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# PHYSICS

PROJECT
ON
HALF WAVE
RECTIFIER
NAME: - Bhagvender Singh
CLASS: - XII A
ROLL NO.: - 27
SCHOOL: - G.L.T Saraswati Bal Mandir Sr. Sec. School
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I place my sincere thanks to my Physics teacher Ms.
Shipra Punhani for her guidance and advices to
complete my work successfully. I also thank lab
stand Ms. Mona Jha for helping me in my work.
I also thank my Principal Mrs. Bela Mishra for
providing me all facilities for my project. I also take
this opportunity to place on record my deep
gratitude to Lord Almighty for the countless
blessing showered on me while doing the work. I
also thank my parents for their support.
1. CERTIFICATE
2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
3. AIM
4. INTRODUCTION
5. THEORY
6. PROCEDURE
7. BIBLIOGRAPHY
AIM
To design and stimulate a half wave rectifier.
COMPONENTS
Name Description No. of Components
Required
Resistance 1.5k, 150k 1
Diode IN 4007 1
Transformer 220V To 9-0-9 V A.C 1
L.E.D Light Emitting Diode 1
Neon Bulb A.C Main L.E.D 1
Capacitor 100uf/ 16V (Electrolytic) 1
A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which
periodically reverses the direction, to current (DC), which flows in only one
direction. The processes is known as rectification.
The study of the junction diode characteristics reveals that the junction diode
offers a low resistance path, when forward biased, and a high resistance path,
when reversed biased. This feature of the junction diode enables it to be used as
a rectifier.
The alternating signals provides opposite kind of biased voltage at the
junction after each half-cycle. If the junction is forward biased in the first half-
cycle, its gets reverse biased in the second half. It results in the flow of forward
current in one direction only and thus the signal gets rectified.
In other words, we can say, when an alternating E.M.F signal is applied
across a Junction diode, it will conduct only during those alternate half cycles,
which biased it in forward direction. Rectifiers have many uses, but are often
found serving as components of DC power supply and high voltage electric
current power transmission systems. Rectification may serve in roles other than
to generate direct current for use as a source of power. As noted, detectors of
radio signals serve as rectifiers. In gas heating systems flame rectification is used
to detect presence of flame. When a single diode is used as a rectifier, the
rectification of only one-half of the A.C. wave form takes place. Such a
rectification is called half-wave rectification.

Types of Rectifier
1. Half Wave Rectifier
2. Full Wave Rectifier
THEORY
The Half wave rectifier is a circuit, which converts an ac voltage to dc voltage in
the half wave rectifier circuit shown above the transformer serves two purposes.
1. It can be used to obtain the desired level of dc voltage by step down
transformer.
2. It provides isolation from the power line.
The primary of the transformer is connected to ac supply. This induces an ac
voltage across the secondary of the transformer. During the positive half cycle of
the input voltage the polarity of the voltage across the secondary forward biases
the diode As a result a current flows through the load resistor, the forward biased
diode offers a very low resistance and hence the voltage drop across it is very
small. Thus the voltage appearing across the load is practically the same as the
input voltage at every instant.
WORKING OF A HALF WAVE RECTIFIER
The AC voltage across the secondary winding changes polarities after every half
cycle. During the positive half-cycles of the input ac voltage i.e. when upper end
of the secondary winding is positive w.r.t. its lower end, the diode is forward
biased and therefore conducts current. If the forward resistance of the diode is
assumed to be zero (in practice, however, a small resistance exists) the input
voltage during the positive half- cycles is directly applied to the load resistance R L,
making its upper end positive with respect to its lower end. The waveforms of the
output current and output voltage are of the same shape as that of the input ac
voltage. During the negative half cycles of the input ac voltage i.e. when the lower
end of the secondary winding is positive w.r.t. its upper end, the diode is reverse
biased and so does not conduct. Thus during the negative half cycles of the input
ac voltage the current through and voltage across the Ioad remains zero if the
reverse current, being very small in magnitude, is neglected. Thus for the negative
half cycles no power is delivered to the load. Thus the output voltage developed
across load resistance RL (VL) is a series of positive half cycles of alternating
voltage, with intervening very small constant negative voltage levels, It is obvious
from the figure that the output is not a Steady dc, but only a pulsating dc wave.
Since only half-cycles of the input wave are used, it is called a half-wave rectifier.
The half-wave rectifier circuit using a semiconductor diode with a load resistance
RL but no smoothing filter is given in figure. The diode is connected in series with
the secondary of the transformer and the load resistance R L, the primary of the
transformer is being connected to the ac supply mains.
HALF WAVE RECTIFIER

 Simple circuit and low cost.
 The output current in the load contains, in addition to dc component, ac
components of basic frequency equal to that of the input voltage
frequency. Ripple factor is high and an elaborate filtering is, therefore,
required to give steady dc output.
 The power output and, therefore, rectification efficiency is quite low. This is
due to the fact that power is delivered only half the time.
 Transformer utilization factor is low.
 DC saturation of transformer core resulting in magnetizing current and
hysteresis losses and generation of harmonics. The type of supply available
from a half-wave rectifier is not satisfactory for general power supply. This
type of supply can be satisfactory for some particular purposes such as
battery charging.
The most important characteristics which are required
to be specified for a power supply are given below:
The required output dc voltage.
The average and peak currents in the diode.
The peak inverse voltage (PIV) of each diode.
The regulation.
The ripple factor.
When a single rectifier unit is placed in series with the load across an ac supply, it
converts alternating voltage into uni-directional pulsating voltage, using One half
cycles of the applied voltage, the other half cycles being suppressed because it
conducts only in one direction. Unless there is an inductance or battery in the
circuit, the current will be zero therefore, for half the time. This is called half-
wave rectification. As already discussed, diode is an electronic device consisting of
two elements known as cathode and anode. Since in a diode electrons can flow in
one direction only i.e. from cathode to anode so the diode provides the unilateral
conduction necessary for rectification. This is true for diodes of all types-vacuum,
gas-filled, crystal or semiconductor, metallic (copper oxide and selenium types)
diodes. Semiconductor diodes, because of their inherent advantages are usually
used as a rectifying device. However, for very high voltages, vacuum diodes may
be employed.
The voltage at point A does the opposite of that at point B. When A is increasing
in a positive direction, B is increasing in a negative direction. It is rather like the
two ends of a see-saw. During the first half cycle of the waveform shown on the
left, A is positive and B is negative. The diode is forward biased and current flows
around the circuit formed by the diode, the transformer winding and the load.
Since the current through the load, and the voltage across the load are in the
same proportions, then the voltage across the load is as shown in the right hand
diagram, during the first half cycle. During the second half cycle, A and the anode
are negative, B and the cathode are positive. The diode is reverse biased and no
current flows. This is indicated by the horizontal line in the right hand diagram.
The diode only conducts on every other half cycle. There is one pulse for every
cycle in. i.e. 50 pulses per second the diode only conducts during half the cycle.
Hence, HALF-WAVE RECTIFICATION. The rectified voltage is DC (it is always
positive in value). However, it is not a steady DC but PULSATING DC. It needs to be
smoothed before it becomes useful. If the diode is reversed then the output
voltage is negative. Half wave rectification is simplest, as it requires only one
transformer, one diode and one capacitor, but we have added a LED to give
power supply indication. A simple half wave rectifier for 9V is shown in the circuit.
500mA transformers are generally used for these circuits. Connect the primary
wires to the mains chord after carefully insulating the joints. This transformer has
three wires on the secondary side. AC voltage across both end wires is 9 V and
voltage across any one end wire and center wire is 9 V. So if both end wires are
connected as shown in the present schematic the output DC voltage will be 12
and if any one of the end wires and center tap are connected the voltage will be 9
V.
Solder all components on it except mains power supply. Solder IN4007 diode to
one end of secondary winding making note of the cathode. Solder 1000uf /25V
capacitor. Please note the capacitor is polarized, which means that you should
connect it one way only. Negative side of the pin is marked on the can. Add a light
emitting diode to know that the power supply is on. Now use a 470 OHMS 1/4
watt resistor in series with it.
LEDs are also polarized and marked. LEDs will not light up if they are connected in
reverse. Take two pen light cells and connect the ends of a Red LED to positive
and negative and then turn the leads over and try. (Forget the cathodes and
anodes for the time being.) You will know that it works only one way. That also
explains how a diode works. Do not connect them directly to 9 V LEDs cannot
work beyond 5 V and their current capability is extremely limited. Although they
are very rugged devices, they must always be used with a current limiting resistor.
Half Wave Rectifier Capacitor Filter
The output waveform we have obtained from the theory above is a pulsating DC
waveform. This is what is obtained when using a half wave rectifier without a
filter.

## Filters are components used to convert (smoothen) pulsating DC waveforms into

constant DC waveforms. They achieve this by suppressing the DC ripples in the
waveform.

Although half-wave rectifiers without filters are theoretically possible, they can’t
be used for any practical applications. As DC equipment requires a constant
waveform, we need to ‘smooth out’ this pulsating waveform for it to be any use
in the real world.

This is why in reality we use half wave rectifiers with a filter. A capacitor or an
inductor can be used as a filter – but half wave rectifier with capacitor filter is
most commonly used. The circuit diagram below shows how a capacitive filter is
can be used to smoothen out a pulsating DC waveform into a constant DC wave.

## Half Wave Rectifier Formula

We will now derive the various formulas for a half wave rectifier based
on the preceding theory and graphs above.
‘Ripple’ is the unwanted AC component remaining when converting the AC
voltage waveform into a DC waveform. Even though we try out best to remove all
AC components, there is still some small amount left on the output side which
pulsates the DC waveform. This undesirable AC component is called ‘ripple’.

To quantify how well the half-wave rectifier can convert the AC voltage into DC
voltage, we use what is known as the ripple factor (represented by γ or r). The
ripple factor is the ratio between the RMS value of the AC voltage (on the input
side) and the DC voltage (on the output side) of the rectifier.
The formula for ripple factor is:

## Which can also be rearranged to equal:

The ripple factor of half wave rectifier is equal to 1.21 (i.e. γ = 1.21).

Note that for us to construct a good rectifier, we want to keep the ripple factor as
low as possible. This is why we use capacitors and inductors as filters to reduce
the ripples in the circuit.

Rectifier efficiency (η) is the ratio between the output DC power and the input AC
power. The formula for the efficiency is equal to:
The efficiency of a half wave rectifier is equal to 40.6% (i.e. η max = 40.6%)

## RMS value of Half Wave Rectifier

To derive the RMS value of half wave rectifier, we need to calculate the current
across the load. If the instantaneous load current is equal to i L = Imsinωt, then the
average of load current (IDC) is equal to:

Where Im is equal to the peak instantaneous current across the load (Imax). Hence
the output DC current (IDC) obtained across the load is:

For a half-wave rectifier, the RMS load current (Irms) is equal to the average
current (IDC) multiple by π/2. Hence the RMS value of the load current (Irms) for a
half wave rectifier is:

Where Im= Imax which is equal to the peak instantaneous current across the load.
Peak Inverse Voltage of Half Wave Rectifier
Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) is the maximum voltage that the diode can withstand
during reverse bias condition. If a voltage is applied more than the PIV, the diode
will be destroyed.

## Form Factor of Half Wave Rectifier

Form factor (F.F) is the ratio between RMS value and average value, as shown in
the formula below:

The form factor of a half wave rectifier is equal to 1.57 (i.e. F.F= 1.57).
The output voltage (VDC) across the load resistor is denoted by:

## Applications of Half Wave Rectifier

Half wave rectifiers are not as commonly used as full-wave rectifiers. Despite this,
they still have some uses:
 For rectification applications
 For signal demodulation applications
 For signal peak applications

BIBLIOGRAPHY
NCERT Physics Book