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INTERNSHIP REPORT

ASSESSMENT FOR IMMERSION PLATING CYCLE


TIME WHEN USING SMALL TANK

PT UNISEM BATAM

S. Parman Street Kav. 201, Batamindo Industrial Park


Muka Kuning 29433, Batam

Adlina Eugenia Fatimah Ghaisani


NIS: 16377

MINISTRY OF INDUSTRIALIZATION REPUBLIC OF


INDONESIA
VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL CHEMICAL
ANALYST
PADANG
2019
PAGE OF INDUSTRY LEGALIZATION

Arranged by:

Adlina Eugenia Fatimah Ghaisani


NIS.166377

This report is writerized and approved


On …………………….. in Batam by:

Have known, ….…...….2019

Internship Coordinator, Adviser

Junardi Andrew Hutauruk


Hrd Staff Process Engineer

HRD Manager

Arif Rahman Hakim St. Mt. Hrp


PAGE OF SCHOOL LEGALIZATION

Arranged by :

Adlina Eugenia Fatimah Ghaisani


NIS.166377

This report writerized and approved


On..……………………..in Padang by:

Have Known, ….…...….2019

Internship Coordinator Adviser

Barwita Yuniana Silvania Lorina

Headmaster of SMK-SMAK Padang

Drs. Nasir
PROLOGUE

Praise God Almighty, for the presence of plenty of mercy and his grace, so
that the writer can complete the Industrial Work Practice Report with the title
“Immersion Plating Cycle Time”. This Industrial Work Practice Report has been
written based on practicum and studying PT UNISEM Batam. This report was
written as one of the requirements to graduate from the Padang Chemistry Analyst
Vocational High School (SMK-SMAK Padang).
The finishing of this report is not released from the helping and guidance
from various parties. For this the writers wish many thanks to:
1. Beloved Father and Mother who always give me support.
2. Mr. Ashur as Vice President of PT Unisem, Batam.
3. Mr. Jacky as EOL Manager of PT Unisem, Batam.
4. Mr. Arif Rahman Hakim as HRD Manager of PT Unisem, Batam.
5. Mr. Junardi as the Coordinator of Industrial Work Practices at PT Unisem,
Batam.
6. Mr. Andrew as my adviser at PT Unisem, Batam
7. Hanesty Izi Reski as my adviser of Sytron Pte Ltd
8. Mr. Nasir as the principal of the Padang High School.
9. Ms. Silvania Lorina as an adviser at the school.
10. All colleagues in the Plating area who have helped a lot in the form of moral
and spiritual support during the internship process.

The Industrial Work Practice Report is still far from perfection. Therefore,
the writers invoke suggestion and criticisms which is built for the sake of
perfection and may be useful for all of us.

Batam, 08 December 2019

Adlina Eugenia Fatimah Ghaisani

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CONTENT LIST

PROLOGUE ........................................................................................................................ i
CONTENT LIST ................................................................................................................ ii
TABLE LIST ......................................................................................................................iv
IMAGE LIST ...................................................................................................................... v
GRAPH LIST......................................................................................................................vi
CHAPTER I ........................................................................................................................ 1
PRELIMINARY ................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Definition of Industrial Work Practices .............................................................. 1
1.2 Background of Industrial Work Practices ........................................................... 2
1.3 Purpose of Industrial Work Practices.................................................................. 3
1.4 Benefits of Industrial Work Practices ................................................................. 3
CHAPTER II....................................................................................................................... 4
COMPANY PROFILE ....................................................................................................... 4
2.1 PT UNISEM Batam ............................................................................................ 4
2.2 Organizational Structure ................................................................................. 4
2.3 Company Code of Conduct and Discipline......................................................... 5
2.3.1 Administrative Rules....................................................................................... 5
2.3.2 Work Time Discipline..................................................................................... 5
2.3.3 Work Equioment Apparel ............................................................................... 6
2.3.4 Quality Policy ................................................................................................. 6
2.3.5 Environmental Policy...................................................................................... 7
2.3.6 Occupational Health and Safety ...................................................................... 8
2.4 Company Code of Conduct and Discipline......................................................... 9
2.4.1 Procedures and Work Procedures ................................................................... 9
2.4.2 The Wafer Making Process ............................................................................. 9
2.4.3 Raw Material for Making IC ......................................................................... 10
2.4.5 Types of IC ................................................................................................... 11
2.4.6 Assembly Process ......................................................................................... 11
2.4.7 Equipment and Supplies................................................................................ 11
2.4.8 Process at FOL Manufacturing ..................................................................... 13
2.4.9 EOL Manufacturing ...................................................................................... 14

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2.4.10 Test Department ............................................................................................ 15
2.5 Process Soldering Plating.................................................................................. 16
2.5.1 Electroplating Mechanism ............................................................................ 18
2.5.2 Process Flow Soldering Plating .................................................................... 20
2.5.3 Process without electric current (Immersion Plating) ................................... 22
CHAPTER III ................................................................................................................... 25
INTERNSHIP IMPLEMENTATION............................................................................... 25
3.1 Experiment Time and Place .............................................................................. 25
3.2 Test Conducted ................................................................................................. 25
3.3 Literature Review.............................................................................................. 25
3.4.1 Dummy Preparation ...................................................................................... 26
3.4.2 Visual Inspection Before Immersion Plating Process ................................... 26
3.4.3 CSAM Before Immertion Plating Process .................................................... 27
3.4.4 Immersion Plating Process ............................................................................ 28
3.4.5 Visual Inspection After Immmersion Plating Process .................................. 28
3.4.6 Solderability Test .......................................................................................... 29
3.4.7 Thickness Measurement ................................................................................ 31
3.4.8 Tape Test ....................................................................................................... 34
3.4.9 CSAM ........................................................................................................... 35
3.4.10 Cross Section and Backlaping....................................................................... 36
3.4.11 MSL 3 ........................................................................................................... 38
CHAPTER IV ................................................................................................................... 39
RESULT AND DISCUSSION ......................................................................................... 39
4.1 Visual Appearance ............................................................................................ 39
4.2 Thickness Measurement .................................................................................... 41
4.3 Solderability test ............................................................................................... 42
4.4 Solder Adhesion ................................................................................................ 47
4.5 CSAM Test ....................................................................................................... 48
CHAPTER V .................................................................................................................... 53
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ................................................................ 53
5.1 Conclusion ........................................................................................................ 53
5.2 Recommendation .............................................................................................. 53

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TABLE LIST

Table 3.1 Perform Acoustic Scan ......................................................................... 28


Table 3.2 Oxide Layer........................................................................................... 32
Table 3.3 Measurement Point .............................................................................. 35
Table 4.1 Visual appearance ................................................................................. 39
Table 4.2 Thickness Measurement ....................................................................... 42
Table 4.3 Solderability Test 0 Hours .................................................................... 43
Table 4.4 Solderability Test 4 Hours .................................................................... 45
Table 4.5 Solder Adhesion .................................................................................... 47
Table 4.6 CSAM Leg#1 ........................................................................................ 48
Table 4.7 CSAM Leg#2 ........................................................................................ 49
Table 4.8 CSAM Leg#3 ........................................................................................ 50
Table 4.9 CSAM Leg#4 ........................................................................................ 50
Table 4.10 MSL 3 ................................................................................................. 52
Table 4.11 Roughness Comparison ...................................................................... 52

iv
IMAGE LIST

Image 2.1 Organization chart of PT Unisem, Batam .................................... ..5


Image 2.2 Electrolysis Process ....................................................................... 19
Image 3.1 Material Preparation ...................................................................... 30
Image 3.2 Solder Bath Surface....................................................................... 31
Image 3.3 Oxide layer .................................................................................... 32
Image 3.4 X-Ray ............................................................................................ 33
Image 3.5 X-Ray ............................................................................................ 33
Image 3.6 X-Ray ............................................................................................ 34
Image 3.7 Measurement Point........................................................................ 34
Image 4.1 Cross Section ................................................................................... 54
Image 4.2 Backlaping ........................................................................................ 54

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GRAPH LIST

Graphic 4.1 Thickness Measurement .................................................................... 42

vi
CHAPTER I
PRELIMINARY

1.1 Definition of Industrial Work Practices

Industrial work practices are part of the Dual System of Education as a joint
program between Vocational Schools and Industry carried out in the business /
industrial world. In the Vocational High School Curriculum, it is stated that
Industrial work practice is a pattern of education and training that is managed
jointly between Vocational High School and industry / professional associations
as a Partner Institution, starting from the planning, implementation to evaluation
and certification stages which constitute an integrated educational program.
In addition, it can also be explained that Internship is a component of the
practice of professional expertise, in the form of programmed activities in actual
situations to achieve the level of expertise and professional work attitudes carried
out in industry. Learning in the world of work is an integral part of the overall
education and training program, therefore the material being studied and the
competencies being trained must be clearly related to the graduate competency
profile that has been applied. Education and training programs are prepared and
implemented jointly in a responsible manner between the school and industry, and
supported by the Chamber of Commerce and Industry representing the industry.
Furthermore, in the Industrial work practice Law Dikmenditi (2003), it was
revealed that industrial work practice is a mandatory task that must be carried out
by schools, especially vocational high schools and non-school education and must
be followriterd by students. Implementation of Internship can help students to
strengthen learning outcomes obtained at school and equip students with real
experience according to the chosen study program.
From these statements, Internship is defined as the organization of education
that integrates educational activities (theory) in schools with educational activities
(practices) in the world of production. In other words that Internship is a strategy

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where every student experiences a work process through working directly
(learning by doing) on real work. With this Internship students gain experience
with work materials and familiarize themselves with new developments.

1.2 Background of Industrial Work Practices

Facing the development of increasingly advanced technology, human


resources (HR) that are of high quality and have professional expertise are needed.
Quality and quality are supported by factors of education in a country. The
Indonesian government seeks to improve the quality and quality of education by
establishing an applicable teaching curriculum.
Vocational High School which is a school that produces skilled, ready to use
labor and can directly enter the industrial world or the business world. Industrial
Work Practices that are carried out at the Vocational High School of Padang is a
very useful program because students understand better how to work in a
company or other institution. Students who have carried out Industrial Work
Practices are expected to gain work experience that is beneficial for the students
themselves, both to continue their education and to go directly to the industrial /
business world.
In implementing the Internship at PT UNISEM is the first experience for
writers to interact directly with the business world. The implementation of the
Internship is an educational program that must be fulfilled by each student as one
of the graduation requirements. Based on the knowledge acquired and owned by
students from school in theory it is expected to be applied in a company.
In other words, students are required to practice their skills in the real world
so that students understand how to work writerll and truly. Therefore, students can
realize that learning in theory alone is not enough, and can compare theories and
practices that were previously unknown to the writer and students.
With the existence of this Internship, then at least obtain more experience
and knowledge where in the future the writer will also be able to establish and
regrow generations of nation and state development.

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1.3 Purpose of Industrial Work Practices

a. To improve and strengthen the abilities and skills of students as provisions


to enter the workforce in accordance with the chosen study program.
b. To foster and develop the professionalism required by students to enter the
workforce in accordance with their fields.
c. To provide additional insights to students on aspects of science that are
applicable in the industrial world and potential businesses such as
organizational structures, staffing knowledge, career paths and so on.
d. To provide opportunities for students the opportunity to experience the
actual working environment / climate.
e. To obtain input and feedback to improve and develop the suitability of the
chemical analyst vocational education curriculum.

1.4Benefits of Industrial Work Practices

The benefits of industrial work practice are:


1) The writer can observe and be directly involved in the process of direct
practice activities in the industry.
2) Add the writer's information and insights about the world of work.
3) Providing ideas or input to the company to improve productivity or
company progress

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CHAPTER II
COMPANY PROFILE

2.1 PT UNISEM Batam

PT UNISEM is a company engaged in the semi conductor industry, located


on Jl S. Parman Kav.201, Batamindo Industrial Park (BIP), Muka Kuning, Batam.
The company was officially established on February 18, 1991, under the name PT.
Astra Microtonics Technology, and is a subsidiary of the Astra Group. On March
22, 1999 PT. Astra Microtonics Technology changed its name to PT. Advanced
Microtonics Technology (AMT), and a subsidiary of the New Bridges group, one
of the PMA companies from America. Then June 2001 changed again to PT.
Advanced Interconnect Technologies (AIT) after the merger with HANA, Hong
Kong. And July 18, 2007, PT. Advanced Interconnect Technologies (AIT) again
changed its name to PT UNISEM. The company currently has around 1,600
employees, most of whom are female employees who work as production
operators & men as technicians.
PT UNISEM is engaged in the assembly business (Assembling), Testing
(Testing), and IC packaging. The products produced by PT UNISEM are made
based on orders from customers. Therefore, PT UNISEM is called a subcontractor
company. The products produced by PT UNISEM are 100% marketed overseas
(100% export). PT UNISEM is an international company that has international
certifications, UNISEM ISO 9001: 2008, ISO / TS 16949-2009, and ISO 14001:
2004.

2.2 Organizational Structure

The organizational structure of PT UNISEM is grouped into two parts,


namely the production section and the operational support section such as Quality
Assurance, Store, and so on. In line, the organizational structure of PT UNISEM
can be seen in the image below.

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Image 2.1 Organization chart of PT UNISEM, Batam

2.3 Company Code of Conduct and Discipline

2.3.1 Administrative Rules

1. Maintain the good name of the company.


2. Using the ID Card properly while in the company environment.
3. Obey and follow all provisions, systems and procedures and administrative
regulations that apply in the company.
4. Live the practical work in accordance with the time determined by the
school and the company with a full sense of responsibility.

2.3.2 Work Time Discipline

1. Record each attendance card each time you come to work and every time
you go home from work at the attendance recording machine.
2. Complete the Intention Action Report (I.A.R) for any absences, delays, or
early departures.
3. Internship employees are not permitted to be outside the company during
working hours without the permission of the mentor or supervisor.

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4. Following and carrying out training activities, guidance and direction given
by the coordinator of practical work and mentors wholeheartedly.
5. If the number of absences with permission or without permission exceeds 80
hours in carrying out practical work, then the student / student is not
justified to continue the implementation of practical work.

2.3.3 Work Equioment Apparel

1. Dress politely and neatly (do not writerar sandals to go to work) while in the
company environment
2. No long hair especially for male participants.
3. Maintaining the cleanliness and integrity of the clothing and work
equipment lent.
4. Properly writerar work clothes and equipment in accordance with their
respective work areas.
5. Maintain cleanliness and neatness of the company's environment and
respective work areas.
6. Store work clothes and equipment in a place
7. should be neatly done after being used.

2.3.4 Quality Policy

It is our policy to:


1. Produce products and provide the highest quality service that will be
received by every customer.
2. Deliver on time and provide the most cost-effective assembly and tests.
3. This is achieved through a superior manufacturing system and strength
support and involvement of all employees. Writer are determined to meet all
requirements and continuously improve the effectiveness of the Quality
Management System. The main goal is "Full Customer Satisfaction".

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2.3.5 Environmental Policy

In line with the company's vision to become a world-class company that is


at the forefront in providing "semiconductor packaging" and "test" services as a
whole and becoming a model company, it is our management policy to show
examples of environmental responsibility by running our business with a
consistent attitude towards sustainability environment. To achieve this, writer
ensure that our actions and operations are in accordance with the principles and
instructions contained in this policy. It is our policy to:
1. Identify and make continuous improvements to machines, processes and the
surrounding environment to meet the requirements of the Environmental
Management System.
2. Implement good housekeeping and appropriate chemical storage methods to
minimize the potential impact on the environment.
3. Meet the regulatory requirements, Environmental Management System
specifications and other applicable requirements.
4. Encouraging efforts to save energy and preserve natural resources.
5. Identify and encourage the reuse and recycling of natural resources and
reduce the use of hazardous materials.
6. Make an Emergency Response Plan to deal with potential emergency
situations.
7. Encourage efforts to reduce pollutants that can pollute air, water and soil
and prevent negative impacts on the environment.
8. Encourage awareness of all employees of the environment by providing
training and publications.
9. Encourage the participation of suppliers and contractors to meet the
requirements of the Environmental Management System.
10. Conveying this environmental policy to the public if there is an official
request.

Management will periodically review this policy and monitor the progress
of the environmental management program to ensure compliance with this policy.

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2.3.6 Occupational Health and Safety

PT UNISEM places the writerlfare, health and safety of employees as


important. In connection with that employees are the most valuable assets and it is
our policy to encourage the application of high standards for health and safety to
create a safe and healthy work environment for all employees and the community.
Writer will do our work and maintain the work environment in ways that are
consistent with the principles and instructions contained in this policy. It is our
policy to
1. Encourage the creation of an environment that is conducive to work in
accordance with the physical and psychological needs of employees.
2. Encourage continuous improvement in health and safety standards.
3. Meet the regulatory requirements, codes, directives and health and safety
standards related to work and deal with the writerities for future
development.
4. Provide information, instructions and train all employees to give them an
understanding of the work environment, potential hazards and the need to
work in accordance with applicable regulations.
5. Conducting consultations with employees regarding potential occupational
health and safety hazards that they handle and taking corrective actions on
identified potential health and safety hazards.
6. Delivering to every guest / visitor who enters the company environment to
understand the safety requirements related to the area visited and asks them
to fulfill all of these requirements.
7. Recognizing the company's obligations to customers and the public by
striving to provide safe products, if used in the right way in accordance with
the purpose of the product is made.
8. Implement and maintain a system for managing all major aspects of
occupational health and safety, including accident reporting, recording and
measuring the established objectives.

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This is achieved by conducting periodic reviews of the health and safety
system by management in relation to operating, lifting, storage and transportation
procedures that relate to all employees.

2.4 Company Code of Conduct and Discipline

2.4.1 Procedures and Work Procedures

The products produced by PT UNISEM are IC electronic components.


Integrated Circuit (IC) is a series of integrated electronics in a very small size,
consisting of active and passive electronic components that are connected so that
it can perform certain functions.
The basic material for making IC is silicon which is formed into round
plates and 4-6 inches in diameter with a thickness of 0.014-0.027 inches. This
plate is called a wafer, where in this wafer there are lines called scribe lines which
are used as a guide in the wafer cutting process. The wafer will be cut into small
pieces called dies. This die is the core component of IC.

2.4.2 The Wafer Making Process


Wafer manufacturing is not done at PT UNISEM. But in general the
manufacturing process is as follows:
1. Epitaxy, a coating between silicon.
2. Oxidation, closure of the silicon layer by oxidation.
3. Spining, silicone coating with photoresisi.
4. Masking, wafer closure with certain molds.
5. Exposure, the process of irradiation with x-rays to memosimir photoresis
exposed to light.
6. Washing, washing photoresist.
7. Etching, erosion of the oxidation layer
8. Diffusion, spraying boron gas to form P type electrodes and phosphorus for
N type electrodes.

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9. Metallization, the connection between one terminal with another.

2.4.3 Raw Material for Making IC


IC assembly requires several raw materials, including:
1. Wafer, is the IC core that is cut into die.
2. Leadframe, a rectangular metal frame with leads, which is connected to a
die, semiconductor. After package encapsulation, frames are truncated,
leaving leads extended from packages.
3. Epoxy, the adhesive used to attach the die to the leadframe die pad.
4. Gold wire, gold thread used for die bond pads and lead frames and / or lead
frame pads.
5. Silicon Gel, used to cover the surface of the die that has been condensed.
6. Compound, a type of thermostat plastic that is used to cover material that
has been bonded.
7. Tin, used to coat the legs of the IC to avoid rust.

2.4.4 General Production Process


As a subcontractor company, the production process at UNISEM is based
on orders from its customers, and can be broadly divided as follows:
1. Product without testing, this means that UNISEM only works on the
assembly process only, after it is sent directly to the customer.
2. Products with testing, this means that after IC assembly, UNISEM also tests
IC before being sent to the customer.
3. Products with wafers are tested before assembly and IC testing, this means
that the wafer that will be used to manufacture the IC must be tested first,
before being assembled and tested at UNISEM.
4. Product is only for testing, In this case the customer only sends finished IC
products for testing.

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2.4.5 Types of IC

The types of ICs produced at UNISEM are:


1. PDIP: Plastic Dual Inline Package
2. SOIC: Small Out Line Integrated Circuit
3. PLCC: Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier
4. PQFP: Plastic Quad Flat Package
5. TQFP: Thin Quad Flat Package
6. LQFP: Low-Profile Quad Flat Package
7. SSOP: Shrank Small Outline Package
8. TSSO: Thin Shrink Outline Package
9. QFN: Quad Flat Package
10. BGA: Ball Grid Array

2.4.6 Assembly Process

At UNISEM the assembly process can be divided into three main areas as
follows:
1. Front OF Line Manufacturing (FOL Manufacturing)
2. End Of Line Manufacturing (EOL Manufacturing)
3. Test the Department

2.4.7 Equipment and Supplies

In the manufacturing process, all components involved in it must be


harmonized with the requirements needed to produce quality goods. Provision of
equipment and supplies that support the production process is an absolute
necessity, the following are production equipment and equipment used at PT
UNISEM.
1. Front Of Line Manufacturing
a. Bunny Suit, antistatic clothing to protect the direct relationship
between material and everyday clothing.
b. Antistatic Booties

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c. Hood Cover (to avoid falling hair onto the material)
d. Face Mask Protects moisture contamination from the material and
protects, respiration from work spaces that contain chemicals.
e. Finger Cots Material to protect material from swriterat from the
fingers
f. Wrist strap A device for delivering static electricity from the body to
the earth, which is attached to the wrist and connected to the ground
through a device mounted on a work table / machine.
g. Twriterezer Clamping tool used when reworking material.
h. Magazine Place used to place die units that have been bonded and
wire bonded to be transported and processed at the next station.
i. Lunch Box Where to store the magazine

2. End of Line Manufacturing and Test Manufacturing


a. Smock, antistatic clothing to protect the direct relationship between
material and ordinary clothing.
b. Antistatic Shoes, antistatic shoes
c. Stamp, head cover (to avoid falling hair on the material)
d. Face Mask, Protect the contamination of water vapor against the
material and protect breathing from the workspace that contains
chemicals
e. Wrist strap, a tool to conduct static electricity from the body to the
earth, which is mounted on the wrist and connected to the ground
through a device mounted on a desk / machine.
f. Heel Strap, a tool to carry static electricity from the body to the earth,
which is mounted on the heel of the shoe and connected to the ground
through a tool mounted on a desk / work machine.
g. Twriterezer, the clamping tool used when reworking material.
h. Magazine, a place used to place die units that have been bonded and
wire bonded to be transported and processed at the next station.
i. Shipping Tube, a place to place single units after the trim form
process is complete.

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j. Tray, Place the PQFP / LQFP single units after finishing the trim form
process,
k. Vacuum Pen, a device used to move material

2.4.8 Process at FOL Manufacturing

Front of Line Manufacturing is also called Clean Room, every person who
will enter this area must pass through the Air Showriterr Room which aims to
remove the dust that sticks to the Bunny Suit. Bunny Suit is an indoor clothing
that is used specifically in this area
The air that enters the FOL room is first filtered, so that dust does not enter
the room. This is to avoid damage to I.C caused by contamination of dust
particles. Classification of cleanliness of air in this room is class 1000, meaning
that in one million particles in the air only allowriterd a maximum of 1000 dust
particles. In this area the IC assembly process starts from the Wafer Back
Grinding Station to the Die Coat / Cure.
1. Wafer Back Grinding, the process of reducing the thickness of silicon on
the back of the wafer.
2. Wafer Mount, the process of gluing wafers using adhesive tape and film
frames. Blue or black adhesive tape.Silver Film Frame
3. Wafer Saw, the process of cutting the wafer into die units (IC Core)
4. Second Optical Inspection. This section examines a wafer that has been cut.
Cutting results that do not meet the standard specifications are considered
ineligible and marked with a reject
5. Die Attach, After the wafer is cut into die, then the die is placed on the die-
pad in the middle of the leadframe. Leadframe is a copper plate that has
been formed following certain specification standards
6. Epoxy Cure, this section dries the adhesive used in the die attach process by
inserting it into the oven so that the die is firmly attached to the leadframe
around the die pad.
7. Wire Bond, After the die is firmly attached to the leadframe, the terminals
on each side of the die are connected to the leadframe legs around the die
pad. This process uses gold thread.

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8. 3rd Optical Inspection, the process of checking all units produced by the
process of die attach, epoxy cure, and wire bond
9. Die Coat, This process provides a protective type of gel on the surface of the
die with the aim to protect it from corrosion.
10. Die Coat Cure, the process of drying die units that have undergone a die
coat process.

2.4.9 EOL Manufacturing

Manufacturing processes are then carried out in an area called the End of
Line (Back-End), which starts from the Molding to FVI processes.
1. Molding, here IC units are given protection by means of encapsulation
using a plastic material thermostat (heat resistant)
2. Dejunk, the process of cutting the remnants of plastic molding (flashes) &
parts of leadframes (dambar).
3. Slurry Deflash the process of cleaning remnants of plastic molding and
smoothing the surface of die units using special materials.
4. Marking the process of brand marking on a package using ink (ink
marking) and / or laser light (laser marking) in accordance with customer
requests (customer).
5. Post Mold Cure Moisture drying process package after MOLDING which
lasts for 4 hours with a temperature of 175 ° C
6. Solder Plating in this process the leadframe is coated with lead to avoid
corrosion (rust) and minimize air contamination
7. 4th Optical Inspection IC quality inspection process that has gone through
the molding process until the plating process.
8. Trim Form, The process of cutting & forming IC legs in accordance with
the specifications required.
9. Final Visual Inspection, IC quality inspection process after the trim form is
done.
10. Packing, The packaging process carried out in the EOL area based on
customer requirements is the final process at the EOL Assembly.

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2.4.10 Test Department

Furthermore, the IC units that have been processed at EOL will be taken to
the Test Production area to carry out the IC quality testing process. IC testing in
this area is carried out electrical. Description and Explanation of Test Production
Process:
1. Banks, storage units (ICs) to be tested.
2. Final Eletrical Test IC testing electronically using a tester and handler based
on the program and the temperature specified by the Customer.
a. Tester is a machine / system used for testing wafers & ICs according
to the program.
b. Handler is a machine that functions to carry an IC or wafer to be
tested to the tester

3. Check Trigger Yield, Check Yield is a comparison with standard yield


determined by the Customer. Yield is the ratio between the number of units
after processing with the number of units before processing whose final
value is expressed in percent.

QUANTITY OUT
YIELD = ___________________ X 100%
QUANTITY IN

4. QA Electricity Buy Off, IC testing electronically conducted by QC with a


special program (QC Limit).
5. 100% Visual Mechanical Inspection, 100% IC Inspection is visually
mechanical using Luxolamp.
6. QA Visual Mechanical Inspection Buy Off, Visual mechanical IC sample
inspection conducted by QC inspector.
7. Automatic Lead Inpection Sistem (LIS), Is the overall IC (lead) foot
examination (100%) Using a camera-based scanner

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8. QA Lead Scan Buy – Off, Test lead taken in sample using LIS machine
done by QC inspector (with QC limit).
9. Packing, IC packaging that has been processed/tested into Standard Tube or
Standard Reel (Tape & Reel) Packaging.
10. Bank 2.0, Storage unit (IC) that has finished processing and Dipak for Sia is
sent to FOL Manufacturing customer.

In the manufacturing process, all the components involved in it must be


adjusted to the requirements required to produce quality products. The provision
of equipment and equipment that supports the production process is an absolute
thing to do.

2.5 Process Soldering Plating

Electrochemistry is part of the chemical sciences that study the relationship


of chemical reactions with the current and different electrical potential. Based on
how it works and objectives, the electrochemical process can be divided into 2
groups, namely the Galvani system and electrolysis.
1. Galvani cells, This system is the conversion of energy from chemical
reactions to electrical energy. In this system, a chemical reaction occurs into
electrical energy. In this system there is a spontaneous reaction because of
the potential positive value cells. The reaction is worth when the
equilibrium is achieved, which is when the
2. Cell Electrolysis, This system is the inverse of a Galvani cell. In this system
it takes a number of electrical energy to be able to perform certain chemical
reactions. With this principle the reactions (redox) that can not occur
spontaneously can be forced to take place. This principle is applied to
electricity plating. A number of electrical currents are transmitted through
electrolytes to form new coatings. The reduction process in this case is
called the electrical Deposition or Electro Depository.

16
The type of reaction underlying the principles in electrochemistry is an
oxidation reaction often referred to as a redox reaction. The oxidation reaction is
the reaction of discharge of electrons by an atom so that it will cause the increase
of the atomic oxidation. Conversely, a reduction reaction is an electron capture
reaction that lowriterrs the oxidation number of an atom. Oxidizing is a substance
that causes oxidation reactions to other atoms, while it is severely reduced.
Another basic concept in electrochemistry is the reduction potential (E).
This potential is a thermodynamic magnitude used to determine the strength of an
atom to function as either an oxidizing or a reductors. In this field, also known
electrode is anode where oxidation and cathode reaction occurs where the
reduction reaction occurs. Both of these electrodes can be placed in one container,
connected by a solution called electrolyte and can be placed separately, each in its
salt solution and connected to a salt bridge.
Electroplating can be defined as a process of plating a material that is
generally metal, with a thin layer or a film of another metal. This coating can also
be alloy metal or alloy. The purpose of this electrical plating varies greatly and
depends on the need, such as to enhance or optimize :
1. The appearance of the material (in terms of beauty),
2. Corrosion resistance in the IC feet during storage,
3. Making IC for easy to be dipatri on the PCB (Printed CircuitBoard),
4. Resulting in a strong solder joint on the PCB, electrical type ( Electrical
contact).

In a series of IC manufacturing processes, electrical plating often called


Metal finishing is more likely to optimize the item 2, 3 and 4 above. Electric
plating is a branch of applied electrochemistry and is a fairly old science, it is
known that the field began to be studied and applied since the discovery of two
electrolysis law by Michael Faraday (1791-1867), an expert of British chemistry
and physics in the 1830 's. Both laws are:
1. The number of chemical reactions produced by electric current in
electrolytes is comparable to the electrical charge flowing in the electrolyte.

17
2. The amount of substance deposited from the electrolyte due to electric
current is comparable to the writeright of the substance..

2.5.1 Electroplating Mechanism

Before the Electrolysis process progresses, the cathode potential equals the
potential of anode. When the process starts, there is a potential change in both.
This is called polarization, the cathode becomes increasingly negative while the
anode becomes positive. Potential differences that occur are called potential
over/over potentials. The more potential is to enable the subsequent electricity
deposition.

Image 2.2 Electrolisis process

In the process of electrical deposition, the phenomenon that occurs is the


metal ions in the electrolyte will capture the electron in the cathode so that the
load is neutralized and eventually deposition as a metal atom. In general, the
plating process in the industry uses complex salts as its electrolyte. The complex
is a central cation that is surrounded by anions so that the overall payload is
negative. The expected mechanism is the formation of complex ions with a
lowriterr number of coordination meaning binding of fewriterr anionic ligands. So
that the whole complex is neutral or positively charged, the complex can migrate
to a negatively charged cathode. This formation takes place with a relatively small
balance setting so as to determining the reaction rate.

18
In general, the process of soldering Plating or more commonly called
Plating is a process that serves to coat the foot (PIN) IC-based copper using a
layer of tin. At PT Unisem, Batam Solder process.
Plating differentiated into 2 types :
1. SnPb (Tin Lead)
It is an IC coating process that uses a mixed metal between white tin (Sn or
Tin) and lead black (Pb or lead) as its writerathered. The composition
between Sn and Pb is 85% Sn and 15% Pb.
2. Sn (Tin)
It is an IC coating process that uses a pure tin metal (Sn) 99.99% as its
writeratherer. This process is also called the Pure Tin or Lead Free.

The process of soldering plating done in PT Unisem on the Plating area


there are 2 methods, the first by using a second electric current with a method
without electric current. In general, the process of Electroplating is a process that
serves to coat leadframe that is based on copper by using a tin layer. At PT
Unisem Batam, the process of soldering Plating using Sn (Tin) is an IC coating
process that uses the tin metal (Sn) pure 99.99% as its writerathering. This process
is also called the Pure Tin or Lead Free process.
Tin metal is very commonly used in the field of electronics as a coating
because of its nature that can spread and moisten other metal surfaces. In general,
unstable tin at low temperature in expansion measurements, if repeated heating
and cooling, then there can be cracking on the boundary between the tin layer.
Electroplating can be defined as a process of plating a material that is generally
metal, with a thin layer or a film of another metal. This coating can also be a metal
or alloy alloy. The purpose of this electrical plating varies greatly and depends on
the need, such as to enhance or optimise:
1. In terms of beauty,
2. corrosion resistance of the IC feet during storage,
3. making IC for easy to be dipatri on PCB (Printed Circuit Board), resulting
in a strong solder joint on PCB,
4. electrycal type ( Electrical contact).

19
In a series of IC manufacturing processes, electrical plating often called
Metal finishing is more likely to optimize the item 2, 3 and 4 above. Electric
plating is a branch of applied electrochemistry and is a fairly old science, it is
known that the field began to be studied and applied since the discovery of two
electrolysis law by Michael Faraday (1791-1867), an expert Chemistry and
physics from the British in the 1830. Both laws are:
1. The number of chemical reactions produced by electric current in
electrolytes is comparable to the electrical charge flowing in the electrolyte.
2. The amount of substance deposited from the electrolyte due to an electric
current is comparable to the writeright of the substance equivalently.

Tin metal is very commonly used in the field of electronics as a coating


because of its nature that can spread and moisten other metal surfaces. SN has two
allotropes, namely Sn (gray lead) and Sn (white Tin), the second transition
temperature of this allotropes is 13, 20C. In general, unstable tin at low
temperatures in expansion measurements, in case of repeated heating and cooling,
there can be cracking on the boundary between the tin layer. This can be solved
by combining tin with other metals, such as Pb. Because of the beneficial nature
of the complaint (soldering), then use SnPb alloys in industries involving
electroplating process.

2.5.2 Process Flow Soldering Plating

The process of soldering Plating on all MECO machines of PT Unisem is


done by strip to strip system. The general overview of the process is as follows:
1. Loading, The process of placing material on carrier belt. In the loading part
using the pneumatic system as a drilling and using the electronic system as
the controller.
2. Electrolytic Deflash, That is the process of removing the remnants of flash
mold that is still sticking to leadframe. If the flash mold is still on
leadframe, then the plating process will not be perfect. Electrolytic Deflash
process uses chemical fluids that are assisted by using electricity that is

20
large enough to soften the flash mold that is still on leadframe after it is
sprayed using high-pressure water around 100 bar So that the flash mold
still sticking on leadframe is really clean.
3. Electroclean (Alkaline Precleaning), Leadframe cleaning process of all
organic impurities, such as dust, oil, swriterat, and others. Done using an
Electrolisa process, only in this part leadframe acts as an anode so the dirty
leadframe ion will be detached and settlers on the cathode plate. Its
electrolytic solutions are NaOH and Ronaclean DLF which are alkaline.
4. Drag Out Rinse, That is the process of washing material from the remaining
chemicals carried away from the previous process. This process is also
available at the end of the process using the chemical solution of Descaler,
Predip, Solder Plating, and Neutralizer. The washing process uses DI
(DeIonized) Water, water is pure water that has been free from metal
compounds.
5. Descaler, The process of removal of metal oxide that can cause rust found
on leadframe surface using chemical solution Descabase Cu which is acidic.
6. Predip, That is the process of activating the belt conveyor and leadframe
before entering the plating process. This process is done so that on the
plating process, the coating attached to the leadframe becomes strong. In
this process used titanium frames as an anodanya. Electrolytic uses Methane
Sulfonic Acid.
7. Plating, It is a leadframe plating process with soldering SnPb or Pure Tin.
The leadframe that was previously golden yellow would turn white. Timah
serves as a coating of solder anode. Using a solution of Acid, Tin, and Lead
as an electrolytic solution. Composition and concentration of this solution
should be precise because it affects the composition of plating results.
8. Neutralizer, Namely the neutrality process of acid plating remnants that still
stick to leadframe. This process uses a solution of Tri Sodium Phosphate
which is alkaline salt. This process will also facilitate final cleaning of
materials.

21
9. Hot DI Water, That is the process OF washing using IN hot water about
600C. In this process, the material is expected to be free from any chemicals
carried over from the previous.
10. Final Drying, That is the process of drying material. That included in this
process is the Blow OFF process, which is the process of drying the material
using a strong enough wind and Oven Drying process, which is the process
of drying the material using an oven and assisted also by using The wind.
The ambient temperature 1600C.
11. Belt Stripper, That is the process of cleaning the belt carrier parts and clip
that is coated lead. This process is also done by means of Electrolisa, where
belt carrier and clip apply as anode. Deposits from the belt carrier and clip
will stick to the cathode plate. This process uses a chemical solution that is
acidic.
12. Belt Stripper Oven, A belt carrier drying process after the stripper process is
completed

2.5.3 Process without electric current (Immersion Plating)

Immersion Tin Plating is a process of tin metal coating on copper surface


that is done by soaked without using current from outside. The resulting coating in
this way has a very low thickness level. The purpose of immersion tin plating
process is to inhibit the corrosion or oxidation of copper which is only for a while.
Based on the tendency in the ionization process, tin will normally not stick
to copper because the value of copper content is more glorious than tin.
Howriterver, in a more complex process the properties of copper and lead will be
formed and the ability to precipitate those attributes will be exchanged. Therefore,
the tin can stick to the copper lining.
During the tin dyeing process, almost no whiskers will be created. Tin
dyeing process requires a short maintenance process and easy/simple management
and also contains no lead (Pb) or fluoride fluid. The wiring mechanism is the
copper that comes from the sidewall units will dissolve into the plating solution
which will then be replaced by forging the tin to the sidewall unit surface.
Overview of the immersion plating process is as follows:

22
1. Loading, The process of placing material on hoist.
2. Micro Etch, That is the process of dissipation or erosion of the remaining
oxidation found on the sidewall foot surface of the unit in IC still attached to
the dummy. If the sidewall surfaces are not clean or are still present in
dummy, the plating process will not be perfect
3. DI Water, The process of washing using water is already in de-ionization.
Aims to remove residual chemicals that still stick to materials during
material cleaning process in micro etch tank.
4. Predip, The process of activating sidewall coating surface before immersion
plating process.
5. Plating, The process of dyeing lead layer with solder namely Pure Tin. The
sidewall foot unit that previously was golden yellow will turn white.
Composition and concentration of this solution should be precise because it
affects the composition of plating results.
6. Post Dip DI, That is the process of cleaning residual Chemical waste that
still stick to the material after the tin plating process.
7. DI Water rinse, The process of rinsing using water is already in de-
ionization.
8. DI Water spray rinse, The process of cleaning materials by spraying using
high-pressure water.
9. Hot DI Water, That is the process OF washing using IN hot water about
600C. In this process, the material is expected to be free from any chemicals
carried over from the previous.
10. Unload, It is a material retrieval process from Hoist to be stored back in the
basket

23
CHAPTER III
INTERNSHIP IMPLEMENTATION

3.1 Experiment Time and Place

This experiment was conducted on August 2nd to November 12th , 2019 at


Plating area.

3.2 Test Conducted

Below is the list of testing procedure that performed during the evaluation:
1. CSAM before Immersion Plating
2. Visual Inspection Before Immersion Plating
3. CSAM after Immersion Plating
4. Visual Inspection
5. Thickness Measurement
6. Solderability 0 Hours and Dry Bake 4 Hours
7. Solder Adhesion Test
8. Cross Section
9. Backlaping
10. MSL 3

3.3 Literature Review

During the Industrial Work Practicum at Solder Plating, the writer was
assigned as the lab chemical analyst who is in charge to do daily monitoring for
chemical concentration. And in the mean time the writer also assigned to do a
project evaluation which is to study and evaluate Immersion Plating Cycle Time
at Plating area. Current production Immersion Plating cycle time for plating
process that used is 60 minutes with 60° Celsius and the used capacity tank 350

25
liter. In this project writer would like to manage the cycle time plating process in
Immersion Plating less than current production, and used small tank 240 liter.

During the evaluation, writer collected lot of information as the reference to


conduct the evaluation. Below are chemical TDS that used in the evaluation:
1. Packageprep CE TIN S, is designed to improve the solderability and ease of
assembly for specific “lead-less” chip packages such as QFNs. Singulation
of these types of packages exposes copper alloy on the flanks (edges) of the
leads. This exposed copper alloy can oxidize in ambient environments,
leading to reduced solderability on the flanks. After treating with
PackagePrep CE Tin S the flanks are covered with a coating that is highly
solderable with commonly used solder materials. This results in leadless
packages that exhibit superior solder fillet formation resulting in more
reliable automated inspection of assembled surface mount packages.

3.4 Testing Method

This is the testing method for evaluation as below:

3.4.1 Dummy Preparation

For this evaluation writer used package:


a. VQFN 20 WF 5X5 (100 unit/panel)
b. VQFN 24 WF 4X4 (144 unit/panel)
c. VQFN 26 WF 4X6 (96 unit/panel)
d. VQFN 32 WF 5X5 (100 unit/panel)

3.4.2 Visual Inspection Before Immersion Plating Process

a. Tools used
 Microscope 10x – 40x magnification.

b. Package Used

26
 Leg#1: VQFN 20L, 24L, 26L,32L (1 panel/ Lead Type)
 Leg#2: VQFN 20L, 24L, 26L,32L (1 panel/ Lead Type)
 Leg#3: VQFN 20L, 24L, 26L,32L (1 panel/ Lead Type)
 Leg#4: VQFN 20L, 24L, 26L,32L (1 panel/ Lead Type)

c. How It Works
1) Place the units upright in the slot of inspection jig
2) Use Low Powriterr scope with minimum 10 X magnification
to inspect side wall plating
3) Use Defect catalog to references inspection result

3.4.3 CSAM Before Immertion Plating Process

a. Tools used
 SONIX Scanning Acoustic Microscopy Model ST 1000, HS
1000 and Quantum 350
 Sono scan Model D9500
 Hitachi Model FS 200

b. Package Used
 Leg#1 VQFN 20L, 24L, 26L,32L (1 panel/ Lead Type)
 Leg#2: VQFN 20L, 24L, 26L,32L (1 panel/ Lead Type)
 Leg#3: VQFN 20L, 24L, 26L,32L (1 panel/ Lead Type)
 Leg#4: VQFN 20L, 24L, 26L,32L (1 panel/ Lead Type)

c. How It Works
1) Perform acoustic scan as outlined in table III below.

Table 3.1 Perform Acoustic Scan

2) Inspect the acoustic image for any anomalies, verify that the
anomaly is a package defect or an arte fact of the imaging

27
process. To determine if an anomaly is a package defect or an
artefact of the imaging process it is recommended to analyze
the A-mode display at the location of the anomaly.
3) Consider potential pitfalls in image interpretation listed in
appendix 1, and some of the limitation of acoustic microscopy
listed in appendix 2. If necessary, make adjustments to the
equipment set up to optimize the result and rescan.

3.4.4 Immersion Plating Process

For the evaluation writer used 4 different parameter setting to know which
is leg better, below the parameter setting:
a. Leg#1 60min/60degC
b. Leg#2 45min/60degC
c. Leg#3 50min/60degC
d. Leg#4 55min/60degC

3.4.5 Visual Inspection After Immmersion Plating Process

a. Tools used
 Microscope 10x – 40x magnification.

b. Package Used
 Leg#1: VQFN 20L, 24L, 26L,32L (1 panel/ Lead Type)
 Leg#2: VQFN 20L, 24L, 26L,32L (1 panel/ Lead Type)
 Leg#3: VQFN 20L, 24L, 26L,32L (1 panel/ Lead Type)
 Leg#4: VQFN 20L, 24L, 26L,32L (1 panel/ Lead Type)

c. How It Works
1) Place the units upright in the slot of inspection jig
2) Use Low Powriterr scope with minimum 10 X magnification
to inspect side wall plating
3) Use Defect catalog to references inspection result

28
3.4.6 Solderability Test

a. Tools used
 Solderability Tester
 Digital Stopwatch
 Microscope 10x-40x magnification.
 Twriterezer
 Oven

b. Package Used
 Leg#1: VQFN 20L, 24L, 26L,32L (5 Unit zero hour , and 5
Unit 4 Hour / lead type)
 Leg#2: VQFN 20L, 24L, 26L,32L (5 Unit zero hour , and 5
Unit 4 Hour / lead type)
 Leg#3: VQFN 20L, 24L, 26L,32L (5 Unit zero hour , and 5
Unit 4 Hour / lead type)
 Leg#4: VQFN 20L, 24L, 26L,32L (5 Unit zero hour , and 5
Unit 4 Hour / lead type)

c. How It Works
1) Start the software when the temperature is reaching 235°C on
the MENISCO ST50.
2) Prepare the required tools prior material preparation, refer to
below pictures :

Image 3.1 Material Preparation


3) Flux and solvent (isopropyl alcohol) must be put in a small
testing container, as it must be replaced very often to avoid any
variation in the characteristics due to the solvent evaporation.

29
Standard activated rosin fluxes # 1 and 2 shall be covered
during breaks in testing (e.g. lunch) and discarded after eight
hours. Record the replacement in log book.
4) Never dip the components (samples) into the storage container.
5) Never transfer the flux back from the testing container in to the
storage container. QC shall dispose the used flux into
designated container.
6) The fluxing and solder dipping operations shall be performed
sequentially. Fluxing must be take place just before the
component enters the alloy (dipping).
7) The Solder in solder bath used for solderability testing shall be
replaced every 4 writereks (refer to Appendix 6). Record the
replacement in the Solder Replacement Record (Appendix 5).
8) The twriterezers must be kept perfectly clean and not be
distorted. They must be cleaned preferably using propanol-2 or
ethanol or any other solvent for the flux used.
9) Samples position for dipping (component with leads) must be
gripped by twriterezers in such away that it lies orthogonal to
the molten alloy bath surface through-out the measuring period
(figure A-C) and for leadless component in diagonal position
(figure D).
10) Before dipping ensure that the oxide layer on the surface of
alloy is being removed. Use scrapper.

Image 3.2 Solder Bath Surface

30
11) The surface of the specimens to be tested such that they are
completely immersed in the flux at room temperature for 5 –
10 seconds.
12) The immersion and emersion rates shall be 1 +/- ¼ inches per
second and the immersion time in the solder pot shall be 5 +/-
½ seconds.
13) Keep the dipping location at the center of solder bath area.

Image 3.3 Oxide Layer


14) The samples’s immersion depth depends on the component to
be tested.

Table 3.2 Oxide Layer

15) After dipping, the residue flux shall be removed by rinsing in


isopropyl alcohol. If necessary, a soft damp cloth or cotton
swab moistened with clean isopropyl alcohol may be used to
remove all remaining flux.
16) The cleaned surface shall exhibit no mechanical damage

3.4.7 Thickness Measurement

a. Tools used

31
 XRF (X – RAY Fluorescence)
 Jig
 Twriterezers

b. Package Used
 Leg#1: VQFN 20L, 24L, 26L,32L (5 unit/ Lead Type)
 Leg#2: VQFN 20L, 24L, 26L,32L (5 unit / Lead Type)
 Leg#3: VQFN 20L, 24L, 26L,32L (5 unit / Lead Type)
 Leg#4: VQFN 20L, 24L, 26L,32L (5 unit / Lead Type)

c. How It Works
1) Open the X-ray chamber and then place the unit to be measured
on the bottom plate. Then move the unit under the laser beam.
Please use the joy stick to move the unit.

Image 3.4 X-Ray

2) Close the X-ray Chamber, and then choose the file application
(no 4 Sn / Cu). The file application can be selected using 2
methods :
3) Pressing “Select” will show application table. Choose “Sn/Cu –
Lead frame”, and then click OK.
4) Or Select assigned button for the file selection. For SnCu the
assigned button is F5.

32
Image 3.5 X-Ray

5) Select pad area to be measured. Prior measuring, ensure the


focus had been set as using below sequence:
Image 3.6 X-Ray

6) Point the cross hair on the center area of lead. Click Start to
measure the point. Current Time Measurement is set to 30
seconds
7) Once finished, continue with other point as per specification.
The result will be shown in table as below illustration.

Image 3.7 Measurement Point

33
8) To move the unit without joystick is by moving the unit by point
the cursor to appointed area and right click. Repeat same
procedure of 2 – 5 for other leads.

3.4.8 Tape Test

a. Tools used
 Tape
 Jig
 Microscope 10x-40x magnification.

b. Package Used
 Leg#1: VQFN 20L, 24L, 26L,32L (10 unit/ Lead Type)
 Leg#2: VQFN 20L, 24L, 26L,32L (10 unit / Lead Type)
 Leg#3: VQFN 20L, 24L, 26L,32L (10 unit / Lead Type)
 Leg#4: VQFN 20L, 24L, 26L,32L (10 unit / Lead Type)

c. How It Works
1) Take 20 units sample from each package per 3 day test.
2) Perform tape test on 2 sides of each unit.
3) Arrange the units on slot of jig.
4) Take the tape with longer than jig and attach tape on the side wall of
units surface
5) Press the tape surface on the side wall area per arrow direction and
ensure no air bubble trapped underneath.
6) Lift up the tape with units attached and pick up the units one by one
from the tape.
7) Check the tape for any tin layer left on the surfaces using LP scope
10 X maginification.
8) Check the side wall surface area for any expose copper using LP
scope 10 X magnification.
9) Take photo of any failed unit and tape showing tin peel of.
10) Tape test perform by Plating PE and record the result in tape test
logbook.

34
3.4.9 CSAM

a. Tools used
 SONIX Scanning Acoustic Microscopy Model ST 1000, HS
1000 and Quantum 350
 Sonoscan Model D9500
 Hitachi Model FS 200

b. Package Used
 Leg#1 VQFN 20L, 24L, 26L,32L (1 panel/ Lead Type)
 Leg#2: VQFN 20L, 24L, 26L,32L (1 panel/ Lead Type)
 Leg#3: VQFN 20L, 24L, 26L,32L (1 panel/ Lead Type)
 Leg#4: VQFN 20L, 24L, 26L,32L (1 panel/ Lead Type)

c. How It Works
1) Perform acoustic scan as outlined in table III below.
Table 3.3 Measurement Point

2) Inspect the acoustic image for any anomalies; verify that the
anomaly is a package defect or an arte fact of the imaging
process. To determine if an anomaly is a package defect or an
artefact of the imaging process it is recommended to analyze
the A-mode display at the location of the anomaly.
3) Consider potential pitfalls in image interpretation listed in
appendix 1, and some of the limitation of acoustic microscopy
listed in appendix 2. If necessary, make adjustments to the
equipment set up to optimize the result and rescan.

35
3.4.10 Cross Section and Backlaping

a. Tools used
 Model 650 Low Speed Diamond Wheel Saw
 Water soluble coolant
 Buehler Ecomet 3 Variable Speed Grinders – Polishers
 Allied multiprep
 Acrylic powder and acrylic liquid
 Diamond lapping film
 120, 400,600,800,1200 grit Silicon Carbide Disc
 Buehler Polishing Cloth
 Silicone Cold Mold Release Liquid
 0.05 micron Colloidal Alumina Suspension
 Mounting cup
 Paper cup
 Wooden stick

b. Package Used
 Leg#4 55min/60degC: VQFN 20L (1 Unit/ Lead Type)

c. How It Works
1) Cutting Procedure
a) Place coolant into coolant tray. Do not overfill
b) Align specimen in specimen holder in desired orientation to
the cutting wheel
c) Loosen the thumbscrew at the rear instrument and roughly
align the area to be cut onto the cutting wheel.
d) Tighten the thumbscrew and finely adjust the specimen
position using micrometer.
e) Adjust counter balancing weight at the rear instrument to
zero position.

36
f) Place loading weight on top of the arm assembly. When the
screw contacts with metal pads at the arm, the cutting wheel
is shut off by an electrical switch.
g) Tighten the bolt on the shut off screw to secure the position
of the screw.
h) Turn the main power switch ON by depressing the switch.
i) Push the green START button on the front panel to start the
motor.
j) Adjust the speed using speed control knob on the front
panel. Typical setting is 5.
k) Dress diamond wheel with graphite dressing stick.
l) Gently lower down the arm with the specimen onto the
diamond wheel
m) Caution do not allow the arm to slam down onto the cutting
wheel, severe damage to the wheel will result.
n) Adjust the speed and load as needed.
o) When the cutting is complete, raise the arm into the up
position and turn the main power switch OFF.
p) Remove the specimen

2) Mounting Procedure
a) Put the sample into the mounting cup that had been
furnished with mold release liquid.
b) Mix acrylic powder and acrylic liquid (1:1) in a paper cup
and gently stir using wooden stick in one direction to
avoid bubble formation. Stir until the mixture color is clear.
c) Pour into the mounting cup and wait for about ±30 minutes
until it become hard.
d) Take out the molded sample from the cup.
e) Grind the sample using ECOMET3 Grinder-Polisher. Start
with 120 grit silicon carbide disc up to 1200 grit silicon
carbide grit. For special case that can not get better surface
as silicon carbide disc, it can be used diamond lapping film.

37
f) Final polishing by using polishing cloth and pour small
amount of colloidal Alumina Suspension. Polish for about
5-10 minutes to get smooth surface of the cross sectional
sample.

3.4.11 MSL 3

a. Tools used
 Temperature Humidity Chamber
 Infrared (IR)
 Optical Microscope (40x for external visual examination).
 Electrical test equipment
 Bake Oven

b. Material Used
 #Leg1 VQFN 32
 #Leg4 VQFN 32

c. How It Works
1) SAM Inspection
2) Oven Bake at 125°C for 24 Hours
3) Moisture soak at : MSL 3 condition at 30°C/60% RH for 192
Hours
4) 3x IR Reflow at peak temperature 260°C -0/+5°C
5) SAM Inspection.

38
CHAPTER IV
RESULT AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Visual Appearance

The result of visual inspection is passed or within specification, because not


found any plating visual defect observed in all evaluation legs.

Table 4.1 Visual Appearance


Parameter
Package Paddle Sidewall Remarks
Setting

Pass, not
VQFN
Leg#1 found any
20 plating
defect

Pass, not
VQFN
found any
24 plating
defect

Pass, not
VQFN
found any
26 plating
defect

Pass, not
VQFN
found any
32 plating
defect

39
Pass, not
VQFN
Leg#2 found any
20 plating
defect

Pass, not
VQFN
found any
24 plating
defect

Pass, not
VQFN
found any
26 plating
defect

Pass, not
VQFN
found any
32 plating
defect

Pass, not
VQFN
Leg#3 found any
20 plating
defect

Pass, not
VQFN
found any
24 plating
defect

Pass, not
VQFN
found any
26 plating
defect

Pass, not
VQFN
found any
32 plating
defect

40
Pass, not
VQFN
Leg#4 found any
20 plating
defect

Pass, not
VQFN
found any
24 plating
defect

Pass, not
VQFN found any
plating
26
defect

Pass, not
VQFN
found any
32 plating
defect

4.2 Thickness Measurement

For thickness measurement the spec is more than 60μinch. Based on the
thickness measurement result Leg#1, Leg#3 and Leg#4 is passed. But for Leg#2 is
fail because the minimum in Leg#2 is less than 60μinch

41
70

thickness (uinch) 65

60

Graphic 4.1 Thickness Measurement


55

A.LEG#1_60min/60degC B.LEG#2_45min/60degC C.LEG#3_50min'60degC D.LEG#4_55min/60degC

ID

Table 4.2 Thickness Measurement

4.3 Solderability test

a. 0 Hours, the solderabillity for 0 Hours shows the result is passed and
within the specification > 95% coverage and there is not found
any failure result.
b. 4 Hours, the solderability for 4 Hours shows the result is passed and
within the specification > 75% coverage and there is not found
any failure result.

42
Table 4.3 Solderability test 0 Hours

0 Hours
Parameter
Package Paddle Sidewall Remark
Setting

Pass
VQFN (Covera
Leg#1
20 ge 95%-
100%)

Pass
VQFN (Covera
24 ge 95%-
100%)

Pass
VQFN (Covera
26 ge 95%-
100%)

Pass
VQFN (Covera
32 ge 95%-
100%)
Pass
VQFN (Covera
Leg#2
20 ge 95%-
100%)
Pass
VQFN (Covera
24 ge 95%-
100%)

Pass
VQFN (Covera
26 ge 95%-
100%)

43
Pass
VQFN (Covera
32 ge 95%-
100%)

Pass
VQFN (Covera
Leg#3
20 ge 95%-
100%)

Pass
VQFN (Covera
24 ge 95%-
100%)

Pass
VQFN (Covera
26 ge 95%-
100%)

Pass
VQFN (Covera
32 ge 95%-
100%)
Pass
VQFN (Covera
Leg#4
20 ge 95%-
100%)
Pass
VQFN (Covera
24 ge 95%-
100%)

Pass
VQFN (Covera
26 ge 95%-
100%)

Pass
VQFN (Covera
32 ge 95%-
100%)

44
Table 4.4 Solderability test 4 Hours

4 Hours
Parameter
Package Paddle Sidewall Remark
Setting
Pass
(Covera
Leg#1 VQFN 20
ge 80%-
100%)

Pass
(Covera
VQFN 24
ge 80%-
100%)

Pass
(Covera
VQFN 26
ge 80%-
100%)

Pass
(Covera
VQFN 32
ge 80%-
100%)

Pass
(Covera
Leg#2 VQFN 20
ge 80%-
100%)

Pass
(Covera
VQFN 24
ge 80%-
100%)

Pass
(Covera
VQFN 26
ge 80%-
100%)

45
Pass
(Covera
VQFN 32
ge 80%-
100%)

Pass
(Covera
Leg#3 VQFN 20
ge 80%-
100%)

Pass
(Covera
VQFN 24
ge 80%-
100%)

Pass
(Covera
VQFN 26
ge 80%-
100%)

Pass
(Covera
VQFN 32
ge 80%-
100%)
Pass
(Covera
Leg#4 VQFN 20
ge 80%-
100%)
Pass
(Covera
VQFN 24
ge 80%-
100%)

Pass
(Covera
VQFN 26
ge 80%-
100%)

Pass
(Covera
VQFN 32
ge 80%-
100%)

46
4.4 Solder Adhesion

Evaluation check after immersion process refers to RA8117 and the result of
the tape test shows is passed, because not found any plating defect and did not
find any peel of on the tape.

Table 4.5 Solder Adhesion


Parameter Rema
Package Before After Tape
Setting rk
VQFN
Leg#1 Pass
20
VQFN
Pass
24
VQFN
Pass
26
VQFN
Pass
32
VQFN
Leg#2 Pass
20
VQFN
Pass
24
VQFN
Pass
26
VQFN
Pass
32
VQFN
Leg#3 Pass
20

VQFN
Pass
24

VQFN
Pass
26
VQFN
Pass
32

47
VQFN
Leg#4 Pass
20
VQFN
Pass
24
VQFN
Pass
26
VQFN
Pass
32

4.5 CSAM Test

Evaluation will check after Immersion Plating, All evaluation legs are FAIL
for CSAM test due to observed delamination. To confirm the finding, continue
investigation with Cross Section, Back Lapping, MSL 3, and compare the metal
surface roughening between evaluation units and production units.

Table 4.6 CSAM Leg#1

LEG#1

VQFN 32 VQFN 20
(Fail, found delamination) (Fail, found delamination)

VQFN 24 VQFN 26
(Fail, found delamination) (Can’t check because no die)

48
Table 4.7 CSAM Leg#2

LEG#2
VQFN 32 VQFN 24
(Fail, found delamination) (Fail, found delamination)

VQFN 24 VQFN 26
(Fail, found delamination) (Can’t check because no die)

49
Table 4.8 CSAM Leg#3

LEG#3

VQFN 32 VQFN 24
(Fail, found delamination) (Fail, found delamination)

VQFN 24 VQFN 26
(Fail, found delamination) (Can’t check because no die)

Table 4.9 CSAM Leg#3

LEG#4

VQFN 32 VQFN 24
(Fail, found delamination) (Fail, found delamination)

VQFN 24 VQFN 26
(Fail, found delamination) (Can’t check because no die)

50
4.6 Cross Section

Cross section result is confirmed that the delamination happen between Ag-
Cu layer. For more investigation to confirm the position of the delamination,
writer did backlaping.

Image 4.1 Cross Section

4.7 Backlaping

The result of backlaping is confirmed that delamination happen not between


Sn-Cu layer. But happen between Ag-Cu layer.

Image 4.2 Backlaping

51
4.8 MSL 3

The result of MSL 3 not observed additional delamination in units from pre-
to-post MSL 3.
Table 4.10 MSL 3

4.9 Comparison Production Unit and Evaluation Unit

Because in current production unit not found any delamination issues,


because that writer want to compare cross section of the current production unit
and evaluation unit. The result of comparison, in current production unit writer
found roughening. In while evaluation unit not has roughening. Based on the
comparison result can writer conclude confirmed that the units used for evaluation
were not roughening so that means the delamination was not happen because of
the process.

Table 4.11 Comparison

52
CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Conclusion
1. Using different process time in Immersion Plating will give impact to
thickness performance.
2. Based on the evaluation result, the best parameter setting is 60 deg
C/60 minutes of Leg 1.
3. Based on the evaluation result, Leg 4 can also be used as optional
parameter at 60 degC/55 minutes. If using this, the production output
capacity can be increased and with no risk for other output
characteristic.
4. There is no risk when using small tank during Production.

5.2 Recommendation
1. To validation again the evaluation with unit has a roughening.
2. To define a new spec range for immersion time for Tin bath from 55 –
60 minutes. (PIC:Eka, When: WW50-WW51 2019, Status: on going)
3. To notify customer with proposal about the evaluation result.
(PIC:Eka, When: WW50-WW51 2019, Status: on going)
4. Once the proposal is approved by customer, update the spec to include
the new immersion time setting for Tin bath. (PIC:Eka, When: WW50-
WW51 2019, Status: on going)

53
BIBLIOGRAPHY

AS8117 ( Assembly Spesification for Immersion Plating Process)


QS1613 ( QA Solder Plate, Water Jet and Immersion Plating Monitor)
RA1001 (Failure Analysis Procedure)
RA1006 (Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (SAM) Inspection)
RA1008 (Preconditioning of Plastic Surface Mount Devices (SMD) Prior to
Reliability Test)

54