrosophic sets in X = , .

< 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 > < 0.8, 0.1, 0.6 >

{x1 , x2 , x3 , ...., xn }. Then

Then the distance between A, B will be as follows:

• The Hamming distance between A and B is defined

dN (A, B) = 3.3.

as follows:

Similarly the other three distances will be lN (A, B) =

n

∼ ∼

12 = 0.275, eN (A, B) = 1.15, qN (A, B) = 0.33.

3.3

dN (A, B) = {|tA (xi ) − tB (xi )| + |iA (xi ) − iB (xi )|

Then the following result can be easily proved.

i=1

+ |fA (xi ) − fB (xi )|} (1) deﬁned above are metric.

1248 P. Majumdar and S.K. Samanta / On similarity and entropy of neutrosophic sets

s1 (A, B) = (10)

sure) cardinality of a SVNS A is denoted as 1 + d(A, B)

n

min count(A) or cl and is defined as cl = tA (xi ).

i=1 For example if we use Hamming distance dN then the

The maximum cardinality of A is denoted by 1

associated measure of similarity will be denoted by sN

max count(A) or cu and is defined as cu = and is defined by:

n

{tA (xi ) + (1 − iA (xi ))}. The cardinality of A is

i=1 1

1

sN (A, B) = (11)

defined by the interval [cl , cu ]. 1 + dN (A, B)

Example 3.5. For the SVNS A given in example 3.2

we have the following: The following example calculates the similarity mea-

sure between the two SVNSs:

n

cl = tA (xi ) = 0.5 + 0.8 + 0.3 + 0.6 = 2.2 & Example 4.1.1. The similarity measure between the

i=1 two SVNSs defined in example 3.2 will be

n

cu = {tA (xi ) + (1 − iA (xi ))} 1

i=1 s1 (A, B) = ∼

= 0.233.

1 + 3.3

= 1.3 + 1.4 + 0.5 + 1.3 = 4.5.

4. Similarity measure between two single Proposition 4.1.2. The distance based similarity mea-

valued neutrosophic sets sure s1 , between two SVNSs A and B satisﬁes the

following properties:

In this section we define the notion of similarity

between two SVNSs. We have adopted various meth- (i) 0 ≤ s1 (A, B) ≤ 1

ods for calculating this similarity. The first method is

based on distances defined in the previous section. The (ii) s1 (A, B) = 1 iff A = B

second one is based on a matching function and the

(iii) s1 (A, B) = s1 (B, A)

last one is based on membership grades. In general

a similarity measure between two SVNSs is a func- (iv) A ⊂ B ⊂ C ⇒ S(A, C) ≤ S(A, B) ∧ S(B, C)

tion defined as s : N(X)2 → [0, 1] which satisfies the

following properties:

Proof. The results (i)–(iii) holds trivially from defini-

(i) S(A, B) ∈ [0, 1], tion. We only prove (iv).

(ii) S(A, B) = 1 ⇔ A = B, (9) Let A ⊂ B ⊂ C. Then we have

(iii) S(A, B) = S(B, A), tA (x) ≤ tB (x) ≤ tc (x); iA (x) ≤ iB (x) ≤ ic (x) and

(iv) A ⊂ B ⊂ C ⇒ S(A, C) ≤ S(A, B) ∧ S(B, C)

fA (x) ≥ fB (x) ≥ fc (x) ∀x ∈ U.

But individual measures may satisfy more properties in

addition to (9). Now

Now similarity can be calculated using several tech-

niques. Here we have adopted three common techniques |tA (x) − tB (x)| ≤ |tA (x) − tc (x)| and

namely, the distance based, the one based on a matching

function and lastly on membership grade based. |tB (x) − tC (x)| ≤ |tA (x) − tC (x)| will hold.

4.1. Distance based similarity measure Similarly, |iA (x) − iB (x)| ≤ |iA (x) − ic (x)| and

|iB (x) − iC (x)| ≤ |iA (x) − iC (x)| and also

We know that similarity is inversely proportional

with the distance between them. Using the distances |fA (x) − fB (x)| ≤ |fA (x) − fc (x)| and

defined in Equation (1)–(4) we define measures of sim-

ilarity s1 between two SVN sets A and B as follows: |fB (x) − fC (x)| ≤ |fA (x) − fC (x)| holds.

P. Majumdar and S.K. Samanta / On similarity and entropy of neutrosophic sets 1249

Thus ⇒ {min{tA (xi ), tB (xi )}

x

d(A, B) ≤ d(A, C) ⇒ s1 (A, B) ≥ s1 (A, C) and

+ min{iA (xi ), iB (xi )}

d(B, C) ≤ d(A, C) ⇒ s1 (B, C) ≥ s1 (A, C)

+ min{fA (xi ), fB (xi )}}

⇒ s1 (A, C) ≤ s1 (A, B)

= {max{tA (xi ), tB (xi )} + max{iA (xi ),

∧s1 (B, C). x

iB (xi )} + max{fA (xi ), fB (xi )}

This is true for all the distance functions defined in

Equations (1) to (4). ⇒ {[min{tA (xi ), tB (xi )}−max{tA (xi ), tB (xi )}]

Hence the result. x

+ [min{iA (xi ), iB (xi )} − max{iA (xi ), iB (xi )}]

4.2. Similarity measure based on membership + min[{fA (xi ), fB (xi )}

degrees

− max{fA (xi ), fB (xi )}] = 0

Another measure of similarity s2 between two SVN Thus for each x,

sets A and B could be defined as follows:

n

{min{tA (xi ), tB (xi )} + min{iA (xi ), iB (xi )} + min{fA (xi ), fB (xi )}}

i=1

s2 (A, B) = (12)

n

{max{tA (xi ), tB (xi )} + max{iA (xi ), iB (xi )} + max{fA (xi ), fB (xi )}

i=1

Example 4.2.1. Here the similarity measure between min{tA (xi ), tB (xi )} − max{tA (xi ), tB (xi )} = 0,

the two SVN sets defined in example 3.2 will be

min{iA (xi ), iB (xi )} − max{iA (xi ), iB (xi )} = 0 and

3.8 ∼ min{fA (xi ), fB (xi )} − max{fA (xi ), fB (xi )} = 0 holds.

s2 (A, B) = = 0.535.

7.1

Thus tA (x) = tB (x), iA (x) = iB (x) &fA (x) = fB (x)

Proposition 4.2.2. The distance based similarity mea- → A = B.

sure s2 , between two SVNS A and B satisﬁes the

following properties: (iv) Now we prove the last result.

(ii) s2 (A, B) = 1 iff A = B

tA (x) ≤ tB (x) ≤ tc (x); iA (x) ≤ iB (x) ≤ ic (x) and

(iii) s2 (A, B) = s2 (B, A)

(iv) A ⊂ B ⊂ C ⇒ s3 (A, C) ≤ s3 (A, B) ∧ fA (x) ≥ fB (x) ≥ fc (x) ∀x ∈ U.

s3 (B, C).

Now

Proof. Properties (i) and (iii) follows readily from

definition. tA (x) + iA (x) + fB (x) ≥ tA (x) + iA (x) + fC (x) and

(ii) It is clear that if A = B ⇒ s2 (A, B) = 1. tB (x) + iB (x) + fA (x) ≤ tC (x) + iC (x) + fA (x)

Conversely, let

n

{min{tA (xi ), tB (xi )} + min{iA (xi ), iB (xi )} + min{fA (xi ), fB (xi )}}

i=1

s2 (A, B) = 1 ⇒ =1

n

{max{tA (xi ), tB (xi )} + max{iA (xi ), iB (xi )} + max{fA (xi ), fB (xi )}

i=1

1250 P. Majumdar and S.K. Samanta / On similarity and entropy of neutrosophic sets

tA (x) + iA (x) + fB (x) common. So for a specific disease all the symptoms are

∴ s2 (A, B) = not equally important. Here we can assign weights to

tB (x) + iB (x) + fA (x)

each symptom corresponding to a particular disease. So

tA (x) + iA (x) + fC (x) we have a universe of symptoms where each symptom

≥ = s2 (A, C)

tC (x) + iC (x) + fA (x) has its corresponding weights. In this case we cannot

use similarity measures described in 4.1 and 4.2.

Again similarly we have:

Again a suitable function is often used to measure

tB (x) + iB (x) + fC (x) ≥ tA (x) + iA (x) + fC (x) & the similarity between two sets which is called a match-

ing function. Chen [2, 3] first introduced the notion of

tC (x) + iC (x) + fA (x) ≥ tC (x) + iC (x) + fB (x)

matching function. Here a weighted similarity measure

sw between A and B has been defined using a matching

function as follows:

n

ωi (tA (xi )·tB (xi ) + iA (xi ) · iB (xi ) + fA (xi ) · fB (xi ))2

i=1 wi .(PA (xi )PB (xi ))2

s (A, B) =

w

= , (13)

n

wi (PA (xi )2 .PB (xi )2 )

ωi {(tA (xi )2 + iA (xi )2 + fA (xi )2 ).(tB (xi )2 + iB (xi )2 + fB (xi )2 )}

i=1

∴ s2 (B, C) =

tC (x) + iC (x) + fB (x)

Example 4.3.1. Consider the two SVN sets in example

tA (x) + iA (x) + fC (x) 3.2. Further let the elements a, b, c, d of the universe

≥ = s2 (A, C)

tC (x) + iC (x) + fA (x) X have weights 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.2 respectively.

Then the weighted similarity measure between the

⇒ s2 (A, C) ≤ s2 (A, B) ∧ s2 (B, C).

two SVN sets will be

Hence the proof of this proposition is complete.

sw (A, B) = = = 0.84

0.1 × 0.759 + 0.3 × 0.4956 + 0.5 × 0.1708 + 0.2 × 0.707 0.45138

4.3. Similarity measure based on a matching between two SVNS A and B satisﬁes the following prop-

function erties:

(i) 0 ≤ sw (A, B) ≤ 1

Next consider a universe where each element xi has

(ii) sw (A, B) = 1 if A = B

a weight ωi . Then we require a new measure of similar-

(iii) sw (A, B) = sw (B, A)

ity different from those discussed earlier. Often weights

are associated with each element of an universe to give Proof. Trivially follows from definition and Cauchy-

an order of importance among the elements. To illus- Schawarz inequality.

trate the situation we give an example: Suppose that Note that here the result (ii) and (iv) (i.e. monotonac-

there is a system to detect a disease based on several ity law) of Equation (9) will not hold due to the effects

symptoms associated with it. Now each symptoms is of the weights.

characterized by three things namely a degree of truth,

a degree of indeterminacy and a degree of falsity. So

for each disease we can have a corresponding single 5. Entropy of a single valued neutrosophic set

valued neutrosophic set with symptoms as its elements.

These SVNSs will act as our knowledgebase. Whenever Entropy can be considered as a measure of uncer-

a patient comes with some health problem the system tainty involved in a set, whether fuzzy or intuitionistic

will generate his corresponding SVNS. The measure of fuzzy or vague etc. Here the SVNS are also capable of

similarity, as discussed in previous sections, between handling uncertain data, therefore as a natural conse-

these SVNSs can detect the possible disease. But we quence we are also interested in finding the entropy of

know that many diseases have several symptoms in a single valued neutrosophic set.

P. Majumdar and S.K. Samanta / On similarity and entropy of neutrosophic sets 1251

Entropy as a measure of fuzziness was first men- Proposition 5.2. E1 satisﬁes all the axioms given in

tioned by Zadeh [15] in 1965. Later De Luca-Termini deﬁnition 5.1.

[5] axiomatized the non-probabilistic entropy. Accord-

Proof.

ing to them the entropy E of a fuzzy set A should satisfy

the following axioms: (i) For a crisp set A and iA (x) = 0 ∀x ∈ X. Hence

E1 (A) = 0 holds.

(DT 1) E(A) = 0 iff A ∈ 2X (ii) If A be such that (tA (x), iA (x), fA (x)) = (0.5,

(DT 2)E(A) = 1 iff µA (x) = 0.5, ∀x ∈ X 0.5, 0.5)∀x ∈ X, then

(DT 3)E(A) ≤ E(B) iff A is less fuzzy than B, tA (x) + fA (x) = 1 and iA (x) − iAc (x)

i.e. ifµA (x) ≤ µB (x) ≤ 0.5 ∀x ∈ X = 0.5 − 0.5

or ifµA (x) ≥ µB (x) ≥ 0.5, ∀x ∈ X. = 0 ∀x ∈ X ⇒ E1 (A) = 1

(DT 4)E(Ac ) = E(A) (14) (iv) E1 (A) = E1 (Ac ) holds obviously from defini-

tion.

Several other authors have investigated the notion of

entropy. Kaufmann [6] proposed a distance based mea- Thus E1 is an entropy function defined on N(X).

sure of soft entropy; Yager [13] gave another view of

degree of fuzziness of any fuzzy set in terms of lack of Example 5.3. Let X = {a, b, c, d} be the universe and

distinction between the fuzzy set and its complement. A be a single valued neutrosophic set in X defined as

Kosko [7] investigated the fuzzy entropy in relation to a follows:

measure of subset hood. Szmidt & Kacprzyk [11] stud-

a b

ied the entropy of intuitionistic fuzzy sets. Majumdar A= , ,

and Samanta [8] investigated the entropy of soft sets < 0.5, 0.2, 0.9 > < 0.8, 0.4, 0.2 >

etc. c d

, .

< 0.3, 0.8, 0.7 > < 0.6, 0.3, 0.5 >

Deﬁnition 5.1. Similarly here in case of SVNS also

we introduce the entropy as a function EN : N(X) → Then the entropy of A will be E1 (A) = 1 − 0.52 =

[0, 1] which satisfies the following axioms: 0.48.

(i) EN (A) = 0 if A is a crisp set

(ii) EN (A) = 1 if (tA (x), iA (x), fA (x)) =

(0.5, 0.5, 0.5)∀x ∈ X 6. Discussions

(iii) EN (A) ≥ EN (B) if A more uncertain than B,

The techniques of similarity and entropy described

i.e. tA (x) + fA (x) ≤ tB (x) + fB (x) and here are totally new concepts for single valued neutro-

sophic sets. For the case of entropy no earlier methods of

|iA (x) − iAc (x)| ≤ |iB (x) − iBc (x)|

measuring entropy will be able to determine the entropy

(iv) EN (A) = EN (Ac )∀A ∈ N(X) (15) of a SVNSs, as here the sum of the degrees of truth,

indeterminacy and falsity is not necessarily bounded. A

Now notice that in a SVNS the presence of uncertainty fuzzy set F can be considered as a SVNS with degree

is due to two factors, firstly due to the partial belonging- of indeterminacy and degree of falsity zero, then its

ness and partial non-belongingness and secondly due to entropy will be E1 (F ) = 1 − n1 (tA (xi )). For crisp

the indeterminacy factor. Considering these two factors xi ∈X

set this value is 0, which is conformable with earlier

we propose an entropy measure E1 of a single valued

known result. The similarity measurements described

neutrosophic sets A as follows:

here are again totally new concepts for SVNSs. These

1 measures can also be applied to measure the similarity

E1 (A) = 1 − (tA (xi ) + fA (xi )) · |iA (xi ) of intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFS) where the indetermi-

n

xi ∈X

nacy factor i should be replaced by π = 1 − t − f in

−iAc (xi )| (16) case of IFS.

1252 P. Majumdar and S.K. Samanta / On similarity and entropy of neutrosophic sets

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