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# Eigenvalue

## Analysis Eigenvalue and modal analysis de-

scribe the small-signal behavior of a
system – the behavior linearized
around an operating point – but not
PSS® Product Suite the non-linear behavior of, for in-
stance, controllers during large pertur-
bations. Therefore, time-domain simu-
lation (stability) and the valuable pos-
sibilities of the modal analysis in the
frequency domain complement each
At a glance the synchronously interconnected
other in the analysis of power systems.
Stability problems, such as inter-area power systems that span a large area
oscillations, have become increasingly and share interactions among the dif- Eigenvalue analysis enables the inves-
common in large interconnected pow- ferent sub-networks and power plants. tigation of the dynamic behavior of a
er systems. The eigenvalue and modal However, in a market-driven environ- linearized power system model regard-
analysis module (NEVA) provides an ment with potentially higher transmis- ing its oscillation behavior (modes). In
extension of the classical large-signal sion system loading, the operators may general, it is required that all modes
analytical methods in the time-domain be forced to operate the system closer are stable. Moreover, it is desired that
with small-signal methods in the fre- to its stability limits. all electromechanical oscillations are
quency-domain to examine these oscil- appropriately damped. The results of
As a consequence, the small-signal
lations. an eigenvalue calculation are given in
stability performance of large inter-
a complex plane or tabular overview of
The eigenvalue analysis module connected power systems has gained
eigenvalues with damping, frequency
(NEVA) in importance. Inter-area oscillations
and damping ratios.
have been found to be a common
• provides methods to investigate
problem in large power systems A damping ratio of -5 % means that in
small-signal and long-term stability,
worldwide. Many electric systems have three oscillation periods the amplitude
• allows a deeper view into eigenvec-
experienced poorly damped low fre- is damped to about 32 % of its initial
tors, participations and residues,
quency (0.2-0.8 Hz) oscillations as a value. However, the minimum ac-
• enables the determination of the
result of system growth and intercon- ceptable level of damping is not clearly
best damping locations, and
nection. known.
• allows the evaluation of planned
damping strategies. A damping ratio of more than -3 % has
Our solution
to be taken with caution. Damping is
The eigenvalue and modal analysis
The challenge considered adequately if all electrome-
module (NEVA) can be used in all
Power systems are steadily growing chanical modes have a damping ratio
products of the PSS® product suite,
with ever larger installed capacity. of max. -5 %. Figure 2 depicts how the
such as PSS®E, PSS®SINCAL,
Formerly separated systems are now damping of a system can be easily ana-
PSS®NETOMAC.
interconnected. Modern power sys- lyzed.
tems have evolved into systems with a
very large size, stretching out over
hundreds and thousands of kilometers.
With growing generation capacity, dif-
ferent areas in a power system grow,
with the effect of ever larger inertias.
Furthermore, the unbundling of gen-
eration, transmission and supply is less
Figure 1: Matrix of analysis methods
oriented towards the physical nature of

siemens.com/power-technologies
location(s) for a power system stabi-
lizer (PSS). In this example, other de-
vices that were studied for comparison
include a static Var compensator (SVC),
and a thyristor-controlled static com-
pensator (TCSC).

## Figure 2: Impact of different damping ratios

Figure 5: Frequency response of the
The modal system analysis allows a state variable machine speed at per-
much deeper analysis by not only in- Figure 3: Eigenvectors of an inter-area mode turbation at the excitation voltage
terpreting the eigenvalues, but by also
analyzing the eigenvectors of a system Application example
model. The latter are automatically The eigenvalue analysis module NEVA
calculated during the modal analysis in can be utilized within the development
NEVA: process of damping strategies in large
power systems exhibiting low-
• The right eigenvectors give infor-
frequency oscillations.
oscillatory modes Figures 4 to 6 show the results of an
eigenvalue calculation and modal
• The left eigenvector gives infor-
mation about their controllability analysis for the ENTSO-E CGMES single
machine infinite bus system bench- Figure 6: Impulse response of the state varia-
• The combination of right and left mark with and without a power system ble machine speed at perturbation at the exci-
eigenvectors indicates good loca- stabilizer (PSS). The figures show the tation voltage
tions for damping countermeasures impact of the designed controller on
the mode damping. It significantly im-
proves the damping of the existing
The damping of inter-area oscillations electromechanical mode. The identi-
is very important. The oscillations can fied residues have predicted the impact
be damped, if extra energy is injected of the power system stabilizer already
into the system, which instantaneously in the planning phase.
decelerates the system, and/or vice-
versa when extra energy is consumed
in the system.

Siemens AG 2018

## In real power systems the damping en- Energy Management Division

ergy is obtained from the modulation Freyeslebenstrasse 1
of loads or generation for some period 91058 Erlangen, Germany
of time, typically in the range of five to AL=N ECCN=EAR99
ten seconds. The damping energy