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- Boolean Algebra
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Sei sulla pagina 1di 25

PROJECT

REPORT

ON

SESSION 2019-20

SUBMITTED TO SUBMITTED BY

MR.V.P.PANDEY VIPUL PANDEY

P.G.T-PHYSICS (12TH ‘A’)

Certificate

This is to certify that Vipul Pandey of class 12 “A” has

successfully completed the project work on I.P. for class XII

practical examination of the Central Board of Secondary

Education in the year 2019-2020.

It is further certified that this project is the individual work of

the candidate.

Signature of Signature of

Teacher External Examiner

Acknowledgement

I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my

teacher Mr.V.P.Pandey as well as our principal Mr. D.K.

Pathak who gave me the golden opportunity to do this

wonderful project on the topic To find out the refractive indices

of different liquids using a hollow prism which also helped me

in doing a lot of Research and I came to know about so many

new things I am really thankful to them.

helped me a lot in finalizing this project within

the limited time frame.

DECLARATION

I do hereby declare that this project work has been originally

carried under the guidance and super vision of Mr.V.P.Pandey

Central Academy School Rewa .

-Vipul Pandey

CONTENTS

Sr.no Title Page no.

2 INTRODUCTION 1

3 THEORY 2

4 BASIC GATES 3

5 THEORGATE 5

6 THEANDGATE 7

7 THENOTGATE 9

8 THENORGATE 11

10 THEEX-ORGATE 15

11 THEEX-NORGATE 17

12 CONCLUSION 19

13 BIBLIOGRAPHY 19

AIM

To design an appropriate logic gate combimation for

a given truth table.

APPARTUS

Two p-n junction diodes,a n-p-n transistor and

connecting wires and one LED,OR gate AND gate and

NOT gate.

INTRODUCTION

GATE: - A gate is defined as a digital circuit which

follows some logical relationship between the input

and output voltages. It is a digital circuit which

either allows a signal to pass through or stop it.

The logic gates are building blocks at digital

electronics.

Truth Table: - A logic gate may have one or more than

one inputs, but it has only one output. The relationship

between the possible values of input and output

voltages are expressed in the form of a table called

truth table.

Boolean Algebra: - The algebra which is based on

binary nature of the logic gates.

Boolean Expressions: - They are the logical statement

which are followed by logical gates.

1

THEORY

Any Boolean algebraic operation can be associated with the

input and output, which represents the statement of Boolean

algebra. Although these circuits may be complex, they may all

be constructed from three basic devices like a P-N junction

diode, a resistance and a N-P- N transistor.

We have three different type of logic gates and they

are the AND gate, the OR gate and the NOT gate.

LOGICAL STATEMENTS

1 0

High Low

Positive Negative

On Off

Close Open

Conducting Non-Conducting

Right Wrong

True False

Yes No

2

1

BASIC GATES

The OR Gate: - It is a device that combines A and B to

give Y as the result. The OR gate has two or more inputs

and one output. In Boolean algebra, addition symbol

(+), is referred as the OR.

The Boolean expression: A+B=Y

This indicates that Y equals to A or B.

give Y as the result. The AND gate has two or more

inputs and one output. In Boolean algebra,

multiplication sign is referred as the AND.

The Boolean expression: A.B=Y or A X B=Y

This indicates that Y equals to A and B.

3

The NOT Gate: - It is a device that inverts the inputs.

The NOT has one input and has one output. In Boolean

algebra, bar symbol is referred as the NOT.

The Boolean expression: 𝑨̅= 𝑨

This indicates that Y is not equal to A.

numbers.

4

THE OR GATE

Aim:

TO DESIGN AND STIMULATE THE OR GATE

CIRCUIT.

Components:

Two ideal p-n junction diode (D1 and D2).

An OR gate can be realized by the electronic circuit,

making use of two diodes D1 and D2.

and corresponds to the 0 level, and the positive

terminal of the battery corresponds to level

1. The output Y is voltage at C with respect to

earth.

5

The following conclusion can be drawn from the

above circuit:

(i) If the switch A and B are kept open (A=1,

B=0), then bulb does not glow, hence

Y=0

(ii) If switch A is kept closed and B is kept

open (A=1, B=0), then bulb does not glow,

hence Y=0

(iii) If switch A is kept open and B is kept

closed (A=0, B=1), then bulb does not

glow, hence Y=0

(iv) If switch A and B both are kept closed

(A=1, B=1), then bulb glows, hence Y=1

TRUTH TABLE:

0 0 0

0 1 0

1 0 0

1 1 1

6

THE AND GATE

Aim:

TO DESING AND STIMULATE THE AND GATE

CIRCUIT.

Components:

Two ideal p-n junction diode (D1 and D2)

A resistance R.

Theory andConstruction:

An AND gate can be realized by the electronic circuit,

making use of two diodes D1 and D2. The resistance

R is connected to the positive terminal of a 5V

battery permanently.

and corresponds to the 0 level, and the positive

terminal of the battery corresponds to the level 1. The

output Y is the voltage at C with respect to earth.

7

The following conclusion can be easily drawn from the

working of this circuit:

(i) If the switch A and B are kept open (A=0,

B=0), then bulb does not glow., hence Y=0.

(ii) If switch A is kept closed and B is kept open

(A=1, B=0), then bulb does not glow, hence

Y=0.

(iii) If switch A is kept open and B is kept

closed (A=0, B=1), then bulb does not

glow, hence Y=0.

(iv) If both switch A and B are kept closed

(A=1, B=1), then bulb glows, hence Y=1.

TRUTH TABLE:

0 0 0

0 1 0

1 0 0

1 1 1

8

THE NOT GATE

Aim:

TO DESIGN AND STIMULATE THE NOT GATE CIRCUIT.

Components:

An ideal n-p-n transistor.

Theory andConstruction:

A NOT gate cannot be realized by using diodes.

However, an electronic circuit of NOT gate can be

realized by making use a n-p-n transistor.

through a resistance Rb and the emitter is earthed.

The collector is connected to 5V battery.

The output Y is voltage at C with respect to earth.

9

The following inference can be easily drawn from

the working of circuit:

(i) If the switch A is kept open(A=0) then bulb

glows, hence Y=1

(ii) If the switch A is kept closed(A=1) then bulb

does not glow, hence Y=0

TRUTH TABLE:

Input A OUTPUT Y

0 1

1 0

10

THE NOT GATE

Aim:

TO DESIGN AND STIMULATE THE NOR GATE CIRCUIT.

Component:

Two ideal p-n junction diode (D1 and D2).

An ideal n-p-n transistor

Theory andConstruction:

If we connect the output Y’ of OR gate to the input of a

NOT gate, then the gate obtained is the NOR gate. The

output Y is voltage at C with respect to earth.

(𝑨 = ̅𝑨̅+𝑨̅ )

And is being read as “A or B negated”.

11

The following inference can be easily drawn from

the working of electrical circuit:

(i) If the switch A and B is kept open (A=0,

B=0) then bulb glows, hence Y=1.

(ii) If the switch A is kept closed and B is kept

open (A=1, B=0) then the bulb glows, hence

Y=0.

(iii) If the switch A is kept open and B is kept

closed (A=0, B=1) then the bulb does not

glow, hence Y=0.

(iv) If the both switch A and B are kept closed

(A=1, B=1) then bulb does not glow, hence

Y=0.

TRUTH TABLE:

0 0 1

0 1 0

1 0 0

1 1 0

12

THE NAND GATE

Aim:

TO DESIGN AND STIMULATE THE NAND GATE CIRCUIT.

Components:

Two ideal p-n junction diode(D1 and D2)

A resistance R

An ideal n-p-n transistor

Theory andConstruction:

If we connect the output Y’ of the AND gate to the

input of a NOT gate then the gate obtained is the

NAND gate. The output Y is voltage at C with respect

to earth.

13

In Boolean expression, the NAND gate is expressed as:

(𝑨 = ̅𝑨̅. ̅𝑨̅ )

And is being read as ‘A and B negated’.

the working of circuit:

(i) If the switch A and B are kept closed (A=0,

B=0) then bulb glows, hence Y=1.

(ii) If the switch A is kept open and B is kept

closed (A=0, B=1), then bulb glows, hence

Y=1

(iii) If switch A is kept closed and B is kept open

(A=1, B=0), then bulb glows, hence Y=1

(iv) If both switch A and B are kept closed (A=1,

B=1) then bulb does not glow, hence Y=0.

TRUTH TABLE:

0 0 1

0 1 1

1 0 1

1 1 0

14

THE EX-OR GATE

Aim:

TO DESIGNA AND STIMULATE THE EX-OR GATE

CIRCUIT.

Components:

Two AND gates

An OR gate

Two NOT gate

Theory andConstruction:

The operation EX-OR checks for the exclusivity in

the value of the two signals A and B. It means if A

and B are not identical, the output Y=1, and if both

are identical, then output Y=0. This operation is

also called exclusive OR gate, designated EX-OR.

15

In Boolean expression, the EX-OR gate is expressed

as:

(𝑨 = 𝑨 ⋅ 𝑨̅+ 𝑨 ⋅ 𝑨 = 𝑨 ⊕𝑨)

the working of electrical circuit:

(i) If the switch A and B are kept open (A=0,

B=0) then bulb does not glow, hence Y=0

(ii) If the switch A is kept open and B is kept

closed (A=0, B=1) then bulb glows, hence

Y=1

(iii) If the switch A is kept closed and B is kept

open (A=1, B=0) then the bulb will glow,

hence Y=1

(iv) If the switch A and B are kept closed (A=1,

B=1) then bulb will not glow, hence Y=0

TRUTH TABLE:

0 0 0

0 1 1

1 0 1

1 1 0

16

THE EX-NOR GATE

Aim:

TO DESIGN AND STIMULATE THE EX-NOR GATE

CIRCUIT.

Components:

Two AND gates

And OR gate

Three NOT gates

The operation EX-NOR checks for the exclusively in

the value of the two signals A and B. it means if A

and B are not identical, the output Y=0, and if both

are identical, then the output Y=1. This operation is

also called exclusive NOR gate, designated EX-NOR.

17

In Boolean expression, the EX-NOR gate is

expressed as

(𝑨 = 𝑨 ⋅ 𝑨̅ + 𝑨̅ ⋅ 𝑨 = ̅𝑨̅⊕

𝑨̅)

the working of electrical circuit:

(v) If the switch A and B are kept open (A=0,

B=0) then bulb glows, hence Y=1

(vi) If the switch A is kept open and B is kept

closed (A=0, B=1) then bulb does not glow,

hence Y=0

(vii) If the switch A is kept closed and B is kept

open (A=1, B=0) then the bulb does not glow,

hence Y=0

(viii) If the switch A and B are kept closed (A=1,

B=1) then bulb will glow, hence Y=1

TRUTH TABLE:

0 0 1

0 1 0

1 0 0

1 1 1

18

CONCLUSION

microchips in today’s modern world.

NAND gate and NOR gate are known as universal gates

because we can construct all the three basic gates using

NAND & NOR gates.

be nearly incomplete!

BIBLIOGRAPHY

WIKIPEDIA

LAB MANNUAL CLASS XII

www.google.com

19

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