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Training Manual

PART 66 – Basic Training


Cat B1 - Module 2
Physics

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Physics PART 66 – Basic Training
Table of Contents Cat B1 – Module 2

2.3 Thermodynamics ............................................................ 81


Table of Contents 2.3.1 Heat and Physical States of Matter ...................................... 81
2.3.1.1 Laws of Thermodynamics .......................................................... 81
2 Physics ............................................................................. 4 2.3.1.2 Nature of Heat and Temperature ............................................... 83
2.1 Matter ................................................................................ 4 2.3.1.3 Gas Expansion and Compression .............................................. 87
2.1.1 Nature of Matter ..................................................................... 4 2.3.1.4 Heat Gained or Lost, Involving Temperature Changes .............. 90
2.1.1.1 Atomic Structure .......................................................................... 4 2.3.1.5 Conditions at Phase Changes .................................................... 92
2.1.1.2 Ions ............................................................................................. 8 2.3.1.6 Gas Laws ................................................................................... 95
2.1.1.3 Chemical Bonds .......................................................................... 9 2.3.2 Caloric States and Laws of Thermodynamics .................... 100
2.1.1.4 States of Matter and Change of State ....................................... 11 2.3.2.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 100
2.3.2.2 Isochoric Process and Internal Energy..................................... 100
2.2 Mechanics ...................................................................... 13 2.3.2.3 Isobaric Process, Enthalpy and the First Law of Thermodynamics
2.2.1 Statics .................................................................................. 13 102
2.2.1.1 Properties Associated with Bodies and Matter .......................... 13 2.3.2.4 Isothermal Process and Entropy .............................................. 105
2.2.1.2 Combining and Resolving Forces.............................................. 16 2.3.2.5 Adiabatic Process and the Second Law of Thermodynamics .. 105
2.2.1.3 Moments.................................................................................... 19
2.3.3 Heat Transfer...................................................................... 107
2.2.1.4 Static Equilibrium and Stability of Position ................................ 22
2.3.3.1 Body Comfort ........................................................................... 107
2.2.1.5 Friction ...................................................................................... 25
2.3.3.2 Influence of Temperature, Humidity and Air Movement on Body
2.2.1.6 Stress and Strain ....................................................................... 29
Comfort 110
2.2.2 Kinetics ................................................................................ 33 2.3.3.3 Outdoor Heat Sources ............................................................. 113
2.2.2.1 Speed and Velocity ................................................................... 33 2.3.3.4 The Refrigeration Cycle ........................................................... 114
2.2.2.2 Velocity Changes ...................................................................... 37
2.2.2.3 Circular Motion .......................................................................... 40
2.4 Optics ............................................................................ 120
2.2.2.4 Free Fall (Motion under Gravity) ................................................ 43 2.4.1 Optics (Light) ...................................................................... 120
2.2.2.5 Motions Involving Vector Calculation ......................................... 44 2.4.1.1 The Nature of Light .................................................................. 120
2.2.2.6 Vibrations and Oscillations ........................................................ 47 2.4.1.2 Light and Shadow .................................................................... 121
2.2.3 Dynamics ............................................................................. 52 2.4.1.3 Reflection of Light Rays ........................................................... 124
2.2.3.1 Force, Mass and Acceleration ................................................... 52 2.4.1.4 Refraction of Light Rays ........................................................... 136
2.2.3.2 Impulse and Momentum ............................................................ 54 2.4.1.5 Lenses and Optical Instruments ............................................... 141
2.2.3.3 The Nature of Moment of Inertia................................................ 54 2.4.2 Fibre Optics ........................................................................ 147
2.2.3.4 Centrifugal and Centripetal Force and Acceleration .................. 56 2.4.2.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 147
2.2.3.3 Work, Energy, Power and Efficiency ......................................... 59 2.4.2.2 Fundamentals of Light.............................................................. 148
2.2.3.6 Gyroscopic Principles ................................................................ 66 2.4.2.3 Light Propagation in Glass Fibres ............................................ 150
2.2.4 Fluid Dynamics .................................................................... 69 2.5 Wave Motion and Sound ............................................. 152
2.2.4.1 Density and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) ........................ 69 2.5.1 Waves ................................................................................. 152
2.2.4.2 Pressure .................................................................................... 71 2.5.1.1 Wave Motion ............................................................................ 152
2.2.4.3 Archimedes’ Principle of Floating .............................................. 72 2.5.2 Sound ................................................................................. 161
2.2.4.4 Nature of Fluids ......................................................................... 75 2.5.2.1 Physical Characteristics of Sound ............................................ 161
2.2.4.5 Viscosity .................................................................................... 75 2.5.2.2 Propagation of Sound Waves .................................................. 161
2.2.4.6 One-Dimensional Flow .............................................................. 76 2.5.2.3 The Speed of Sound ................................................................ 163
2.2.4.7 Flow Measurement .................................................................... 78 2.5.2.4 Reflection and Refraction of Sound Waves .............................. 165

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Physics PART 66 – Basic Training
Table of Contents Cat B1 – Module 2

2.5.2.5 The Frequency Spectrum of Sound Waves ............................. 167


2.5.2.6 Sound Intensity/Amplitude ....................................................... 168
2.5.2.7 The Doppler Effect .................................................................. 168

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Physics PART 66 – Basic Training
Matter Cat B1 – Module 2

2 Physics
2.1 Matter

2.1.1 Nature of Matter

2.1.1.1 Atomic Structure

All matter is built up from around a hundred different chemical


elements. The smallest components of these elements are

 atoms.

These are incredibly small and therefore cannot be directly observed.


The physical processes taking place at the atomic level are extremely
complicated and have still not been fully researched.

In the meantime, however, physicists have developed several models


with which atomic structure can be described in a simplified manner.
In practice a knowledge of the basic principle of Bohr’s model of the
Figure 1: The Atom
atom is quite sufficient (Niels Bohr was a Danish physicist).

Bohr’s model is very similar to our solar system, in which a number of Figure 1 shows a highly simplified two-dimensional representation of
planets travel along different orbits round the sun as the centre. the atomic model.

Bohr’s model of the atom thus consists of an The atomic nucleus consists of
 (atomic) nucleus,
 protons and
around which
 neutrons.
 electrons
circle in the orbit.
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Physics PART 66 – Basic Training
Matter Cat B1 – Module 2

These two types of nuclear components are the same in all elements, There are seven such electron shells, which are designated from
and almost the entire mass of an atom is concentrated in them. The inside to out by the numbers 1 to 7, or by the capital letters K to Q.
structure of an atomic nucleus is represented in Figure 2. Only a specific maximum number of electrons can occupy any of
these shells.

In the following table, the maximum occupancies for shells 1 to 4 are


given.

1st shell = K shell with a 2 electrons


maximum of
2nd shell = L shell with a 8 electrons
maximum of
3rd shell = M shell with a 18 electrons
maximum of
4th shell = N shell with a 32 electrons
maximum of

The simplest atom is the hydrogen atom. Hydrogen has the symbol H
(from Latin Hydrogenium) and the atomic number 1, because its
Figure 2: Structure of a (Atomic) Nucleus nucleus contains only 1 proton and only 1 electron circle in the K
shell.

The atomic nuclei of elements differ in the number of protons and The scale can only be conveyed by using examples from our own
neutrons present and consequently also in their spatial extent and experience:
weight. Normally, each atom has exactly the same number of
electrons as protons, whereas the number of neutrons present in Accordingly, the atomic nucleus is equivalent to a ball with a
atoms of the same element can vary. diameter of some 5 to 6 centimetres orbited by an electron the
The electrons circle the nucleus in different orbits. Orbits with roughly size of a pinhead at a distance of approximately 100 metres.
the same radius are combined together to form

 electron shells.

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Physics PART 66 – Basic Training
Matter Cat B1 – Module 2

An atom thus consists principally of empty space. The mass of the The noble (or inert) gas helium has an atomic number 2 and has two
atomic nucleus of a hydrogen atom is incredibly small (massProton = protons and two electrons. Silicon, which is an important basic
1672.52 ∙ 10−27g) and the mass of an electron (massElectron = material in semiconductor engineering, has an atomic number of 14,
0.91091 ∙ 10−27g) is even smaller by a factor of 2000. and consequently has 14 protons in the atomic nucleus, around which
a total of 14 electrons circle in three electron shells.

Figure 3 shows the models of atoms for the three elements hydrogen
(detail a)), helium (detail b)) and silicon (detail c)) in simplified form.

The more protons and neutrons, and consequently also electrons, an


atom has, the greater will be its mass and the atomic weight of the
corresponding element. When all the elements were first arranged
systematically according to their atomic weights, periodic regularities
were observed.

This led to the arrangement of all the elements in the form of a


’Periodic Table’ (often referred to as Mendeleyev’s Table, after the
Russian who made the discovery). Figure 4 shows an extract from
this Periodic Table of elements.

In this Periodic Table, the elements are classified according to the


number of electron shells - increasing from top to bottom - whereas
elements with similar properties are arranged in columns.

The extract given in Figure 4 includes almost all the chemical


elements of relevance in electrical engineering and electronics. The
data for each element in Figure 4 is explained in more detail in Figure
5.

Figure 3: Simplified Atomic Models

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Physics PART 66 – Basic Training
Matter Cat B1 – Module 2

Figure 5 Data given in the Periodic Table

As shown in Figure 5, the element silicon has the symbol Si and


atomic number 14, i.e. 14 protons in the nucleus. It also indicates the
two electrons are circling in the K shell, 8 electrons in the L shell and
four electrons in the M shell.

The electrons in the outermost shell of an atom are called

 valence electrons.

These have a particular bearing on the ability of an atom to enter into


chemical bonds with other atoms.
Figure 4: Extract from the Periodic Table
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Physics PART 66 – Basic Training
Matter Cat B1 – Module 2

2.1.1.2 Ions

A normal (complete) atom always has the same number of electrons


as protons. All positive and negative charges then cancel each other
out. A normal atom is therefore externally electrically neutral (Figure
6, detail a)).

Under certain circumstances, however, a normal atom can give up


electrons to neighbouring atoms or can accept electrons from
neighbouring atoms. This process is called ’ionisation’. Such a
structure is no longer a normal atom and is referred to as an

 ion.

If an atom has given up electrons, it contains more positively charged


than negatively charged particles. It is then positively charged and is
referred to as a

 positive ion (detail b)).

If, on the other hand, an atom has more electrons than protons, an
excess of negative particles occurs. It is negatively charged and is
called a

 negative ion (detail c)).

In Figure 6 the relationships are illustrated in simplified form.

Figure 6: Ionisation of Atoms

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Physics PART 66 – Basic Training
Matter Cat B1 – Module 2

2.1.1.3 Chemical Bonds Wether a molecule is composed of two or more atoms depends on
the valency of the elements involved. Figure 7 shows a diagrammatic
The atoms of most elements strive to populate their outermost shell representation of an ionic bond.
with the maximum possible number of electrons. However, only the
noble gases, such as helium and neon, have such an atomic structure The mechanism of the ionic bond is of significance in the movement
with a complete outer electron-shell. The atoms of all other elements of electric charges in liquids and gases.
therefore seek to achieve this state by entering into bonds with other
atoms.

The three different types of bonds are:

 Ionic bonds
 Atomic bonds
 Metallic bonds.

Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonds are only possible between atoms of different elements. If,
for example, the atom of a particular element has only a few valence
electrons, it willingly gives these up. It thereby becomes a positive
ion. On the other hand, the atom of an element with several valence
electrons willingly accepts extra electrons in order to fill its outermost
shell.

It thereby becomes a negative ion. Since, however, the positive and


negative ions thus produced attract each other because of their
opposite charges, they enter into a firm bond and a new substance is
produced. The smallest particles of this chemical compound produced
from chemical elements are referred to as

 molecules.
Figure 7: Ionic Bond

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Physics PART 66 – Basic Training
Matter Cat B1 – Module 2

Atomic Bonds The atomic bond is of great significance in the manufacture of


semiconductor materials and thereby in the conduction mechanism in
Whereas an ionic bond is only possible between atoms of different diodes, transistors and other semiconductor components. Because of
elements, atoms of the same element can also enter into bonds the firm anchorage of valence electrons to neighbouring atoms, the
through the mechanism of the atom bond. For example, oxygen electrical conductivity of pure silicon or germanium is very low, but it
atoms (atomic number 8, symbol O, valency 2) have six electrons in can be varied within wide limits by the controlled diffusion of particular
their outermost shells. impurity atoms.

They can enter into a bond with each other by virtue of the fact that Metallic Bonds
two atoms each make two electrons in their outermost shell available
to the other atom. Metal atoms have only a few valence electrons. For example, a Cu-
atom has only one valence electron and an Al atom only three. These
In this way, two pairs of electrons are produced, each containing one valence electrons are readily given up, thereby producing positive
electron from either atom, which are then shared by the two atoms. metal ions, which combine with each other to form a stable metallic
The outer shells of each of the two oxygen atoms are then temporarily lattice or space lattice. Figure 9 shows the diagrammatic structure of
occupied by eight electrons and are consequently fully occupied. a metal lattice.

Figure 8 shows a diagrammatic representation of the atomic bond of


an oxygen molecule O2.

Figure 8: Atomic Bond Figure 9: Metal Lattice


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Physics PART 66 – Basic Training
Matter Cat B1 – Module 2

Whereas the positive metal ions are connected into a rigid ion lattice, All atoms and molecules in matter are constantly in motion. This
the valence electrons given up can move around within this lattice motion is caused by the heat energy in the material. The degree of
almost unhindered. They are consequently referred to as ’free motion determines the physical state of matter.
electrons’. Since each of these free electrons carries one negative
electron charge e-, it constitutes a very small electric current by virtue Solid
of its random motion.
A solid has a definite volume and shape, and is independent of its
This current is not apparent externally, however. Only when all the container. For example, a rock that is put into a jar does nor reshape
free electrons move in the same direction under the influence of a itself to form to the jar.
force are a very large number of extremely small electric charges
combined to form an aggregate current which is externally In a solid there is very little heat energy and therefore, the molecules
measurable. By virtue of this property, metals are good electrical or atoms cannot move very far from their relative position.
conductors.
Liquid
2.1.1.4 States of Matter and Change of State
When heat energy is added to solid matter, the molecular movement
Matter is composed of several molecules. The molecule is the increases. This causes the molecules to overcome their rigid shape.
smallest unit of a substance that exhibits the physical and chemical When a material changes from a solid to a liquid, the material’s
properties of the substance. All molecules of a particular substance volume does not significantly change. However, the material
are exactly alike and unique to that substance. conforms to the shape of the container it is held in. An example for
that is a melting ice cube.
Matter may exist in one of three physical states:
Liquids and solid bodies are considered incompressible. Although the
 solid molecules of a liquid are farther apart than those of a solid, they are
 liquid still not far enough apart to make compressing possible.
 gaseous.
In a liquid, the molecules still partially bond together. This bonding
force is known as surface tension and prevents liquids from
All matter exists in one of these states. A physical state refers to the
expanding and spreading out in all directions. Surface tension is
physical condition of a compound and has no effect on a compound’s
chemical structure. In other words, ice, water and steam are all H2O evident when a container is slightly overfilled.
and the same type of matter appears in all three states.

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Physics PART 66 – Basic Training
Matter Cat B1 – Module 2

Gas

As heat energy is continually added to a material, the molecular


movement increases further until the liquid reaches a point where
surface tension can no longer hold the molecules down. At this point
the molecules escape as gas or vapour.

The amount of heat required to change a liquid to a gas varies with


different liquids and the amount of pressure a liquid is under. For
example, at a pressure that is lower than atmospheric pressure, water
boils at a temperature less than 100 °C. Therefore, the boiling point of
a liquid is said to vary directly with the pressure.

Gases differ from liquids and solids in the facts that they have neither
a definite shape nor volume. Chemically, the molecules in a gas are
exactly the same as they were in their liquid or solid state. However,
because the molecules in a gas are spread out, gases are
compressible.

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Physics PART 66 – Basic Training
Mechanics Cat B1 – Module 2

gravitational acceleration, as the equivalent to the newton is 1 N = 1


2.2 Mechanics kg m/s2. On the earth’s surface, the gravitational constant g = 9.81
m/s2 is normally used for calculations.

2.2.1 Statics Force has quantity and direction and, thus, it has vector qualities. In
case of gravitational forces, the line of action is determined by a direct
2.2.1.1 Properties Associated with Bodies and Matter line between the centres of gravitation of the involved masses and,
particularly on earth, the line of action is related to the earth’s centre.
A body, in the physical sense, is a piece of matter that has mass and This natural fact is utilized for perpendicular and for level measuring.
occupies volume. Mass and volume are, also, associated with
gaseous and liquid matter. However in contrast to liquid matter, a Figure 1 shows an example of the measurement of perpendicularity
body is normally associated with a solid piece of matter that can resist on a construction site, with the aid of a plumb line and with respect to
considerable forces without being enclosed in a container. the earth’s centre.

’Weight’ is often taken as a synonym for ’mass’.

The popular definition relates ’weight’ to the measurements taken by


scales. This suggests an identity of weight and mass. However,
weight depends on the way measurement is carried out. The second,
or physical definition of ’weight’ is adopted by engineers. It defines
weight as a force resulting from gravitation, or, as symbolic formula,
as follows:

𝑊 = 𝐹 = 𝑚 ⋅ 𝑔,

where:

W = weight
F = force
m = mass
g = gravitational acceleration.

The unit of force in the SI system is the newton, represented by the Figure 1: Use of a Plumb Line (Example)
symbol N. This unit requires that kg is used for mass and m/s2 for
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Physics PART 66 – Basic Training
Mechanics Cat B1 – Module 2

The profile of the building is determined by the four taut sides of a


string, which is level and at right angles fastened to four profile frames
at the corners of the building to be erected. The plumb line is attached
in the crossings of the string. The plumb line is used as reference for
exact perpendicular brick laying, while the four tout line sides serve as
reference for level brick laying.
When gravity pulls an object towards the earth, it always appears to
pull at the same point on the object. So an object behaves as if its
whole weight was a single force which acts through a point ’G’ called
its ’centre of gravity’.

The centre of gravity in an object is defined as the point on which its


whole weight is acting. In solving engineering problems, it is often
assumed that a body has every property of mass but has no
extension. Such a body is known as centroid. Applied physics that
focuses on a centroid, or any other reference reduced to a particle, is
known as ’particle physics’.

Figure 2 shows examples of the location of the centre of gravity, in


the case of some regular-shaped objects. It is interesting to note that
the centre of gravity may be located outside the object. An example is
shown in detail e).

The body in detail c) is said to be in equilibrium of forces when it rests


on a support, as it exerts a downward force on the support, and the
downward force is counteracted by an equal upward force of the
support on the body. According to the concept of gravitation centres,
the common line of action should be determined by the perpendicular
extension of the body’s gravity centre. In other words, the active
gravitational force results in an equal reactive force on the body, and
this is known as the ’principle of action and reaction’.

Figure 2: Center of Gravity of Some Regular--shaped Objects

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Physics PART 66 – Basic Training
Mechanics Cat B1 – Module 2

The relation between the action force and the reaction force is
explained by Newton’s third law of motion:

’To every action there is always an equal reaction’ opposed; or, ’the
mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal. They
are directed opposed to each other.

In the subtitle of detail c), reference is made to the uniform density of


the shown body.

Density is defined as the ratio of mass and volume, in accordance


with the following formula:
𝑚
𝜌 =
𝑉

where:

𝜌 = density
𝑉 = volume.

The unit of density in the SI system is the kilogram per cubic meter Figure 3: 1 cm3 Samples of Various Common Substances
(kg/m3). The inverse of density, 1/ρ, is known as ’specific volume’,
and the symbol of the specific volume is the low case letter ’v’. Refer to Figure 2 again.

Figure 3 shows some samples of various common substances. The Note: Uniform density is a prerequisite for adopting the mass centre
samples have equal volumes of 1 cubic centimetre each. But the locations indicated in details a) to e). Thus, if a body consists of
mass of each sample is different. That is, the density describes the various parts of different density, the mass centre cannot be
mass per unit volume, and, when people compare the masses of determined with the aid of the formulas shown.
equal volumes of substances they are comparing their densities. If a solid body, as shown in detail c), rests on a level, solid surface
and the meeting surfaces are in perfect contact, then the body exerts
a constant pressure, which may be defined as force over area,
according to the following, basic, symbolic formula:

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Physics PART 66 – Basic Training
Mechanics Cat B1 – Module 2

𝐹
𝑝 =
𝐴 Combining Forces

where:
𝑝 = pressure
𝐴 = area, in this case, size of the contacting area.

The unit of pressure in the SI system is the pascal. The symbol of


pascal are the letters ’Pa’. Respective SI unit equivalents are 1 Pa =
1 N/m2 = 1 kg/(m s2).

In combination with the formula of forces, the formula before can be


converted to
𝑚 ∙𝑔
𝑝 =
𝐴

When working with pressure, reference is made to the gravitational


centre of areas, in order to determine the effective force and the line
of action on a particular area subject to pressure. It should be noted
that the line of action may be located outside the centre of gravity, as
shown in detail e).

The gravitational centre of areas is, also, known as gravitational


centre of ’lamina’, or as ’area centroid’. In order to prevent
misinterpretations and for brevity, ’area centroid’ and ’mass centre’
should be used, respectively.

2.2.1.2 Combining and Resolving Forces

Force is a vector quantity of physics. That means, in all operations


using forces, the direction to which the force acts is an important
factor. Therefore, additions must be performed considering the laws Figure 4 Combining Forces
of vector addition.

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Physics PART 66 – Basic Training
Mechanics Cat B1 – Module 2

Figure 4 shows two cases requiring force addition leading to a summand forces with the intersecting point of the parallel-shifted lines
resultant force ’R’. The resultant force can be understood as the of action. In the given case the length of the arrow measures 60 mm,
single force that will produce the same effect as the sum of the forces approximately (place a ruler beside the arrow). By multiplying this
acting on a body. value by the scale factor 1 = 10 kN/1mm R = approx. 600 kN is
obtained.
Detail a) shows an example where two tugs of different pulling force
tow a ship on a common line of action. The true-to-scale and true-to- The arrangement of lines in the vector parallelogram makes two rules
direction vectors are shown below. Due to the line of action identity, of vector addition evident:
the resultant is simply determined by arithmetical addition of the  Vector addition can be achieved by placing respective arrows
vector quantities. head-to-tail. This is evident through the equality of length, in
the case of a summand vector arrow and its parallel--shifted
Detail b) shows an example where two tugs of different pulling force line of action.
tow a ship on different lines of action. Again, the diagram below  The sequence of placing arrows head-to-tail has no effect on
shows the respective vector diagram, and the conditions make the resultant ’R’. This is evident through the resemblance of
evident that the resultant is determined by geometric addition. triangles above and below the resultant.

Solving a vector addition problem like the one shown in detail b) For more exact calculation, the trigonometric laws and functions must
offers quite a number of solution procedures. The short lines crossing be applied. In the case of detail b), the law of sines is applicable:
the vectors in the vector diagram in detail b) and the vector directions
drawn true-to-reality make evident that a semi-graphical method has 𝐹𝐴 𝐹𝐵 𝑅
been chosen by drawing a vector parallelogram. = =
sin 25° sin 35° sin 120°

The construction of the vector parallelogram would be started by


drawing the lines of action and the true-to-scale arrows FA and FB,
which represent the summand vectors. The arrows are tail-to-tail
arranged, as determined by the common pulling point of the tugs.

In the given case, the angle between the arrows is 25° + 35° = 60°,
and for the scale equivalent 1 cm = 100 kN (kilo Newton) has been
chosen.

The parallelogram is completed by parallel shifting the lines of action


through the arrow heads, and the length and location of the resultant
’R’ is determined by the diagonal that connects the origin of the

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Physics PART 66 – Basic Training
Mechanics Cat B1 – Module 2

Resolving Forces Figure 5 shows an example of resolving a force into two components.
The upper section shows the corresponding arrangement plan,
including all geometrical details, while the lower section gives the
respective vector parallelogram.

The block is subject to gravity and in accordance with the formula of


force it exerts a force W = F = m ∙ g. This force is resolved into
 a component FN, which normally acts onto the plane of the
slope and
 a component Fd, which tends to draw the block down the
slope.
This procedure can be understood as the reverse operation to finding
the resultant force.

It should be noted that the body is not in equilibrium, as the reactive


forces are not included in the diagram. Whether the force Fd makes
the body slide down the slope or not is subject to friction and matter of
another investigation.

Again, the force parallelogram can be drawn and the required details
can be determined with the aid of the arrangement plan. However, it
is much easier to apply mathematic formulas, after the conditions
have already been analyzed. Thus, among others, the following
formulas can be used:

F2 = FN² + Fd²

FN = F ⋅ sin α = F ⋅ cos β

Fd = F ⋅ sin β = F ⋅ cos α.

Figure 5 Resolving Forces

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Physics PART 66 – Basic Training
Mechanics Cat B1 – Module 2

2.2.1.3 Moments When moments act on an object, the sum of the clockwise moments
about the turning point must equal the sum of the anti-clockwise
A moment is defined as the product of a quantity and its moments, in order to gain equilibrium in accordance with Newton’s 3rd
perpendicular distance of its line of action to a reference point. The law.
reference point is the centre of a real or of an assumed turning point.
Names used for the turning point include pivot, axis, fulcrum and
knife-edge. Axles, shafts, hinges and the edges or corners of objects
can act as turning points.

In static problems, basically, three types of moments are to be


considered:

 moment of force
 moment of mass
 moment of area.

Moment of Force

Accordingly, the moment of a force is defined as the product of a


force’s magnitude and its perpendicular distance of its line of action to
a reference point. Using mathematical symbols, this purely verbatim
formula is translated to

moment of force = force perpendicular distance to reference


point.

Using the capital letter symbol ’M’ for moment of force and the low
case letter symbol ’d’ for distance, the following basic formula is
applicable:

𝑀 = 𝐹 ⋅ 𝑑
Figure 6: Details of the Moment of Force at a Bicycle Pedalling
The unit for moment of force is the newton meter. The respective SI Crank
unit equivalent is 1 N m = 1 kg m2/s2.
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Physics PART 66 – Basic Training
Mechanics Cat B1 – Module 2

Figure 6 shows the details of two force moments having effect on the
pedal of a bicycle pedalling crank. A vertical foot push force ’F’ is
assumed.

Detail a) shows the crank arm in horizontal position. Thus, the


perpendicular distance ’d’ of the foot push force ’F’ to the reference
point in the centre of the axle is identical with the pedal arm length ’l’
and, therefore, the formula 𝑀 = 𝐹 ∙ 𝑙 can be used.

Detail b) shows the crank 60 ° displaced. Obviously, this has


shortened the perpendicular distance ’d’ of the reference point to
𝑑 = 𝑙 ∙ 𝑐𝑜𝑠 60°, so that the formula 𝑀 = 𝐹 ∙ 𝑙 ∙ cos 60 ° is
applicable.

The force parallelogram of the resolved force ’F’ makes evident that
the effective moment is the product of length of crank arm ’l’ and
tangential force component 𝐹𝑡, where 𝐹𝑡 = 𝐹 ∙ 𝑐𝑜𝑠 60 °, and the
applied formula for the force moment is the same as in the previous
cases.

It should be noted that the radial force component Fr causes no force


moment in the observed plane, as its line of action runs through the
turning centre and, therefore, its distance ’d’ is zero.

Additionally, it should be noted that the details of the left turning force
moment are not given. The force of the left turning moment is
tangentially effective in the radial distance determined by the pitch
radius of the sprocket wheel.

According to the law of action and reaction, the left turning moment
should be of the same magnitude as the right turning moment.

Figure 7: Examples of Devices Operating on Moments of Force


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Figure 7 shows a few devices that operate on moments of force, Experience helps to choose the proper perspective, for example, the
together with the respective sketches serving as mathematical model following natural facts:
to solve a problem involving moment of force determination
 constant direction of weight force
The basic device employed is the lever. The lever and the inclined
plane are regarded as fundamental machines and the lever and the  ropes, chains, belts, etc. can only transmit a pulling force (as
inclined plane principles of operation are included in every second in the example of a towed car)
part of a mechanism. This includes pulleys, gear wheels, screws, etc.
 the significance of rods lies in the fact that they are provided
The mathematical models are called a ’free body diagram’. The free with a turning device at both ends and, therefore, a rod can
body diagram represents a single part of a mechanism to which all only transmit co - axial forces.
details are added that permit an analysis of the particular problem.
In detail a), the cable reel, and in detail d), the shaft, are subject to
In the case of the levers, the essential geometrical details are the torque. Principally, there is no difference between moment of force
lever arm lengths and the force vectors that represent the external and torque.
forces acting on the lever.
The maximum moment of force induced by the levers into the system
In a free body diagram, details of the shape of the body are only is identical with the effective torque. However, the term ’torque’ is
important as far as these details contribute to the geometric used, when an item is subject to torsion, or the tendency of twisting a
essentials of applied physical laws. body about a rotary axis exists. Shafts are always subject to a torque
moment, while levers are subject to a bending moment.
Therefore, the freed body is more or less reduced to a symbol. In the
given case, the lever is reduced to a line, while the turning point is Moment of Mass
represented by a fulcrum.
Moment of mass is a quantity that is used to determine the mass
The free body diagram must not necessarily be drawn true-to-scale. centre of a body that consists, in sections, of different material, or of
In case calculation is preferred, preparation of a sketch that includes items of different shape, in accordance with the following formula:
the geometrical details is sufficient.
𝑚 ⋅ 𝑑 = 𝑚1 ⋅ 𝑑1 + 𝑚2 ⋅ 𝑑2 + 𝑚3 ⋅ 𝑑3 + . . . . . . . . 𝑚𝑛 ⋅ 𝑑,𝑛
However, an analysis of the problem under the laws of physics is
required, in order to draw the free body diagram under the proper where: 𝑚 ⋅ 𝑑 = the total mass moment of the body.
perspective with reference to the real thing.

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The mass moments with indices stand for mass moment fractions of Static Equilibrium
the same body, that are separately accounted for, because of
different material or shape.

In case of unsymmetrical bodies the formula must be applied up to


three times, with reference to different axes, in order to determine the
location of a body’s mass centre. Where mass is missing in a body,
i.e. when the body is provided with a bore, for instance, a minus sign
would be used for the respective mass moment fraction in the above
formula.

2.2.1.4 Static Equilibrium and Stability of Position

Static equilibrium and stability of position are closely related. A body


is in static equilibrium when the forces and force moments acting on it
are balanced. A solid or rigid body has a maximum stability of position
when it rests on an equally solid surface, and is maintained in its
position by a maximum of opposed force moments.

Figure 8: Static Equilibrium Characteristics (Example of a Cone)

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Figure 8 shows the three standard states of equilibrium by the In the case of stable equilibrium, detail b), the continuous-outlined
examples of continuous-outlined cones. The dash-outlined cones cone rests on its flat surface. The dashed-outlined cone is slightly
shall make evident what happens, in case the standard state is turned and slightly destabilized. Characteristics to the shown cases
changed by a deflection of the cone. The cone is supposed to be are:
placed on a level, hard surface.  Under stable equilibrium, the mass centre attains its lowest
position with respect to potential turning points and the lines of
In all three cases there are two vertical forces acting on the cone forces are coincident.
(ignoring any frictional forces and forces required to displace the
cone). They are the weight ’W’, as active force, and the contact force  As the cone tilts, its mass centre is raised and the contact
’C’, as reactive force. force moves towards its turning point, the edge of its base

In the case of the unstable equilibrium, detail a), balance is effectively  As the cone tilts, the moment originating from the body’s mass
impossible. The continuous-outlined figure shows that the cone is tends to lower the mass centre, in order to resume a stable
vertically placed on its peak. As shown by the dashed outline, the position.
slightest tilt of the cone results in a moment about its point of contact,
and this makes it fall. Characteristics of the shown cases are:  The line of action of the weight passes inside the base area of
the cone.
 Under unstable equilibrium, the mass centre attains its highest
position with respect to the turning point, and the lines of  As a limiting condition of progressive cone tilting, the cone is
forces are coincident. subject to unstable equilibrium, where, with respect to further
turning, the conditions in detail a) are applicable again.
 As the cone tilts, the mass centre lowers, and continues
lowering, as long as falling is in progress. In case of neutral equilibrium, detail c), it is possible to roll the cone to
many new positions and let it rest there. The centre of gravity neither
 The line of action of the weight force ’W’ passes outside the rises nor falls, and the two forces which can be observed do not
(very small) area of contact with the table’s surface. change their vector characteristics with respect to the geometric
references of the cone.
 As a limiting condition of progressive cone falling, detail c) is
applicable. The classical devices operating on neutral equilibrium are the wheel
and the axle. In this case, the neutral equilibrium of the wheel is given
by the location of the axle in the centre of the wheel. Beside, shaft
and axle are discriminated by the fact that the latter does not transmit
torque.

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Stability of Position In detail b), maximum stability is shown. As mentioned initially,


maximum stability requires a maximum of opposed moments.
Figure 9 shows the elevation of a chimney, together with a number of Additionally, maximum stability is associated with a minimum reactive
free body diagrams, which show significant cases of stability and force in the turning points, i.e., on the edges of a rigid body.
instability, respectively. From left to right, cases of reduced stability
are shown (as they might occur during an earthquake). Considering the forces in detail b) the following can be stated: If the
above statement holds true, the minimum reactive forces are
F/2 = m * g/2, due to rotary symmetry of the chimney and due to the
required equilibrium of forces.

Considering the moments in detail b), the formula

𝐹
𝐹 ⋅ 𝑑 = ⋅ 2𝑑
2

is applicable, irrespective of whether the chimney is assumed turning


about point A or about point B.

Detail c) shows reduced stability. The rotary axis of the chimney is


displaced from the vertical.

As a result, the line of the active force is shifted by the distance x,


which reduces the perpendicular distance to the turning point A, so
that, with sufficient accuracy, the following balanced force moment
formula is applicable:
Figure 9: Kinds of Position Stability Kinds of Position Stability
(Example of a Chimney) 𝐹 ⋅ (𝑑 − 𝑥) = 𝐹𝐵 ⋅ 2𝑑

The chimney has an annular cross-section and is firmly supported by This formula permits calculating FB, and it shows that the active
the ground. Therefore, any tendency of toppling would make it turn moment is reduced. Due to equilibrium of moments, also, the reactive
about the foot points of the visible regions, and the foot points A and moment must be reduced and, therefore, FB must be smaller than
B are the reference points of the force moments. F/2, as the lever arm to point B is not changed.

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From that results that FA must be greater than F/2, and FA must have and reaction, there is no right turning moment and, therefore, the free
increased by the magnitude of FB reduction, due to the equilibrium of body diagram seems not to be correct in all details.
active and reactive forces.
However, it is correct with respect to statics, and the case e) depicts a
In detail d), maximum instability is shown. In the given case, the dynamic problem, as the toppling body is subject to motion changes,
significance lies in the absence of the reactive force in point B, in due to free fall. Static and dynamic equilibrium and, consequentially,
addition to the significant details of the reduced stability discussed static and dynamic problems, can be discriminated by the following
before. Under unstable condition, a minimum horizontal force acting details:
from right to left would make the chimney topple, and this may be
caused by a slight breeze.  In static systems, rules of equilibrium of forces and moments
are applied to bodies at rest or to bodies at constant speed,
In detail e), the case of static instability, or the out-of-balance case is and equilibrium exists when the conditions of rest or of
shown, where the chimney is in the progress of falling down. Again, constant speed are not changed.
the force FB is missing and the reactive force is of the same
magnitude as the active force.  In dynamic systems, forces are applied to change the speed
of bodies.
The most significant detail of case d) is the appearance of a force
couple. Force couples are responsible for torque. In tilting of solid 2.2.1.5 Friction
bodies, they occur when the body is turned to the extent that the
contacting surfaces separate, simultaneously maintaining contact by Friction is the force that must be overcome before sliding or rolling of
a turning point. one object on another is possible. Friction prevents contacting
materials from sliding freely.
The turning moment of a force couple is determined by the formula:
Friction is responsible for reduced efficiency of machinery. The
𝑀 = 𝐹 ⋅ 𝑑. energy invested to oppose friction, in order to maintain the nominal
speed of the machine, generally, cannot be recovered, as this energy
This results from the fact that the turning point of a force moment causes contacting surfaces to heat up. Under this aspect, part of
pertaining to a couple can be located at either line of action, in order invested energy is wasted.
to determine the effective force moment, and whatever line of action
is adopted as reference, the moment will always turn out to be 𝑀 = Apart from special cases, however, friction is useful. For example, it
𝐹 ∙ 𝑑. gives shoes and tyres grip on the ground, it is utilized in braking
Naturally, on toppling in the case of detail e), there is only a left systems, and a ladder is only useful, because of the friction effective
turning moment effective. Apparently in contrast to the law of action in the contacting points.

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Figure 10: Results of a Towing Test of Sliding Friction

Basically, two types of friction can be discriminated. In Figure 10 they


are given for sliding friction: Figure 11: Force Parallelograms of the Towing Test

 static friction, the force that must be overcome to start motion Under the conditions shown in Figure 10, the following formulas are
applicable, which can be derived from the free body diagrams in
 dynamic friction, the force that must be overcome to maintain Figure 11:
motion.

Figure 8 shows how friction resistance can be measured in a towing


test, and that the static friction force is higher than dynamic friction
force, as indicated by the different deflections of the force meter
pointer. Similar friction force differences can be observed under
rolling contact friction conditions.

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𝐹𝑡𝑠 𝐹𝑓𝑠 The close relation between the friction factors and the tangents of the
𝜇𝑠 = = and
𝑊 𝐹𝑁 effective forces can be made evident by analogies to a simple test. If
a block is put on the end of a beam and the end of the beam is lifted
𝐹𝑡𝑑 𝐹𝑓𝑠 slowly until the block starts sliding, then the tangent to the angle
𝜇𝑑 = = produced by the beam at the very instant when the block starts
𝑊 𝐹𝑁
moving is identical with the static friction factor between the items.

where: Likewise, the dynamic friction factor is determined in the same test,
when the beam end is lowered until the block assumes constant
𝜇 = angle that relates to the forces involved in the tangent speed.
formula
t = index for tow Friction factor values depend on the nature of the surfaces in contact.
s = index for static They are independent of velocity and area of contact. However, they
d = index for dynamic depend on the following material properties and side conditions:
f = index for friction
n = index for normal, or for reactive to the support.  roughness
 hardness
The tangent between the involved forces is per definition the friction  temperature
factor. Thus, from the previously discussed special cases, the basic  adhesion
formula for friction force calculations can be derived:  crystalline structure on surfaces
 absence and presence of lubricating films.
𝐹𝑓 = 𝑚 ⋅ 𝐹𝑁 ,
The number of side conditions for friction factor determination shows
where: that – to a great extent – it is useless to use a table of friction factors.
Whenever possible, friction forces and friction factors should be
𝜇 = friction factor determined on a present object, for example, by a towing test.
𝐹𝑓 = friction force
𝐹𝑁 = the normal reaction between the surfaces in contact. In an applied towing test of a road vehicle, however, it has to be
borne in mind that the towed object, generally, consists of many
different details, involving all types of friction.

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Occasionally, values are needed to cope with design problems. In this


case, reference is made to friction factor tables given in engineering
reference books.

The sliding friction factor table of a well reputed engineering reference


book, for instance, discriminates the following details:

 material types in contact


 static and dynamic cases
 dry sliding and lubricated sliding.

According to the recently discussed details of friction variables, these


discrimination aspects are not sufficient to cover all side conditions of
friction problems, especially because of the missing roughness.
Therefore, such tables must be used with caution.
The same handbook does not give any friction factors of rolling
contact resistance. In case of respective type bearings, such details
may be found in the catalogues of bearing manufacturers, and these
data are based on experience and probability statistics.

A technician should remember the following details:

 Lowest resistance is achieved by rolling contact, by utilizing


rollers or wheels as large as the side conditions permit and by
employing hard contact material.

 Large contact forces and reduction of wear require lubricated


slide bearings, and lubricated slide bearings are the only type
of bearings that can be designed with exact data and reliable
formulas.

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2.2.1.6 Stress and Strain Elastic Deformation

Mechanical properties describe the behaviour of a material subjected


to mechanical forces. Materials used in load--bearing applications are
called ’structural materials’ and may be metals, ceramics, polymers or
composites.

Selecting a material for a structural application is a difficult process; it


typically involves considerations of several suitable materials whose
mechanical properties must be compared under a given set of
operating conditions as well as financial aspects in order to make the
best choice. Additional considerations may include processing
options, available resources, or both.

Deformation and Fracture of Engineering Materials

All materials undergo a change in dimensions in response to


mechanical force. This change is called ’deformation’. If the material
reverts back to its original size and shape upon removal of the load, Figure 12: Response of a Cylindrical Specimen to a Tensile
the deformation is said to be ’elastic’. On the other hand, if the Force
application and removal of the load results in a permanent shape
Detail a) shows a cylindrical specimen with an original cross--
change, the specimen is said to have undergone ’plastic’ deformation.
sectional area 𝐴0 and length 𝐼0 subjected to a uniaxial force F (pulling
in both directions).
’Fracture’ occurs when a structural component or specimen separates
into two or more pieces. While fracture clearly represents failure of a
component, it should be noted that depending on the design criteria, Engineering stress σ and engineering strain Á are defined as follows:
failure (an inability of a component to perform its desired function) 𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒 𝐹
may occur prior to fracture. For example, in many applications plastic  𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 = 𝜎 = (1)
𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝐴𝑜
deformation represents failure without fracture. A car axle that bends
when you drive over a pot-hole or a lawn chair that buckles and 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔ℎ ∆𝐼 (𝐼 −𝐼0
collapses are examples of components that have failed without  𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛 = 𝜖 = = (2)
𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔ℎ 𝐼0 𝐼0
fracture.
where l is the instantaneous length of the rod.

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Figure 12, detail b) shows the stress-to-strain relationship when a Visco-Elastic Deformation
tensile specimen is subjected to a small load. For small strains, stress
and strain are linearly related. Furthermore, the specimen is restored In thermoplastic polymers the bonds between adjacent
to its original condition when the force is removed (that is, the strain is macromolecules are comparatively weak secondary bonds. Thus,
elastic). these materials have much lower elastic moduli than crystalline
metals and ceramics.
The ratio of stress to strain in the linear elastic region is called
’Young’s modulus’, (E).

The physical significance of Young’s modulus, also known as the


’elastic modulus’, is that it measures the stiffness of the material. A
material with a high elastic modulus is comparatively stiff which
means it exhibits a small amount of deformation under an applied
load.

Examples of high-modulus materials include most ceramics with


covalent or mixed ionic/covalent bonds such as diamond, graphite (in
the direction of covalent bonding), and alumina (Al2 O3). The bond
energies and elastic moduli of metals are also relatively high but
below those of most ceramics.

In general, unoriented thermoplastic polymers display lower E-values


than ceramics and metals because of the comparatively weak
secondary bonds between adjacent chains. When polymer molecules
are well aligned along the direction of stress, polymers may also have
high moduli.

When two materials with different modulus values are subjected to


the same stress, the material with the higher modulus value
experiences less deformation.

Figure 13: Visco-Elastic Deformation in Polymers

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The behaviour of highly cross-linked thermoset polymers is quite


different from that of thermoplastics because of the existence of the Plastic Deformation
strong primary bonds in three dimensions. Such bonds limit the
mobility of the ’chains’ and result in modulus values that are less
sensitive to temperature than those of most thermoplastics.

Example: The damping characteristics of polymers are highly


desirable for many forms of applications. For example, vibrating
equipment, such as pumps and motors, are often mounted on pads
designed to absorb the vibrations and isolate the equipment from the
surroundings. In this case a polymer with a high dissipation factor,
such as polychloroprene, is selected to be used in the fabrication of
the mounting plate or engine mounts in cars.

Figure 14: Plastic Deformation

When the applied stress exceeds a critical value called the ’elastic
limit’, deformation becomes permanent. When a specimen is loaded
beyond this limit, it no longer returns to its original length upon
removal of the force. Such behaviour is termed ’plastic’ or ’permanent
deformation’.

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each type of strain. Elastic deformation (that is, atomic bond


In most materials elastic deformation is associated with bond stretching) changes the equilibrium separation distance between
stretching. In crystals, plastic deformation is primarily associated with atoms and therefore changes the volume of the sample.
the movement of dislocations. In most thermoplastic polymers,
plasticity is associated with sliding of entangled long-chain molecules Since atoms retain the same nearest neighbour during elastic
past each other, an essentially irreversible process. In either case the deformation, there are no major changes in the shape of the
stress-strain relationship becomes non-linear when the elastic limit is specimen. In contrast, plastic deformation does not alter significantly
exceeded. Although the slope of the σ–ε curve in the plastic region either the bond length or crystal volume, but the slip process changes
decreases with increasing strain, continued plastic deformation the shape of the material.
requires a continuing increase in stress. That is, materials harden
upon plastic straining. This phenomenon, known as ’strain hardening’,
is the result of dislocation/dislocation interactions in metallic crystals.
These interactions either significantly reduce the dislocation mobility
or stop dislocations from moving entirely. In the case of polymers,
strain hardening is a result of chains aligning in the stress direction.

Another way to understand the phenomenon of strain hardening is to


imagine an experiment in which the specimen in Figure 16 is reloaded
from point C. To promote dislocation motion upon reloading, a stress
corresponding to point B will be required. The effective strength of the
material, as measured by the stress necessary to cause dislocation
motion, has increased as a result of plastic straining during the first
loading.

Strain hardening becomes evident when forming a component into a


desired shape. The material may become so hard during forming that
specialised intermediate thermal treatments are necessary to soften
the metal so that it can be formed into its final shape.
A similar process, known as ’mechanical conditioning’, is used to
improve the properties of polymer fibre by straining to align the
molecules.

Another difference between elastic and plastic deformation is the size


of the volume and shape changes in the specimen associated with

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Note: If the direction between A and B is neglected and no other


details as the time and the travelled course are defined, this means
that no other side conditions are taken into account.
2.2.2 Kinetics In such cases, the adjective ’average’ is added to the speed formula,
and - particularly because the side conditions do not include the
2.2.2.1 Speed and Velocity travelled direction – the term ’speed’ has to be chosen. From
mathematics it is known that physical quantities which only include
The average speed of a moving object is the distance the object has the information related to a one-dimensional coordinate system are
moved during the time taken for the motion. Using mathematical called scalar quantities, that is, speed is a scalar quantity.
symbols, this purely verbatim formula is translated into
In contrast to speed, velocity is a vector. Expressed in a formula
𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑚𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑑
𝑎𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 = .
𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑡𝑎𝑘𝑒𝑛 distance moved in a particular direction
average velocity =
With distance measured in meters [m], and time taken in seconds [s], time taken
the speed is measured in meters per second [m/s]. A comparison with the initially discussed formula for speed shows that
the average velocity formula includes speed and the direction of a
Example: A car travels 1,200 m in 100 s. body’s motion.
By using the above formula and substituting the mathematical
symbols the average speed is obtained: The difference between speed and velocity can also be made obvious
𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑚𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑑 1,200 𝑚 𝑚
by the following specifications:
𝑎𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 = = = 12
𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑡𝑎𝑘𝑒𝑛 100 𝑠 𝑠
 speed is the scalar constituent of the velocity vector
If the speed is determined in accordance with the example above a  the definition of speed does not require any additional
minimum of side conditions are required, among them definition of motion direction.

 reduction of the moved object to an object of no extension Irrespective of the definitions of ’speed’ and ’velocity’, the terms
’speed’ and ’velocity’ are used as equal terms. Even scientists use the
 choosing two points A and B for measuring the travelled
terms ’speed of light’ and ’speed of sound’, although light and sound,
distance under standard conditions, travel radially and constantly from their
 required time. origin. However, speed and velocity must be discriminated when
velocity vectors are added or resolved. A few examples will be
discussed later on.
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The average speed, or average velocity of a travelling object is


usually different from actual speed/velocity. For example, the
speedometer of a car measures the actual speed with close proximity,
as the distance covered by the circumference of one of the car
wheels is directly used to control the pointer’s angular deflection of a
speedometer.

On the other hand, average speed determination requires a distance


meter and a time piece for respective measurements. Ordinary
speedometers, as used in cars, are not the suitable instruments for
measuring average speed under normal traffic conditions, as they
measure actual speed, which is apparent by the irregular pointer
deflections observed during a journey in a car.

Figure 1: Distance-Time Graph for Various Speeds

Figure 1 shows a distance-time graph of a travelling car, from start to


stop and as continuous curve of the diagram. The diagram axes are
marked in kilometres and hours, as shown by the speedometer and
by the travelled distance counter of an automobile. In order to convert
the diagram into a meter - second diagram, the equivalents 1 km =
1,000 m and 1 h = 3,600 s are used.

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The continuous curve of the diagram makes evident that the driver Note: ’v’ is used as symbol of both, specific volume and velocity. If
starting at point A accelerates the car up to point B, travels at there is any risk of confusion write the words and avoid the symbol.
constant velocity between points B and C, then he starts decelerating
the car at point C and, finally, stops at D. With the aid of the formula above and with the symbolic data that can
be obtained from the continuous curve of Figure 1, the constant
In order to enable drawing the curve, distance and time have to be velocity of the straight region can be exactly determined by reference
determined quite often, especially in the ranges of acceleration and to the coordinates of the limiting points C and B, as follows:
deceleration.
∆𝑑 𝑑𝐶 − 𝑑𝐵
The characteristic sections of the continuous curve can be recognized 𝑣 = =
∆𝑡 𝑡𝐶 − 𝑡𝐵
by the following details:
Likewise, the average speed of the car can be determined for the total
 acceleration region: the curve is concave distance travelled. In this case, index ’a’, for average, is added to the
 constant velocity region: the curve is straight velocity symbol, in order to discriminate it from constant speed:
 deceleration region: the curve is convex.
∆𝑑 𝑑𝐷 − 𝑑𝐴
The following symbolic formulas are used for determining the velocity: 𝑣𝑎 = =
∆𝑡 𝑡𝐷 − 𝑡𝐴
∆𝑑 𝑑2 − 𝑑1
𝑣 = = In Figure 1 the performance curve of the average speed is illustrated
∆𝑡 𝑡2 − 𝑡1
as a line with dots and dashes.
where:
A comparison between the two performance curves makes evident
v = velocity
that time and distance are only identical in the points A, E and D.
d = distance
t = time
The differences, obviously, result from the acceleration and
∆ = quantity interval, where the intervals are determined by
deceleration periods. The average speed performance curve shows
the measures 2 and 1, as taken in the sequence of the
uniform (constant) speed characteristics, because it is represented as
numeric indices.
a straight line in the distance - time graph.

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The discrepancy in the performance curves shows that the diagram


cannot be used to determine the variables of the velocity function
versus the average speed performance curve without errors. For
instance, determination of time versus distance provides tBa, which is
lower than tB, or tCa, which is higher than tC. Calculating the distance
or time with the aid of the average velocity formulas would result in
errors of the same magnitude.

However, there is no reason to abandon average velocity formulas


and performance curves completely.

Note: The performance assumed in Figure 1 is exaggerated.


Extremely long acceleration and deceleration periods were adopted in
contrast to the uniform velocity period, in order to show the errors that
might occur, if the formulas and performance curves are not used Figure 2: Graphical Method for Determining the Velocity
cautiously. Constituents from a Distance/Time Graph

The diagram of the average speed performance curve shows that the Once again a distance - time graph is shown.
formula given can be used for uniform speed without the quantity
interval symbol ∆ in the form This curve resembles the curve section near the coordinate origin
region of the diagram in Figure 1, i.e. the curve in Figure 2 also shows
𝑑 the performance of a moving object during acceleration.
𝑣 = 𝑡.
But in this example additional details are given, so that the
This standard formula is used for calculating the constant velocity in instantaneous (actual) velocity can be determined with the aid of the
an isolated environment. The use of this formula requires that the formula
starting point coordinates of the constant velocity curve are located in 𝑣 = ∆𝑑/∆𝑡
the origin of the coordinate system, with zero values for distance and
time. The standard formula would be used under normal test
conditions, in order to determine one of the variables.

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Therefore, the adjectives ’average’, ’constant’ and ’instantaneous’


have to be added to acceleration and deceleration, as required by the
2.2.2.2 Velocity Changes side conditions discussed before.

Acceleration as well as deceleration of a moving object are the The symbol of acceleration and deceleration in formulas is the low
changes of velocity during the time taken for the changes. Using case letter ’a’. When this symbol is applied the following symbolic
mathematical symbols, this purely verbatim formula is translated into formulas are obtained:

change of velocity ∆𝑣 𝑣2 − 𝑣1
average acceleration (deceleration) = 𝑎 = = .
time taken for the change ∆𝑡 𝑡2 −𝑡1
When the velocity is measured in meters per second [m/s] and the
time taken in seconds [s], the unit for acceleration and deceleration
results in meters per square second [m/s2].

Example: A car is subject to a velocity change of 30 m/s (approx.


110 km/h) within 7.5 s.
By using the above formula and substituting the mathematical
symbols the average acceleration is obtained:

30 𝑚 𝑚
𝑎𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑎𝑐𝑐𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = =4 2
7.5 𝑠 ∙ 𝑠 𝑠

Acceleration and deceleration have vector qualities or scalar qualities,


depending on whether they originate from speed or from velocity.
Experience made as a car driver or as a passenger shows that
acceleration is normally inconstant. Acceleration depends on

 the power of the engine Figure 3: Velocity-Time Graph for Various Speeds
 the momentary mass of the car The acceleration and deceleration of an object are represented in a
 the time chosen for gear changes, etc. velocity-time graph. Figure 3 shows an example of such a graph that
is given for a similar performance of a moving object as discussed in
conjunction with Figure 1.

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The same capital letters have been used for the significant points, This standard formula is used when the zero value is assumed for the
and the characteristic sections of the curve can be recognized by the starting point and acceleration is investigated in an isolated
following details: environment.

 Constant acceleration region A to B: Likewise, the deceleration of a moving object can exactly be
The performance curve A to B is a straight line, inclined at an determined by reference to the coordinates of the limiting points C
angle between 0 and 90° to the time axis. and D, as follows:

 Constant velocity region B to C: ∆𝑣 𝑣𝐷 − 𝑣𝐶


𝑎 = = .
The performance curve B to C is a straight line that runs ∆𝑡 𝑡𝐷 − 𝑡𝐶
parallel to the time axis.
According to Figure 3, the coordinates of point D are zero. However,
 Constant deceleration region C to D: under normal test conditions a coordinate system will be adopted,
The performance curve C to D is a straight line, inclined at an where the velocity axis runs through point C. Therefore, vD = 0 and
angle between 90° and 180° to the time axis. tC = 0 are obtained as replacements in the lately developed formula,
which results in
The diagram in Figure 3 shows the acceleration of an object moving
from point A to B which can exactly be determined by their −𝑣𝑐
𝑎 = .
coordinates, as follows: 𝑡𝐷

∆𝑣 𝑣𝐵 − 𝑣𝐴 This formula makes evident that - if mathematical rules are strictly


𝑎 = = . applied - deceleration is discriminated from acceleration by a negative
∆𝑡 𝑡𝐵 − 𝑡𝐴
. sign, and this is the reason why the uniform deceleration curve
Normally the low case letter indices ’f’, for final, and ’i’, for initial are specified in a velocity - time graph is limited to an inclination between
used. Figure 3 shows that final velocity vf, in the acceleration range, is 90° and 180° to the time axis.
identical with the initial velocity vi, in the deceleration range.
Figure 3, also, makes evident that the initial velocity vi is identical with
It is obvious that the final velocity vf is identical with vB in the starting vC in the end point of the constant velocity curve.
point of constant velocity. Since point A is located in the coordinate
system’s origin, the acceleration formula is reduced to
𝑣𝑓
𝑎 = .
𝑡

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Thus, the standard deceleration formula can be deduced from the 1


latter formula by replacing vi for vC: 𝑑 = ⋅ 𝑣 ⋅ 𝑡
2
−𝑣𝑖
𝑎 = . In this case the velocity ’v’ is identical with the final velocity ’vf’. From
𝑡 the latter formula the following one is obtained by alternative
substitution of ’v’ and ’t’:
The convenience offered by velocity-time graphs is based on two
facts:
1 2
1 𝑣𝑓2
𝑑 = ⋅ 𝑎 ⋅ 𝑡 = ∙ .
 Constant velocity, constant acceleration and constant 2 2 𝑎
deceleration are represented as straight lines.
Similar rules can be applied to deceleration, where
 The distances travelled by the moving object are represented
by the performance curve projections onto the time axis, and 1 2
1 𝑣𝑖2
this holds true, even if velocity, acceleration and deceleration 𝑑 =− ⋅ 𝑎 ⋅ 𝑡 =− ∙ .
2 2 𝑎
are inconstant.
Isolation of the individual variables provides another set of eight
The sum of these velocity--time graph characteristics makes it formulas. It should be observed, however, that deceleration ’a’ must
possible to determine the distance travelled by moving objects by be entered with a negative sign. If this rule is not applied, negative
analogies to simple formulas and rules of plane geometry. results for the travelled distance will be provided.
Additionally, a vast number of formulas can be developed, applicable
to specific conditions by reference to a few basic formulas and a few With reference to Figure 3, it should be obvious that the total
basic facts. displacement of the moved object can be determined by adding the
The simplest case of plane geometry analogy application to travelled distances calculated for the characteristic sections in
determination of travelled distance is given by the rectangle under the accordance with the given formulas. This is a sort of indirect velocity
constant velocity curve B to C. In analogy to the rectangle formula, vector addition, as distances moved in a particular direction are
and applied to standard conditions, the following formula is obtained: added and calculations with velocities are carried out that are
determined under this priority.
𝑑= 𝑣 ⋅ 𝑡.
Refer to Figure 1 again.
The areas under the constant acceleration and deceleration curves
are triangles, which are half the size of the respective rectangles.
Applied to the latter formula:

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Mechanics Cat B1 – Module 2

Analogous to the area of a trapezium of the shown shape, which is


Refer to Figure 4. obtained by the multiplication of width by medium height, the
displacement formula is given by

1
𝑑 = ⋅ (𝑣𝑖 + 𝑣𝑓 ) ⋅ 𝑡.
2

This formula can be applied unchanged to deceleration from a higher


value vi to a lower value vf. In fact, the trapezium analogous formula
is universally applicable, as it includes the rectangle and the triangle
as limit cases of the trapezium.

The analogies to areas make it possible to determine the


displacement of a moved object with satisfactory accuracy, even if the
function curves in a velocity-time graph are not straight.

2.2.2.3 Circular Motion

Principally, a distinction is made between translational motion and


circular motion. In some cases there exist superimposed motions,
involving translational motion and circular motion. The principal
differences lie in the adopted reference frames.

Figure 5, detail a), shows an object that moves along a path drawn as
broken line in a main axes coordinate reference frame, designated by
Figure 4: Velocity-Time Graph for Acceleration Starting from the letters x and y. Another pair of auxiliary coordinates, with the axes
Initial Velocity designations x’ and y’, is assigned to the moving object, in order to fix
the reference point of the object’s motion. The characteristic of
In case of uniform acceleration from an initial velocity, an analogy to translational motion lies in the fact that the main axes and the
trapezium formulas is drawn, instead of analogies to the rectangle auxiliary axes always run parallel.
and the triangle.

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Mechanics Cat B1 – Module 2

In contrast to translational motion, circular motion only requires the


reference to one axis as the origin of angular deflection, as shown in
detail b). From mathematics it is known that such a coordinate system
is known as polar coordinates. In the given case, the polar axis is
designated by the low case letter ’r’, for radius.

For solving a circular motion problem, the centre of rotation is placed


in the origin of the polar coordinates, a reference plane perpendicular
to the rotary axis and one of the object’s radial axes to the axis of
rotation as reference origin are adopted for angular displacement.
Thus, in a rotating system, angular displacements, angular velocities
and angular velocity changes are the discriminators of motion.

The formulas recently discussed for translational displacement can


also be used for velocity and velocity changes in circular motion,
when the following different symbols are adopted:

 low case Greek letter ’’ instead of the symbol ’s’ for angular
displacement in radians
 low case Greek letter instead of the symbol ’v’ for angular
velocity in radians per second
 low case Greek letter ’’ instead of the symbol ’a’ for angular
acceleration/deceleration in radians per square second.

By exchange of symbols, the angular velocity formulas are obtained


as follows:

∆𝜑 𝜑2 −𝜑1 𝜑
𝜔 = = and 𝜔 = 𝑡.
∆𝑡 𝑡2 −𝑡1

Figure 5: Details of the Concepts of Translational and Circular


Motion
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Physics PART 66 – Basic Training
Mechanics Cat B1 – Module 2

The angular acceleration/deceleration formulas are: working with frequency, and their key to the recently discussed
circular motion formulas is given by the following formulas:
∆𝜔 𝜔2 − 𝜔1
∝= = 1
∆𝑡 𝑡2 − 𝑡1 𝜔 = 2𝜋 𝑟𝑎𝑑 ⋅ 𝑓 = 2𝜋 𝑟𝑎𝑑 ⋅ ,
𝑇
𝜔𝑓
∝= where:
𝑡
− 𝜔𝑖 f = frequency
∝= . T = time per period or, time required per cycle.
𝑡
The angular displacement formulas are obtained as follows: The key to velocity is given by the formula

1 1 𝜔𝑓2 𝑣 = 𝑟 ⋅ 𝜔,
𝜑 = 2 ∙ 𝛼 ∙ 𝑡2 = ∙
2 ∝
where:
1 2 1 𝜔𝑖2
𝜑 =− ∙ 𝛼 ∙ 𝑡 = − ∙
2 2 ∝ r = radius.
1
𝜑 = 2 ∙ (𝜔𝑖 + 𝜔𝑓 ) ∙ 𝑡. This formula can be used to determine the velocity of any particle of a
rotating body separately. However, the majority of problems involves
calculating the peripheral velocity.
It is shown by the given analogies that there is no reason to learn
another set of formulas by heart to deal with the majority of circular Mechanical engineers often have to determine ’speed’ as number of
motion cases, if a few simple rules are followed. The graphs recently revolutions per time unit by using a revolution counter and a stop
discussed can be analogously used to determine the characteristics watch, or they have to determine the number of revolutions of a drill
of circular motion. This requires designation of the vertical diagram or cylindrical workpiece on the basis of an admitted cutting speed for
axes by 𝜑 and 𝜔,respectively. a particular tool material. The following formula is used for solving
such problems:
Circular motion formulas are frequently required to determine 𝑧 𝑣 𝜔
peripheral velocity, number of revolutions, frequency and time period 𝑛= = =
per revolution of rotary systems. Electrical engineers are used to 𝑡 𝐶 2𝜋 𝑟𝑎𝑑′

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n = rotary speed or revolutions per time unit


z = number of revolutions
2.2.2.4 Free Fall (Motion under Gravity)
t = time
Free fall involves a special case of uniform acceleration and
v = velocity
translational motion. Therefore, basically, the same formulas and
C = circumference. same type of motion diagrams are used, as in the case of
acceleration and deceleration. However, the following symbols are
adopted:
Under the described conditions, the formula n = z/t is used for
measuring the rotary speed, while the remaining formulas are used to
 low case letter ’h’ instead of the symbol ’s’ for height of free
determine the maximum admitted rotary speed.
fall
 low case letter ’g’ instead of the symbol ’a’ for gravity constant.
According to the speed labels found near the speed change facilities
of machine tool gearboxes, the rotary speed must normally be
The formula for the free fall is written as follows:
calculated in revolutions per minute (rpm). In a given case, the
nearest lower speed to the calculated, maximum admitted rotary
speed must be chosen, in order to prevent damaging a tool. 1 1 𝑣𝑓2
ℎ= ∙ 𝑔 ∙ 𝑡2 = ∙ .
2 2 𝑔
There exists no difference between frequency and rotary speed, as
can be shown by isolating ’f’. The preference to rotary speed in Considering the side conditions, the other, recently discussed
mechanical engineering is only a matter of convenience, as working formulas and diagrams, can be adapted to free fall in a similar way.
with frequency provides lower number values, in accordance with the Again, there is no reason to learn another set of formulas by heart.
number of seconds in the minute. However for solving free fall problems, normally, the formulas derived
in the latter case are sufficient.

As discussed in the previous lessons, the gravity constant value of


g = 9.81 m/s2 is used, although this value varies slightly from place to
place on the earth’s surface, due to changing distance to the earth’s
centre. The gravitation constant of a particular place provides a
uniform acceleration, so that there is no need, particularly for
engineering purposes, to worry about inconstancy in this respect.

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Using the laws of free fall, it is assumed that no air resistance occurs.
If, according to this assumption, different solid bodies fall the height
’h’, they will reach the same final velocity ’vf’. 2.2.2.5 Motions Involving Vector Calculation

Note: Experience shows that in earth atmosphere a leaf falls slower A few significant and practical cases of vector calculation will be
than a solid body. Therefore, this law only applies in vacuum discussed in the following.
ambience.
Navigators use the term ’speed over ground’. This results from the
fact that the reference frame that is adopted to control travelling is the
earth’s topography. Speed over ground is only one detail required to
determine expected time and expected average speed in directing a
used vehicle from point A to point B, as the course to be taken must
be considered, in order to prevent collisions, to follow a demanded
track, etc.

In order to determine the speed over ground of a ship, the velocity


vectors of the following must be summed:
 own ship’s speed
 velocity of water currents
 wind velocity.

Similar conditions must be considered for air and road vehicles. Even
in case a pedestrian walks on an escalator, his speed is determined
by vector addition, resulting from escalator speed and speed of
walking.

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a) The projectile is reduced to a particle (as particle kinematics is


applied).
b) The instantaneous velocity vectors ’v’ and v0, respectively, are
always tangentially directed to the trajectory curve (principal
property of a vector).
c) The vector size changes continually along the trajectory, due
to the fact that the projectile is subject to gravitation, which
changes the vertical components vy only.
d) The horizontal component of the vector is constant, as the
projectile is not subject to a horizontally directed acceleration
in the trajectory region; hence, vx = vx0 = constant.
e) In the apex of the trajectory, the vertical component of the
vector is zero, therefore, v = vx = vx0.
f) The apex is perpendicularly located at half the distance of the
impact range ’R’, as the time required for hurling the projectile
Figure 6: Trajectory in Vacuum up to the apex is identical with the time required for free fall
from the apex to the ground.
g) For the same reason, vertical vector components vy are of
Figure 6 shows the trajectory of a projectile as a broken line in equal magnitude at equidistant locations to the perpendicular
Cartesian coordinates. The projectile is fired from the origin of the of the apex.
coordinates with muzzle velocity v0 at an elevation angle ß. h) Gun barrel elevation angle and projectile impact angle are of
The trajectory has been constructed under the assumption of equal magnitude ’ß’.
absence of air resistance, wind, etc. Mathematical determination of the range is quite simple. The basic
formula is d = v ∙ t, where d is replaced for R and v for the constant
Five instantaneous vectors are shown, together with their substitute horizontal vector component vx0 =V0 ∙ cos ß. Thus, the following
components. formula is obtained:
By analyzing the vector properties and by reasoning, the following R = v0 ∙ cos ß∙ t
conclusions can be made:
where only the time ’t’ is left to enable the calculation of the range.

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The time is ruled by twice the time required for free fall. Hence, the
adapted basic formula is t = 2 v/g, where v has to be replaced by the Considering that the horizontal component vx = vx0 = v0 ∙ cos ß is
vertical vector component v0 ∙ sin ß, which is effective in the origin constant, the latter formula makes it possible to calculate the
and in the impact point. This results in: momentary vector magnitude and its direction versus time, provided
barrel elevation is known. This is done with the aid of the formulas:
2𝑣02
𝑡= ∙ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝛽 𝑉𝑦
𝑔 𝑣 = √𝑣𝑦2 + 𝑣𝑥2 and tan 𝜚 = 𝑉𝑥
The combination of the formulas before provides:
The coordinates x and y of the trajectory are products of the factors,
2𝑣02 2𝑣02 flight time, horizontal and vertical vector components, in accordance
𝑅= ∙ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝛽 ∙ cos 𝛽 = ∙ sin 𝛽 ∙ √1 − 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝛽 with the basic formulas d = v ∙ t and d = 0.5 v ∙ t, respectively.
𝑔 𝑔
Therefore, the following formulas are applicable:
These formulas make not only the calculation of ranges possible. If
the range is known - which is normal in solving a fire control problem -
x = v0 ∙ cos ß ∙ t and
the required gun barrel elevation can be calculated, as the muzzle
velocity is a constant for a particular gun. However, the formulas are
y = v0 ∙ sin ß ∙ t – 0.5g ∙ t²
only applicable when the target is located on the same level as the
gun.
where the second formula is obtained by multiplying velocity by time
Target and gun locations on different levels - for example, in the case
and factor 0.5,respectively.
of air targets - require a universally applicable formula, which relates
The final result is obtained by combining the formulas. This is done by
the distance y to the respective distance x of the chosen coordinate
replacing ’t’ by the isolated time formula:
system. Developing such a formula requires the following procedure
and reasoning. 𝑔
𝑦 = tan 𝛽 ∙ 𝑥 − ∙ 𝑥²
2𝑣02 ∙ 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝛽
As mentioned before, the vertical component v0 ∙ sin ß is continually
reduced through deceleration of the projectile by gravity. The
reduction of velocity is subject to the formula g ∙ t. Therefore, the This function has the characteristics of a parabola of the second
instantaneous, vertical vector component is obtained with the aid of order. Higher mathematics make it possible to determine that the
formula longest range is obtained at a barrel elevation of 45°.
vy = v0 ⋅ sin β - g ⋅ t .

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Physics PART 66 – Basic Training
Mechanics Cat B1 – Module 2

2.2.2.6 Vibrations and Oscillations We hear the vibrations of musical instruments and feel the vibrations
caused by heavy vehicles. We see light and feel the warmth of a fire.
Surprisingly, all these sensations have something in common, they all
involve the transfer of energy in the form of a wave motion.

Figure 7 shows some objects which move with a regular to-and-from


motion: it is said that the items vibrate or oscillate. In reality, the
objects presented vibrate slowly enough to observe their movement
and study their characteristics. Other things vibrate so fast that it is
impossible to see the to-and-from motion, only the result can be felt or
seen.

The vibrating of objects is set up by displacing it from its rest position


and letting it go. Each then vibrates or oscillates naturally in a way
which depends on the forces acting on it.

All the vibrations shown in Figure 6 die away after a time, some of
them more quickly and others less quickly. The reason for this is, that
the energy necessary for vibrating is lost, e.g. by frictional forces,
such as the air resistance which converts the vibrating energy into
heat energy. The vibrations are said ’to be damped’.

When the objects have lost all their vibrating energy they come to rest
at the same position or level which is usually the central position of
the vibration.

Figure 7: Examples of Vibrations


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Physics PART 66 – Basic Training
Mechanics Cat B1 – Module 2

Period and Frequency The pendulum shown in Figure 7 illustrates a complete to-and-from
movement from position A to position B and back to position A. This
complete movement is usually called ’oscillation’ or ’cycle’. It also
shows that one complete oscillation involves both a forward and a
backward swing of the pendulum (Figure 7, detail a)) or, when it is
started at the mid-point of its swing, the oscillation is completed when
the bob passes through the mid-point again moving in the same
direction.

The time taken for one oscillation is called the ’period’ or ’periodic’
time.

Definition:
The period ’T’ is the time required for a vibrating object to make one
complete oscillation.
The period ’T’ is measured in seconds (s).

The reciprocal quantity of the period ’T’ is called the frequency ’f’
which gives the number of periods in one second.

Definition:
The frequency ’f’ is the number of complete oscillations (or cycles)
made in one second.
The unit for the frequency is hertz (Hz).

Note: Since one hertz is defined as one oscillation per second or one
cycle per second, the abbreviation cps can be found as well.

Figure 8: One Complete Oscillation

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Physics PART 66 – Basic Training
Mechanics Cat B1 – Module 2

When the period is the time taken for one oscillation and the
frequency is defined as the number of oscillations in one second, the
relation between these quantities can be described as follows:

1
𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑜𝑑 =
𝑓𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦

This can be written as a formula:

1 1
𝑇= [𝑠 = ]
𝑓 𝐻𝑧

Displacement and Amplitude

Definitions:

The displacement ’d’ of a vibrating object is its distance from the rest
or central position in either direction.

The amplitude ’a’ is the maximum displacement from the rest or


central position in either direction.

Figure 8: Amplitude of a Vibrating Object

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Physics PART 66 – Basic Training
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Figure 8, detail a), shows an arrangement used to demonstrate the The oscillations of a child on a swing have a certain natural
displacement of a pendulum. At the lower end of the pendulum, a felt- frequency, that is to say, the child which is left to swing freely will
tipped pen is fixed. A sheet of paper is pulled steadily across the floor always make the same number of complete oscillations in a certain
at right angles to the oscillations so that the pen traces the path of its time. The amplitude of the oscillations decreases unless the lost
motion on the paper. energy is replaced. To keep the swing moving it must be pushed at
exactly the right times, in fact it must be pushed at the same
The produced trace shows that the displacement of the pendulum frequency as the swing’s own natural frequency.
varies with time, i.e. the amplitudes become smaller.
Pushing the swing means forcing it to oscillate. However, a swing can
Figure 8, detail b), presents a graph showing the trace produced by be given regular pushes at frequencies other than its natural
the arrangement shown in Figure 3, detail a). The trace has a wave- frequency. The swinging motion is then said to be ’forced’, and the
like shape known as sine curve, which is a characteristic of all simple resulting amplitude of the oscillation is small.
harmonic motions.
The best response, or largest amplitude, is always produced when
The graph shows, that the forcing frequency equals the natural frequency. This effect is
called ’resonance’ and the swing is said ’to resonate’. Resonance of a
 the amplitude ’a’ decreases from one oscillation to the next vibrator occurs when the forcing frequency equals its natural
(’damped vibration’) frequency.
 the period ’T’ (shown over several oscillations) remains
constant. There are special effects which occur at resonance:

Natural and Forced Vibrations  the amplitude of displacements of the driven vibrator
increases
Definitions:  the maximum amount of energy is transferred from the forcing
agent to the driven vibrator.
The ’natural frequency’ of a vibrator is that frequency at which it will
vibrate freely after a single displacement or push. Note: In the example of the swing, the driven vibrator is the swing
and the forcing agent is the hand pushing it.
A ’natural vibration’ is one in which an object vibrates freely at its
natural frequency. The vibrating or oscillating object, which may be as large as a bridge
or as small as a molecule, is called ’vibrator’ or an ’oscillator’. Both of
A ’forced vibration’ is one in which an object is made to vibrate at the these words are used but each is more common in particular cases.
frequency of another oscillator or forcing agent. For example, the vibrating steel strip used to print dots on ticker tape
is called a vibrator but an electrical circuit which generates alternating

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electricity is called an oscillator. A movement which can be felt or Without resonance effects, most musical instruments would hardly be
heard is usually called a ’vibration’ and the object with such a periodic heard. For example, the air in a pipe or tube will only vibrate with a
motion is called a ’vibrator’. large amplitude when it is caused to vibrate at one of the instrument’s
natural frequencies. Similarly, the vibration amplitude of a string or
Resonance drum is only large at the natural frequency.

Resonance can occur in different ways. Resonance in Electric Circuits

Resonance in Mechanical Objects Resonance in electric circuits occurs, for example, when a radio or
television is tuned to a particular frequency.
Resonance in mechanical objects is very common. A car or a
washing machine may vibrate quite violently at particular speeds. In The detecting circuit is forced to conduct oscillating electric currents
each case, resonance occurs when the frequency of a rotating part at the frequencies of all the radio signals received by the aerial. But
(motor, wheel, drum etc.) is equal to the natural frequency of vibration the circuit is built to allow a large current to flow only at one
of the body of the machine. In these machines there are usually frequency, which is adjusted to match the frequency of a particular
several natural frequencies at which resonance can build up a radio station. All the forced oscillating currents are of very small
vibration to a large amplitude. amplitude, except the selected frequency. At this frequency there is
resonance between the forcing radio signal and the oscillating electric
In 1940, the wind blowing in gusts caused a suspension bridge in the current in the tuned circuit.
USA to sway with increasing amplitude until it reached a point where
the structure was overstressed and the bridge collapsed.

In order to prevent accidents like this, soldiers are instructed to break


step when crossing a bridge so that their regular footsteps cannot
build up a large-amplitude vibration by resonance with part of the
bridge structure.

Resonance in Sound

Resonance in sound can be recognised for example when singing to


a piano with the damper pedal pressed down so that all the strings
are free to vibrate. After singing a steady note, the piano strings of
similar natural frequency can be heard to continue the vibration.

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2.2.3 Dynamics The fact that force is a vector is evident through each one of Newton’s
descriptive laws. According to the preceding lesson, the vector
2.2.3.1 Force, Mass and Acceleration qualities of force originate from acceleration and the origin of motion
changes is force.
The coherency of force, mass and acceleration is given by Newton’s
laws of motion: Predecessors of Newton knew the concept of inertia. Inertia is closely
related to a body’s mass, and was interpreted as a body’s inherent
1. Everybody persists in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a resistance to change its momentary state of rest or motion. Thanks to
straight line, unless it is forced to change that state by forces Newton, inertia can be defined in terms of the formula F = m ∙ a.
impressed on it.
2. If a force acts on a particle, the particle will accelerate in the Under the influence of gravitation, the mass exerts the force
direction of the force. The magnitude of acceleration is
proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the 𝐹 = 𝑚 ∙ 𝑔.
particle’s mass.
3. To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction; or, In the problems experienced in statics, the force resulting from the
the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always formula F = m ∙ g was always the active force, and mass played an
equal, and directed to contrary parts. active role. In contrast to that, the concept of inertia assigns a passive
role to mass, which, according to the formula F = m ∙ a, is subject to
The basic, symbolic formula to Newton’s 2nd law is written as follows: an external force ’F’.

𝐹 = 𝑚 ∙ 𝑎, Thus, a distinction is made between static force and dynamic force,


and such discriminations must be made, in case free body diagrams
where: have to be drawn.

A static force may turn into a dynamic force, if a body gets out of
F = force balance, looses its position stability or support and becomes subject
m = mass to free fall, for instance, as shown in detail e) of Figure 1. Instability of
a = acceleration. position has been discussed before. In the given case, the same force
formula F = m ∙ g is applicable to both, active force and reactive force,
The unit of force in the SI system is the newton, represented by the and the mass plays an active role, as in the case of statics.
symbol N. This unit requires that kg is used for mass and m/s2 for
acceleration, as the equivalent of the newton is 1 N = 1 kg m/s2. The laws of bodies in motion, or the laws of kinetics and dynamics,
are an alliance of the laws of kinematics and of the laws associated
with mass. The following formulas are applicable to the force formula
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F = m ∙ a, in the case of uniform acceleration ’a’, in accordance with The formula F = m ∙ a, however, cannot be used for rotary systems.
formulas developed in conjunction with the triangle analogy: Multiplication of the mass of a rotating body with angular velocity ’ω’
would not provide a result in newtons. Additionally, a rotating body
∆𝑣 2𝑠 𝑣𝑓2 consists of many particles to which formula v = r is applicable.
𝐹 =𝑚∙ =𝑚 ∙ 2 =𝑚 ∙ .
∆𝑡 𝑡 2𝑠
Therefore, the moment of inertia is used in conjunction with rotary
Similar to the concepts related to mass in statics and kinematics, the systems. It is defined as the sum of all mass particles multiplied by
concept of the mass centre is adopted. Where the line of action of an the square of their distance to the rotary centre. However,
external force runs outside the mass centre of a body - as in the case determining the moment of inertia is beyond the scope of this lesson
of a force acting outside the fixed rotary centre of a rotating body - the and requires a great number of additional formulas.
body is subject to a force couple and, hence, it is subject to circular
motion. A prime example of a device that uses the concept of moment of
inertia is the flywheel. For example, a flywheel in a motor-car or
Detail e) of Figure 1 gives, also, an example of the correctness of this steam-roller tends to prevent any change in speed. The flywheel is
statement. deliberately made heavy and large, with most of the mass arranged at
the rim of the wheel, so that, when it rotates, it stores considerable
energy.

When the vehicle meets an incline or bump, the speed of the vehicle
is maintained near to constant, due to the inertia of the moving
masses, of which the inertia of the flywheel makes up a considerable
part.

Figure 1: Kinds of Position Stability of a Chimney

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2.2.3.2 Impulse and Momentum For instance, if a projectile of mass m1 and velocity v1 is fired at a
stationary box holding cotton wool of mass m2 and velocity v2 = 0,
An impulse changes a body’s momentum in accordance with the conservation of momentum requires that both items travel on at a
following formulas: common velocity, when the projectile gets stuck in the box. As v2 is
zero, the former formula is written as follows:
F ⋅ ∆t = m ⋅ a ⋅ ∆t = m ⋅ ∆v.
𝑚1 ∙ 𝑣1
𝑣1,2 =
These formulas should not include any unknown quantities given by 𝑚1 + 𝑚2
single symbols.
Example: When a body of mass m2 is dropped from a bridge onto
Literally, the formula can be given as follows: if a body is subject to an a lorry of mass m1, which travels at velocity v1, then
impulse, consisting of the product of force and time interval the force again, v2 is zero and the momentum of m2 and v2 is
is applied, the body’s linear momentum is changed by the product of zero. The momentum of the body gathered by free fall
its mass and its velocity change. only depresses the shock absorbers of the lorry and
makes it swing up and down.
When mass is subject to changes, the formula must be varied to The momentum gathered by free fall is not coincident
with the momentum determined by the velocity vector
F ⋅ ∆t = a ⋅ ∆(m ⋅ t) = ∆(m ⋅ v). of the lorry. Therefore, the latter formula is applicable
again.
This formula can be applied to a rocket, where thrust F is constant,
due to continuous fuel feed and constant acceleration of combustion
gases, while the mass of the rocket is changing, due to fuel 2.2.3.3 The Nature of Moment of Inertia
consumption.
The SI unit equivalent for moment of inertia is 1 N m s2 = 1 kg m2. As
The concept of momentum is important to solve quite a number of this unit is beyond comprehension, a little background knowledge
physical and engineering problems involving the law of conservation should be helpful to solve dynamic problems associated with rotation.
of momentum. For example, in the case of direct collision of two
’inelastic’ bodies ’1’ and ’2’, the momentums of the bodies are simply The nature of moment of inertia can be made evident by reference to
added to find the common velocity v1,2 after collision with the aid of the a cylinder, which is free to turn in bearings and is accelerated by a
total momentum. The following formula is applicable: wrapped rope and an attached weight, as shown in Figure 2, detail a).
Beside this functional reference frame, the previously discussed
m1 ⋅ v1 + m2 ⋅ v2 = (m1 + m2) ⋅ v1,2, profile to the momentary tangential velocities is shown.

where the common velocity is found by isolating v1,2.


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Experience tells us that a large and heavy cylinder will be slower


accelerated than a small and light cylinder. Hence, acceleration under
the same force, depends on the cylinder’s mass and dimensions.

The weight of the mass m1 exerts a right turning impulse on the


cylinder, subject to the formula

Fr ⋅ ∆t = m1 ⋅ g ⋅ ∆t.

The hollow cylinder section, ∆mn, shown under detail b), shall be one
part of the complete cylinder which opposes the turning impulse on
the cylinder. Its mean radius, rmn, shall be the reference dimension to
the velocity vector shown by example in the momentary velocity
profile. Therefore, the difference, ∆vn, of some adjacent velocity
vectors to the depicted one should be determined by the same time
interval that rules the impulse duration of the external force Fr.

According to the recently stipulated conditions, the angular


momentum that contributes to opposing the right turning impulse, due
to the mass fraction ∆mn, should amount to

∆Fn ⋅ ∆t = ∆mn ⋅ ∆vn = ∆mn ⋅ rmn ⋅ ∆ω.

By isolating for ∆Fn, we obtain

As it is, the body consists of several fractions ∆mn. Therefore, the


external force Fr is opposed by

FR = Σ∆Fn = α ⋅ Σ∆mn ⋅ rmn.


Figure 2: Figurative References to the Nature of Moment of
Inertia

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However at the lever arm between the turning axis ’X’ and the outside considerable part. The flywheel, particularly, makes machines of the
radius ’R’, the individual forces ∆Fn act at different distances to the reciprocating piston type run more smoothly.
ends. An example is shown in the free body diagram under detail b).
For this reason, we have to rise rmn of the latter formulae to the
square, in order to obtain the torque that opposes the torque of the
external force.
Thus, we obtain 2.2.3.4 Centrifugal and Centripetal Force and
Acceleration
T = Fr ⋅ R = m ⋅ g ⋅ R = α(Σ∆mn ⋅ rmn2) = α ⋅ I, where
Centrifugal and centripetal force and acceleration occur where a
The final expressions shows that mass ’m’ is subject to constant circular motion.

Σ∆mn ⋅ r2mn = I.

Through the previous lessons we know that angular acceleration is


measured in radians per square second. As the radian has no basic
unit of its own, the respective SI unit equivalent is 1/s2. Therefore, the
respective SI unit equivalent for moment of inertia is 1 N m s2 = 1 kg
m2.
The fact that that rmn is raised to the square makes the bottom
enveloping curve of the velocity profile for Fn a parabola and the latter
shows that - where a great moment of inertia of a rotating body is
desired - its mass should be arranged as close to its circumference,
as the design conditions permit.

A prime example of a device that uses a great moment of inertia for


its intended purpose is the flywheel. The flywheel in a motor-car or
steam-roller tends to prevent any change in speed. The flywheel is
deliberately made heavy and large, with most of the mass arranged at
the rim of the wheel, so that, when it rotates, it stores considerable
energy. When the vehicle meets a short incline or bump, the speed of
the vehicle is maintained near to constant, due to the inertia of the
moving masses, of which the inertia of the flywheel takes a

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Detail a) of Figure 3 shows an example taken from athletics. When


the hammer is whirled around, a force toward the turning centre must
be exerted, in order to maintain the hammer on the circular path. All
of us have made similar experiences, mainly by playing.

Figure 3: Centrifugal and Centripetal Force and Acceleration


(Example of Athletics)
The force that pulls at the handle is radially outward directed and is
known as the centrifugal force. The force the thrower exerts, in order
to compensate the centrifugal force, is radially inward directed and is
known as the centripetal force. Exerting the centripetal force, makes
the hammer thrower adopt an inclined position toward the vertical, in
order to compensate the centrifugal force by shifting his mass centre.

Centrifugal and centripetal force are subject to the 1st law of


dynamics, F = m ∙ a, and to the 1st law of statics, ΣF = 0. Therefore,
there exist centrifugal and centripetal accelerations, which are
identical with the action line of the respective forces. This permits us
to draw the vectors, as shown under detail b) of Figure 3, and these
should show equilibrium by drawing equal lengths and opposed
directions.

The LH figure to detail c) shows the displacement sector to the


circular motion of the hammer head, together with the vectors to
constant tangential speed, ’v’. The centroid of the mass ’m’ describes
the arc AB, and the length of this sector is a function of the radius ’r’
and the angular displacement ’φ’.

The RH figures of detail c) show the velocity triangles we obtain by


parallel shifting of the velocity vectors ’v’ and by connecting the arrow
Figure 3: Centrifugal and Centripetal Force and Acceleration heads by an arrow ’∆v’ that stands for the velocity difference.
(Example of Athletics) According to the above given initial conditions, this difference does

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not exist in changing the tangential velocity magnitude, but in Centrifugal and centripetal forces occur wherever a body is
displacing the velocity vectors, the mass ’m’ and the resultant force constrained to move along a curved path. It is not necessary to have
vectors. the involved mass tied to a string, like in the discussed case of the
hammer thrower. Such cases are only significant for circular motion.
Actually, the velocity changes exist in pairs and compensate each However, where the curved path is not exactly circular, there usually
other, as comparison of the upper and the lower velocity triangles for arises the problem to determine the momentary radius and respective
the centripetal and the centrifugal case show. Thus, in terms of vector turning centre.
addition and in case of the upper velocity triangle, the lower vector
must be understood as the resultant of the upper velocity vector and From the spin drier we find in many households, we know that the
the respective velocity change vector ∆vcp. involved masses of wet cloth are subject to centripetal acceleration by
the effect of the drum, while water is admitted to escape through
Due to the geometric similarity of the hatched areas - particularly, in holes in the drum, as it is subject to centrifugal force. Similar devices,
case of extremely small angles φ – we can deduct the following at larger or smaller scale, are used for industrial separation
ratios: processes. This includes separators for fluids of different density,
where circumferentially closed drums are used.
𝐴𝐵 𝑣 ∙ ∆𝑡 ∆𝑣
= =
𝑟 𝑟 𝑣 Particularly in case of gas/gas separators, high speed centrifuges, or
ultracentrifuges are used, and in such devices, the radial acceleration
By isolating for radial acceleration, ar = ∆v/∆t, and by considering that achieved is many thousand times greater than the gravitational
tangential velocity is subject to the formula v = ω ∙ r, we obtain acceleration of the earth. In fact, the rotary motion of the earth is
another reason for the reduced gravity near the equator and the
∆𝑣 𝒗𝟐 increasing gravity toward the poles of the earth.
= 𝒂𝒓 = = 𝜔2 ⋅ 𝑟.
∆𝑡 𝟑
Even in cases of a complete absence of a material limit to the
Applying the formula to the 1st law of dynamics, F = m ∙ a, and spinning mass, the centrifugal force exists. Often the existence is
considering that the radial forces and accelerations, basically, are obvious by an inclination toward the turning centre, as in case of the
translational, although they result from circular motion, we obtain, hammer thrower of Figure 3. Similar inclinations can be observed in
adapted to the case, case of bike drivers, air- road- and rail vehicles, which take a bend
and move parallel to the earths’ surface.
𝑣2
𝑭𝒓 = 𝒎 ∙ 𝒂𝒓 = 𝑚 ∙ = 𝑚 ∙ 𝜔2 ∙ 𝑟.
𝑟

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In other cases, the centrifugal force is completely or partially


compensated by friction between adjacent bodies. For this reason, 2.2.3.3 Work, Energy, Power and Efficiency
bends in roads or railways are built with an inclination toward the
curve centre, in order to have the resultant of the vehicles’ own weight Mechanical work is defined as the product of a force and
and the centrifugal force perpendicular to the track and to reduce displacement in the line of the force’s action. Using mathematical
wear by friction. Naturally, such inclinations can only be prepared for symbols, this purely verbatim formula is translated into
a particular velocity. Therefore, you can still be carried away by
centrifugal force, in case you are driving at excessive speed in an 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘 = 𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑚𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑑 𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒.
inclined road bend.
Using the capital letter symbol ’W’ for work, the following basic
Within a rotating body, centrifugal forces occur, when a bodies’ centre formula is applicable:
of rotation is located outside its mass centre, where the axis of
rotation runs through the mass centre, but deviates by an inclination 𝑊 = 𝐹 ⋅ 𝑑.
from the axis of symmetry, or even in cases where the previously
mentioned details are fulfilled, but the body is not homogeneous. The unit of work is the joule. The symbol of the joule is the capital
Such rotating bodies are attributed as unbalanced. letter ’J’. Respective SI unit equivalents are 1 J = 1 N m = 1 kg m2/s2.

Unbalanced rotating parts of a machine cause its vibration and exert Note: ’W’ is used as a symbol of both work and weight. If there is
an undue load on the part itself and on meshing members. For any risk of confusion write the words and avoid the symbol.
instance, in case the steering wheel of your car starts vibrating, the
front wheels need balancing, and this is done by attaching a The unit of work has identical equivalents of the moment of force.
respective weight to the steel rim of the unbalanced wheel, after the Therefore, the proper units joule, in the case of work and energy and
degree and direction of unbalance is determined with the aid of a newton meter, in the case of moment of force must be used, in order
balancing machine. to discriminate the physically different quantities.

Mechanical work is can also be defined as the transfer of energy that


results when a force is applied to a body, in order to move it against
some resistance. On the other hand, mechanical energy is defined as
the capability of a body to do work.

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Both, mechanical work and mechanical energy thus correspond to is obtained, where:
Newton’s 3rd law. It requires work to store mechanical energy, but
work can be obtained from stored mechanical energy, and the unit of 𝐸𝑝 = 𝑝𝑜𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦.
both, work and energy, is the joule.
Kinetic energy is the type of energy possessed by a moving object.
Energy appears in various forms, e.g., mechanical energy, thermal Work conversion to kinetic energy, therefore, requires the following
(heat) energy, electrical energy, chemical energy, nuclear energy, etc. substitutions:
The type of energy discussed here is the one associated with
motions, the mechanical energy. 𝐹 = 𝑚 ⋅ 𝑎

According to the law of conservation of energy: Energy cannot be and


made or destroyed, but it can be changed from one form into another.
The same holds true for work, as a special, conceptual form of 1 1 𝑣2
energy. 𝑑 = ⋅ 𝑎 ⋅ 𝑡2 = ⋅
2 2 𝑎
The conservation of energy law holds true under all conditions. On in accordance with the kinematics laws.
the other hand, practical considerations and special conditions
prevent the utilization of energy potentials, for instance, the heat These substitutions provide
energy resulting from friction forces is generally not recovered. The
same applies to energy invested for permanent deformation of 1
material. 𝐸𝑘 = ⋅ 𝑚 ⋅ 𝑣 2,
2
The main types of mechanical energy are known under the names
’potential energy’ and ’kinetic energy’. where:

Potential energy is the type of energy which is stored in objects if they 𝐸𝑘 = 𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦.
have been moved into a position from which they can do work when
released. The potential energy gained by the object is equal to the Figure 4 shows three examples of devices operating on conversion of
work done in lifting. Thus, if ’d’ is replaced by ’h’ and ’F’ by ’m ∙ g’ potential and kinetic energy.

𝐸𝑝 = 𝑚 ⋅ 𝑔 ⋅ ℎ

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The ballistic pendulum, detail a), is a device that makes it possible to


measure the velocity of a projectile with simple means. It consists of a
large wooden block of mass ’M’, which is suspended by cords. When
a projectile of mass ’m’ with the velocity vi is fired into the block, the
block swings, rising by a maximum height ’h’.

It only requires to attach a scriber to the block and to place a taut


sheet of paper parallel to the block to determine the vertical
displacement of the block.

In the given case, the kinetic energy of the projectile is intermediately


converted into potential energy, and this causes the pendulum to
swing. However, it should be considered that the potential energy is
applied to both, the mass ’M’ of the wooden block and the mass ’m’ of
the projectile. Thus, the following is applicable:
1
⋅ 𝑚 ⋅ 𝑣𝑖2 = (𝑀 + 𝑚) 𝑔 ⋅ ℎ.
2

Details b) and c) show two well-known examples of machines that


convert potential and kinetic energy in the building and construction
trade. In both cases, the formula

1
𝑚 ⋅ 𝑔 ⋅ ℎ = ⋅ 𝑚 ⋅ 𝑣𝑓2
2
is applicable, where vf is the final velocity of the dropping item.
Regarding the pile driver, only the mass of the drop hammer is lifted
and converted into kinetic energy. The rammer, the mass of the
complete unit is subject to energy conversion.
Figure 4: Devices Operating on Mechanical Energy Conversion
Refer to Figures 5 and 6.

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Figure 7 shows a force-displacement diagram of the recently


discussed towing test. In this type of diagram, work and energy are
represented as areas under the force curves.

Figure 5: Results of a Towing Test of Sliding Friction

Figure 7: Force/Displacement Diagram of the Towing Test

In the towing test, the resistance offered to the motion of the block
was given by friction. In the static friction period no work is performed,
as far as the block is concerned, as the block is not moved.

The pulling person, however, performs work by displacing the mobile


section of the force meter. This happens in the displacement region
from 0 to s1, up to the maximum force Fts. The applied formula is

1
𝑊 = 𝐹 ⋅ 𝑑1 .
2 𝑡𝑠

Figure 6: Force Parallelograms of the Towing Test where ’d1’ is understood to be the displacement of the pointer.
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Using the capital letter ’P’ for power, the following basic formulas are
The use of the factor 0.5 in the formula is evident by analogy to the applicable:
triangle. It results from the fact that the pulling force of a helical
spring-type meter is proportional to the displacement, while force 𝑊 𝐸
𝑃 = = .
indication rises from zero to maximum. 𝑡 𝑡
As long as the block is not moved, the work expended by the pulling
person is stored in the spring of the meter. This would become The unit of power is the watt. The symbol of the watt is the capital
evident by the pointer returning to zero on slow release of the meter. letter ’W’. Respective SI unit equivalents are 1 W = 1 J/s = 1 N m/s =
1 kg m2/s3.
From point d1 onward, the block starts moving. Between the points d1
and d2, the pull on the block drops from Fts to Ftd, by partial relief of As the formula for work is W = F ∙ d, power can be defined as
the spring tension. The difference between Fts and Ftd serves to
accelerate the block, while the towing force Ftd is required to 𝑑
𝑃 = 𝐹 ⋅ ,
𝑡
counteract the friction force Ffd, in order to maintain motion.
where displacement ’d’ over time ’t’ is identical with velocity ’v’ and,
As friction is independent of velocity, the work expended to overcome
therefore
dynamic friction should be determined by the hatched rectangle of Ftd
height in the range of d1 to d3. Hence, the triangle above this
𝑃 = 𝐹 ⋅ 𝑣
rectangle should represent that part of the meter’s spring energy that
was consumed to impart kinetic energy to the block.
is applicable, where force and velocity have the same line of action.
Under the same line of action condition, the formula
Pulling at the force meter is stopped at point d3. The block and the
mobile part of the force meter continue moving a bit in decelerated
𝑃 = 𝐹 ⋅ 𝑟 ⋅ 𝜔
motion. In the deceleration region between d3 and d4, the residual
spring energy and the kinetic energy of the block are consumed by
is applicable to rotary systems, where force and velocity are related to
the dynamic friction energy.
the radial distance of the rotary axis.
Mechanical power is defined as work rate, or as work done, or energy
Refer to Figure 8.
expended in response to time taken. Using mathematical symbols,
this purely verbatim formula is translated into

𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑑𝑜𝑛𝑒 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑑


𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 = 𝑜𝑟 .
𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑡𝑎𝑘𝑒𝑛 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑡𝑎𝑘𝑒𝑛

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𝑚 ⋅ 𝑔 ⋅ 𝑙 = 𝐹𝑓 ⋅ 𝑟 .

According to the latter formula, friction force amounts to

𝑚 ⋅𝑔 ⋅𝑙
𝐹𝑓 = .
𝑟

Replacement of friction force ’Ff’ by F= P/(r∙ω), in accordance with the


recently developed formula for the rotary system, provides the
formula that makes it possible to determine the power with the aid of
the applied weights and the measured speed:
Figure 8: Details of the Determination of Force Moments at a
Prony Brake
𝑃 = 𝑚 ⋅ 𝑔 ⋅ 𝑙 ⋅ 𝜔.
A Prony brake is one type among dynamometers used for
determining the output power of engines and motors. It has two Prony brakes were widely used in former times, but the difficulties of
friction blocks clamped loosely to a pulley on the shaft of the engine maintaining exactly balanced adjustment and of dissipating the friction
or motor to be tested. A beam is fastened at one end of the brake heat led to the development of better types of dynamometers.
assembly, while the other end is equipped with a force measuring Nowadays, the Prony brake is mainly used for instruction purposes.
device. Its place is taken over by electric, fluid-friction and torsion-type
dynamometers.
The force measuring device consists of a platform provided for
standard weights. Screws make it possible to clamp the friction blocks The efficiency can be related to many aspects. However in
down, in order to vary the friction force which is effective at the pulley mechanics, efficiency is related to the performance of machines, and
circumference. is, basically, defined as the ratio of useful work produced to the
energy expended in producing it. Using mathematical symbols, this
Note: Force moments are only balanced when the beam does not verbatim formula can be translated into
touch the retainers.
𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑔𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑
𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 = .
Under this condition, the right turning force moment results from the 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑖𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑑
product of the weights ’W’ and beam arm length ’l’, while the left
turning force moment is the product of friction force Ff and pulley Using the low case Greek letter ’ɳ’ (Eta) for efficiency and the indices
radius ’r’. Thus, the equilibrium of force moments is subject to the ’g’ for gained and ’i’ for invested, the following basic formula is
formula: applicable:
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If all energy losses are added, the following formula is applicable:


𝑊𝑔
𝜂= 𝑊𝑔 𝑃𝑔
𝐸𝑖 𝜂= =
𝑊𝑔 + 𝑊𝐼 𝑃𝑔 + 𝑃𝐼
As ratio of equal unit magnitudes, efficiency has no specific unit of its
own. However, the ratio is often given as percentage value. Then the where the index ’l’ stands for loss of energy and power, respectively.
conversion factor 1 = 10-2/100 % is used.
It should be noted that lost energy cannot generally be regarded as
As power is defined as the rate of work/energy, the following formula not useful. Useful, in this sense, means that the energy does not
is applicable, if measured in the same time intervals: serve the intended purpose of the machine. For instance, the energy
lost in the bumpers of a car is not useful in taking persons from point
𝑃𝑔 A to point B.
𝜂=
𝑃𝑖
However, the same energy is useful in that it serves the comfort of car
The power gained can be measured by a dynamometer, like the driver and passengers. Similar reasons for usefulness can be
Prony brake, for instance. In an electric motor, the energy invested specified for energy expended for lubrication and cooling, where the
can be measured with the aid of a power meter. usefulness, more or less, arises from necessities dictated by technical
side conditions.
Since efficiency determination offers so many aspects, especially
when fuel is invested, the rules of efficiency determination had to be
standardized. Therefore, efficiency specifications must be based on
the same national standards, in order to enable objective comparison.

Friction has been introduced as a source that reduces the efficiency,


and friction is mainly responsible for the reduced efficiency of simple
machines like the wedge, the pulley and other simple machines
based on the same principle of operation.

Further sources of efficiency reduction, in more sophisticated


machines, are the energy required for lubrication, cooling and the
energy lost through vibration of machine parts, or of the complete
machine.

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2.2.3.6 Gyroscopic Principles

Functional Principle

Refer to Figure 9.

The gyroscope is one of the most important devices used in aircraft


instrumentation. A gyroscope is defined as a spinning mass (a heavy
metal wheel or rotor) mounted in such a way that the spin axis is free
to rotate around one or 2 axes at right angles to the spin axis. This
means that the gyroscope may have up to 3 axes of freedom
(including the spin axis).

Due to the mass inertia of the fast rotating wheel the direction of the
spin axis always remains unchanged (stabilised) in space, even if the
suspension is turned or moved.

Figure 9: Details of the Determination of Force Moments at a


Prony Brake

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Mechanics Cat B1 – Module 2

This important property is used for measuring and indicating several


flight characteristics, e.g. turning, banking, climbing and descending. Parts of a Gyroscope

A gyroscope, as used in aircraft instruments, is a mechanical system A gyroscope usually contains 3 movable parts:
containing a rotor inside a frame construction. The rotor is free to spin
around the X-axis on bearings in the inner frame (or: ring). The inner  rotor
ring is free to turn around the Y-axis on pivots in the outer ring. The  inner gimbal
outer ring is free to turn around the Z-axis on pivots in the support.  outer gimbal.
Such a construction is known as ’gimbal rings’.
Rotor
When the gyroscope is in its normal position all the axes are at right
angles to each other and intersect at the center of gravity of the rotor.
The rotor is a perfectly balanced rotating mass. lt is mounted on anti--
friction bearings within a ring or frame known as ’gimbal’. The rotor
axis is called ’spin axis (X-axis)’.

Inner Gimbal

The inner gimbal which supports the rotor is pivoted in a supporting


frame. The rotor is therefore free to turn relative to the frame which is
at right angles to the spin axis. A gyroscope having only an inner
gimbal is said to have ’one degree of freedom’.

Outer Gimbal

Between the inner gimbal and the supporting frame a second gimbal
may be mounted which is known as the ’outer gimbal’. The type of
gyroscope containing both an inner and an outer gimbal is said to
have ’2 degrees of freedom’.

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Rigidity is the property of a rotating mass to maintain its plane of spin.


Properties of a Gyroscope This means that the spin axis tends to remain in a fixed direction in
space as long as the rotational speed is high enough. This effect is
The fundamental characteristics of any gyroscope are caused by the inertia of the mass.

 rigidity and Precession is the effect which occurs when the spin axis of a rotating
 precession. body changes its direction due to the application of an external force.
The following 3 types of precession can be distinguished, depending
on the type of force applied:

 apparent precession:
this is the tilt due to the earth’s rotation and curvature

 random precession:
this is precession created by pivot and bearing friction and
out-of-balance assemblies

 actual precession:
this is caused by the application of an external force, e.g.
when the support of the system (i.e. the aircraft) is turned or
moved.

The direction of the precession can be determined, provided the


direction of rotation of the rotor and the direction of the applied
external force are both known. The change in direction does not take
place in line with the applied force, but always at an angle of 90° in
the direction of rotation.

It is of major importance that the gyro’s speed of rotation is kept


constant, since precession of the rotor is directly proportional to its
speed.
Figure 10: Precession

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2.2.4 Fluid Dynamics

2.2.4.1 Density and Relative Density (Specific Gravity)

As discussed in conjunction with solid matter, density describes how


much matter is contained in a certain volume and is related to the
mass of substances in accordance with the formula
𝑚
𝜌 = 𝑉,

where:

ρ = density
V = volume.

Technicians rarely have to determine the density of pure substances.


Such data have already been available from tables included in
scientific and engineering handbooks. The table shown in Figure 1
may be an excerpt.

If the density of smaller substance samples has to be determined, this


will be done by weighing and determining the volume with the aid of a
measuring cylinder. Sometimes the density is determined by
measuring and calculation, in order to identify the type of a material
with the aid of the material density tables.

A measuring cylinder or other calibrated vessel makes it possible to


measure the volume of irregularly shaped solid samples by indicating
their displacement in liquids through the rise of the level. If the solid
floats in the liquid, it can be weighed with a lump of metal. Thus, the
total volume is found. The volume of the metal is measured in a Figure 1: Densities of Some Common Substances
separate experiment and then subtracted from this total.

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The density of gases can be found by measuring the mass before and  water with a temperature value of 4°C, where it reaches its
after sample evacuation of a volumetrically calibrated vessel. highest density (above and below 4°C, water expands)

When the density is either determined by tables or by experiments  ice (of water) having its highest temperature value at 0°C
performed, two details concerning volume variations have to be kept under normal ambient conditions
in mind:
 air, where reference is made to the pressure at sea level.
 Densities of solids and liquids vary slightly with temperature
and pressure. In most cases, For gases, like air, the densities are normally given as NTP values, or
− the volume of solids and liquids get a little bigger when ’normal temperature and pressure values’, which is a standardized
they are heated reference. Beside the standard atmospheric pressure reference, NTP
− the volume decreases with increasing pressure. values include the reference to 0 °C. Working with such values is a
subject of thermodynamics.
 In contrast to solids and liquids, the densities of gases can
vary enormously, depending on temperature and pressure. The relative density or specific gravity of a substance describes by
how many times the substance is denser than water. That means:
The density data given in tables are normally based on room
temperature and ambient, atmospheric pressure. Thus, all data given 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑎 𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒
without any special remark in such table should be based on a 𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 =
𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟
temperature value of 20°C.
Example: When the density of lead is considered to be 11,300
Special remarks are given for kg/m3 and the density of water 1,000 kg/m3, then the relative density
of lead is calculated as follows:
 glass, brick, stone, a class of substance known as ’earthen
material’ 11,300 𝑘𝑔/𝑚3
= 11.3
1,000 𝑘𝑔/𝑚3
 the density of the earth (planet), as a mixture of different
materials, where the higher density value of earthen material The relative density of lead is 11.3. The equation above proves that
partially results from the increasing pressure toward the the relative density has no units. The relative density is known as
earth’s centre (additionally, the material below the earth’s ’specific gravity’.
crust is extremely hot and the earth’s centre is assumed to
consist of molten metals)

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2.2.4.2 Pressure

Pressure has also been discussed in conjunction with solid matter,


where the following formula was found:

𝐴
𝑝 = ,
𝐹

where:

p = pressure
Figure 2: A Liquid Finds Its Own Level
A = area.

The same formula is applicable to fluid systems, if it is understood


that fluids are a medium to transfer pressure, as is the case in
hydraulic and pneumatic systems.

However, pressure exerted by liquids shows some important qualities:

 When a liquid is poured into a set of connected, open tubes of


various shapes the liquid flows in the tubes until all the liquid is
at the same level, as shown in Figure 2. It can be said, a liquid
finds its own level.

 The pressure in a liquid acts equally in all directions, as shown


in Figure 3.

 The pressure in a liquid increases with the depth below the


surface, as, also, shown in Figure 3. Figure 3: Pressure in Liquids Acts in All Directions

A formula to the third statement can be developed based on the


formula p = F/A. If a liquid column of mass m is considered, then the
force that this column exerts is 𝐹 = 𝑚 ∙ 𝑔. The mass formula is
𝑚 = 𝜚 ∙ 𝐴 ∙ ℎ.
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By respective replacements in the basic formula

𝜚 ∙𝐴 ∙ℎ ∙𝑔
𝑝=
𝐴

is obtained, where, by cancelling of ’A’,

𝑝 = 𝜚 ⋅ 𝑔 ⋅ ℎ,

is obtained, where the height ’h’ is known as the static head of the
liquid. The above formula shows that a level difference, or ’head’ is
responsible for equal levels in a system of connected tubes. This
difference causes a pressure and makes the fluid flow, until equal
level conditions are obtained, as shown in Figure 2.

2.2.4.3 Archimedes’ Principle of Floating

More than 2,000 years ago, the Greek Archimedes was the first
person who defined the buoyant force acting on an object placed in a
fluid in a scientific way:

The buoyant force of an object immersed in a fluid is equal to


the weight of the fluid displaced by the object and acts in the
opposite direction.

Detail a) in Figure 4 gives the pressure profile of a prism immersed in


a fluid. The profile can be drawn in accordance with the rules that
pressure in a liquid is equal in all directions, acts normally to a plane
and is subject to the the formula

𝑝 = 𝜌 ∙ 𝑔 ∙ ℎ.
Figure 4: Details to the Buoyant Force of an Object Immersed in
a Fluid

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The pressures on the sides of the object balance each other, as they So far only the buoyant force of a body had been considered.
result from equal immersion depths at equal levels. Additionally, the However, experience has shown that a body may float on a fluid
lateral forces resulting from the side pressures do not contribute to surface, may sink to the ground or may float within a fluid, neither
the buoyant force, which has a vertical line of action. Accordingly, the sinking, nor rising to the level. That is, to determine these equilibrium
lateral forces are omitted in the free body diagram given in detail b). conditions of a body in a static fluid, a body’s own weight has to be
considered as a counteractive force to the buoyant force Fb:
On the other hand, the pressures between the top surface and the
bottom surface, p1 and p2, are different and coincident with the line of 𝑊 = 𝑚𝑠𝑜 ⋅ 𝑔 = 𝑉𝑠𝑜 ⋅ 𝑝𝑠𝑜 ⋅ 𝑔
action. Therefore, only the respective forces are considered in the
free body diagram given in detail b). The indices ’so’ are introduced to mark the respective data of the
solid body. By comparison of weight, buoyant force and respective
The diagram shows that the resultant buoyant force ’Fb’ can be formulas, the following conclusions can be drawn:
determined by simple arithmetical addition, in accordance with the
formula  A body will sink to the bottom of a fluid, if it weighs more than
the fluid it is capable of displacing. A prerequisite for sinking of
𝐹𝑏 = 𝐹2 − 𝐹1 = (𝑝2 − 𝑝1 ) 𝐴. homogeneous, solid bodies is that the solid density is greater
than the liquid density, or
As the pressures are a function of formula 𝑝 = 𝜌 ∙ 𝑔 ∙ ℎ, the
following holds true: 𝑝𝑠𝑜 > 𝑝𝑓𝑙 .

𝐹𝑏 = 𝜚 ∙ 𝑔 ∙ (ℎ2 − ℎ1 ) ∙ 𝐴, Equilibrium of the respective static forces is subject to the


formula
where the product of height difference and area can be identified as
the volume of the prism. Therefore, it results 𝑊 = 𝐹𝑁 + 𝐹𝑏 ,

𝐹𝐵 = 𝑝𝑓𝑙 ⋅ 𝑔 ⋅ 𝑉𝑓𝑙 where 𝐹𝑁 stands for the normal reactive, or supporting force
exerted by the ground to the body.
which is the symbolic formula of the verbatim formula of Archimedes’
law given in the initial passage of the current chapter.  A body will float on the surface of a fluid, if it weighs less than
the fluid it is capable of displacing. Prerequisite for floating on
The indices ’fl’ are introduced to mark respective fluid data. Although the fluid surface is that the solid density is smaller than the
this formula had been developed by the example of a prism, it is also liquid density, or
applicable to irregularly shaped bodies.
𝜚𝑠𝑜 < 𝜚𝑓𝑙 .
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Equilibrium of the respective static forces is subject to the is applicable. Accordingly, the floating fluid will expand on the bearing
formula fluid, as far as it is permitted by the free surface of the bearing fluid.

𝑊 = 𝐹𝑏 . Archimedes’ principle, also, holds true for cases where large amounts
of fluid displacement is achieved by solids in particular shape and
A body floating on the surface of a fluid displaces a volume design. A prime example of floating achieved through the shape of a
ratio of its total volume, to the extent, that the weight of the body are ships made of steel.
displaced fluid equals the weight of the body.
They are designed to displace a large water volume by the shape of
 A body will be neutrally suspended, or float within a fluid, their hull and, irrespective of being mostly made of steel, the ship’s
subject to sinking or rising by exertion of a minimum thrust, if body includes plenty ’empty’ space and, therefore, they are carried by
its weight is the same as that of the fluid it is capable of water, due to the basic fact that the weight equals the buoyant force,
displacing. Prerequisite for neutral suspension is that solid and although the density of steel is approximately eight times the density
liquid density are equal, or of water.

𝜚𝑠𝑜 = 𝜚𝑓𝑙 . A balloon filled with hot (expanded) air or gas of low density
(hydrogen or helium) will rise in the atmosphere for the same reason.
Equilibrium of the respective static forces is, also, subject to The weight of the balloon filled with a low--density gas is less than the
the formula buoyant force on it caused by the displaced denser air.

𝑊 = 𝐹𝑏 .

Refer to Figure 1 again.

According to the recently discussed rules, all solid bodies made of


homogeneous material with lower density than water float on water,
while bodies made of material with higher density than water sink to
the ground.

Thinking about particular data of the table in Figure 1, the conclusion


can be drawn that the rules can be expanded to immiscible fluids,
instead of solid bodies. Thus, petrol and paraffin oil float on water.
However, in this particular case the rule that fluids find their own level

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2.2.4.4 Nature of Fluids 2.2.4.5 Viscosity

Basic Definitions The terms used for the resistance of a fluid to be deformed or to
change its shape are consistency or viscosity, where viscosity is the
A fluid is a substance that can flow. Hence, the term fluid includes technical term, because means have been found to assign exact units
liquids and gases. In contrast to solid bodies, which have a definite and values to various grades of viscosity.
volume and shape, fluids change their shape readily.
Experience tells us, that there exist countless viscosity degrees.
With respect to engineering, the essential difference between solids Thus, the liquids, water, engine oil, honey and coal-tar are listed in
and fluids lies in their different resistance to stress. Solids, at different the order of rising viscosity. If an equal amount of each of these
degrees, are capable of resisting tensile stress, compressive stress liquids would be poured on different places of an even, impermeable
and shear stress. In contrast to that, fluids can not resist shear stress surface they would show different fluidity, in that they cover a different
and tensile stress at a degree which enables their use as structural area within the same time. Thus, a high viscous or highly consistent
members; the fluid layers simply slide over one another, when fluid shows little fluidity, while the low viscous or little consistent fluid
subjected to shear stress. It is the inability to resist sufficient shear shows high fluidity.
stress which gives the fluids the characteristic ability to change their
shape and to flow.
Substance Dynamic Viscosity Dynamic Fluidity
Compressibility 𝜂20 [P] 1/𝜂20 [1/P]

The essential difference between liquids and gases lies in a


distinctive difference of compressibility. Due to the wide space Air 1.81 ∙ 10−3 552
between the molecules, gases can be compressed in an enclosure to
a fraction of their former volume, even down to liquefaction. In
contrast to gases, liquids are nearly incompressible and, in this Water 10−2 100
respect, the liquids resemble the solids.

For normal engineering purposes, compressibility of liquids and Alcohol (Ethanol) 1,2 ∙ 10−2 83
associated increase of density are neglected.

Lubricating Oil, thick 3.5 𝑡𝑜 30 0.29 𝑡𝑜 0.03

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If the viscosity of a fluid is a linear function of the gradient of shear


stress over the velocity gradient, the fluid is called a Newtonian fluid. 2.2.4.6 One-Dimensional Flow

An ideal or perfect liquid is a hypothetical liquid which is


incompressible and offers no resistance to shear and, therefore, has
zero viscosity and infinitive fluidity.

The essential difference between engineering fluid mechanics and


physics at public school level lies in the fact that, in the public school,
fluid mechanics has been taught under neglection of viscosity. The
respective laws of physics are applicable for solving engineering
problems in conjunction with static fluids. However, in many fluid flow
problems, highly incorrect results are obtained if viscosity is
neglected.

Figure 5: Tube of Flow

A tube of flow can be imagined as the flowing contents of a pipe


section. In case of a perfect fluid, the flux in this pipe section is
laminar under all conditions of flow speed v, due to the absence of
shear stress. The flux of a perfect fluid is given the name non-viscous
flow. The result of non-viscous flow is laminar flow or streamline flow.

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A streamline is defined as a line which is coincident with the path of a


certain fluid particle within a stream. Laminar flow is defined as the where A stands for the size of the control surface area, v stands for
flow in which the streamlines remain distinct from one another over the fluid velocity, ρ for the fluid density.
their entire length.
From the mass flow continuity equation, the formula for volumetric
With respect to streamlines and flux strings of the elementary cross flow rate V can be derived by cancelling the symbols for the density:
sections dA surrounding the streamlines, a tube of flow can be
considered as a bundle of flux strings. Thus, the tube of flow may be V= A1 ⋅ v1 = A2 ⋅ v2 = constant
part of a larger stream and independent of a hull, like a pipe.
This formula is preferred in cases of constant density, i.e., in cases of
In the given case, the tube of flow is limited by the control surfaces A1 flowing liquids or incompressible fluids.
and A2, each of them holding the same number of flux strings. Fluid
flow is analyzed as it passes through the control surfaces under This formula is preferred in cases of constant density, i.e., in cases of
steady flow conditions, i.e., the properties of the fluid are considered flowing liquids or incompressible fluids.
as it enters the control surface A1 and as it leaves the control surface
A2. The energy equation states that the energy entering the control
surface 1 must equal the energy leaving the control surface 2. Three
Steady flow conditions require that the fluid velocity v, at any given forms of mechanical energy are considered,
point, is constant. That is, at a given point, the velocity of each
passing fluid particle is always the same in a steady flow. 𝑚∙𝑝
 the pressure energy, 𝐸𝑝 =
𝜌
One-dimensional flow requires that the control surfaces are erected
perpendicular to the respective velocity vectors v1 and v2. 𝑚 ∙ 𝑣2
 the kinetic energy, 𝐸𝑘 =
2
Under the above stipulated conditions, two basic types of equations
are obtained, the flow continuity equations and the energy equations,  the potential energie 𝐸ℎ = 𝑚 ∙ 𝑔 ∙ ℎ
as follows:
The rules of conversion of energy and mass require that
With respect to conversion of mass, the mass flow continuity equation
states that the rate of mass flow m entering the control surface 1 must Ep1 + Ek1 + Eh1 = Ep2 + Ek2 + Eh2 = constant
equal the mass flow rate leaving the control surface 2:

m = A1 ∙v1 ∙ρ1 = A2 ∙ v2 ∙ ρ2 = constant

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2.2.4.7 Flow Measurement


With respect to mass flow passing any control surface in the flow tube
range, the following power equation is applicable:

The latter equation provides power results in Watts ’W’.

If in the latter equation m is replaced by the mass m, the results of the


equation are given in energy units Joules ’J’, Newton meters ’Nm’ or
Watt seconds ’Ws’.

A formula that provides energy per unit volume in J/m3 or pressure


energy in N/m2 is obtained by dividing all summands of the power
formula through mass flow rate m over density ρ. This provides the
Bernoulli equation in the original form:

𝑣2 ∙ 𝜌
𝑝+ + ℎ ∙ 𝜌 ∙ 𝑔 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
2

For engineering purposes, the Bernoulli equation is used in the


majority of cases to provide energy per unit weight or energy as head
in meters. This equation is obtained by dividing the individual
summands of the power equation through the mass flow rate and the
gravitational constant:

𝑝 𝑣2
+ + ℎ = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
𝜌 ∙ 𝑔 2𝑔
In this form of the Bernoulli equation, the first summand is named the
pressure head, the second summand is named the velocity head and
the third summand the head of location or of level. The sum of
pressure head and head of location is the static head.
Figure 6: Liquid Column Type Flowmeters
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Mechanics Cat B1 – Module 2

Pitot tubes, detail a) of Figure 6, serve to measure local or point In contrast to the Pitot tubes, a Venturi tube, detail b) of Figure 6,
velocities within a stream. They operate on the principle of converting serves for measuring the medium velocity.
impact pressure or dynamic pressure pdyn into static pressure at the
immersed opening of the Pitot tube. This pressure increase is The Venturi tube increases fluid velocity within a downstream
indicated as liquid column height ’h’. constriction and, therefore, converts the ratios of dynamic energy and
pressure energy within two control sections of a pipe. The pressure
In the simplest case, a Pitot tube consists of an L-shaped glass tube difference before and after conversion is indicated as liquid column
with engraved scale. Such a device can be used to measure the flow height ’h’.
velocity in an open liquid stream, as shown by the figure on the LH
side of Figure 6, detail a). With aid of the Prandtl tube or Pitot static tube shown in the
arrangement of detail c) of Figure 6, dynamic pressure pdyn, static
In each case of known fluid velocity and size of the respective control pressure pstat and total pressure ptot can be measured as local values.
surface, the flow can be calculated with aid of the continuity Under total pressure, the sum of dynamic pressure and static
equations. However, in case the velocity is determined with aid of a pressure must be understood.
Pitot tube, it may be necessary to measure at several spots of the
stream, to determine the medium velocity from a velocity profile of the Basically, the Prandtl tube consist of two concentric arranged tubes.
flow section, as the Pitot tube repeats point pressure. The inner tube is a normal Pitot tube with pick-up opening. The outer
tube is streamline tapered towards this pick-up opening and welded
To measure wind velocity, the L-shaped glass tube is extended by a or brazed to the inner tube. The outer tube is provided with four to
U-tube with measuring liquid charge of the density ρM, as shown on eight small, circumferential arranged bores as pick-up for the static
the RH side of detail a). The U-tube serves for indicating the height of pressure. The static pressure is transmitted via the compartment
the liquid column resulting from the air stream impact on the hydraulic between the outer tube and the inner tube to the respective U-tubes.
lock.
As mentioned before, liquid column instruments are the most precise
The air density ρ changes under ambient pressure and dampness and reliable instruments, if properly used and designed. In case a U-
conditions. tube with connection to the atmosphere is employed, they can be
used only in low pressure systems (to reduce instrument size) and in
A special version of the Pitot tube is the reversed Pitot tube, also systems that are not subject to erratic pressure changes (to prevent
known as a Pitotmeter. This version is used with one pressure sudden acceleration of the fluid and consequential spilling of it)
opening facing upstream and the other one facing downstream. This
arrangement indicates a liquid column height of approximately 1.4
times the height shown by a standard Pitot tube and, therefore,
permits measuring low flow velocities with greater accuracy, by a
better resolution.

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Mechanics Cat B1 – Module 2

The U-tube shown in the Venturi measuring arrangement may be


designed to sustain high static pressure. However, this arrangement
would be equally liable to depletion of measuring fluid, in case the
distance between the pipe and the measuring liquid is not sufficient.
By employing Bourdon tube instruments, the range of application of
the recently discussed meters can be expanded.

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Thermodynamics Cat B1 – Module 2

2.3 Thermodynamics Heat as Energy and Work

Energy is the capacity to do work, and thus energy and work are
2.3.1 Heat and Physical States of Matter interrelated.

2.3.1.1 Laws of Thermodynamics


Energy exists, and can be transformed into five different forms:
The science of thermodynamics is concerned with energy in the form
of heat and work, and the conversion of one form into the other. It is  light energy
based on two laws of nature, the first and the second law of  electric energy
thermodynamics.
 chemical energy
By logical reasoning and skilful manipulation of these laws, it is  heat energy
possible to correlate many of the properties of materials and to gain  mechanical energy.
insight into the many chemical and physical changes that materials
have to undergo. In thermodynamics, heat is the energy necessary to perform work.
Heat is energy transferred between a system and its surroundings
The First Law due to temperature difference.

The first law of thermodynamics is the principle of conservation of Normally, work is defined as the application of a force through a
energy and energy transfer in terms of heat and work and says: distance. In thermodynamics, work is defined as all other forms of
energy transferred between a system and its surroundings.
Energy can be neither created nor destroyed. Thermodynamic work can assume many forms, as for example
magnetic work, electrical work, mechanical work, etc.
The form in which energy exists can only be changed, as for example
heat can be transformed into mechanical energy and vice versa.

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To utilise the practical benefits of the knowledge that energy cannot The Second Law
be created and cannot be destroyed, there must be an accounting
system for energy, which is also called the ’energy balance’. This While the first law does not take into account energy limits during a
system handles the flows of energy such as heat and work and other conversion, the second law is concerned with these limits to the
various forms of energy. conversion of heat into work, as for example in internal combustion
engines.
A system is any portion of space or matter set aside for study and can
be open or closed. In any open system a matter can either leave or When heat is converted into mechanical work, not all the heat
enter the system or do both, while in a closed system no matter removed from a heated reservoir is converted into work. The output is
leaves or enters. always lower than the input.

’Matter’ is the substance that makes up the universe. Physicists and This is illustrated by Lord Kelvin’s statement who said: ’It is
chemists have identified and agreed upon slightly more than 100 impossible to perform a process whose sole result is the conversion
distinct varieties of matter. These distinct forms of matter are called of heat into an equivalent amount of work.’
’elements’. Approx. 90 of these elements exist naturally.
All others are produced artificially in laboratories. An element is a The conclusion of this fact is the second law of thermodynamics
substance that cannot be decomposed into any simpler substances which says:
by chemical process. Substances, whether living or non-living, are
composed of elements in various proportions and combinations. Heat cannot be completely converted into another form of
energy.
For example, water is the fundamental nature of elements. It is a
combination of two elements, namely oxygen and hydrogen. Water This leads to another thermodynamic property called ’entropy’.
can be reduced chemically to these two component elements, but no
chemical process can further reduce the elements. Entropy is a measure of the thermal energy in a system which is not
available for the conversion into work and therefore not able to
perform work. Because energy cannot be considered to be lost, the
entropy explains the where-abouts of this energy.

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which have adopted the ISO norm (International Standardization


Organization).
2.3.1.2 Nature of Heat and Temperature
Note: In the following only Celsius and kelvin will be considered.
As already explained, heat is a form of energy and can be converted
into mechanical energy, in the same way as mechanical energy can The Celsius temperature scale deals with the water freezing point
be converted into heat. (0°C) and the boiling point (100°C) at the ambient pressure of
1,013.25 hPa (atmospheric pressure).
Heat is a form of energy. This energy is transferred between a system
and the surroundings. The kelvin temperature scale has also an origin with zero temperature
but starts at a point known as the ’absolute zero’ point. Kelvin
Temperature is an aid to measure the intensity of heat. discovered that at this point the motions of all elementary particles
had stopped and are at standstill. The particles, called molecules, no
Note: Temperature is the initial state of a body. It can be sensed, longer have kinetic energy and cannot produce heat anymore. The
and is measured in degrees Celsius (˚C) or Fahrenheit (˚F) or in particles are so densely packed, that they have no freedom to move.
kelvin (K). Heat actually is a measure of the quantity of heat in a The matter is solid.
body. It depends on the mass of the body, its material and its
temperature. Heat is measured in joules (J). Absolute Zero

It is common to use the terms ’temperature’ and ’heat’


interchangeably. However, they have quite different meanings in
engineering, and must therefore be clearly differentiated. For
example, there is 6 times as much heat in 6 l of water at 80°C as in 1 l
of water at the same temperature.

Temperature Measurements

Temperatures are measured with the help of temperature scales.


Temperature scales can vary depending on the measuring units.

The most common scales have the units measured in degrees Figure 1: Absolute Zero Point Diagram
Celsius or in degrees Fahrenheit. In physics, temperature is
measured in kelvin. Kelvin is also the temperature unit in all countries

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Thermodynamics Cat B1 – Module 2

The result of experiments carried out with different masses and gases
at different pressures were plotted on a volume/temperature graph. Heat
On studying the results it was found that all the straight lines
produced, if extended to the temperature line, cut the axis at the Heat as energy, as well as mechanical energy, is expressed with the
same point. SI unit of energy and specific heat capacity: joule (J).

The point zero, at which all these lines cut the axis, is the absolute The unit ’joule’ has replaced the former unit ’calorie’.
zero point or 0 kelvin (K), also expressed as ’absolute temperature’.
The unit of absolute temperature is kelvin. Compared to the Celsius Note: 1 joule≈ 0.24 calories, or 1 calorie is 4.1868 joules≈ 4.2 joules
scale, absolute zero equals -273.15 °C on the Celsius scale. (J).
Therefore 0 °C = 273 K and 100 °C = 373 K. The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of
material by 1 K is called the ’specific heat capacity’ (cm) of a material.
Note: 1 kelvin is equivalent to 1 degree Celsius.
Example: To convert 1 kg of ice at 0 °C into 1kg of water at 0 °C,
When temperature is stated in kelvin, as for example in a diagram, 336 kJ of heat must be supplied.
symbol T is used. Temperature measured in degrees is represented
by the symbol 𝜗. In technical literature, thermal energy may also be given in other
units. The following equivalent formulas can be used:
Zero (0) kelvin is -273.15 °C which is regarded as absolute zero
temperature. All materials are in the solid state and the movements of 1 𝐵𝑇𝑈 = 778.21 𝑓𝑡 𝑙𝑏𝑓 = 0.252 𝑘𝑐𝑎𝑙 = 1.05506 𝑘𝐽,
all atoms are at standstill.
where:
Zero (0) °C corresponds to the melting point of ice, 100 °C to the
boiling point of water at normal ambient air pressure of 1,013.25 hPa. BTU = British thermal unit
ft lbf = foot per pound force
kcal = kilocalorie
kJ = kilojoule.

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Modern physics interprets temperature and heat levels as kinetic


Thermal Expansion energy levels of elementary particles. The table in Figure 2 gives the
general tendencies associated with the solid, liquid and gaseous
states of matter.

This volumetric expansion is comparatively small in solids, but greater


in liquids and very much greater in gases. If temperature drops, the
bodies contract at the same ratio.

Solids

In solids, volumetric expansion is measured in one direction only, as


linear expansion per 1 kelvin temperature increase, and specified as
the mean coefficient of linear expansion.

Example: For every 1 K of temperature increase, steel expands


12
by approx. of its length.
1,000,000

24
Aluminium expands per 1 K temperature increase by approx.
1,000,000
of its length.

Thermal expansion or contraction occurs when heat is added or


removed from material, respectively. Dimensional changes due to
heat transfer must be taken into account in engineering. Steam pipes
must be provided with expansion joints.

Tanks must be provided with breathing, expansion and/or other safety


devices. When laying rails and building bridges, a certain amount of
free space is left at joints, and one bearing is designed to rest on
rollers or slides, so that dimensional changes will not cause undue
strains.
Figure 2: Nature of Heat, Microscopic View

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The following formula is applicable to the change of length, ∆𝐼12: The coefficient of linear expansion is the increase in unit length per
degree temperature rise.
∆𝐼12 = 𝛼𝑚12 ∙ 𝐼1 ∙ ∆𝜗21,
The coefficient of area expansion 𝛽 (2-dimensional) is the increase in
Where: unit area per degree temperature rise.

𝛼𝑚12 = mean coefficient of linear thermal expansion in the The coefficient of volume expansion 𝛽 (3-dimensional) is the increase
range of ∆𝜗21 (the mean coefficient is the average in unit volume per degree temperature rise.
coefficient)
A close proximation is: 𝛽=2 ∙ 𝛼
𝐼1 = original length
𝛾=3 ∙ 𝛼
∆𝜗21 = 𝜗2 − 𝜗1 = temperature change in degrees Celsius
(1/°C), with 𝜗2 = final temperature
Special measures are needed if machine components are made from
materials with very different coefficients of thermal expansion, and
𝜗1 = original temperature.
which have to work together in very hot conditions.
The conditions of heating or cooling a body, or the resultant signs of
This is the case, for example, when light alloy pistons of internal
the physical magnitudes marked by the Greek letter ∆, determine
combustion engines run in cast iron cylinder liners. Tapered ring
whether the body is expanding or shrinking and symbolise the zones, steel stripes, cast into the skirts, etc. are methods of
difference between these 2 conditions.
compensating for expansion.
Thermal expansion coefficients can be taken from manufacturers’ Liquids
pamphlets or from engineering handbooks. Normally, expansion
coefficients are positive; that means the materials expand on heating.
The volumetric expansion of liquids is usually significantly greater
However, there exist a few substances with negative expansion
than that of solids. It is particularly high in the case of gasoline (petrol)
coefficients in some temperature ranges, for instance, water and
which increases in volume by approx. 1 %o for each degree of
rubber. temperature rise.
Similar formulas can be applied to changes of area, volume and Water is a special case. The volume of water decreases in the
density. However, in a given case, expansion coefficients have to be
heating range from 0 °C to 4 °C. The density of water is therefore
adopted in accordance with the number of changing dimensions.
greatest at 4 °C.

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Gases 2.3.1.3 Gas Expansion and Compression

In the case of gases, the thermal expansion coefficient is nearly


constant, irrespective of the kind of gas. This rule is derived from
Charles’s law. Charles’s law, also called Gay-Lussac’s law, is based
on the statement that the volume of a given mass of gas increases by
approx. 1/273 of its volume at 0 °C, for each degree Celsius
temperature rise, subject to the condition that the pressure of the gas
is kept constant.

Note: Charles’s law will be discussed in more detail in the following


Chapter.

Figure 3: Relationship between Gas Volume and Gas Pressure


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Gas Pressure and Gas Volume Expansion and Compression

Gas pressure and gas volume have a direct relationship. This was
discovered by the Irish scientist Sir Robert Boyle.

Boyle’s Law

If, at a constant temperature, the gas pressure increases by a certain


proportion, the gas volume decreases in inverse proportion, and vice
versa.

𝑝1 𝑉2
This law results in the formula: =
𝑝2 𝑉1

Figure 3 shows the relationship between the changes in gas volume


and in gas pressure.

Example: In an oxygen cylinder, 6,000 l of oxygen are


1
compressed from 1 bar to of the original volume, i.e. to 40 l. The
150
final pressure will then be 150 times the initial pressure, i.e. 150 bar.

If the volume becomes greater, the gas expands to fill the available
space and its pressure reduces. If gas pressure was originally the
same as air pressure, a positive gauge pressure results if the volume
is reduced, and a negative gauge pressure if the volume is increased.

Note: Vacuum always introduces a potential suction effect.

Air pressure always tries to eliminate a vacuum. Either air or liquid on


which air pressure is exerted will flow into the vacuum zone. This
process is called ’suction’.

Figure 4: Pressure/Volume Dependence of Heated Gas


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In combination with heat, gases expand considerably more than Index ’’ denotes the volume at a given Celsius temperature, index ’0’
liquids. denotes the volume at 0°C, and, obviously, the thermal expansion
coefficient of gas amounts to 1/273°C
Boyle’s experiments dealt solely with the effects of pressure and
volume. He did not consider the effect of temperature. The influence Charles’s law is applicable over a wide temperature range. By
of temperature on gas behaviour was first explored by the French adopting indices 1 and 2, for initial and final states, the following ratio
scientist Jacques Charles, while Gay-Lussac later published formula applies:
Charles’s work. The gas law therefore is named after both as
Charles’s law, or also Gay-Lussac law. 𝐾
𝑉1 𝜕1 ∙ + 273 𝐾 𝑇1
= ℃ =
Charles’s Law 𝑉2 𝐾 𝑇2
𝜕2 ∙ ℃ + 273 𝐾

The amount of change in either volume or pressure of a given gas


Note: The capital letter T is the formula symbol of the
volume is directly proportional to the change in the absolute
thermodynamic temperature and K is the symbol of the respective
temperature.
Kelvin temperature unit.
Stated in another way the law says: if the pressure of a gas is kept
Figure 4, detail b), shows, how pressure builds up if an increase in
constant within a container, the volume of the gas increases as the
volume is prevented (isochoric condition). If an increase in volume is
temperature increases. If the volume remains constant, the pressure
prevented while heating, the pressure will increase instead.
increases when the temperature increases.
By comparing temperature nominators and denominators in the
Figure 4 detail a), shows the volumetric expansion of gases at a
above given formula, it becomes evident that the relations between
constant pressure (isobaric condition). At a constant pressure, all
Kelvin and Celsius temperatures are subject to the formula
gases have the same coefficient of volumetric expansion.
1
𝐾 ℃
At 0°C, this is of the volume per degree of temperature increase. 𝑇= 𝜗 ∙ + 237𝐾, 𝜗=𝑇∙ − 273 ℃
273 ℃ 𝐾

Given as a formula, the following applies: Absolute zero, in terms of the conventional Celsius scale units, can
be found by adopting T = 0 K in the last formula, which provides
1
𝑉𝜗 = 𝑉0 (1 + 𝑦 ∙ 𝜗) = 𝑉0 (1 + ∙ 𝜗) ℃
237 ℃ 𝜗 =0𝐾 ∙ − 237℃ = −273 ℃ ,
𝐾

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2.3.1.4 Heat Gained or Lost, Involving Temperature


Changes

The amount of heat gained or lost, ∆Q12, when a substance of certain


mass undergoes a temperature change - not involving a change of
aggregation state, or chemical state - is given by the equation

∆𝑄12 = 𝑚 ⋅ 𝑐𝑚 ⋅ ∆𝑇21 ,

where:

m = mass of the substance


cm = mean (average) specific heat capacity of the material in
the temperature range T
∆T21 = T2 – T1 = temperature difference of the substance, with
T2 = final temperature and
Figure 5: Pressure Increase by Compression T1 = initial temperature of the substance.

Figure 5 shows the pressure increase caused by compression. On Again, as in the case of dimensional changes of a body, the
compression, heat is generated by internal friction in the gas. conditions of heating or cooling a body, or the resultant signs of the
Compression means a reduction in volume, and therefore causes physical magnitudes in formula application, determine whether the
heat to build up. body gains or loses heat.

If these 2 processes are considered as taking place in succession If ’cm’ is isolated from the equation, it becomes evident that ’specific
during compression, the volume reduction can be regarded as having heat’ can be associated with the heat necessary to change a unit
caused an increase in pressure. A further increase in pressure takes mass of a substance by one temperature unit degree. In other words,
place because the resulting heat cannot cause expansion (increase in the explanation of specific heat is:
volume).
Specific heat capacity is the quantity of heat required to raise
When expansion takes place, an increase in volume also results in a a temperature of 1 kg of a substance by 1 kelvin.
cooling effect, which, in turn, leads to a drop in pressure.
Principally, specific heat capacities are a function of temperature.

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They vary with temperature. Required values can be taken from Figure 6 shows a bar chart of the specific heat capacity of various
engineering handbooks. substances at 20 °C. The diagram shows that water has an
exceedingly greater specific heat than the metals. Even air exceeds
Where specific heat is determined by a certain , or a very small the specific heat of aluminium, the metal with the largest specific heat
temperature increment, the mean specific heat is said to be the true capacity given in the bar chart. This, beside the abundant availability
specific heat, hence cm = c. True specific heat capacities can only be of air and water, explains why these media are utilised in so many
used with sufficient accuracy in a limited temperature range, which thermodynamic processes, particularly for cooling purposes and in
depends on the degree of its variation with temperature. processes involving combustion.

The heat capacity of water is only exceeded by oils, fats and some
salt solutions. For this reason, engine oil is the proper medium to
remove heat from engine parts that are so hot that water would
evaporate under atmospheric pressure conditions.

In the case of gases, a distinction must be made between the specific


heat at a constant pressure cp, and the specific heat at a constant
volume cV. Thus, in the case of gases, 2 versions of the previously
discussed formula are applicable:

for p = constant: ∆𝑄12 = 𝑚 ⋅ 𝑐𝑝𝑚 ⋅ ∆𝑇21


for V = constant: ∆𝑄12 = 𝑚 ⋅ 𝑐𝑣𝑚 ⋅ ∆𝑇21 .

Liquids and solids are regarded as incompressible and they only


change a little in volume, when heated. That is, the specific heat
capacities given for liquids and solids in engineering handbooks can
be used with good results, irrespective of whether they are given with
the index ’p’ or ’V’.

Figure 6: Specific Heat Capacity of Various Substances at 20 °C


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2.3.1.5 Conditions at Phase Changes

Conversion of a material from a solid into a liquid state is described


as ’melting’. Conversion from a liquid into a gaseous state is called
’evaporation’.
Melting of a solid takes place at a definite conversion temperature,
the melting point. The quantity of heat which must be supplied when
the melting point has been reached before melting actually takes
place, is called ’melting heat’. It acts only as conversion heat, without
increasing the temperature and is quoted in kJ/kg.

Evaporation of a liquid takes place at the boiling temperature (boiling


point). The quantity of heat required for evaporation, which must be
supplied when the boiling point has been reached, is called
’evaporation heat’. It serves to convert the liquid into a gaseous state
and is also quoted in kJ/kg.
When a melted mass solidifies or a gas recondenses into liquid, the
same amount of heat as that previously needed for conversion is
released again.

Phase changes, in the given case, must be understood as changes


from an existing solid, liquid or gaseous state into another state of the
named alternatives. These changes are known as ’changes of the
aggregation state’.

Figure 7, detail a), shows the effect of heat changes on a pure


substance under constant--pressure conditions. The diagram makes
evident that it is possible to add heat to a substance without raising its
temperature. In the diagram, the heat added during phase changes is
marked by the performance curve sections hf and hv, the significant,
constant temperatures to the phase changes are marked by 𝜗𝑓 and
𝜗𝑣 . Figure 7: Characteristics of Phase Changes

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Note: The designations hf and hv, represent the specific latent According to the diagram in Figure 7, detail a), a certain amount of
heats of the substance under observation. heat is required to obtain a phase change. This quantity of heat is
referred to as ’heat of fusion’, Hf, or ’heat of vaporisation’, Hv,
For example, when a block of ice is slowly heated at the standard respectively.
pressure of 1 atm and at the melting or fusion temperature 𝜗𝑓 = 0 ℃
it changes into water at 0 ℃. The temperature of the ice and water The term ’latent heat’ is used for fusion and vaporisation heat,
mixture will not change before all ice is molten, and the temperature because it does not show in temperature changes, and because it
of water will only increase after this has happened. can rule reversible processes.

As water boils, the temperature no longer rises. During boiling, as Note: ’Latent heat’ is the heat required to change the state of mass
long as there is water present, it is impossible to increase the of a substance from solid into liquid or from liquid into gaseous
temperature of the water or the produced steam. Steam evolved without changing temperature.
under these conditions is known as ’saturated steam’. Saturated
steam stands for ’wet steam’ which still contains water droplets. If For instance, fusion heat absorbed by a substance on melting, must
saturated steam, in the absence of water, is further heated, it is be removed from the substance during cooling, and the heat invested
known as ’superheated steam’. This steam is a dry steam which has for the generation of saturated steam can be recovered by
no contents of water droplets in any way. liquefaction, or condensation. The latter process may be employed to
control the terminal pressure for a steam turbine, for instance.
The statements above show 3 distinct phases:
Latent heats, Hf and Hv, can be calculated with the aid of the specific
Phase 1: Water temperature increases to saturation latent heats hf and hv shown in Figure 7, detail a). The following
temperature: the energy required to produce this formulas are applicable to a given mass ’m’:
temperature rise is called ’liquid enthalpy’.
𝐻𝑓 = 𝑚 ⋅ ℎ𝑓
Phase 2: All the water changes into steam. The energy required
𝐻𝑣 = 𝑚 ⋅ ℎ𝑣
to produce this total change from all water into steam is
’enthalpy of evaporation’.
Specific latent heats can be obtained from engineering handbooks.
Phase 3: The saturated steam is further heated. The amount of Particularly in the case of water, they are found by the evaluation of
energy added during the superheat phase is called the steam tables.
’superheat enthalpy’.
Refer to Figure 7 again.
Note: The term ’enthalpy’ denotes the total thermodynamic heat
content of a system under actual conditions.
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Figure 7, detail b), shows the phase diagram of water in a pressure/ minute pressure, temperature or absorbed heat change to alter the
temperature diagram. It is believed that similar diagrams can be existing equilibrium determined by the triple point.
developed for all substances. By the example of water, the given
diagram makes evident that solid phase, liquid phase and vapour The critical point (CP) limits the vapour curve toward higher
phase of a substance depend on temperature and pressure. temperatures and pressures. Beyond the critical point, steam cannot
be liquefied by increase in pressure. While steam at a temperature of
Limiting curve Ι determines the equilibrium conditions (temperature 100 ℃, for example, can be liquefied by a pressure increase beyond 1
and pressure conditions) for the coexistence of ice and water. atm, liquefaction is no longer possible by a pressure increase at and
Generally, this curve is referred to as ’fusion curve’. above the critical temperature.

For marking respective pressure and temperature pairs, the attribute ’Mixed phase’ is a term used to describe the mutual coexistence of
’fusion’ is used. However, subject to cooling conditions, also the solid, liquid and gaseous matter. Accordingly, the limiting curves Ι, ΙΙ
attribute ’solidification’ may be used to distinguish respective terms. and ΙΙΙ, which determine the equilibrium conditions for the mixed
phases, may be referred to as ’mixed-phase limit curves’.
Limiting curve ΙΙ, the vapour curve, determines the equilibrium
conditions for the coexistence of liquid and saturated steam. For With respect to curves Ι and ΙΙ, the previously discussed phase
similar reasons as discussed in the case of the fusion curve, the changes of water are ruled by the 1-atm isobaric curve and the
attributes ’liquefaction’ or ’condensation’ may be used instead of respective limits 0 ℃ and 100 ℃. The diagram makes evident that this
vapour. is a special (although not uncommon) case, due to the standard
atmospheric pressure, as the liquid-phase limiting curves divert
Limiting curve ΙΙΙ determines the equilibrium conditions for the toward higher equilibrium values and convert toward lower equilibrium
coexistence of ice and saturated steam. Conversion from solid state values.
into gaseous condition and vice versa is named ’sublimation’.
Note: In the case of technical gases, the term ’vapour’ has the same
Accordingly, this curve is referred to as ’sublimation curve’. meaning as ’saturated steam’ has in the case of water. The term
Sublimation involves respective latent heats of sublimation for ’gas’, generally, has the same meaning as ’superheated steam’.
changes under equilibrium conditions. However, this is rarely an
engineering problem, as the standard thermodynamic process
requires a flowing medium.

Curves Ι, ΙΙ and ΙΙΙ meet in the triple point (TP). Under the invariant
equilibrium conditions determined by the triple point, substances can
exist in all 3 states of matter, side by side, and it requires only a

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2.3.1.6 Gas Laws 𝑚


𝜚 =
Basic Gas Laws
𝑉
1 𝑉
The state of a gas can be described with its basic variables, pressure = .
𝜚 𝑚
P, volume V and temperature T. The basic variables are the variables
that can be directly measured with the aid of conventional Additionally, the basic gas laws can be used to determine changing
instruments. conditions of state. To this end, the variables of the formulas are
marked by appending indices to show initial, final and intermediate
 Charles’s law: V/T = constant, which is states.
applicable to isobaric or constant-pressure conditions
For example, applied to Boyle’s law, 𝑝1 ∙ 𝑉1 = 𝑝2 ∙ 𝑉2 = 𝑝𝑛 ∙ 𝑉𝑛 .
 Charles’s law: p/T = constant, which is The gas mass, as it is invariable from state 1 to state n, would not get
applicable to isochoric or constant-volume conditions an index number.
 Boyle’s law: p∙V = constant, which is The basic gas laws can be combined in a single formula, which is
applicable to isothermal or constant-temperature conditions. known as the ’equation of state’:
The above given gas laws include the specific volume ’v’ and must be 𝑝 ∙𝑉
applied to an invariable gas mass. This indicates that Boyle’s law, as = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
𝑇
well as Charles’s law, can be altered to include volume V, density
𝜚 (rho), and mass m. The low-case letter ’v’ can be replaced by the
respective capital letter in the formulas. Further modifications are
possible with the aid of the formulas

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The equation of state can be proved by a simple experiment, by


reasoning and by applying a few mathematical operations, as shown
in Figure 8. The procedure involves

a) creation of isobaric conditions


b) application of the first version of Charles’s law
c) establishment of isothermal conditions and application of
Boyle’s law.
The mathematical link between the steps is given by the volume
marked as V’ (Vee-stroke), which - determined by Charles’s law in b)
replaces the same magnitude ruled by Boyle’s law in c).

The equation of state contains all measurable variables initially


stipulated for a gas. Therefore, it describes the physical state of a gas
completely (the only missing detail is the energy status, which is
indirectly given by the temperature).

Perfect Gas Law

By replacing the ’constant’ in the equation of state by a constant with


the symbol ’R’, we obtain the perfect gas formula, which is

𝑝 ⋅ 𝑉 = 𝑅 ⋅ 𝑇 where

’R’ is the specific gas constant, the magnitude of which is a constant


for all gases having the same chemical formula.

Note: Specific gas constants, also, can be obtained from technical


Figure 8: Steps Involved in the Development of the Equation of handbooks.
State

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The perfect gas formula expresses mathematically what the ’perfect Due to the fact that pressure, volume and temperature influence each
gas law’, also called ’ideal gas law’, states namely that the perfect gas other, guaranteed performance data of compressors, boilers and
(or: ideal gas) is an abstraction with molecules of zero size, which other technical plants are often given for STP conditions, as a unique
follows the perfect gas formula through all temperature and pressure basis for the comparison of plant performance.
ranges. Gases which follow this law with almost perfect precision are
called ’noble gases’, like helium and neon. Note: The short code STP stands for ’standard temperature and
pressure’, which are 𝜗𝑆 = 0 ℃ , ps = 1 atm = 760 Torr = 1,013.25
The ideal gas law is represented by one of the most versatile hectopascal (hPa).
formulas of physics. Subject to the side conditions of an engineering
problem, it can be manipulated to obtain Charles’s law, Boyle’s law, Accordingly, calculation of the performance data under the specific
the equation of state and to contain physical magnitudes related to conditions of a designed plant location is left to the planning engineer,
specific volume, so that quite a number of formulas can be derived and the perfect gas law formula is one of the essential tools required
from it. for calculating the adapted performance.

Ideal gas is assumed not to change its state into liquid or solid and Mixture of Gases
has therefore a single value of specific volume for every pressure at
constant temperature. Another characteristic of an ideal gas is that its Another law concerning gas pressures but in connection with mixed
internal energy (U) does not change with volume at constant gases is Dalton’s law, which says:
temperature.
The total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to
𝑉 𝑉1 𝑉2 the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases making
= constant and to = isobaric
up the mixture.
𝑇 𝑇1 𝑇2

𝑃 𝑝1 𝑝2 In other words: each gas acts as if it alone were present and occupied
= constant and to = isochoric
the total volume.
𝑇 𝑇1 𝑇2

𝑝∙𝑉 = constant and to 𝑝1 ∙ 𝑉1 = 𝑝2 ∙ 𝑉2 isothermal When gases mix, they become diffused. Even gases with different
molecular weights and sizes will mix evenly within the mixture. This
𝑃 ∙𝑉 𝑝1 ∙ 𝑉1 𝑝2 ∙ 𝑉2 phenomenon is explained with their constant state of motion. Still,
= constant and to = each gas will continue to demonstrate its own behaviour under
𝑇 𝑇1 𝑇2
pressure and acts independently of the others.
Ideal gas does not exist in reality. Non-ideal gases, of course,
condense into liquid in certain pressure/temperature ranges and
change into solids in others.
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partial pressure A = total pressure ⋅ % volume A.


A good example is air. Air is a mixture of 21 % oxygen, 78 % nitrogen
and 1 % of a combination of argon, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, neon, Dalton’s law can be expanded to mass ’m’, specific gas constant ’R’
helium, krypton, radon and xenon. The last 1 % is too rare to be and to further physical magnitudes.
considered and can be ignored. It is normally adequate to consider 79 The following 3 versions, given as symbolic formulas, read:
% nitrogen instead.
 𝑝𝑚 = ∑𝑛1 𝑝 = 𝑝1 + 𝑝2 + 𝑝3 + ⋯ 𝑝𝑛
As already discussed, at sea level air has a density to produce an
ambient pressure of approx. 1 atm (≙ 1,013.25 hPa). This pressure is
 𝑚𝑀 = ∑𝑛1 𝑚 = 𝑚1 + 𝑚2 + 𝑚3 + ⋯ 𝑚𝑛
also called ’atmospheric pressure’. The pressure will change with the
density of air. 1 𝑚1 𝑅1 + 𝑚1 𝑅1 +⋯ 𝑚𝑛 𝑅𝑛
 𝑅𝑀 = ∑𝑛1 𝑅 ∙ 𝑚 =
𝑚𝑀 𝑚𝑀
Dalton’s law simply says, that 21 % of the total pressure of the air gas
mixture will be exerted by oxygen molecules and 79 % of the total
pressure will be exerted by nitrogen molecules. Index M stands for the gas mixture, and each numerical index is
assigned to a gas of different chemical formula.
Assuming that the total pressure exerted by the gases is 1 bar, then
oxygen is responsible for 0.21 bar, and nitrogen is responsible for The latter formula permits to calculate the specific gas constant of dry
0.79 bar of the total pressure. air, RA, in case only the specific gas constants of oxygen, RO, and of
nitrogen, RN, are available. Air consists of 21 % oxygen and 79 %
For instance, if the pressure were doubled to 2 bar with no further gas nitrogen, approximately. These data include the ratios of mO/mM =
being added, then, according to Boyle’s law, the volume would be 0.21 and mN/mM = 0.79. Accordingly, the above formula can be
halved. The mixture still contains 21 % oxygen and 79 % nitrogen. reduced to

Considering the total pressure of 2 bar, the individual pressure 𝑅𝐴 = 0.21 ⋅ 𝑅𝑂 + 0.79 ⋅ 𝑅𝑁 .
exerted by the oxygen is 0.42 bar and that of the nitrogen 1.58 bar.
The individual pressure is regarded as partial pressure (pp). By the application of higher mathematics and thermodynamic
formulas, it can be proved that the specific gas constant is a function
Therefore, Dalton’s law can be expressed mathematically as follows: of the specific heat capacities of the respective gas. The relationship
is subject to the formula
total pressure = partial pressure A + partial pressure B + etc.
𝑐𝑝 − 𝑐𝑉 = 𝑅.
or

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The specific gas constants are always positive. Therefore, this Real gases and the perfect gas law are, therefore, given the attribute
formula makes evident that the specific heat of a gas at a constant ’ideal’ instead of ’perfect’.
pressure is always greater than the specific heat at constant volume.
For the majority of technical applications of the ideal gas law, the
Considering that the specific heat capacities had been used to initial and final process conditions are determined by ambient
calculate the heat added and heat removed from a substance, the temperature and pressure, i.e. near the STP condition that serves as
latter formula also shows that the specific gas constant determines basis for the determination of the gas constant of technical gases like
the energy level of a given gas mass ’m’. This becomes even more air, oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon
apparent by using a unit equation in conjunction with the perfect gas dioxide (CO2).
formula in the following form:
Therefore, the perfect gas law can be used to determine state
𝑝 ⋅ 𝑉 = 𝑚 ⋅ 𝑅 ⋅ 𝑇. variations with excellent results, if changes of state do not vary
excessively from ambient conditions.
Let ’m’ be a unit mass, let T be a unit K and let R be a unit specific
gas constant, where the latter is given in kJ/(kg K). Then the perfect The discrepancy given in pressure and volume variation is approx. 1
gas formula, written as unit equation for the right--hand expression, % for changes from below STP conditions to 20 bar. Above this limit,
changes to the discrepancy increases with rising temperature and pressure. To
deal with such cases, the design engineer uses correction factors and
𝑘𝑗 special formulas. However, for the practising engineer, the accuracy
𝑝 ⋅ 𝑉 = 𝑘𝑔 ⋅ ⋅ 𝐾 = 𝑘𝐽. resulting from the perfect gas law is normally sufficient for most
𝑘𝑔 𝐾
purposes.
The unit equation, additionally, shows that the products of pressure
and volume result in magnitudes with energy units, and that the Figure 9 gives a summary of common units used in thermodynamics.
perfect gas formula, as used in the latter form, basically is an energy
balance formula, in the same way as the formula

∆Q = m ⋅ c ⋅ ∆T

turned out to be an energy balance formula.

The application of the perfect gas formula to real technical gases is


subject to certain limits. Particularly at higher pressures, the attraction
of gas molecules is increasing and, therefore, a discrepancy between
state changes according to the perfect gas formula can be detected.
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2.3.2 Caloric States and Laws of


Thermodynamics

2.3.2.1 Introduction

Thermodynamics is concerned with the evaluation of energy


transfers. The perfect gas law only allows to define the status of a gas
with respect to the 3 variables pressure, volume and temperature,
which are the measurable variables of state. Mathematically, such
state changes can be expressed by the statement f(p, V, T), where
the low-case letter ’f’ stands for ’function’ with the changes of state
depending on the variables enclosed in the brackets.

Practically, a thermodynamic problem is approached by establishing


an energy balance for a given working substance. This requires the
exact determination of the energy status before and after process
completion, and involves the definition of the respective ’caloric
states’. The latter can be defined as ’thermal energy (heat energy)
states’.

3 caloric states are known


:
 internal energy
 enthalpy
 entropy.

2.3.2.2 Isochoric Process and Internal Energy

Heat quantities, added to a gas in order to achieve a certain


temperature difference, are different for gases, due to individual
specific heats at constant pressure and at constant volume. A heat
Figure 9: Designations in Thermodynamics
change applied to a substance under isochoric conditions results in a

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change of internal energy. In the case of gas or steam, the specific Heat addition results in an increase in gas pressure in the vessel. The
heat cv is applicable, and the change of internal energy can be pressure rise is from p1 to p2, as shown in Figure 1, detail d). This is
defined as subject to the formula p1/T1 = p2/T2, in accordance with Charles’s law
for constant volume. As stipulated by the perfect gas law volume
𝑄 = ∆𝑈 = 𝑚 ⋅ 𝑐𝑣 ⋅ (𝑇2 − 𝑇1 ), multiplied by pressure represents an energy level. Hence,
𝑉 ∙ ∆𝑝21 = 𝑉(𝑝2 − 𝑝1 ), is a form of energy that had been added
where: through the heat applied to the gas.

Q = symbol of the heat change applied to the Detail d) shows the respective pressure/volume diagram
substance (p/V diagram) with the entered isochoric curve. The energy added
∆𝑈 = 𝑈2 − 𝑈1 = 𝑚 (𝑢2 − 𝑢1) = change of internal through pressure increase is represented as a square of the size
given by the formula V (p2 – p1). This energy is marked by the symbol
energy
Wp, as, in the p/V diagram, it is represented by the perpendicular
𝑐𝑣 = specific heat projection of the isochoric curve onto the pressure axis.
𝑈1 and 𝑈2 = internal energies before and after process
completion According to the details mentioned above, the following formula is
applicable to calculate the energy W p of the isochoric case:
𝑢1 and 𝑢2 = respective internal energies per kg mass.
𝑊𝑝 = 𝑉 ⋅ ∆𝑝21 = 𝑊𝑀𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑙 (𝑝2 − 𝑝1 ).
If a certain amount of gas is heated under isochoric conditions, it is
However, in the given case, this form of energy is not work (as the
not free to expand. The basic state conditional formulas of the
chosen symbol might suggest), because the gas is not allowed to
isochoric process are V1 = V2 = V = constant, or ∆V = 0, respectively.
expand and to move anything.
Accordingly, the process performed between the initial condition
shown in Figure 1, detail a) and the final condition, shown in Figure 1,
Irrespective of that, the squares in Figure 1, details c) and d) should
detail b), is an isochoric process.
be of equal magnitude, subject to the condition that no heat or
pressure is lost. Accordingly, the initially given formula can be
To an isochoric process involving heat transfer, the heat formula
expanded to
𝑄 = ∆𝑈 = 𝑚 ⋅ 𝑐𝑣 ⋅ (𝑇2 − 𝑇1 )
𝑄 = ∆𝑈 = 𝑚 ⋅ 𝑐𝑣 ⋅ (𝑇2 − 𝑇1 ) = 𝑊𝑝 .
is applicable. The respective performance curve is shown in Figure 1,
detail c). The added heat is represented by a square of the size
𝑚 ⋅ 𝑐𝑣 ⋅ (𝑇2 − 𝑇1 ).

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2.3.2.3 Isobaric Process, Enthalpy and the First Law of


Thermodynamics

Figure 1: Conditions when Heating a Gas at constant Volume Figure 2: Conditions when Heating a Gas at constant Pressure
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A heat change applied to a substance under isobaric conditions The added heat increases the internal energy of the gas.
requires the use of the specific heat capacity cp and this results in a Simultaneously, the gas performs work, W v, in that it lifts the weight,
change of enthalpy. The following formula is applicable: the piston and, additionally, operates against the barometric pressure.

𝑄 = 𝐻2 − 𝐻1 = 𝑚 ⋅ 𝑐𝑝 ⋅ (𝑇2 − 𝑇1 ), The latter, together with the weights, maintains constant pressure
conditions for the cylinder contents. Accordingly, the added heat, or
where: absorbed enthalpy difference, Q = H2 – H1, must be shared between
an energy fraction for increasing the internal energy, ∆U21, which
𝑄12 = the heat change applied to the substance appears as a temperature increase, and an energy fraction for the
performed work W v.
∆𝐻21 = 𝐻2 − 𝐻1 = 𝑚 (ℎ2 − ℎ1 ) = change of enthalpy
𝐻1 and 𝐻2 = enthalpies before and after process completion When it is assumed that the test assembly works without friction then
the following energy balance formulas represent the isobaric case
ℎ1 and ℎ2 = respective enthalpies per kg mass mathematically. Simultaneously it is the mathematical formulation of
𝑐𝑝 = heat capacity. the first law of thermodynamics which states that a relationship exists
between heat and work:

Apart from the enthalpy H and related low--case--letter magnitudes, 𝑊 = 𝑄,


the above given formula only includes a new definition of known facts.
where:
Refer to Figure 2.
W = work transfer
If a certain amount of gas is heated under isobaric conditions in a
cylinder and piston assembly, it is free to expand. The basic state Q = heat transfer.
conditional formulas of the isobaric process are
p1 = p2 = p = constant, or ∆p = 0, respectively, and the respective f (p, From what has already been discussed it can be seen that
V, T) formula for the isobaric process is V1/T1 = V1/T1, in accordance
with Charles’s law for constant pressure conditions. Accordingly, the 𝑄 = ∆𝑈 + 𝑊,
process performed between the initial condition shown in Figure 2,
detail a) and the final condition, shown in detail b), is an isobaric where:
process, considering that the atmospheric air pressure does not
change, while the test is performed. Q = heat transfer
∆U = change of internal energy

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W = work transfer. This is the mathematical definition of enthalpy. In practice, however,


enthalpy differences are used. The interdependence between heat
This means that, if a quantity of heat is added to a system, its internal
changes is principally subject to the formulas
energy changes and the system performs work. A more universal
formulation of the first law of thermodynamics is, ’the total energy of a
𝑄12 = ∆𝐻21 = 𝐻2 − 𝐻1 = 𝑚(ℎ2 − ℎ1 ).
system and its surrounding is conserved’. The first law of
thermodynamics is the thermodynamic extension of the law of
The latter formula holds true, irrespective of aggregation state
conservation of energy.
changes. This formula is used to evaluate thermal phase diagrams
and tables for thermodynamic tasks. Such references show enthalpy
The basic formula for mechanical work is W = F ⋅ d. For the work of a
as a function of pressure, volume and temperature, or as f (p, V, T).
piston under constant--pressure conditions, the substitution formulas
F = p ⋅ A and A ⋅ ∆s = ∆V21 = V2 – V1 can be used. Through
For instance, heat 𝑄12 is added to a mass of water in a boiler. This
combination of these formulas, the following is applicable to
changes the enthalpy of the boiling water from state 1 to state 2, or
mechanical work:
from the caloric state H1 to H2. The respective enthalpies can be
directly taken from a phase diagram for water, for instance, which
𝑊𝑉 = 𝑝 ⋅ ∆𝑉21 = 𝑝 (𝑉2 − 𝑉1 ).
gives the enthalpies required to calculate Q12 by reference to the
applicable pressures, volumes or temperatures, p1, V1, T1, and p2, V2
The performed work W v is shown in Figure 2, detail b). Index ’V’ is
and T2, respectively.
given to make evident that it is a function of the volume difference,
and is represented in a p/V diagram by the perpendicular projection
In contrast to that, the formula 𝑄12 = ∆𝐻21 = 𝑚 ∙ 𝑐𝑝 ∙ ∆𝑇21 is used if
onto the volume axis.
phase diagrams with enthalpy are not available and cp values have to
The latter 2 formulas are used to develop a formula that only contains be used, instead. Frequently, this occurs in the case of technical
enthalpy, internal energy, pressure and volume (as adequate for the gases. For instance, by means of the recently developed formula for
isobaric case): work WV and other recently discussed f (p, V, T) formulas as
replacements, for the first law of thermodynamics the following is
∆𝐻21 = 𝐻2 − 𝐻1 = 𝑈2 − 𝑈1 + 𝑝 ⋅ 𝑉2 − 𝑝 ⋅ 𝑉1 . obtained:

By reasoning and gathering magnitudes with the same indices, it 𝑄12 = ∆𝐻21 = ∆𝑈21 + 𝑊𝑉
becomes obvious that H1 = U1 + p ∙ V1 and H2 = U2 + p ∙ V2, hence, = 𝑚 ⋅ 𝑐𝑝 ⋅ ∆𝑇21 = 𝑚 ⋅ 𝑐𝑣 ⋅ ∆𝑇21 + 𝑝 ⋅ ∆𝑉21 .
that
By comparing the constituents of the energy balance formula in the
𝐻 = 𝑈 + 𝑝 ⋅ 𝑉. second line, it becomes obvious that the cp value of a gas is always
greater than the respective cv value, due to the fact that work is
performed (or invested) under state change conditions. Accordingly,
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the specific gas constant, calculated in accordance with the formula isobaric and isothermal as well, and are processes where the above
𝑅 = 𝑐𝑝 − 𝑐𝑣 , always must be positive. given formula provides a square. However, outside the processes
ruled by latent heat, the T = constant curves in an h/s diagram
2.3.2.4 Isothermal Process and Entropy continue at varying steepness. For these regions, the heat balance
formulas are applicable, too. However, the inclination of the
The ratio between heat applied to a substance and temperature temperature curves makes evident that the infinitesimal formula
results in a change of entropy. The following formula is applicable to
isothermal processes: 𝑄
∆𝑆 =
∆𝑇
𝑄12
= ∆𝑆21 , is applicable to the caloric state. This formula shows that entropy
𝑇
must be understood as the ratio of infinite small amounts of heat to
where: the absolute temperature at which the heat is gained or lost by a
substance.
Q12 = the symbol of the heat change applied to the substance
∆S21 = changed entropy S2 – S1 2.3.2.5 Adiabatic Process and the Second Law of
Thermodynamics
Note: S1 and S2 are the entropies before and after process
completion; s1 and s2 are the respective entropies per kg mass. In an adiabatic process, no heat is added to the working substance,
or removed from it. Accordingly, the applied heat and the entropy
By re-arrangement of the latter formula the following is obtained: change are zero, subject to the applied formula 𝑄12 /T = 0/T = 0 =
∆𝑆21.
𝑄12 = ∆𝑆21 ⋅ 𝑇 = (𝑆2 − 𝑆1 )𝑇 = 𝑚 ⋅ 𝑇 (𝑠2 − 𝑠1 ).
Refer to Figure 3.
This formula makes evident why thermodynamic processes are often
plotted on temperature/entropy diagrams (T/s diagrams). When a T/s In an adiabatic process an enthalpy change ∆h takes place. In an
diagram in conjunction with isothermal processes is used, the heat enthalpy/entropy diagram (h/s diagram) this can be seen by using a
applied in the process, Q12, is represented by the projection of the T = vertical line representing the condition ∆S = 0 or s = constant. For this
constant temperature curves onto the entropy axis, hence, it is reason, adiabatic processes often are referred to as ’isentropic
represented by a perfect square. processes’.

As previously discussed, isobaric melting and evaporation processes Adiabatic processes are performed in turbomachines, like turbines
take place at constant temperatures. Therefore, such processes are where the working substance is expanded and turbocompressors
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where the working substance is compressed. Performance curves of


the true adiabatic processes are shown in Figure 3 as continuous line
curves, where the initial caloric states are marked by the points ’1’,
and the final caloric states by the points ’0’.

A true adiabatic process is not attainable in a machine. Figure 3,


details a) and b), show the real expansion and compression curves as
broken lines, where the initial caloric states are marked by the points
’1’, and the final caloric states by the points 2.

A comparison between the ideal processes and the actual processes


shows that the enthalpy differences 𝑤𝑅 = ∆ℎ10 − ∆ℎ12 (in the
expansion case) and 𝑤𝑅 = ∆ℎ12 − ∆ℎ10 (in the compression case)
are not available for use. They must be additionally investigated. In
both cases, this has the effect of an entropy increase ∆𝑠12. This
shows that the processes are not reversible.

The existence of the energy W R is due to turbulent friction within the


working substance. The second law of thermodynamics states that
thermodynamic processes are not 100 % efficient and technical
processes are accompanied by a continual increase in entropy. There
exist many other formulations of the second law of thermodynamics,
many of them of philosophical matter.

Figure 3: Entropy Change as a Result of Imperfect Adiabatic


Processes
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2.3.3 Heat Transfer  Modern technical processes and procedures, such as the
production of pure silicon for computer chips, need controlled
There has always been the demand of people to change their living air temperature and an air free of dust
conditions in order to survive or to enjoy more comfort.
 By deep freezing, the conductivity of electrical lines can be
Ventilation and heating systems are necessary to make the interior changed to superconducting.
spaces safe and habitable.
Ventilation is the circulation and refreshing of air in a space without
Refrigeration systems are installed to succeed in necessarily changing the temperature.

 the preservation of food Air conditioning is a process to control temperature and humidity in a
 the cooling/air conditioning of living spaces and of electronic space, by heating/cooling, circulating, filtering and refreshing the air.
machinery
Refrigeration is a process, in which the temperature of a space or its
 the manufacture of ice. contents is reduced to below that of its surroundings.
Air--conditioning and refrigeration systems are based on the same Air is normally used as the heat transfer medium. Therefore fans and
technical principle, the refrigeration cycle. In many cases thermal ducting are used for ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration. All
energy would increase the air temperature within enclosed areas to the three processes are interlinked and involved in the provision of a
unacceptable values. Even new products and new discoveries are suitable climate for men, machinery and cargo.
only possible because of air conditioning or refrigeration. For
example: 2.3.3.1 Body Comfort
 Computer centres, which have to collect and process lots of The normal temperature of the human body is 36.7 ℃ in the metric
information around the clock, can only operate because of the
system (or 98 ℉). This temperature is sometimes called skin or
controlled air temperature. Without air conditioning,
surface temperature. Knowledge of how the body maintains this
temperature would increase and the computers quickly cease
temperature, helps us to understand the process of air conditioning.
to operate because of the self-generated heat
All food taken into the body contains heat energy in the form of
 Modern medicines, such as the Salk and Sabin vaccines, are
calories. The calorie is used for expressing the heat value of food.
prepared in a scientifically controlled atmosphere
Physically one calorie is the amount of heat required to raise the
temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius (in the
The exploration of space and deep water is aided by air conditioning
metric system). To raise the temperature of one kilogram of water
from 0°C to 100°C needs 100 kcal.
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As food is taken in by the body, it is converted into energy for The convection process of removing heat is based on two facts:
immediate use or it can be stored for future use.
The conversion process as well as all body movements generate  Heat flows from a hot surface to a cold surface. For example,
heat. For body comfort, all of the heat produced, which is not heat flows from the body to the air surrounding the body. The
necessary to maintain the body temperature, must be given off by the temperature of this surrounding air must be below the body
body. Since the body produces more heat in warm or hot areas than it skin temperature
needs to ensure the conversion process, heat must be constantly
given off or removed. The constant removal of body heat takes place  Heat rises. This action can be seen by watching the smoke
through three processes which usually occur at the same time. These rising from a burning cigarette.
processes are
When these two facts are applied to the body process of removing
 convection heat, the following happens:
 radiation
 The body gives off heat to the cool surrounding air
 evaporation.
 The surrounding air becomes warm and moves upwards
 As the warm air moves upwards, cool air takes its place.
Convection
The convection air cycle, cooling the surface of the body, is
completed.

Radiation

Radiation is the process by which heat moves from a heat source,


such as the sun, a fire or a hot object, to another object in the form of
heat rays. This principle is based on the fact, that every hot object
sends out heat radiation to emit the heat from its hot surface to a cold
surface.

The radiation of heat has the same nature and behaviour as the
radiation of light. It will be reflected from bright and shiny material.
Dark and dull objects absorb the radiation. The air or any other gas
between the surfaces is not affected by heat radiation and remains
cool. Heat radiation takes place independently from convection and
Figure 1: Convection does not require air movement to complete the heat transfer.
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The body quickly experiences the effects of sun radiation when one
moves from a shady area to a sunny area. The body surface near to a Evaporation
fire becomes warm, while the opposite body surface remains cool.
Just like the heat radiation of the sun, the body sends out radiation to Evaporation is the process by which moisture becomes vapour.
a colder surface. Therefore heat is removed, when moisture evaporates from a warm
surface. The surface cools down. This process takes place
constantly, as long as there is liquid or moisture on the surface of the
body. Moisture will pass through the pores of the skin, when the nerve
centre of the body senses that the body is producing too much heat
and the temperature of the body may increase. Sweat appears as
drops of moisture on the skin and removes heat from the body,
protecting the body from overheating.

The process of evaporation depends on the nature of the body and


the evaporating liquid and on the characteristics of the surroundings.
It will be faster,

 the higher the temperature on the surface of the body and the
difference in temperature between body and surroundings

 the bigger the free surface for evaporation

 the faster the vapour is removed from the surface (air


movement) V the lower the boiling point of the evaporating
liquid.
Figure 2: Radiation

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2.3.3.2 Influence of Temperature, Humidity and Air


Movement on Body Comfort

Refer to Figure 3.

People must be provided with reasonable surrounding conditions to


work in, regardless of the weather under various climatic conditions.
The reaction of the human body to environmental changes in
temperature are largely subjective. The sensation, of what is hot, cold
or comfortable, is determined by a combination of the following
conditions:

 Temperature
 Humidity
 Air movement/motion.
Figure 3: Conditions which Affect the Body Comfort
The body maintains its temperature depending on these conditions.
They are the reason for feeling comfortable, if the air temperature,
humidity and air movement are within favourable limits. Since there
are only a few days in the year, during which all these conditions are
ideal, it is necessary for human beings to maintain even a minimum of
comfort by wearing less or more clothing, depending on the
environmental conditions.

For the purpose of design and evaluation, the effects of humidity,


temperature and air movement are combined into a single index
called the ’effective temperature’ (ET), which is also the temperature
of still saturated air, that would induce an identical sensation.

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proportion of mixture in gram per kg dry air. The specific weight of air
Temperature at an ambient pressure of 1,033 mbar and a temperature of 0°C is
1.293 kp/m3. A unit called ’grain of water vapour per cubic foot’ is
The temperature of the surrounding air and the surrounding surfaces used in the British system. There are 7,000 grains in one pound of
of material interacts with the temperature of the body by convection, water (1 grain = 0.0648 gram).
radiation and evaporation. The link between them is:
Relative humidity in conjunction with temperature determines the
 Cool air increases the rate of convection, warm air slows it environment for human comfort more accurately. A temperature,
down which feels uncomfortable at high humidity, seems fairly pleasant at
lower humidity. In a similar manner a high relative humidity above 70
 Cool air lowers the temperature of surrounding surfaces; % is felt uncomfortable at normal temperatures, while a low relative
therefore, cool air increases the rate of radiation. Warm air humidity may give sore eyes and throats.
increases the surrounding surface temperature; therefore, the
radiation rate is decreased Example: As an example of how humidity is measured consider
the following situation: Assume, that the room as shown in Figure 4,
 Cool air increases the rate of evaporation and warm air slows detail a) has a temperature of 20 ℃.Also assume, that the air contains
it down. This process depends on the amount of moisture 10 g of water as vapour.
already in the air and the amount of air movement.
If the room temperature remains at 20 ℃, water vapour is added to
Humidity the air, until no more water can be absorbed by the air in the room. At
this point, the air is saturated and 1 kg air now holds 20 g of water
Temperature alone is not enough to indicate conditions acceptable to vapour. A concentration of 20 g/kg of water vapour per air, at 20 ℃,
the human body. Moisture in the air in the form of humidity also represents a relative humidity of 100 %.
affects the feeling. It is measured in terms of humidity.
The original room condition of 10 g/kg at 20 ℃ represents 50 %
Relative humidity is a measure of how near the moisture in the air is relative humidity. The relative humidity is the ratio of the mass of
to saturation. water vapour content one kilogram of air is holding, to the mass of
water vapour required to saturate it at the same temperature. It is
Example: 60 % relative humidity means, that the air contains obtained by dividing the actual number of grams of moisture in one
60% of the maximum amount of moisture, the air is capable of holding kilogram of air, at a given temperature, by the maximum number of
at this given temperature level. grams, that one kilogram of air is able to hold, when it is saturated.
The original room condition of 10 g/kg at 20 ℃ represents 50 %
To simplify the measurement of humidity, the amount of humidity is relative humidity (detail b)). The relative humidity of 50 % will change
given as specific humidity in gram vapour per kg moist air or as a to 100 %, when the temperature decreases to the dew point at 6 ℃.
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The dew point of air is the temperature to which it must be cooled either the tropical or extreme tropical one. The first one approximates
down before condensation of its vapour content commences. At the to conditions in the Singapore and Eastern Mediterranean areas and
dew point the air is 100 % saturated. That means, the relative the second one to the Arabian Gulf region in summer and seasonally
humidity changes as the air temperature changes. elsewhere in the world. The aim being to achieve relative humidity
between 60 % and 50 %, respectively, and a temperature range
The original room condition of 10 g/kg at 20 ℃ changes from 50 % between 22 ℃ (72℉) and 26 ℃ (79℉).
relative humidity to 40 % humidity, when the temperature is
increasing to 25 ℃. Then the air is able to hold 25 g/kg water vapour,
when saturated (10 g/kg : 25 g/kg = 0.4 or 40 %).

The original room condition of 10 g/kg at 20℃ will change to a


moisture content of 8 g/kg at 20 ℃. As the air at this temperature is
capable of holding 20 g, the relative humidity will change from 50 % to
8 g/kg : 20 g/kg = 0.4 or 40 %.

The ways, in which the relative humidity can be changed, are


summarized as follows

 To increase the relative humidity, either the air temperature is


decreased or the actual moisture content of the air is
increased

 To decrease the relative humidity, either the air temperature is


increased or the moisture content of the air is decreased.

A low relative humidity permits heat to be given off from the body by
evaporation. As the air is relatively dry, it easily absorbs moisture. A
high relative humidity has the opposite effect. The evaporation is
retarded, because of the high content of moisture in the air. So the
speed of the evaporation and by this, the speed, at which heat can be
removed from the body, is decreased.

In order to provide the required degree of comfort, one of two ambient


conditions for the purposes of air--conditioning design is considered,
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Air Movement

Air movement as a factor, affects the ability of the body to give off
heat, and was mentioned already, when the convection process was
discussed. As air movement increases,

 the convection process increases, since the layer of warm air


surrounding the body is carried away more rapidly

 the rate of the evaporation process of removing heat speeds


up, since the moisture in the air near the body is carried away
at a faster rate

 the radiation process tends to speed up, because the heat on


the surrounding surfaces is removed faster.

If the air movement decreases, the evaporation, convection and


radiation processes decrease.

2.3.3.3 Outdoor Heat Sources

Outdoor Heat Sources

Indoor air can be too cold, too hot, too wet, too dry and too still. To
find the right solution and a practical method of maintaining a
reasonable standard of body comfort, it is necessary to know,
especially in hot areas, the outdoor heat sources, which may cause
uncomfortable indoor conditions. Even when the shape of the
enclosed space may differ, e.g. houses, cars or even ships, the basic
Figure 4: Relative Humidity principles will not change. The influences of heat sources differ
depending on the construction, the structure and different appliances.

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2.3.3.4 The Refrigeration Cycle

Figure 5: Outdoor Heat Sources

The greatest outdoor heat source is the sun; this heat is known as Figure 6: Schematic Diagram of a Refrigeration Cycle
solar heat. Solar heat enters a structure directly through openings or
glass and by conduction through the building materials.

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Refrigeration is a process, in which the temperature of a space or its


contents is reduced to below that of its surroundings. The cooling coil  A change of state from solid to liquid is known as fusion
of the evaporator of the refrigeration cycle is the basic part of an air (melting)
cycle to cool the air of an enclosed space or room and to remove heat  A liquid changing to vapour is evaporating or boiling
from cargo spaces and provision storerooms. Refrigeration serves to
 Vapour, which is further heated becomes a superheated gas.
keep the temperature at a level, necessary for the proper preservation
of individual products. The main difference between refrigeration and
air conditioning is only a matter of the temperature that is maintained The evaporation temperature of a substance depends on the
in the specific spaces. Refrigeration is primarily concerned with the pressure. The higher the pressure, the higher the evaporating
preservation of perishable products by lowering the ambient temperature - the lower the pressure, the lower the evaporating
temperature to a point, that will prolong the usable life of the product. temperature.

All fresh fruits and vegetables, including flowers, are living things and It is commonly known, that water boils at 100 ℃ (212 ℉), but it must
commonly referred to as ’live’ products. Even when separated from be remembered, that this is only true at atmospheric pressure of
the tree, vine or soil, they continue to generate and dissipate heat as 1.012 bar (14.7 lbf/in2).
the human body does. The amount of heat respired (called ’heat of
respiration’) varies with the product and its temperature. In the If water is subjected to a pressure of, for instance, 1.037 bar (15
respiration process, live products absorb oxygen as well and give off lbf/in2), it will not boil, until the temperature has reached 121 ℃ (250
carbon dioxide to the surrounding atmosphere. ℉). Conversely, if the water is subjected to a pressure near to the
vacuum, it will boil much earlier.
The refrigeration cycle is concerned with the heat, after it is removed
from the air by the refrigerant in the coil. The transfer of heat takes Thus the refrigeration cycle is based on the following principles:
place in a simple system: firstly in the evaporator, where the lower
temperature of the refrigerant cools the body of the space being  To change a liquid to vapour, it needs large quantities of heat
cooled. The heat removed is transferred through the coil walls to the
refrigerant flowing inside the coil at a lower temperature. Secondly,  The boiling point of a liquid can be raised by increasing the
the heat transfer takes place in the condenser, where the refrigerant pressure, and it can be lowered by reducing its pressure.
is cooled back by air or water.
The pressure of the refrigerant gas is increased in the compressor
Most substances can exist as a solid, liquid, vapour or gas. Changes and thereby it becomes hot. This hot, high-pressure gas is passed
from one state to another are described as follows: through into a condenser. Depending on the particular application, the
refrigerant gas will be cooled either by air or water, and because it is
still at a high pressure, it will condense.

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The liquid refrigerant is then distributed through a pipe network, until it


reaches a throttling valve alongside an evaporator, where cooling is
required. This throttling valve meters the flow of liquid refrigerant into
the evaporator. As the liquid passes through the valve, its pressure is
reduced immediately. The pressure decrease lowers the temperature
of the refrigerant even more, and it is now ready to pick up more heat.
Air from the cooled space or air-conditioning system is passed over
the evaporator and boils off the low-pressure liquid refrigerant, at the
same time cooling the air.

The design of the system and of the evaporator should be such, that
the liquid refrigerant is boiled off and the gas slightly superheated,
before it returns to the compressor at a low pressure to be
compressed again.

The heat is transferred from the air to be cooled to the refrigeration


medium in the evaporator, is then pumped through the system, until it Figure 7: Refrigeration Plant
reaches the condenser, where it is transferred or rejected to the
ambient air or water and finally transferred out of the space.
Compressors – General
The refrigeration diagram, shown in Figure 1 includes only the bare
essentials of the refrigeration cycle, which are described in the The purpose of the compressor is to circulate the refrigerant, sucking
following paragraphs. at the low-pressure side of the system and discharging to the high-
pressure side of the system. As the vapour is compressed, its heat is
concentrated bringing its temperature well above the coolant
temperature in the condenser. Therefore heat can flow from the
refrigerant to the coolant and from there out of the room or overboard
on board ships.

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Condensers

The purpose of a condenser is to

 change the superheated vapour from the compressor to


saturated vapour by removing the heat

 condense the saturated vapour to a liquid by further cooling

 with a reserve of liquid refrigerant provide those plants, where


a liquid receiver is not fitted.

Refer to Figure 8.

In a condenser heat is transferred from a hot operating medium,


flowing along the surface of a separating wall, to a cold medium
flowing in contact with the other surface of the separating wall. The
heat exchange process is accomplished by having the two liquids or Figure 8: Shell- and Tube-Type Heat Exchanger
gases pass on either side of a heat conducting surface. The heat of In a condenser heat is transferred from a hot operating medium,
the hot liquid or gas passes through the conducting surface to the flowing along the surface of a separating wall, to a cold medium
cooling liquid or gas. flowing in contact with the other surface of the separating wall. The
heat exchange process is accomplished by having the two liquids or
gases pass on either side of a heat conducting surface. The heat of
the hot liquid or gas passes through the conducting surface to the
cooling liquid or gas.

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Evaporators
The purpose of an evaporator is to remove the heat from the space to
be cooled by changing the liquid refrigerant to superheated vapour.

Basically, an evaporator works the opposite way to a condenser. The


evaporator closes the heat transfer cycle for cooling. To explain the
function in a simple manner, the liquid refrigerant enters at one end of
a pipe (coil), evaporates along the length of it and leaves at the other
end as superheated vapour. To change the state from liquid to vapour
requires latent heat, which is extracted from the surrounding
atmosphere thus resulting in a consequential cooling effect.

The general term ’latent heat’ may refer to either the latent heat of
vaporization or the latent heat of fusion. The latent heat of
vaporization is the heat required to change a liquid to a vapour
without increasing the temperature of the fluid. For example, water
can be heated to its boiling point. If more heat is added, the
temperature of the water does not increase but the water begins to
boil and vaporize. Thus the latent heat of vaporization in this case is
the heat required to change water at 100 ℃ to vapour at 100 ℃.

The latent heat of fusion is the amount of heat that must be removed
to change a liquid to a solid at the same temperature. For example,
assume that the water is cooled to the freezing point at 0 ℃. . If more
heat is removed, the water changes to ice. Thus the latent heat of
fusion actually reflects a cooling process, because heat is removed
from the water.

Figure 9: Evaporator Air is circulated over the cooling coils of the evaporator by a fan,
which is part of the cooler unit. A drain is fitted to remove the water,
which forms, when the cooler is periodically defrosted. The
temperature difference between room and refrigerant saturation
temperature is required to be 8 ℃ (15 ℉).

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Throttling (Expansion) Valve


The throttling valve regulates the flow of liquid refrigerant
automatically from the high--pressure side of the system to the low--
pressure side. It reduces the pressure of the liquid and thus causes
the evaporating temperature to achieve the cooling effect in the
evaporator. It controls the flow of the liquid refrigerant to be the same
as the rate of evaporation and acts as a metering device between
high--pressure side (condenser) and low--pressure side (evaporator).

Refrigerants

Refrigerants, as heat carrying media, absorb heat at a low


temperature level and are compressed by a compressor to a higher
temperature, where they are able to discharge the absorbed heat

Figure 10: Expansion Valve

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Optics Cat B1 – Module 2

2.4 Optics Light has a lot of qualities; the most important ones are named below.

 Light transfers energy from one place to another Energy is


2.4.1 Optics (Light) needed to produce light. Materials gain energy when they
absorb light. Mostly, this causes an increase in their terminal
2.4.1.1 The Nature of Light energy.
For example, solar cells change some of the energy in
Early in the day when the sun is low on the horizon and shadows are sunlight directly into electrical energy.
long, the sunlight streaming through a group of trees is broken into
straight beams or rays of light.  Light is a form of radiation.
Radiation is a general term applied to almost anything that
When sunlight breaks through the clouds after a storm the light rays travels outwards from its source but cannot immediately be
can be seen clearly against the dark background of the clouds. The identified as solid, liquid or gas like the more familiar forms of
beams of light from the headlamp of a car can be seen as they shine matter.
out through the heavy rain storm or fog.
 Light is a form of wave motion. Light waves travel through the
Many natural effects of light have helped to understand the basic empty space at a speed of about 300,000 km/s.
properties of light.
 Light is something detected by the human eye.
Light determines the life on the earth’s surface. It is possible to see Objects emit many types of radiation, most of which are not
objects only if light of them enters the eyes of the observer. Some detectable by the human eye. Light is the name given to
objects give off their own light, others reflect light from other sources. radiation which the eye can detect.
But wherever light comes from, it normally travels in straight lines.

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2.4.1.2 Light and Shadow That proves that light can only travel in a straight line. The property of
light travelling in straight lines is called rectilinear propagation
(literally, straight-line travel).

One direct effect of light travelling in straight lines is the casting of


shadows by opaque objects. As light cannot pass through an opaque
object and, cannot bend round the object because travelling only in
straight lines, then the space behind an opaque object must be totally
dark.

Figure 2, detail a) shows a shadow formed by a point source of light.


The hole in the screen near the lamp acts as a point source.

The shadow formed by a point source of light has two important


properties:

 The shadow is uniformly and totally dark all over. It is called a


Figure1: Light Travels in Straight Lines umbra, (a Latin word meaning shade).

 The shadow has a sharp edge, supporting the idea that light
A ray of light is defined as a narrow beam of parallel light which can travels only in straight lines.
be drawn as a single line on a diagram. In diagrams rays are drawn
with an arrow on them showing the direction of travel of light. Rays Figure 2, detail b) shows a shadow formed by an extended source of
are produced when light shines through a small hole, which is called a light. This source of light is large enough for rays to be seen to come
point source of light. A beam of light containing many rays is from many points. The large pearl lamp provides a suitable extended
produced by a larger hole or a large lamp, which is called an source.
extended source of light.

An important fact is to know that light can only travel in straight lines.
If any one of the screens shown in Figure 1 is moved very slightly
then the eye cannot see the lamp.

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opaque object. Near the umbra very little light reaches the
screen and so the penumbra merges into the umbra.

Note: Because the shadows formed by extended light sources are


much softer and without sharp edges, most people prefer frosted or
pearl light bulbs and lamp shades at home to provide a more pleasant
kind of lighting. Fluorescent tubes are usually surrounded by a frosted
diffuser to scatter the light and reduce the sharpness of shadows.

An interesting example of light and shade is the eclipse of the sun or


the moon. An eclipse is the total or partial disappearance of the sun
or moon as seen from the earth. Figure 3 shows a total eclipse of the
sun taken from a height of 9,000 m above sea level. At this height, in
the clean and rarefied air, the sun’s corona can be seen very clearly.

Figure 2: Shadows

The following points about the shadow formed by an extended source


of light should be noted:

 The center of the shadow remains uniformly dark as before


but is somewhat smaller in size. This part of the shadow, the
umbra, still receives no light at all from the source.

 The edge of the shadow is now blurred and graded, getting


gradually lighter further out from the umbra Figure 3: Total Eclipse of the Sun

 The region between the totally dark umbra and the fully bright The sun is eclipsed when the moon passes between the sun and the
screen is called the penumbra, which means partial shade. In earth. When it happens it causes unexpected darkness during the
this region light from some parts of the extended source day-time. Solar eclipses are rather rare for two reasons.
reaches the screen, but light from other parts is cut off by the
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 A solar eclipse can happen only at new moon (when the moon The moon does not emit light itself, but only reflects light from the
is totally dark). If the orbit of the moon lay in the same plane sun; thus when it passes into the earth’s shadow its supply of direct
as that of the earth there would be an eclipse every month. sunlight is cut off. A lunar eclipse occurs when the moon passes
The moon is, however, inclined at an angle of about 5 to the through the earth’s umbra, but it only happens occasionally, i.e. when
earth’s orbit so that only rarely does the new moon pass the moon is full.
exactly through the line joining the earth and the sun,
producing a solar eclipse. Lunar eclipse can last as long as 1 3/4 hours because the moon is
much smaller than the earth and takes some time to pass through the
 When a solar eclipse does occur the path of the moon’s earth’s umbra.
umbra across the surface of the earth is very narrow, (never
wider than 272 km) so that most people on the earth see only During a total lunar eclipse it is still possible to see the moon because
a partial eclipse. a small amount of sunlight reaches it by way of the earth’s
atmosphere. This sunlight, bent or refracted by the earth’s
Figure 4, detail a) shows where the total and partial eclipse occur on atmosphere, reaches the moon turning it into a dim coppery colour.
earth and detail c) shows the view from position (B) in a total eclipse.
This magnificent sight, which can never last for more than about 8
minutes, allows to see the sun’s atmosphere which is normally not
visible because of the brightness of the sun’s disc itself.

Detail b) shows an annular or ring eclipse in which a bright ring can


be seen around the moon’s disc. This kind of eclipse occurs if the
umbra of the moon is not quite long enough to reach the earth
because the distance between the moon and the earth varies (the
moon’s orbit is elliptical).

When the moon is further from the earth its disc is very slightly
smaller than the sun’s disc; so when a solar eclipse occurs the moon
is not large enough to totally cover the sun. A bright ring of sunlight
can be seen round the edge of the dark disc on the moon.

Detail d) shows the lunar eclipse or also called the eclipse of the
moon.

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2.4.1.3 Reflection of Light Rays

Figure 5: Types of Reflection

Most things can only be seen when the light from a source, like the
sun, bounces off the surface of the object and reaches the eyes of the
observer. This bouncing of light is called reflection. An object which
reflects no light appears a dull black colour and is difficult to see. An
object which reflects all light appears the same colour as the light it is
reflecting, so when white sunlight shines on it, its colour is white.

The reflection of light rays takes place at particular laws. Considering


these laws the nature of the surface of a material determines how
light rays are reflected.

For example a white sheet of paper and a highly polished silvery


metal surface as on a mirror both reflect all the light that falls on them,
Figure 4: Solar and Lunar Eclipse but the kind of reflection is different.

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Statements about these angles are given by the laws of reflection:


The surface of a polished sheet of metal or a mirror is very smooth
and reflects all the parallel rays of light from a particular source in one  The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection. That
direction only; this is called regular or specular reflection (Figure 5, means, a ray leaves the surface at the same angle as it
detail a)). The irregular scattering of the light rays in different arrives.
directions by a rough surface is called diffuse reflection (detail b)).
 The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal at the point
The Laws of Reflection of incidence all lie in the same plane. That means all three
could be drawn on the same flat piece of paper.
Light Rays Meet Plane Mirrors

Note: The laws of reflection are true for all reflecting surfaces, for
curved mirrors as well as plane mirrors, but it is simplest to
investigate the laws using a plane mirror.

A plane mirror is a flat smooth reflecting surface which by regular


reflection is used to form images. It is often made by bonding a thin
polished metal surface to the back of a flat sheet of glass; but for
special applications the front of a sheet of glass may be silvered, or
there may be no glass at all.

When light rays fall on a plane mirror as shown in Figure 6 and are
reflected by it they are called:

 Incident ray (I) and the


 reflected ray (R). Figure 6: Angle of Incidence and Reflection

Both rays form an angle to the ’line at 90° to the reflecting surface’ Figure 7 shows different angles of incidence.
(N). These angles are called

 angle of incidence
 angle of reflection.
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When people look at the surface of a calm lake, or at themselves in a


mirror, what they see is commonly called a reflection. In the field of
physics it is called an image.

Figure 8 shows how, by reflecting light, a plane mirror forms an image


of a point source of light such as a small light bulb.

Light actually travels from the bulb to the eye via the mirror, so this is
called a real ray of light. The eyes of the observer are easily fooled
and cling to the belief that light travels in straight lines. In this case the
eye believes that light has come from the image marked (X), but there
is nothing behind the mirror at all and light cannot pass through the
reflecting surface of the mirror. The imaginary rays behind the mirror
are called virtual rays.

Figure 7: Different Angles of Incidence Note: In order to distinguish the virtual rays from real rays, virtual
rays are always drawn as broken lines.
Real and Virtual Image
There are also two kinds of images. An image is formed where the
real or virtual rays from an object come together again. The image
formed by a plane mirror is called a virtual image because it is formed
where the virtual rays appear to come from when the real rays are
reflected by the mirror.

Just as the virtual rays are not there, the virtual image does not exist
either; it is an illusion. No light ever reaches a virtual image so it
cannot be formed on a screen and it cannot affect a photographic film
placed at its apparent position.

A virtual image is defined as follows:

Virtual images are those which rays of light only appear to come from
but no real rays ever reach.
Figure 8; The Virtual Image
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Note: As it is explained later, curved mirrors and lenses can form Another feature of the image formation in a plane mirror is explained
real images. by Figure 10.

Real images are formed when all the rays coming from a point on an
object are brought together again at another single point. Real images
can be formed on a screen and can produce a permanent image on a
photographic film.

In reality, objects do not occupy single points. Figure 9 shows how a


plane mirror forms an image of an extended object.

Figure 10: Laterally Inversion

The writing on the front of a police car or ambulance sometimes is


written backwards in a special way and will appear normal when it is
seen through the rear-view mirror of a vehicle in front. The reason for
Figure 9: Image of an Extended Object that is that the image formed by a plane mirror has left and right
reversed; this is called lateral inversion. So the writing would be
Note: As in any ray diagram, an infinite number of rays could have
been drawn, but two rays from any point on the object are sufficient to
appear reversed when it is written in a normal way.
establish the position of the image of that point.
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Application of a Plane Mirror Light Rays Meet Curved Mirrors

Plane mirrors are often used for measurement equipment in When a mirror has a curved surface, the rules of reflection are not as
order to improve the accuracy of the device. Figure 11 shows simple as explained for plane mirrors.
an example at which the plane mirror is fitted behind the
Curved mirrors are made in many shapes and sizes and have many
measurement pointer to improve the reading accuracy.
varied uses. By experiment, ray diagram and calculation the
properties of these mirrors and their images can be discovered.
Errors arise when the pointer is viewed at an angle because
pointer, being some distance above the scale, will then indicate Figure 12, detail a) shows the two basic kinds of curved reflecting
the wrong graduation on the scale. The diagram shows that the surfaces whose shapes are called concave and convex. A mirror
correct reading position is when the image of the pointer cannot which curves in (caves in) is called a concave mirror and one which
be seen because then the eye is vertically above the pointer curves outwards is called a convex mirror.
scale.
Considering the fact that the surface of curved mirrors are three--
dimensional the image additionally can form part of a sphere or
cylinder as shown in detail b). A mirror which has a parabolic section
is used in a lot of applications because it has special properties.

In contrast to plane mirrors where parallel rays of light remain parallel


when they are reflected, it is a property of curved mirrors that they
reflect each ray in a different direction.

Figure 11: Technical Application of a Plane Mirror

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Figure 13, detail a) shows what happens when parallel rays meet on
the surface of a concave mirror. The concave mirror converges
(brings together) the parallel rays to a point called a real focus (F).
Detail b) shows what happens when parallel rays meet on the surface
of a convex mirror. The convex mirror diverges (spread out) parallel
rays so that they never meet but appear to come from a point called
virtual focus (F).

Figure 12: Curved Mirrors Figure 13: Converging and Diverging Actions of Curved Mirrors
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Figure 14 shows some particular points and lines needed to explain


the laws of reflection related to curved mirrors.

The pole (P) of a curved mirror is the center of its reflecting surface.

The center of curvature (C) of a spherical mirror is the center of the


sphere of which the mirror is part.

The principal axis of a curved mirror is the line passing through its
pole and center of curvature.

The radius of curvature (R) of a spherical mirror is the radius of the


sphere of which the mirror is part.

̅̅̅̅
𝑃𝐶 = ̅̅̅̅̅
𝑀𝐶 = 𝑅

The principal focus (F) of a concave mirror is the point through which
all rays close to and parallel to the principal axis pass after reflection
by the mirror. This is a real focus.

The principal focus (F) of a convex mirror is the point from which all
rays close to and parallel to the principal axis appear to come after
reflection by the mirror. This is a virtual focus.

The focal length (f) of a mirror is the distance from its pole to its
principal focus.

̅̅̅̅
𝑃𝐹 = 𝑓

Generally the law of reflection

𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑖𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 = 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

is obeyed by all curved mirrors. Figure 14: Curved Mirror Definitions


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As shown in Figure14, detail a), the radius CM is also the normal to


the surface of the mirror at the point of incidence (M) as it is known
from the plane mirror.

An incidence ray presented by LM, parallel to the principal axis is


reflected from (M) to (F). It can be seen that the common law of
reflection is also valid for a concave mirror.

angle (i) = angle (r)

The reflected light ray crosses the principal axis at the principal focus
F. So it can be supposed that there is a relation between the focal
length and the radius of a curvature for a spherical mirror. This
relationship is explained by the statement below:

The focal length is half the radius (r) of the curvature.


The statement given can also be written as formula:

𝑅
𝑓 =
2

In order to give more transparent what happens if light rays meet on


concave or convex mirrors Figure 15 shows some examples of light
rays meeting on a concave and a convex mirror. Among the vast
number of rays which could be drawn there are three which are
particularly helpful in constructing ray diagrams. These special rays
are numbered (1), (2) and (3); two of these rays are needed to find an
image.

Figure 15: Special Rays Used in Ray Diagrams


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The statements of Figure 15 can be summarised: The Figure shows also that the image is found in each case where
the two rays meet again after reflection or where they appear to come
Concave mirrors from after reflection when the image is virtual (detail a)).

 A ray of light parallel to the principal axis, is reflected through


(F).

 A ray of light through (F) is reflected parallel to the principal


axis.

 A ray of light through (C) is reflected back through (C).

Convex mirrors

 A ray parallel to the principal axis is reflected as if it came from


(F).

 A ray arriving in line with (F) is reflected parallel to the


principal axis.

 A ray arriving in line with (C) strikes the mirror at right angles
and returns along the same path away from (C).

Images Formed by a Concave Mirror

In contrast to plane mirrors at which the size of object and image is


always the same and the distance between object and mirror as well
as image and mirror are also equal, the image of curved mirrors is
different from the object in size and the distance to the mirror.

The type, size and position of the image formed by a concave mirror
depends entirely on how close the object is to the mirror. Figure 16,
details a) to f) show ray diagrams constructed using the three special
rays for each of the possible object positions. Figure 16: Images Formed by a Concave Mirror
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If the reflected rays are parallel, as shown in detail b), then they will
never meet except at infinity. Thus in this case it is said that the Mirror Calculations
image is at infinity.
For any calculations at concave as well as convex mirrors or also at
In all other cases (details c) to f)) the image is real, formed where rays lenses all distances are measured from the pole (P) of the mirror.
actually meet, and can be formed on a screen placed at the image
position.  f is the focal length of the mirror, this is the distance from its
pole to its principal focus.
Images Formed by a Convex Mirror
 u is the object distance, this is the distance from the pole of a
A convex mirror forms virtual images which are always diminished, mirror to the object
erect and between the mirror and its principal focus (F). The eye
shown in Figure 17 believes that rays (1) and (3) have come from the  v is the image distance, this the distance from the pole of a
position of the virtual image (I). mirror to the image.

There is a relationship between the focal length (f), the object


distance (u) and the image distance (v).

This relation is stated by the formula given below also known as the
mirror formula.

1 1 1
= +
𝑓 𝑢 𝑣
Figure 17: The Image Formed by a Convex Mirror
In order to determine whether an object or an image is real or virtual
and to carry out mirror calculations successfully a system of positive
and negative values to all distances is needed.

For that reason it is laid down that the real--is--positive sign


convention is used. That means,

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 the distances (from a mirror or lens) to real objects, images


and focuses are positive Magnification (m) Image size

 the distances (from a mirror or lens) to virtual objects, images


and focuses are negative. m>1 magnified: larger than the object

The formula given before can be rearranged to get the more


simplified form of this equation. m=1 image same size as the object
𝑢 ∙𝑣 𝑚 ∙𝑚
𝑓= [𝑚 = ]
𝑢 +𝑣 𝑚 +𝑚 m<1 diminished: smaller than the
object
Magnification

When an image is larger than the object, it is said it is magnified.


When an image is smaller than it is described as diminished. The
numerical comparison of the image size with the object size is always The magnification can also be expressed using the relation between
called magnification. the image distance and the object distance.
The definition of linear or transverse magnification (m) (meaning 𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒
magnification of one dimension: the length or distance across) is 𝑚𝑎𝑔𝑛𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 =
𝑜𝑏𝑗𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑔𝑒
given by the relation:

ℎ𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑔𝑒 This statement may be written as formula.


𝑚𝑎𝑔𝑛𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑚 = 𝑣 𝑚
ℎ𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑜𝑏𝑗𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑚= [ ]
𝑢 𝑚
The table overleaf shows different values of (m) and the image size Note: The formula above shows, that the magnification has no units,
belonging to. as it is a ratio

When using this formula for linear magnification any minus signs for
(u) or (v) may be ignored.

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The statement given on the page before can be proved using Figure
18.

̅̅̅̅
𝑂𝑋 = height of object
̅̅̅
𝐼𝑌 = height of image
̅̅̅̅
𝑃𝑂 = object distance (u)
̅̅̅
𝑃𝐼 = image distance (v)

Triangles POX and PIY are similar (angle (i) = angle (r) and both
contain a right angle), therefore it can be said about the ratio of their
sides that:

̅̅̅
𝐼𝑌 ̅̅̅
𝑃𝐼
=
̅̅̅̅
𝑂𝑋 ̅̅̅̅
𝑃𝑂

The first ratio gives the magnification (m) and the second ratio can be
substituted by the distances of the image (v) and the object (u). Figure 18: Magnification

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2.4.1.4 Refraction of Light Rays

Figure 20: Refraction of Light

Figure 20 shows the path of a ray of light as it passes from air into
Figure 19: Bending of Light Rays glass. At point (X) the incident ray (I) is bent as it enters the glass.
This bending is called refraction and ray (R) is called the refracted
When light enters or leaves a transparent material the light rays may
ray. Thus, refraction can be defined as follow:
bend causing many interesting and sometimes beautiful effects.
Refraction is the bending of light which occurs when it passes from
For example, a stick appears to bend when one end is placed under
one transparent material (called a medium) to another.
water or another liquid or a swimming pool looks less deep than it
really is. These effects and many others are caused by the bending of
The angle of refraction (r) is the angle between the refracted ray and
light rays when light passes from one material into another.
the normal.

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The ray is bent or refracted towards the normal, and the angle of The Laws of Refraction
refraction of the ray is less than the angle of incidence. Similar results
are obtained for light passing from air into other media such as water
and paraffin.

The fact that light rays are refracted towards the normal happens if
the rays enter an optically denser medium. The glass is optically
denser than air, by which it appears that light travels more slowly in
glass than air. In the opposite if the light enters a material which is
less dense than air, the light rays are bent away from the normal.

Light passing into an optically denser medium is bent towards the


normal; light passing into an optically less dense medium is bent
away from the normal.

The ray leaves the medium glass at point (Y). There the ray is bent
back to its original direction. The angle of refraction, now in the air, is
larger than the incident angle (in the glass). If the block of glass has
parallel sides, the emergent ray (E) is parallel to the incident ray (I),
but it is laterally displaced.

This means the ray is travelling in the same direction but it has been
shifted sideways when it emerges. This also happens to light
whenever it passes through a plane glass window at an angle to the
normal.

Figure 21: The Refractive Index

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Figure 21 shows three experiments at which the angle of incidence is


changed. The angles of refraction are also changed due to the
different angles of incidence. The ratio formed by the sine of the angle
of incidence (i) and the sine of the angle of refraction (r) remains
constant.

This discovery is stated in the two laws of refraction:

The incident ray, refracted ray and the normal at the point of
incidence all lie in the same plane.

For light rays passing from one transparent medium to


another, the sine of the angle of incidence and the sine of the
angle of refraction are in constant ratio.

Note: The second law is called Snell’s law because in 1620, the
Dutch scientist Snell discovered that it was the sines of the angles
which were in proportion rather than the angles themselves.

Another typical effect of refraction can be observed when people look


into a clear pool of water. When the pool is really 4 metres deep for
example, it will appear to be only about 3 metres.

Figure 22 shows how an object O, seen through a transparent


medium like water, appears closer than it really is. This effect is is
caused by refraction at the surface of the water. Rays of light coming
from the object O are bent away from the normal as they leave the
water so that they appear to come from a virtual image I which is
above the object O.

Figure 22: Real and Apparent Depth

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Refractive Index Refractive Index and the Speed of Light

The value of the ratio sin i/sin r indicates how much refraction or The speed of light in a vacuum is known as 3.0 x 108 m/s. In
bending will occur when a ray passes from one medium to another, transparent materials light travels more slowly than in a vacuum or in
hence its name is refractive index. air and it is thought that the bending or refraction of light is due to this
change of speed.
Strictly speaking, the ratio (sin i/sin r) for two media gives their relative
refractive index. This is because the extent to which a ray is bent The statement below describes the relation between the absolute
depends on both the medium the light is leaving and the one it is refractive index (n) and the speed of light if light passes from a
entering. For convenience all materials are given a value called their vacuum into a medium
absolute refractive index (symbol n) which indicates the refraction that
would occur if a ray of light passes from a vacuum into the medium. 𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑣𝑎𝑐𝑢𝑢𝑚
𝐴𝑏𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑥 𝑜𝑓 𝑎 𝑚𝑒𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑚 = 𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑒𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑚
𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑖 (𝑖𝑛 𝑎 𝑣𝑎𝑐𝑢𝑢𝑚)
𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑏𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑥 𝑜𝑓 𝑎 𝑚𝑒𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑚 = For light passing from medium 1 to medium 2 follows:
𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑟 (𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑚𝑒𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑚)
𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑒𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑚 1, 𝑐1
sin 𝑖 𝑛1,2 =
𝑛= 𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑒𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑚 2, 𝑐2
sin 𝑟

The following table shows the absolute refractive indices of some For example, when light is passing from air to glass the speed of light
transparent materials. in air is very near to the speed in vacuum, 3 x 108 m/s, and the
refractive index n1,2 = 3/2. This means that light travels 3/2 times as
Medium Refractive index (n) fast in the air as it does in glass.
Since there is a relation between the speed of light and refraction, two
Glass About 1.5 equal ratios are linked by the refractive index for a pair of media.
Perspex 1.5
Water 1.33 Total Internal Refraction and the Critical Angle
Ice 1.3
Diamond 2.4 sin 𝑖 𝑐1
𝑛1,2 = =
sin 𝑟 𝑐2
In practice, when a ray of light passes into a medium from air the
refraction is very nearly the same as it would be from a vacuum. So
the term absolute refraction is also used when light enters a medium
from the air.
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When light passes from medium to an optically less dense medium,


e.g. from glass to air a weak internally reflected ray is produced as
well as the refracted ray (Figure 23, detail a)).

The angle of refraction (r) is greater than the angle of incidence (i). It
follows that if the angle of incidence is increased, it reaches a critical
value where the angle of refraction is just 90 and the refracted ray
grazes along the surface of the glass (detail b)). This value of the
angle of incidence is called the critical angle.

The critical angle (c) between two media is the angle of incidence in
the optically denser medium for which the angle of refraction is 90.

If the angle of incidence (i) is further increased, becoming greater


than the critical angle (i > c), it is impossible for the angle of refraction
to exceed 90°. Now no light emerges and all the light is totally
internally reflected. The inside surface of the glass behaves like a
perfect mirror. This is called a total internal reflection.

Total internal reflection occurs when

 a ray of light is inside the optically denser of two media


 the angle of incidence at the surface is greater than the critical
angle for the pair of media.

Using the relation

sin 𝑖 sin 𝑐 sin 𝑐


𝑛1,2 = = =
sin 𝑟 sin 90 ° 1

the critical angle of a material is calculated using the formula

1
𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑐 =
Figure 23: The Total Refraction 𝑛
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Practical Applications of the Total Internal Reflection of Light The total internal reflection of light is used in a lot of optical devises
and also in the field of engineering.

The prism is one example where the total reflection is used for optical
devises. A prism is a block of glass or transparent material with a
triangular section. They are available in various shapes and sizes with
different angles between the three sides.

A prism with one 90° corner and two 45° corners can be used to turn
a ray of light through 90° (Figure 24, detail a)). Such a right--angled
prism is used in periscopes in preference to a plane mirror because
there is no exposed silvered surface to become damaged and there
are no multiple reflections.

The ray is totally internally reflected once, because the angle of


incidence i = 45° is greater than the critical angle for glass to air, c =
42°. The ray is deviated by 90°.

The right-angled prism can also turn rays of light through 180° by two
total internal reflections (detail b)). These eliminate lateral inversion
because reflection has occurred twice, but the image is seen inverted.
Two pairs of these prisms are used in prism binoculars to reduce the
length of the instrument and produce an erect final image for the
whole instrument.

2.4.1.5 Lenses and Optical Instruments

Lenses produce images similar to those by curved mirrors, but they


do so by refracting light rather than reflecting it.

Figure 24: The Prism

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Convex and Concave Lenses Like curved mirrors, lenses are either convex or concave in form.
Convex lenses are thickest through the middle, concave lenses are
thickest around the edge, but several variations on these basic
shapes are possible. Most lenses are made of glass and have
spherical surfaces.

Light rays passing through a convex or converging lens are bent


towards the principal axis, whereas rays passing through a concave
or diverging lens are bent away from the principal axis.

Figure 25: Convex and Concave Lenses


Figure 26: Refraction of Light by Lenses

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This process is illustrated in Figure 26 which shows the lenses


(convex and concave) as a series of glass blocks. By means of this
representation it can be seen how the bending of light rays takes
place in each block.

Light passing through the central block emerges in the same direction
as it arrives because the faces of this block are parallel. P marks the
optical center of the lens.

Principal Focus

Figure 27 shows how rays travelling parallel to the principal axis are
refracted by a convex and concave lens. The rays passing through
the convex lens converge to a point F (detail a)); the rays passing
through the concave lens diverge as if travelling outwards from a
point F (detail b)). In each case, F is the principal focus of the lens
and the distance from F to P is called the focal length.

Rays of light can pass through a lens in either direction, so every lens
has two principal foci, one on each side of the optical center.
However, the distances FP and F’P are equal independent of the
shape of the lens.

The focal length of a lens depends on the curvature of each surface,


but the connection is not as simple as it is in the case of a curved
mirror. In general, the more highly curved the surface, the shorter is
the focal length; thus the thick lens shown in detail c) has a shorter
focal length then the thin lens.

Figure 27: Point of focus

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Figure 27: Parallel Rays and Lenses

Images Formed by Convex Lenses

Note: Convex lenses are very similar to concave mirrors in their


image forming properties.

Figure 28: Image Formed by a Convex Lens

If an object is placed more than 2f away from a convex lens along the
principal axis an image is formed which is:

 smaller than the object


 inverted
 real, that means it can be picked up on a screen.

If this object is brought towards the convex lens, the image moves
further away from the lens and becomes larger.

Figure 29: Rays Used to Construct an Image by Drawing


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Similar as it is performed for curved mirrors, the position and the size Concave lenses are very similar to convex mirrors in their image
of the image can be found by drawing a ray diagram. forming properties.
For this purposes, any two of the three rays shown in Figure 29, detail As shown in Figure 30, a concave lens forms an upright, virtual image
a) to c) are sufficient to fix the position and size of the image. of any object placed in front of it. The image is always smaller than
the object and closer to the lens. If the position of the object is
 A ray of light through the optical center P of the lens. This changed, the position and the size of the image is changed as well.
passes through the lens unbent (detail a)).
Application of Lenses
 A ray of light parallel to the principal axis. This passes through
F when it leaves the lens (detail b)). Lenses find application in all kinds of optical instruments. Using a lens
system an image is picked up from the outside world on a special
 A ray of light through F’. This leaves the lens parallel to the screen. The human eye also contains a lens system and pick up
principal axis (detail c)). It is equivalent to the ray described images like a camera.
before.
The Camera
Detail d) shows a complete ray diagram including all three rays. The
object is situated more than 2f away from the lens and thus the image
is real, inverted and smaller than the object.

Images Formed by Concave Lenses

Figure 30: Image Formed by a Concave Lens


Figure 31: Single Lens Camera
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In a camera a convex lens is used to form a small, inverted, real Prism Binoculars
image on a piece of photographic film. The film, which is normally
kept in total darkness, contains a light-sensitive chemical called silver
bromide.

When the camera button is pressed down, a shutter in front of the film
opens then shuts again, exposing the film to light for a brief moment
only. Different intensities and colours of light across the image cause
varying chemical changes in the film, which can later be developed,
’fixed’ and used in printing a photograph.

For distant objects, the film must lie at the principal focus of the lens if
the image is to be in sharp focus. For closer objects, the distance
between lens and film must be increased. Accurate focusing of the
image is achieved by screwing the lens backwards or forwards in its
holder to suit the particular object distance.

On many cameras, the shutter speed can be varied, with exposure


times ranging from perhaps 1/15 s to 1/1000 s. Shortening the
exposure time cuts down the amount of light reaching the film, and
reduces blurring if moving objects are being photographed.
Figure 32: Prism Binoculars

Another optical instrument commonly used are prism binoculars. Two


prisms are placed between the objective and the eyepiece lens. This
arrangement has the advantage to get a relative small instrument by
passing the light along the tube three times and also it produces an
erect final image.

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2.4.2 Fibre Optics

2.4.2.1 Introduction

Light as carrier for any information is used by the military for


centuries. A typical example is the modulation of a light source by
using a code (Morse code). This system called ’flashing light Figure 1: Fibre-Optical Communication Link
signalling’ is still used today.
As shown in Figure 1 a fibre-optic communication link consists of
The modulation consists of a high-intensity lamp with a parabolic
reflector for focusing and a shutter system that is opened and closed  a transmitter
according to the Morse code. At the receiving side the operator reads  an optical fibre as transmission medium
the light flashes to decode the message.  a receiver.
The information rate of a system like this is, however, mechanically
and physiologically limited. A fibre-optic communication system can be a local area network
(LAN) with a large number of terminals (transmitters and receivers)
The development of optical fibres in the 1970s spurred the designer which operates over relatively short distances or a wideband long-
to develop communication links at which optical fibres are used as haul communication link. The latter transports cable television,
transmission medium to guide light from a transmitter to a receiver. telephone and high-speed data.

An advantage of such systems is the low power loss of 20 dB per The advantages of optical fibres as a transmission medium are:
kilometer compared to more than 1,000 dB/km previously.
 such a fibre is made of a dielectric like glass or plastic, and the
Today, optical fibres link the countries on both sides of the Atlantic as signal it carries is light. There is neither a conductive path nor
well as those of the pacific oceans. a metallic connection between the two ends of the link. Glass
and plastic fibres are very lightweight, flexible and resilient

 the attenuation of optical fibres is not frequency-dependant as


it is known from electrical coaxial cables. Therefore a wide
bandwidth over long distances is possible and high data rates
can be transported over long distances without repeaters or
equalisers

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 the carrier of the information is optical and the transmission


medium is a dielectric, optical fibre. So transmissions are not
affected by conventional electric interferences like stray RF or 2.4.2.2 Fundamentals of Light
other electromagnetic energy, high voltage or lightning
Refer to Figure 2.
 glass is unaffected by most chemicals and solvents. Optical
fibres can be used in chemical plants as well as in oil and gas Light is one of the nature’s most important information carrier, it is one
refineries. A broken fibre will not cause a spark, which could form of electromagnetic energy. The human eye can detect
lead to a explosion electromagnetic energy covering the frequency range of about

 short circuits can not occur, thus overload problems will not 3.9 ⋅ 1014 𝐻𝑧 𝑡𝑜 7.5 ⋅ 1014 𝐻𝑧
arise.
wherein the lower frequency is identified as red and the higher
All these advantages make the fibre--optic medium a good choice for frequency is identified as violet. This frequency range of
many applications. electromagnetic energy is called ’visible light’.

Using the formula

𝑐
𝜆 =
𝑓
Where

c = velocity of light (3 ⋅ 108 meter/second (m/s))


λ = (lambda) wavelength (meter (m))
f = frequency (Hertz (Hz))

the frequency range of the visible light corresponds to a wavelength


of about 770 nanometer (nm) to 400 nm.

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The electromagnetic energy below red is called ’infrared’ and the


electromagnetic energy above the violet is called ’ultra-violet’. Both
are not visible.

It is the potential bandwidth and the electromagnetic integrity of this


information carrier that makes optical communication so important.

Example: A 430,000 GHz (4.3⋅1014 Hz) carrier in a 10 %


bandwidth system is able to carry 43,000 Gigabit (Gb) of data, which
could be used for 3.6 million TV programs or more than 4 billion
analog telephone conservations.

The light wavelengths being used in fibre--optic systems include the


ranges of

 770 nm to 860 nm
 1,100 nm to 1,600 nm.

The most popular wavelengths used are

 820 nm
 1,300 nm
 1,550 nm.

Note: The wavelength of light may also be expressed in ’angstroms’


(10-10 meter). The wavelengths above correspond with 8,200
angstroms, 13,000 angstroms and 15,500 angstroms.

The amount of energy in light is proportional to its frequency:

ℎ ∙ 𝑐
𝑊=
Figure 2: Spectrum of Electromagnetic Energy 𝜆

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Optics Cat B1 – Module 2

where:
The table below shows the index of refraction of light waves for
-34
h = 6.626⋅10 Js (joule-seconds); this is called the various materials:
Plank’s constant
c = velocity of light  air 1.00
λ = wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation.  water 1.33
 glass (approximately) 1.5
2.4.2.3 Light Propagation in Glass Fibres  fused quartz 1.46
 diamond 2.4
It is already known that light in the free space propagates at a speed  silicon 3.4
of about 3⋅108 m/s.  gallium arsenide (GaAs) 3.6.

If the dielectric medium is water instead of free space, the velocity of A waveguide for propagating light can be made from a strand (fibre)
light will be reduced by about 25 %, and in various types of glass, of glass of the thickness of a human hair. When light rays enter into
light is about 33 % to 47 % slower than in free space. the fibre end, it will propagate like it happens in a radar waveguide.
The wave will be reflected back and forth of the sides of the fibre.
Note: The different velocities are caused by the different densities of
the materials. However, this waveguide is not surrounded by a mirror-like conductor,
but rather by a dielectric with a different refractive index from that of
Due to the different velocities of light waves travelling in various the fibre core.
mediums, the light beam is refracted when it travels from one
dielectric medium into another one. The amount of refraction due to Critical Angle of Incidence and Total Reflection
changes in the dielectric constant of a medium is expressed by the
index of refraction. This is the ratio of free-space velocity to the When a single electromagnetic wave reaches a smooth interface
medium propagation velocity: separating the fibre and the surrounding medium with different
refractive index, the wave will either be totally reflected back into the
𝑐 fibre or partially reflected and partially refracted. In the latter case the
𝑛 = wave will partially escape from the fibre core.
𝑣
Where:
The smallest angle from the vertical axis for which total reflection
n = index of refraction occurs is called critical angle of incidence.
c = propagation velocity in free space
v = propagation velocity in the medium.
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The critical angle in Figure 3 occurs when 2 equals 90. At this angle,
the refracted wave travels parallel to the interface.

The following equation (Snell’s law) is used to determine the critical


angle:

𝑛2
𝜃1𝑐𝑟 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛−1 ( )
𝑛1

where:

𝜃1𝑐𝑟 = critical angle of incidence


𝑛1 = index of refraction of medium 1 (i.e. medium left by the
light)
𝑛2 = index of refraction of medium 2 (i.e. medium entered by
the light).

To cause total reflection of the incident light, n2 must be less than n1. Figure 3: Refraction and Total Reflection
This is because for total reflection
Example: Calculate the critical angle beyond which an ideal
𝑛2 underwater light source will not shine into the air above.
sin 𝜃1 = <1
𝑛1
𝑛2
𝜃1𝑐𝑟 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛−1 ( )
As shown in Figure 3, in case of total reflection the angle of reflection 𝑛1
is equal to the angle of incidence. This is because the light is reflected
(back) into the same medium as it was before and thus ’n2’ = n1. 1,0
𝜃1𝑐𝑟 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛−1 ( ) = 48,6
1,33

Note: The optical fibres used in the field of communication are made
typically with a glass core of n = 1.5 (n1) which is coated with a glass
or plastic of slightly lower refractive index of n = 1.485 (n2). This gives
the fibre a large value of 81.9° for the critical angle of incidence which
enables longer distances between subsequent points of reflect

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Wave Motion and Sound Cat B1 – Module 2

Wave motion can be observed on many occasions. For example,


2.5 Wave Motion and Sound wave motion is produced when a stone is thrown into a pond of still
water (Figure 1, detail a)). The ripples travel radially outwards but the
movement of a floating object, e.g. a piece of wood, would indicate
2.5.1 Waves that the water only moves up and down at any particular position.

2.5.1.1 Wave Motion Thus, while the crest of the wave travels from A to B as shown in
Figure 1, detail b), the particles of water at point a move down to a1
while those at point b move up to b1 and so on.

Figure 2: Wave Motion in a spring

Another example of wave motion is produced when the end of a


spring is moved sideways. The end turn pulls the adjacent turn
sideways. This again pulls the next turn a fraction of a second later,
and so on. In this way, sideways movements are passed from turn to
turn, and the ’travelling wave’ effect is produced.

In the same way as the waves travelling on the water, the turns
themselves do not move in the direction of travel. Instead they move
to and fro (oscillate) about the position which they would occupy if
there were no movement at all.

As the waves pass along the spring, the turns initially at rest are set in
motion. For this, energy is necessary which is transferred from one
Figure 1: Wave Motion in Water

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end of the spring to the other. Thus, it can be stated that waves Transverse and longitudinal waves are the two main types of waves.
transfer energy from one point to another point.
Transverse Waves
The wave motion described above is made up of vibrations of an
object’s individual parts. Waves produced in such a way are called Transverse waves can be recognised by their crests and troughs. A
’mechanical waves’. single transverse pulse is produced by a quick flick of the hand, a left-
and-right movement at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the
All mechanical waves require a medium or material to travel through spring (Figure 3, detail a)).
and they cause the individual particles of that medium to vibrate or
oscillate. When there is no object or material which can be brought to A transverse wavetrain is produced by swinging the hand left and
vibrate then no wave motion would be present at all. right (at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the spring) at a
constant frequency of approx. 4 hertz. If the spring is long enough the
Note: In order to distinguish between a single wave motion and a waves can be seen travelling continuously in one direction (Figure 3,
continuous group of waves, the single wave motion is called a ’pulse’ detail b)).
and the continuous wave group with features which repeat regularly is
called a ’wavetrain’. Definition:

Transverse and Longitudinal Waves Transverse waves are ones in which the displacement of the
parts is at right angles to the direction of travel of the wave
motion.

Longitudinal Waves

Longitudinal waves can be recognised by their compressions and


rarefactions. In areas of compression, the particles are pushed
together, and in areas of rarefactions they are pulled apart.

Figure 4, detail a), shows a single longitudinal pulse. It is produced by


a quick jerk of the hand forwards and backwards along the center-line
of the spring.

A longitudinal wavetrain is shown in Figure 4, detail b). It can be seen


travelling along the spring if the hand is oscillated backwards and
Figure 3: Transverse Waves forwards (in line with the spring) several times at a constant rate.

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In order to complete the statement given by the definition, the


following features of progressive (or: travelling) waves should be
mentioned:

 A progressive (or: travelling) wave carries energy.

 Usually, the medium or material through which a wave travels


does not travel with the wave.

 The particles of the medium, which are displaced by the wave


motion, vibrate about their rest position, but do not travel with
the wave.

 Each particle in the wave motion vibrates in the same way, but
the vibrations have a time lag in the direction of travel of the
wave.
Figure 4: Longitudinal Waves
 The shape of the pulse or wavetrain remains the same as it
Definition: travels through a medium, but its amplitude becomes smaller
as the energy is lost or the wave is spread out.
Longitudinal waves are waves in which the displacement of
the parts is in line with or parallel to the direction of travel of  The speed of a wave is not affected by the shape of the waves
the waves. or their amplitude, but by the nature of the medium.

Both, transverse and longitudinal waves are progressive (or: If it were possible to take a photograph of a transverse wavetrain, the
travelling) waves. instantaneous picture would show the displacement of the particles
along the wavetrain at a single moment (Figure 5, detail a)).
Progressive Waves
The distance between two successive crests or between two
Definition: successive troughs is defined as the wavelength of the transverse
wave. Similarly, the wavelength of a longitudinal wave is the distance
A progressive (or: travelling) wave is the movement of a between two successive compressions or two successive
disturbance which carries energy away from a source. rarefactions. The symbol of the wavelength is the Greek letter ’λ’
(spoken: ’lambda’).

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Definition:

The wavelength 'λ' is the distance between two successive


particles which are at exactly the same position in their path at
the same time and are moving in the same direction.

The presentation shown in Figure 5, detail b), can be compared to the


graph obtained for a single vibrator. It can be seen that the motion of
a particle in a wavetrain is exactly the same as the motion of a single
vibrating object. In particular, the motion is repeated regularly with a
constant period T and has the same characteristic sine wave shape.

It follows that the definitions of values such as period, frequency and


amplitude of a wavetrain are the same as those of a single vibrator
except that now the motion of a particle in the wavetrain is described.

Thus, for a wavetrain it can be stated as well:

 The period ’T’ (in seconds) is the time necessary for a particle
in the wavetrain to make one complete oscillation.

 The frequency ’f’ (in hertz) is the number of complete


oscillations made in one second by a particle in a wavetrain.

 The amplitude ’a’ is the maximum displacement of the


particles in the wavetrain from their rest positions.

Wave Speed

Another important factor of travelling pulses and wavetrains is the


speed at which they travel. Observations of pulses and wavetrains
travelling along a spring suggest that the shape and amplitude of a
Figure 5: Graphs of Wavetrains wave do not affect its speed.

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Another observation proves that the speed of a wavetrain does not


depend on the frequency of a vibration.

Example: When people listen to an orchestra, the waves of high-


frequency sounds and low-frequency sounds arrive at the listener at
the same time. This means, the sounds have travelled at the same
speed.

However, there is a link between the speed of a wave, the wavelength


and the frequency of vibration of the particles through which a
wavetrain passes. The relation between these quantities is given by
the so-called ’wave equation’:

wave speed = frequency ∙ wavelength.

Using the symbol ’c’ for the wave speed, symbol ’f’ for the frequency
of oscillation and symbol λ for the wavelength, the wave equation can
be written as follows:

𝑚 1
𝑐 = 𝑓 ⋅ 𝜆, [ = ∙ 𝑚]
𝑠 𝑠

The formula above is true for all types of wave motion. It describes
that each particle in a wavetrain makes f complete oscillations in one
second. Figure 6 shows that the wavetrain moves forward f
wavelengths (i.e. a distance of f ∙ λ) while a particle A makes f
complete oscillations during one second. The distance moved by the Figure 6: Wave Equation
wavetrain in one second is the wave speed c. Examples of Progressive Travelling Waves
Another important factor for the speed of a wavetrain is the nature of
Waves appear in different forms depending on the nature of the
the medium or material through which the wave travels. So, a sound medium or material where they occur. In order to produce waves the
wave for example, travels through water at a higher speed than particles of the particular medium must be brought to vibration.
through the air.

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Water waves can be considered to be transverse waves, because


that is what they look like. Floating objects like corks move up and
down on the surface as a wave passes.

Sound waves are created by sound as it travels through the air


producing compression and rarefaction of the gas molecules. Thus,
sound waves are a common example of longitudinal waves.

Light also travels in the form of waves. It travels in transverse


progressive wavetrains. Light waves as well as radio waves belong to
the electromagnetic spectrum. They do not belong to the mechanical
waves and do not need any medium to travel through.

Light, like all the other waves in the electromagnetic spectrum, is


believed to involve vibrating electric and magnetic fields which travel
along at right angles both to each other and to the direction of travel
of the waves. Magnetic and electric fields can exist in vacuum and do
not require any medium.

Properties of Progressive Waves

Note: The properties of progressive waves are explained by means


of water waves, because these can be seen on a pond, a river or
even in the bath.

Although the properties of progressive waves can be seen on a pond,


for studying them in a laboratory a so-called ’ripple tank’ is used
(Figure 7, detail a)). The waves in this tank are produced by a small
electric vibrator mounted on a bar. They are ripples travelling across
the surface of the water in the tray. The bar produces plane (straight)
waves. Circular waves are produced by fixing a small metal ball to the
bar as shown in Figure 7, detail b). The bottom of the tray is
transparent so that a lamp can be used to cast an image of the ripples Figure 7: Typical Ripple Tank
on a white screen placed underneath.

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Reflection Water waves are reflected when an obstacle is placed in their path.
Figure 8, detail a), shows the reflection of water waves by a plane
surface. As it is known from light waves, the original and the reflected
wave fronts are straight and have equal spacing. The original and the
reflected waves have the same speed and wavelength.
Figure 8, detail b), shows what happens with a straight wave front
when it is reflected by a concave surface. The reflected waves are
brought to a focus and then continue outwards.

Refraction

Refraction occurs when waves are slowed down. This happens


generally when waves leave one medium (e.g. air) and enter another
medium (e.g. water), i.e. at the boundary between two media.

Water waves, for example, travel more slowly when they enter
shallow areas (Figure 9, detail a)). There is no change in their
frequency, as this only depends on the frequency of the vibrator.
Considering the wave equation (c = f ⋅ λ) it means that f is kept
constant. But the reduction in speed causes a reduction in
wavelength. And, as the wave fronts follow each other at closer
distances, the direction of travel of the waves also changes.

’Refraction’, as this phenomenon is called, can clearly be observed,


when light waves enter water: the wave front usually does not enter
the water vertically but at a certain angle. The waves first reaching the
water surface slow down first and cause the wave front to change its
direction of travel ((Figure 9, detail b)). The light ray seems to be bent.

Figure 8: Reflection of Waves

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Diffraction

Figure 10: Diffraction of Waves


Figure 9: Refraction of Waves

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Figure 10, detail a), shows the effect of placing two obstacles with a
narrow gap between them in the path of plane waves in the ripple
tank. Waves passing through the gap spread out in all directions and
the wave fronts produce a circular. This effect is called ’diffraction’.

Diffraction is only significant if the size of the gap is comparable with


the wavelength of the waves.

Figure 10, detail b), shows an example of what happens when plane
waves pass through a much wider opening. In the main, the waves
continue in their original direction and the wave fronts remain straight.
Some diffraction does occur at the edges of the wave beam, but the
effect is rather slight.

Interference

If two identical sets of waves travel through the same region of water
in a ripple tank (Figure 11, detail a)), they may, depending on their
phase, reinforce each other or cancel out each other. The effect is
known as ’interference’.

Figure 11, detail b), illustrates what is called a ’constructive’


interference. The waves are in phase, both are moving on the water
surface in the same direction, and the amplitude is doubled.

An example of the other extreme is called a ’destructive’ interference


(Figure 11, detail c)). In this case the waves are exactly out of phase
and try to move on the water surface in opposite directions. The
forces of the wave fronts cancel each other out and so there is no
movement at all.
Figure 11: Interference of Waves
Any situation between ’completely in phase’ and ’completely out of
phase’ results in an amplitude which is the sum of the amplitudes of
the two waves.

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2.5.2 Sound
The experiment presented in Figure 1 shows a bell located in a glass
2.5.2.1 Physical Characteristics of Sound jar. When the switch is closed, the bell starts to ring and everybody
will hear the sound.
Everybody knows that sounds from distant sources reach our ears
through the air and also through solids. For example, music can be In a second experiment, the glass is sealed so that no air can come
heard through a solid wall when it is loud enough. Another example inside the jar. By means of a vacuum pump the air inside the glass jar
are whales which communicate by sounds over great distances is removed; thus, there is a vacuum inside the jar.
through the sea and thus it proves that sound waves also travels
through liquids. When now the switch is closed the bell will also start to ring but
nobody will hear it, although everybody can see that the hammer of
the bell vibrates.

This experiment proves, sound waves cannot travel through a


vacuum or through space. Sound waves need a medium to travel.
Summarised it can be stated that sound waves can travel through
solids, liquids and through gases as well. But sound waves cannot
travel through a vacuum or through space.

2.5.2.2 Propagation of Sound Waves

When a vibrating object, for example the membrane of a loudspeaker,


disturbs the surrounding medium the particles of the medium are
displaced in the same direction as the resulting sound wave will
travel. The particles of the medium are first pushed away by the
vibration and then bounce back after collision with more particles
further from the source; thus a longitudinal wave motion is established
through the medium.

Definition:

Sound is a longitudinal wave motion and, being mechanical,


Figure 12: Ringing Bell in a Vacuum requires a medium to travel through.

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The motion of sound waves can also be seen in Figure 2. It shows


how sound waves from a loudspeaker produce compression and
rarefaction of the (invisible) air molecules. When molecules are
pushed forwards (to the right in the figure) they meet molecules
bouncing backwards (to the left), after collisions with other molecules
in front, a region of compression is produced where the air pressure is
higher. In between the compression areas there are rarefactions
where the number of molecules is reduced and the air pressure is
lower.

Thus, a progressive sound wave in air can be described as a


travelling pressure wave in which regions of increased air pressure
travel along where the air molecules are compressed together
separated by the regions of reduced air pressure at the rarefactions.
Figure 2, detail b) shows a wave train which corresponds to the
pressure variations produced by the loudspeaker membrane. The
distance between two successive compressions or two pressure
maxima is the wavelength 'λ' of the longitudinal sound wave.

The amplitude ’α’ of the sound wave is presented as the height of the
wave. The loudness of the sound normally depends on the wave
amplitude but in fact there are other things which affect the loudness
of a sound.

Note: The reason is, that the human ear itself is not equally sensitive
to all frequencies. So the perceived loudness of a sound (that is, how
loud a person thinks a sound is) depends upon the response of a
particular ear at that particular pitch. Loudness is therefore partly a
subjective judgment (depending on a particular listener) of a particular
sound. What one person thinks is too loud, another may find
enjoyable.

Figure 2: Longitudinal Sound Waves

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The loudness of a sound also depends on how much energy is Generally, the speed of sound waves can be calculated using the
carried along with the wave motion. It is produced by the maximum formula which is used to calculate the speed of any waves:
distance the loudspeaker cone moves backwards or forwards from its
rest position. 𝑐 = 𝑓 ⋅ 𝜆 (wave speed = frequency x wavelength)

If the volume control of a radio receiver is turned up so that the sound Another method to find out the speed of a particular sound in air is a
suddenly becomes very loud, particles on or near the loudspeaker measurement of the time the sound needs to travel a particular
cone begin to jump. The energy provided by the receiver is much distance to a wall for example and back to the source. This method is
more than before the volume control was turned up, and the air layers called echo method because the sound wave travels to the wall
are disturbed more than before. This energy now converted into where it is reflected and then back to the position of the source.
sound energy is called the intensity of the sound.
Note: Hard surfaces such as walls will reflect sound waves. When
Note: The mathematical treatment of wave theory is fairly complex people hear an echo then they hear a reflected sound a short time
and not part of this course but it shows that the intensity of a sound after the original sound.
wave depends, among other things, on the wave amplitude squared.
Figure 3, detail a) shows an example to determine the speed of sound
Thus if the amplitude of a wave is doubled, it carries four times more in air by the echo method.
energy per second away from the source.
In this example a person stays 100 m apart from a wall and claps two
Definition: wooden blocks together at such a rate that each clap coincides with
the echo of the one before. By counting and timing, say, twenty claps
The intensity of a sound wave is directly proportional to the it will be timed twenty echo’s, so the time taken for one echo can be
wave amplitude squared. calculated using the relation:

2.5.2.3 The Speed of Sound


distance traveled by sound
As already explained, sound requires a medium to travel through and 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑 =
𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑡𝑎𝑘𝑒𝑛
that its longitudinal waves set up vibrations of the particles in the
medium. Any medium which has particles that can vibrate will Note: For calculations it should be noted that the sound travels the
transmit sound, but the nature of the medium will affect the speed at distance to the wall two times; one time from the source to the wall
which the vibrations are passed from particle to particle and hence and second time from the wall back to the source. Thus, the distance
the speed of sound through the medium. source/wall used for calculations must be doubled.

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Figure 3, detail b) shows an example at which the sound pulses are If the distance between the source of the sound and the reflecting
reflected from the sea bed. The time taken for the way the sound has object (wall or sea bed) is exactly the same, for example 100 m, the
travelled is used to estimate the depth of the water under a boat for time the sound needs to travel the distance is not the same. The time
example. This method is used by echo-sounding equipment which is the sound needed to travel the distance through the water is
fitted to some boats to find out water depth under the boat. considerably shorter than the time the sound needed to travel the
distance through the air.

In general, it can be stated that the speed of sound varies


considerable depending on the material through which the waves are
travelling. Sound waves travel more rapidly through liquids than
through gases, and fastest of all through solids.

The strong binding between atoms in solids is the reason for the
higher speed of sound waves travelling through solid material than
through liquids or gases.

A good example to demonstrate the higher speed of sound waves


travelling through a solid material than to the air is given by the
comparison of the railway sounds which can be heard as the ear is
laid on the rail long time before the sound is heard via the air. This
proves, the sound which travels through the rail (medium steel)
arrives well before the sound which comes through the air.

The speed of sound through liquids is also faster than through gases,
but the relatively weaker binding between atoms in a liquid results in a
lower speed of sound in liquids than in solids.

Figure 4 shows the speed of sounds travelling through a solid, liquid


and gas. The values given are only approximate because there are
several other factors besides the fact whether the medium is a solid,
liquid or gas which affect the speed of sound waves through.

Particularly the temperature is one factor affecting the speed of the


Figure 3: Echo Method sound. So is the speed of sound in air at 0 °C, for example 331 m/s at
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Wave Motion and Sound Cat B1 – Module 2

a temperature of 20 °C the speed is 340 m/s. So it can be seen, that Figure 5, detail a) shows an example how sound waves can be used
the speed of sound travelling through a medium increases with to obtain the depth of water below a ship. This echo method is used
temperature. by ships in an instrument which is called fathometer.

Another factor affecting the speed of sound waves through gases is


the humidity of that medium. Because moist air is slightly less dense
than dry air and sound travels more quickly in gases of lower density,
the speed of sound is also slightly greater in moist air than in dry air.

Figure 4: Approximate Speeds of Sound Waves

2.5.2.4 Reflection and Refraction of Sound Waves

Reflection

That sound waves are reflected has been mentioned already. In this
way sound waves obey the same laws of reflection as water waves
and light rays as well. The fact that sound waves are reflected by
other materials is applied in various fields of engineering.
Figure 5: Reflection of Sound Waves

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Wave Motion and Sound Cat B1 – Module 2

This device measures the time interval between the sending out of a Refraction of Sound Waves
pulse of ultrasound and its echo arriving back from the sea bed. Then
the time interval is used to calculate the depth of water below the
ship. For example, if the time interval is 0.8 s and the speed of
ultrasound in water is 1,500 m/s, the depth of water is calculated as
follow;

𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 = 1,500 𝑚/𝑠 𝑥 0.8 𝑠 = 1,200 𝑚

The result shows the total distance the sound travelled including the
way from the ship to the sea bed and from the sea bed back to the
ship. Thus, the sound travelled the way two times. For that reason the Figure 6: Refraction of Sound Waves in Air
total distance calculated must be divided by 2. Thus, the depth of the
water below the ship is Refraction occurs when the speed of the wave changes. The speed of
sound waves in air is affected by the air temperature, so if sound
𝑑𝑒𝑝𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 1,200 ∶ 2 = 600 𝑚 waves pass through layers of air at different temperatures they will be
refracted or turned in a different direction.
The result shows, the depth of water below the ship is 600 m.
Figure 6 shows how, on a summer’s evening when the air near the
Another example for the application of the reflection of sound waves ground becomes cool, refraction makes it easier to hear distant
is the so called ’speaking tube (Figure 5, detail b)). Speaking tubes sounds across the countryside. The sound waves are bent or
are often used for passing messages on ships. refracted down towards the ground.

A speaking tube is a metal tube with a funnel at each end which will On a day when the ground is very hot and the lower layers of air are
pass sound waves in either direction through the air inside. Sound will the hottest, the sound waves are bent upwards away from the ground
travel through the bent tube, being totally internally reflected at the making it more difficult to hear over any distance.
inside surfaces of the metal tube.

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2.5.2.5 The Frequency Spectrum of Sound Waves Figure 7 shows the frequency range of sound waves. At the low-
frequency end of the hearing range it is difficult to say when sound
becomes a sensation of vibration. Below 20 hertz the vibrations are
felt rather than heard. This range is called subsonic (below sound).

At the high-frequency end of the audible range the limit becomes less
sensitive as the frequency rises above about 10 kHz. When people
get older, the range of high-frequency sounds which can be heard is
gradually reduced.

Very few people can hear a frequency of 20 kHz; this value forms the
upper limit which can be heard. Thus the full human hearing range is
about 20 Hz to 20 kHz.

Above 20 kHz the waves are known as ultrasound (beyond sound).


Some animals can hear ultrasonic frequencies and bats use
ultrasound as the same way as radar to find their way. Many uses
have been found for ultrasound where it has several advantages over
audible sound.

Pitch

Pitch is something perceived by the human ear, as opposed to


frequency, the physical measurement of vibration. The note A above
middle C played on any instrument is perceived to be of the same
pitch as a pure tone of 440Hz, but does not necessarily contain that
frequency or only that frequency.

Furthermore, a slight change in frequency need not lead to a


perceived change in pitch, but a change in pitch implies a change in
frequency. In fact, the just noticeable difference (the threshold at
which a change in pitch is perceived) is about five cents (1 cent is a
100th of a semitone), but varies over the range of hearing and is more
Figure 7: Frequency Spectrum of Sound Waves precise when the two pitches are played simultaneously.

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Wave Motion and Sound Cat B1 – Module 2

2.5.2.6 Sound Intensity/Amplitude A sonar signal consists of

Sound does not only differ in frequency and pitch but also in intensity.  a sound wave with a distinct frequency and
A strong tone is generated by a powerful sound source and is  a pulse which determines the beginning and the end of the
characterised by strong oscillations. The waves have larger positive sound wave (frequency).
and negative swings and therefore have a higher oscillation amplitude
than weaker waves. Amplitude is a measure of sound intensity. The The pulse acts as a gate for the wave, i.e. the transmission of
intensity is given in terms of decibel (dB). frequency begins as soon as the pulse ’opens the gate’. The duration
of transmission is determined by the length of the pulse, which is
The intensity or loudness of sonar transmissions is called source level called pulse width (PW) or pulse duration (PD).
(SL), which represents the intensity of the sound source (transducer).
The source level is related to the amplitude of the sound wave. The At the end of the pulse the emission of the frequency is cut off.
higher the source level, the greater the amplitude.
In practical sonar uses, the SL cannot be adjusted by the sonar
As a general rule, the higher the sonar range, the higher the source operator. It is either a fixed value or is automatically adjusted in
level must be. However, there are limitations on the SL setting. If the accordance with range setting.
transmission power fed to the transducer were too high, the
transducer could be damaged. 2.5.2.7 The Doppler Effect
The maximum source level is therefore limited according to the The Doppler Effect, named after Christian Andreas Doppler, is the
capacities of the individual sonar equipment. Therefore the source apparent change in frequency or wavelength of a wave that is
level always has to be co-ordinated with range setting. perceived by an observer moving relative to the source of the waves.
For waves, such as sound waves that propagate in a wave medium
Acoustic Pulses the velocity of the observer and the source are reckoned relative to
the medium in which the waves are transmitted. The total Doppler
A sound signal is generated by a sound source which is any type of Effect may therefore result from either motion of the source or motion
transducer. of the observer.

The signal itself may be emitted either as a continuous tone (high It is important to realise that the frequency of the sounds that the
tone, low tone) or as a sequence of pulses. source emits does not actually change. For example, someone
throws one ball every second in your direction. Assume that the balls
In sonar systems the continuous wave is cut into segments. The wave travel with constant velocity. If the thrower is stationary, you will
is said to be ’pulsed’. A pulse is, therefore, a ’package’ of sound receive one ball every second. However, if he is moving towards you,
waves. you will receive balls more frequently than that because there will be
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less spacing between the balls. The converse is true if the person is
moving away from you. So it is actually the wavelength which is
affected; as a consequence, the perceived frequency is also affected.
If the moving source is emitting waves with an actual frequency f 0,
then an observer stationary relative to the medium detects waves with
a frequency f given by:
𝑣
𝑓 = 𝑓𝑜 ∙
𝑣 − 𝑣𝑠,𝑟

where v is the speed of the waves in the medium and vs, r is the
speed of the source with respect to the medium (positive if moving
towards the observer, negative if moving away) radial to the observer.

A similar analysis for a moving observer and a stationary source


yields the observed frequency (the observer’s velocity being Figure 8: Example of the Doppler Effect
represented as v0):
𝑣0 Astronomer John Dobson explained the effect:
𝑓 = 𝑓0 ∙ (1 + )
𝑣
’The reason the siren slides is because it does not hit you.’
Example: The siren on a passing emergency vehicle will start out
higher than its stationary pitch, slide down as it passes, and continue In other words, if the siren approached you directly, the pitch would
lower than its stationary pitch as it recedes from the observer. remain constant (as vs, r is only the radial component) until the
vehicle hit you, and then immediately jump to a new lower pitch. The
difference between the higher pitch and rest pitch would be the same
as the lower pitch and rest pitch. Because the vehicle passes by you,
the radial velocity does not remain constant, but instead varies as a
function of the angle between your line of sight and the siren’s
velocity:

𝑣𝑠,𝑟 = 𝑣𝑠 ∙ cos 𝜃

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where vs is the velocity of the object (source of waves) with respect to


the medium, and θ is the angle between the object’s forward velocity
and the line of sight from the object to the observer.

Application in Radar Technologies

The Doppler effect is also used in some forms of radar to measure


the velocity of detected objects. A radar beam is fired at a moving
target - a car, for example, as radar is often used by police to detect
speeding motorists - as it recedes from the radar source.

Each successive wave has to travel further to reach the car, before
being reflected and re-detected near the source. As each wave has to
move further, the gap between each wave increases, increasing the
wavelength. In some situations, the radar beam is fired at the moving
car as it approaches, in which case each successive wave travels a
lesser distance, decreasing the wavelength.

In either situation, calculations from the Doppler effect accurately


determine the car’s velocity.

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