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BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES
CNC

by Endika Gandarias
Dr. ENDIKA GANDARIAS MINTEGI

Mechanical and Manufacturing department

Mondragon Unibertsitatea - www.mondragon.edu


(Basque Country)

www.linkedin.com/in/endika-gandarias-mintegi-91174653

Further presentations: www.symbaloo.com/mix/manufacturingtechnology

by Endika Gandarias 2
CONTENTS
BIBLIOGRAPHY
INTRODUCTION
REFERENCE SYSTEMS
BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING
FIXED CANNED CYCLES
EXERCISES
FAGOR SIMULATOR
GLOSSARY

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

by Endika Gandarias 4
BIBLIOGRAPHY

The author would like to thank all the bibliographic references and videos that
have contributed to the elaboration of these presentations.

For bibliographic references, please refer to:

• http://www.slideshare.net/endika55/bibliography-71763364 (PDF file)

• http://www.slideshare.net/endika55/bibliography-71763366 (PPT file)

For videos, please refer to:

• www.symbaloo.com/mix/manufacturingtechnology

by Endika Gandarias 5
INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

by Endika Gandarias 6
INTRODUCTION

Definition
 CNC (Computer Numerical Control (CNC) refers to the method of controlling a machine tool or
the machining process by means of a computer.
 Coded numerical instructions are inserted into the CNC  PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

Brief history
1942 Bendix Corporation, a USA helicopter blade manufacturing company,
needs three-dimensional cam parts.
→ Coordination of movements is necessary.

1947 John Parson (a Bendix corporation worker) using punched tapes


is able to control simultaneously axes movements of a machine
→ MIT collaborates

1953 Numerical Control (NC) term appears at M.I.T.

1960 Adaptative Control term appears at M.I.T.


NC Punched Tape
1970 Computer Numerical Control (CNC) is created
→ Microprocessors origin.

1980 Direct Numerical Control (DNC) is possible.


A large number of machines are controlled by a computer.

by Endika Gandarias 7
INTRODUCTION

CNC machine tool description Loop control types


OPEN LOOP

VIDEO

CLOSED LOOP

Position Velocity
Feedback Feedback

CNC block diagram VIDEO


Machine control feedback: position & velocity
by Endika Gandarias 8
INTRODUCTION

CNC machine tool description


An encoder is a sensor for converting rotary
Feedback devices motion or position to analog/digital signal.

ABSOLUTE ROTARY ENCODER INCREMENTAL ROTARY ENCODER

VIDEO
VIDEO VIDEO
 Every position of an absolute device is unique.  The feedback signal is always referenced to a start
 The disk has many circular tracks, the higher the or home position. They need an external processing
number of tracks the higher the resolution. of signals.
 These devices do not lose position when power  In the event of a power failure, it must be
is removed (homing sequence not needed on reinitialized.
startup).  They are susceptible to noise, thus, errors.
 They do not accumulate errors (not affected by  They are simpler and cheaper.
noise signal).
 They are more complex and expensive.

by Endika Gandarias 9
INTRODUCTION

CNC machine tool description

Feedback devices

LINEAR GLASS SCALE ENCODER

Absolute glass scale

 It measures directly the position of linear axes.


 High positioning accuracy. Incremental glass scale
 High permissible traversing speed.
 It can correct next errors:
 Positioning error due to thermal behavior of the recirculating ball screw. VIDEO
 Reversal error.
 Kinematics error through ball-screw pitch error. VIDEO
VIDEO
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INTRODUCTION

Advantages
 High Repeatability + High Trueness = High Accuracy.
 More complex 3-dimensional geometries.

Increasing Trueness
 Better quality.
 Higher productivity.
 Greater safety and lower operator qualification.
 Greater flexibility to part changes.
 Minimizes human errors.

Disadvantages Increasing Repeatability


 Higher investment cost.
 Higher maintenance cost.
 Time consuming set-up.
 Training is needed for CNC programming.

CNC FAGOR - USER MANUAL


www.fagorautomation.com/download/
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INTRODUCTION

Type of machines
 Turning Centers  Grinding Machines
 Milling Centers  EDM Machines
 Machining Centers  Laser-Cutting Machines
 Drilling Machines  …

CNC manufacturers

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INTRODUCTION

Axis nomenclature

Turning machine Three-axes milling machine

The axes are named


according to DIN 66217. B+

A+
C+

Six-axis milling machine

VIDEO VIDEO
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INTRODUCTION

Reference systems

VIDEO
by Endika Gandarias 14
INTRODUCTION

Reference systems

 M  Machine Zero or home: This is set by the manufacturer as the origin of the coordinate
system of the machine.

 W  Part zero or point of origin of the part: This is the origin point that is set for
programming the measurements of the part. It can be freely selected by the programmer.

 R  Machine Reference point. This is a point on the machine established by the


manufacturer around which the synchronization of the system is done. The control positions
the axis on this point.

by Endika Gandarias 15
INTRODUCTION

CNC machine setup and operation

 Check coolant and air supply levels,


ensure work area is clean, …

 Fill the tool carousel.

 Define Tool Length & Radius Offsets

 Once he workholding device is properly


installed and aligned, set part X,Y&Z zero
datum.

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REFERENCE SYSTEMS

REFERENCE SYSTEMS

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REFERENCE SYSTEMS

Machine Reference (R) setting T1 T2 T3 T4

R R R R
TOOL LENGTH
COMPENSATION OFF

G44 L1 L2 L3 L4
OFFSET TABLE
TOOL
TOOL RADIUS LENGTH
OFFSET
T1 D1 55.234
T2 D1 72.345
T3 D1 61.098
T4 D1 66.683
… … ... …

TOOL LENGTH
COMPENSATION ON

G43

R R R R

by Endika Gandarias 18
REFERENCE SYSTEMS

Machine Reference (R) setting

1 Tool presetting machine

X  High accuracy.
 Based on camera images (contact methods were used in
the past).
 Tool length (L) and radius (R) values are measured.
 Minimizes tool setting times.
 Used at high production runs.

TOOL LENGTH MEASUREMENT


VIDEO TOOL RADIUS MEASUREMENT

by Endika Gandarias 19
REFERENCE SYSTEMS

Machine Reference (R) setting

2 Tool on the workpiece


T1 T2 T3 T4

R R R R

W
L1 < 0
W L3 < 0 L4 = 0
L2 > 0

 Low accuracy.
 Time consuming method.
 Only tool length (L) values are measured.
 Tool is rotating and thus, part or referencing block gets marked. TOOL LENGTH MEASUREMENT

by Endika Gandarias 20
REFERENCE SYSTEMS

Machine Reference (R) setting

BASED ON A REF. TOOL


3 Using a tool length setter gauge R R

L1=0 L2<0

BASED ON MACHINE DATUM


R
R

VIDEO L1
L2
z1
z2
 Good accuracy.
 Time consuming method. 50 50
M
 Only tool length (L) values are measured.
L1= z1-50 L2= z2-50
 Part or referencing block does not get marked. TOOL LENGTH MEASUREMENT

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REFERENCE SYSTEMS

Machine Reference (R) setting

4 Using a touch probe Additional applications

Low RPM

 High accuracy.
VIDEO
 Fast method.
 Tool length (L) and radius (R) values are measured.
TOOL LENGTH MEASUREMENT
 Tool rotates counterclockwise not to mark the probe at low RPM. TOOL RADIUS MEASUREMENT

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REFERENCE SYSTEMS

Machine Reference (R) setting

5 Using a laser beam Additional applications

 Highest accuracy.
 Fast method.
 Tool length (L) and radius (R) values are measured.
 Tool rotates at working conditions. TOOL LENGTH MEASUREMENT
VIDEO VIDEO TOOL RADIUS MEASUREMENT

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REFERENCE SYSTEMS

Part zero (W) setting


 Prior to defining part zero, procedure should be:
1. Study how the drawing is dimensioned.
2. Decide on the workholding device type and part zero (W) definition.
 Machine operator defines part zero (W) position anywhere.
 Most common positions:
o Left lower side of the part (all data position values are positive).
o Part symmetry axis.
o CLAMP CASE  Centering pins side.
Stationary chuck
o VISE CASE  Stationary chuck & vise stop side.
Movable chuck
Clamps Centering pins

Vise stop

Clamps (with or without centering pins) Vise (with or without vise stop)
by Endika Gandarias 24
REFERENCE SYSTEMS

Part zero (W) setting


VISE Z VISE Z
Y Y
X
X

Y Y
Y Y
X Z
X Z

Symmetry

X-Y axis part symmetry Stationary chuck & Y axis part symmetry
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REFERENCE SYSTEMS

Part zero (W) setting Z


VISE CLAMP

Y
X
X
Z
X Z
X

Stationary chuck & left lower part Stationary chuck & Y axis part symmetry
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REFERENCE SYSTEMS

Part zero (W) setting

1 Using the tool 2 Using a mechanical edge finder

VIDEO
 Low accuracy.  Low accuracy.
 Tool is rotating and thus, part gets VIDEO
marked.
X Optical edge finder  similar
Y DATUM SETTING X
DATUM SETTING
Z Y

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REFERENCE SYSTEMS

Part zero (W) setting

3 Using a touch probe

 High accuracy.

X
Y DATUM SETTING
VIDEO VIDEO Z

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REFERENCE SYSTEMS

Part zero (W) setting

3 Using a touch probe


2 types:
1. Touch-trigger probes
2. Scanning probes (continuous measuring)
Touch probe stylus tips
PRO & CON:
Almost any machined geometry may be measured in-situ.
Reduced machine downtime.
Part unclamping for measuring is avoided.
It cannot consider possible machine axes errors.

VIDEO
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BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

FAGOR 8055-M

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BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

Block structure

/ N**** G** X****.*** Y****.*** Z****.*** A****.*** B****.*** C****.*** F****.** S****.**

Linear and angular


positioning data Feed function
Preparatory
functions
or G-codes

Speed function
Block identification
Identifies the block of information.

Block skip condition

T** D** M** N** ;*****


Not ISO,
Block comment
= corresponds to
Number of block repetitions FAGOR 8055M
Miscellaneous or auxiliary functions
Tool offset number
Tool number
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BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

Feed function (F) Speed function (S)

 The feed function F is the speed at which the tool  The speed function S is the speed at which the
center point moves. tool (in milling) or part (in turning) rotates.

 The programmed F is effective working in linear  The maximum S value is limited by the machine
(G01) or circular (G02, G03). parameters.

 The maximum F value is limited by the machine


parameters.

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BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

Tool number (T)


The "T" code identifies the tool position in the tool magazine.

Tool offset number (D)


The tool offset contains the tool dimensions.
Each tool may have several offsets associated with it.

TOOL TOOL
TOOL RADIUS LENGTH … TOOL RADIUS LENGTH …
OFFSET OFFSET
D1 8.002 55.234 … D1 4.000 72.345 …

T1
D2 7.502 55.234 …
T2
D2 11.990 60.036 … …
D3 8.002 55.026 … D3 7.500 33.110 …
… … … … … … … …

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BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

Auxiliary or Miscellaneous (M) functions

M functions DESCRIPTION
M00 Program STOP / Spindle STOP / Coolant OFF
M03 Spindle ON clockwise
M04 Spindle ON counterclockwise
M05 Spindle STOP
M06 Tool change
M08 Coolant ON
M09 Coolant OFF
M30 End of program

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BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

Preparatory functions or G-codes

M functions MODAL DESCRIPTION


G00 * Rapid traverse
G01 * Linear interpolation
G02 * Clockwise circular interpolation
G03 * Counterclockwise circular interpolation
G05 * Controlled corner rounding
G07 * Square corner
G36 Automatic radius blend
G39 Chamfer
G37 Tangential entry
G38 Tangential exit
G40 * Cancellation of tool radius compensation
G41 * Left-hand tool radius compensation
G42 * Right-hand tool radius compensation
G43 * Tool length compensation MODAL = Once programmed, it remains active until
another incompatible G function is
G44 * Cancellation of tool length compensation
programmed or until M30 / EMERGENCY
G90 * Absolute programming or RESET.
G91 * Incremental programming
… … …

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BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

Preparatory functions or G-codes


Rapid traverse (G00) Linear interpolation (G01)
 It is a positioning linear movement at maximum  It is a working linear movement at the
F value defined in the machine parameters. programmed F value.

 Not valid for cutting.  It can be programmed as G01 or G1.

 It can be programmed as G00, G0 or G.

G00 X___ Y___ G01 X___ Y___

TP TP

(TP) (TP)

(SP) (SP)

… …
N80 G00 X500 Y300 N120 G01 X500 Y300 F400
… …
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BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

Preparatory functions or G-codes


Rapid traverse (G00) Linear interpolation (G01)

EXERCISE 1

= SP

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BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

Preparatory functions or G-codes


Clockwise circular interpolation (G02)
Counterclockwise circular interpolation (G03)

 It is a working circular movement at the programmed F value.

 It can be programmed as G02 or G2 / G03 or G3.

G02 X___ Y___ I___ J___ G03 X___ Y___ I___ J___

TP Distance from the SP to TP Distance from the SP to


CARTESIAN COORDINATES

the Circle Center (CC). the Circle Center (CC).


WITH ARC CENTER

CC
TP TP
J J

CC
SP I I
SP

… …
N60 G02 X300 Y300 I200 J0 N60 G03 X300 Y300 I0 J200
… …
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BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

Preparatory functions or G-codes


Clockwise circular interpolation (G02)
Counterclockwise circular interpolation (G03)
 A complete circle cannot be programmed.

G02 X___ Y___ R___ G03 X___ Y___ R___

TP R + : Arc < 180º TP R + : Arc < 180º


CARTESIAN COORDINATES
WITH ARC RADIUS

TP

SP

TP
SP

… …
R+ N40 G02 X400 Y150 R150 R+ N40 G03 X400 Y300 R150
… …
… …
N40 G02 X400 Y150 R-150 N40 G03 X400 Y300 R-150
… …
by Endika Gandarias 39
BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

Preparatory functions or G-codes


Clockwise circular interpolation (G02)
Counterclockwise circular interpolation (G03)

EXERCISE 2 EXERCISE 3

SP SP
w w

EXERCISE 4 EXERCISE 5

SP SP
w w
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BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

Preparatory functions or G-codes


Clockwise circular interpolation (G02)
Counterclockwise circular interpolation (G03)

EXERCISE 6

SP

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BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

Preparatory functions or G-codes


Absolute programming (G90)
Incremental programming (G91)
G90: The positioning data refers to the part zero (default).

G91: The positioning data corresponds to the distance to be travelled from the point
where the tool is situated.

= SP

Absolute programming (G90) Incremental programming (G91)


… …
N70 G01 G90 X70 Y15 F350 ; P2 N70 G01 G91 X50 Y0 F350; P2
N80 G01 X70 Y30 ; P3 N80 G01 X0 Y15 ; P3
N90 G01 X45 Y45 ; P4 N90 G01 X-25 Y15 ; P4
N100 G01 X20 Y45 ; P5 N100 G01 X-25 Y0 ; P5
N110 G01 X20 Y15 ; P6 N110 G01 X0 Y-30 ; P6
… …

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BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

Preparatory functions or G-codes


Absolute programming (G90)
Incremental programming (G91)

EXERCISE 7 EXERCISE 8

SP

SP

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BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

Other functions
REPEAT

(RPT N___ ,N___)N___

From To Number of
block block repetitions

EXERCISE 9

SP

100 275 450 600 775 950 1100 1275 1450

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BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

Face Milling Slot Milling Engraving

Profile Milling Pecking / Drilling / Pocket Milling


Threading / Reaming

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BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

Face milling For exercises consider:


70 ae = 50% of tool Ø

100

80
60
60
SP
40

20 Security
distance ~ 2 mm

20 40 60 80 100
N00 T1 D1 ; Ø28mm end-mill, assign tool 1 value D1
N10 M06 ; Tool change action
N20 G00 G43 X14 Y40 Z100 F400 S1500 M03
N30 G00 Z58
N40 G01 X116 Y40
N50 G00 X116 Y54
N60 G01 X14 Y54
N70 G00 X14 Y68
N80 G01 X116 Y68
N90 G00 X116 Y82
N100 G01 X14 Y82
N110 G00 X14 Y96
N120 G01 X116 Y96
N130 G00 Z100
N130 M30 ; End of program

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BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

Face milling

EXERCISE 10

Tool: Ø50mm HSS end-mill, z=4


Material: Aluminium

• CASE A  apTOTAL=5mm; ap=5mm

• CASE B  apTOTAL=5mm; ap=2.5mm  RPT

• CASE C  apTOTAL=5mm; ap=1mm  RPT & G91

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BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

Preparatory functions or G-codes


Square corner (G07) Round corner (G05)
 The CNC starts executing the following block as  The CNC starts executing the following block as
soon as the position programmed in the current soon as deceleration of the currently executing
block has reached the dead band (default)  axes start (“?” distance depends on the feedrate
Sharp edges, Machining time ↑, Shocks ↑. F value)  Rounded edges, Machining time ↓
 To be used with G00: face milling, canned  NOT to be used with G00: slot milling,
cycles, … Fx engraving, contouring,…
Fx
t t t

Deceleration
t
Constant feed

Acceleration
Fy Fy
DEAD BAND: The range
through which an input can be
w varied without initiating response w
… …
N60 G01 G07 X50 Y100 F400 N60 G01 G05 X50 Y100 F400
N70 G01 X140 Y100 F300 N70 G01 X140 Y100 F300
… …

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BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

Face Milling Slot Milling Engraving

Profile Milling Pecking / Drilling / Pocket Milling


Threading / Reaming

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BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

Slot milling
+Z Tool: Ø10mm H.S.S. end-mill

60
ap TOTAL = 6mm ; ap = 2mm

40

20 6

20 40 60 80 100

N00 T7 D1 ; Ø10mm end-mill


N10 M06 95 • •
N20 G00 G43 X85 Y13 Z100 F400 S3500 M03
N30 G00 Z20
N40 G00 G91 Z-2 70 •
N50 G01 G90 G05 X85 Y45
N60 G01 X60 Y70 45 •
N70 G01 X60 Y95
N80 G01 G07 X3 Y95 Security
N90 G00 G91 Z10 20 ~ 2 mm
SP distance
N100 G00 G90 X85 Y13
N110 G00 G91 Z-10 20 60 85
N120 (RPT N40,N110)N1 ; Repeat
N130 (RPT N40,N80)N1 ; Repeat
N140 G00 Z100
N150 M30
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BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

Slot milling
+Z
EXERCISE 11
60

40 Tool: Ø16mm H.M. end-mill, z=3


Material: Steel
20
5
ap TOTAL = 5mm ; ap = 2.5mm

100
85 • •
65 • •
40

SP

35 55 65 85

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BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

Engraving
+Z

EXERCISE 12 Tool: Ø12mm HSS engraving tool, z=1


60
Material: Steel
40

20 ap TOTAL = 2mm ; ap = 2mm


2

20 40 60 80 100

100

70
60
52.5
45

20 H.M. H.S.S.
engraving tool engraving tool

20 35 45 55 70 85 100

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BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

Preparatory functions or G-codes


Cancellation of tool radius compensation (G40)
Left-hand tool radius compensation (G41)
Right-hand tool radius compensation (G42)

 The CNC automatically calculates the path the tool should follow based on the contour of the part
and the tool radius value stored in the tool offset table.

G41 - CLIMB CUTTING G42 - CONVENTIONAL CUTTING

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BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

Preparatory functions or G-codes


Cancellation of tool radius compensation (G40)
Left-hand tool radius compensation (G41)
Right-hand tool radius compensation (G42)

 Tool entry & exit should always be perpendicular to the workpiece contour.
 Tool entry & exit should be avoided to be from a workpiece edge  may produce burr.

SP G41

22.5
30 N50 G01 G41 G05 X77.5 Y70 F400
N60 G01 X100 Y70
70 • N70 G01 X100 Y60
N80 G03 X85 Y45 I0 J-15
60 N90 G02 X70 Y30 I-15 J0
N100 G01 X50 Y30
45 N110 G01 X20 Y20
N120 G01 X25 Y70
30 N130 G03 X55 Y70 I15 J0
N140 G01 X77.5 Y70
20
N150 G01 G40 G07 X77.5 Y100

20 25 50 55 70 85 100

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BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

Face Milling Slot Milling Engraving

Profile Milling Pecking / Drilling / Pocket Milling


Threading / Reaming

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BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

Profile milling

EXERCISE 13 +Z

60

30
Roughing operation
Tool: Ø8mm H.M. end-mill, z=3
30 60 90 120 150
Material: Aluminium

ap TOTAL = 10mm ; ap = 2.5mm


90

60

30


30 60 90 120 150
25
SP

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BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

Preparatory functions or G-codes


Automatic radius blend (G36) Chamfer (G39)

G36 R___ G39 R___


 It rounds a corner with a determined radius,  It chamfers corners between two straight lines,
without having to calculate the center nor the without having to calculate intersection points.
start and end points of the arc.  Function G39 is not modal.
 Function G36 is not modal.

… …
N60 G01 G36 R5 X250 Y450 F400 N60 G01 G39 R15 X350 Y600 F400
N70 G01 X400 Y0 N70 G01 X500 Y0
… …

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BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

Preparatory functions or G-codes


Tangential entry (G37 RENTRY) Tangential exit (G38 REXIT)
 It is used to create a tangential entry in Finishing  It is used to create a tangential entry in Finishing
operations so tool entry mark can be unnoticeable operations so tool exit mark can be unnoticeable
(not necessary for roughing). (not necessary for roughing).

NOT MODAL FUNCTION NOT MODAL FUNCTION

RENTRY > RTOOL-OFFSET REXIT > RTOOL-OFFSET


G38 REXIT
LENTRY ≥ 2 * RENTRY LEXIT ≥ 2 * REXIT

RENTRY REXIT
G37 RENTRY

12 ≥ 11 12 ≥ 11
LENTRY 25 ≥ 2 * 12 LEXIT 25 ≥ 2 * 12

… …
N60 G01 G05 G41 G37 R12 X25 Y30 ; Tool Ø 22mm N60 G01 G38 R12 X25 Y30 ; Tool Ø 22mm
N70 G01 X10 Y30 N70 G01 G07 G40 X25 Y5
… …

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BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

Preparatory functions or G-codes


Summary for profile milling operations

3 4

WORKPIECE
RENTRY = REXIT

G38 REXIT
LENTRY = LEXIT
1
2 5

G01 G01
G05 G07
G41 G40
G37 RENTRY
NOTE:
0 - G37 & G38 only for finishing operations.

G00 RENTRY > RTOOL-OFFSET


G43 TOOL
LENTRY ≥ 2 * RENTRY

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BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

Face Milling Slot Milling Engraving

Profile Milling Pecking / Drilling / Pocket Milling


Threading / Reaming

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BASIC ISO PROGRAMMING

Profile milling

EXERCISE 14
+Z
Roughing operation:
+X Tool: Ø20mm H.M. end-mill, z=3
Stock: 0.4mm

SP
+Y Finishing operation:
Tool: Ø20mm H.M. end-mill, z=3
Stock: 0mm

Material: Steel
ap TOTAL = 5mm ; ap = 2.5mm
(Use G36 R__ and G39 R__)

+X • CASE A  Same tool


• CASE B  Different tool

by Endika Gandarias 61
FIXED CYCLES OR CANNED CYCLES

 Cycles are referred to repetitive program sequences commonly used In machining operations
that makes easier programming.
 Canned cycles or Fixed cycles: They are an inbuilt feature of the CNC usually
permanently stored as a pre-program and cannot be altered by the user (G80-G89)
 User-defined cycles or Sub-routines: They are created when the necessary fixed
cycle is not available.

CANNED
CYCLE DESCRIPTION
NUMBER

G80 Canned cycle cancellation

G81 Drilling cycle

G69 Deep hole drilling cycle with variable peck

G84 Tapping cycle

G85 Reaming cycle

G87 Rectangular pocket cycle

G88 Circular pocket cycle

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FIXED CYCLES OR CANNED CYCLES

G81: Drilling cycle  Valid for drilling depth


≤ 3*Ø G81 G98/G99 X___ Y___ Z___ I___ K___
 Valid for pecking cycle

Withdrawal Machining Dwell time


planes coordinates (1/100s)
Initial Plane (I.P.) - G98 Distance from Distance from
I.P. R.P. w to the R.P. w to the
Reference Plane (R.P.) - G99 drilling depth
Only one drill machining
W Z
I N0 T1 D1 ; Ø8mm drill
15
N10 M06
N20 G00 G43 X30 Y20 Z100 F300 S1400 M03
N30 G81 G98 X30 Y20 Z2 I-15 K100 ; P1
N40 G80
N50 M30

Four drills machining


8
N0 T1 D1 ; Ø8mm drill
4 3
N10 M06
N20 G00 G43 X30 Y20 Z100 F300 S1400 M03
N30 G81 G99 X30 Y20 Z2 I-15 K100 ; P1
1 2 N40 G00 X80 Y20 ; P2
N50 G00 X80 Y50 ; P3
N60 G00 G98 X30 Y50 ; P4
N70 G80
N80 M30

by Endika Gandarias 63
FIXED CYCLES OR CANNED CYCLES

G81: Drilling cycle  Valid for drilling depth


≤ 3*Ø G81 G98/G99 X___ Y___ Z___ I___ K___
 Valid for pecking cycle

Withdrawal Machining Dwell time


planes coordinates (1/100s)
Initial Plane (I.P.) - G98
Distance from Distance from
Ref. Plane’ (R.P.) - G99’ I.P. R.P. w to the R.P. w to the
R.P. - G99 Z’ drilling depth
25
W Z I’ 10
I
15 Four drills machining
N0 T1 D1 ; Ø8mm drill
N10 M06
N20 G00 G43 X30 Y20 Z100 F300 S1400 M03 ; Z100
N30 G81 G99 X30 Y20 Z2 I-15 K100 ; Z2
N40 G00 G98 X30 Y50 ; Z100
N50 G81 G99 X80 Y50 Z27 I10 K100 ; Z27
8 N60 G00 G98 X80 Y20 ; Z100
2 3 N70 G80
N80 M30

1 4

by Endika Gandarias 64
FIXED CYCLES OR CANNED CYCLES

G69: Deep hole drilling cycle


with variable peck G69 G98/G99 X___ Y___ Z___ I___ B___ C___
 General drilling
cycle (≥ 3*Ø)
Withdrawal Machining Drilling Approach
planes coordinates peck to the
Initial Plane (I.P.) - G98
previous
Ref. Plane’ (R.P.) - G99’ Distance from Distance from drilling
I.P. R.P. w to the R.P. w to the
D’
R.P. - G99 Z’ drilling depth
25
W Z D
D___ H___ J___ K___ L___ R___
I’ 20
B
60 I
Withdrawal Dwell time Reduction factor
after drilling (1/100s) for drilling peck
Distance between R.P. Minimum
Num. pecks
and working surface drilling peck
before total
(absolute value)
withdrawal
8

2 3 N0 T3 D3 ; Ø10mm drill
N10 M06
N20 G00 G43 X30 Y20 Z100 F300 S1400 M03
N30 G69 G99 X30 Y20 Z2 I-60 B4 C1 D2 H10 J5 K100 L2 R0.8 ; Z2
1 4 N40 G00 G98 X30 Y50 ; Z100
N50 G69 G99 X80 Y50 Z27 I-20 B4 C1 D2 H10 J5 K100 L2 R0.8 ; Z27
N60 G98 X80 Y20 ; Z100
N40 G80
N50 M30

by Endika Gandarias 65
FIXED CYCLES OR CANNED CYCLES

G84: Tapping cycle


G84 G98/G99 X___ Y___ Z___ I___ K___ R___

Withdrawal Machining Dwell time


planes coordinates (1/100s)

Initial Plane (I.P.) - G98 Distance from Distance from


I.P. R.P. w to the R.P. w to the thread
Ref. Plane (R.P.) - G99 depth
W Z
Type of tapping
R=0 Normal tapping
I R=1 Rigid tapping

60

N0 T7 D7 ; M-10 tap
N10 M06
N20 G00 G43 X50 Y20 Z100 F600 S600 M03
N30 G84 G98 X50 Y20 Z2 I-60 R0
N40 G80
N50 M30

by Endika Gandarias 66
FIXED CYCLES OR CANNED CYCLES

G85: Reaming cycle


G85 G98/G99 X___ Y___ Z___ I___ K___

Withdrawal Machining Dwell time


planes coordinates (1/100s)
Initial Plane (I.P.) - G98
Ref. Plane’ (R.P.) - G99’ Distance from Distance from
I.P. R.P. w to the R.P. w to the
R.P. - G99 Z’ reaming depth
20
W Z
I’ 15
35 I

N0 T4 D4 ; Ø12H6 reamer
N10 M06
N20 G00 G43 X30 Y20 Z100 F500 S2500 M03
12 N30 G85 G99 X30 Y20 Z2 I-35 K100
N40 G00 G98 X30 Y50
2 3
N50 G85 G99 X80 Y50 Z22 I-15 K100
N60 G00 X80 Y20
N70 G80
1 4
N80 M30

by Endika Gandarias 67
FIXED CYCLES OR CANNED CYCLES

Face Milling Slot Milling Engraving

Profile Milling Pecking / Drilling / Pocket Milling


Tapping / Reaming

by Endika Gandarias 68
FIXED CYCLES OR CANNED CYCLES

Pecking / Drilling / Tapping / Reaming

EXERCISE 15

Tool:
Ø12mm H.M. spot drill, z=2
Ø7.75mm H.S.S. drill, z=2
Ø8H7 H.M. reamer, z=5

Material: Steel
7
H
8

by Endika Gandarias 69
FIXED CYCLES OR CANNED CYCLES

Pecking / Drilling / Tapping / Reaming

EXERCISE 16

Tool:
Ø12mm H.M. spot drill, z=2
Ø5mm H.S.S. drill, z=2
M-6x1 H.M. tap

Material: Aluminium

by Endika Gandarias 70
FIXED CYCLES OR CANNED CYCLES

Pecking / Drilling / Tapping / Reaming

EXERCISE 17

Tool:
Ø16mm H.S.S. spot drill, z=2
Ø5mm H.S.S. drill, z=2
M-6x1 H.M. tap

Material: Steel

by Endika Gandarias 71
EXERCISES

EXERCISES

by Endika Gandarias 72
EXERCISES

Face milling / Profile milling

EXERCISE 18
Material: Steel

by Endika Gandarias 73
EXERCISES

Face milling / Profile milling

EXERCISE 19
Material: Aluminium

by Endika Gandarias 74
EXERCISES

Face milling / Grooving / Pecking / Drilling / Tapping / Reaming

EXERCISE 20
Material: Aluminium

by Endika Gandarias 75
FAGOR SIMULATOR

FAGOR SIMULATOR

by Endika Gandarias 76
FAGOR SIMULATOR

CNC FAGOR 8060/65 SIMULATOR


www.fagorautomation.com/download/

CHANGE LANGUAGE: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rFTlmvQJdk8 VIDEO

VIDEO VIDEO
by Endika Gandarias 77
GLOSSARY

GLOSSARY

by Endika Gandarias 78
GLOSSARY

ENGLISH SPANISH BASQUE


Accuracy Exactitud Zehaztasun
Adaptative control Control adaptativo Kontrol moldagarri
Blade Hélice Helize
Burr Rebaba Bizar
Cam Leva Espeka
Carousel Carrusel Karrusel
Chamfer Chaflán Alaka
Clamp Brida Brida
Climb cutting Corte en concordancia Konkordantzia ebaketa
Clockwise Sentido horario Erlojuaren norantza
Closed loop Lazo cerrado Lotura itxia
Conventional cutting Corte en contraposición Kontraposizio ebaketa
Coolant Regfrigerante Hozkarri
Counterclockwise Sentido anti-horario Erlojuaren aurkako norantza
Dead band Banda muerta Tarte hila
Deep hole drilling Taladrado profundo Zulaketa sakona
Downtime Tiempo de inactividad Aktibitate gabeko denbora
Drill Broca Barauts
Drilling Taladrado Zulaketa
Driving system Sistema de regulación Erregulazio sistema
Dwell time Tiempo de espera Itxaron denbora
Edge finder Centrador Zentratzaile
EDM Electroerosión Elektrohigadura
Encoder Encoder Encoder
End mill Fresa plana Fresa planua
Engraving Grabado Grabaketa
Face milling Planeado Planeaketa
Feed Avance por minuto Aitzinamendua minutuko

by Endika Gandarias 79
GLOSSARY

ENGLISH SPANISH BASQUE


Finishing Acabado Akabera
Fixed canned cycle Ciclo fijo Ziklo fijoa
Glass scale Regla óptica Erregela optiko
Grinding Rectificado Artezketa
Grooving Ranurado Artekaketa
Homing Búsqueda de cero máquina Zero makina bilatzea
HSS Acero rápido Altzairu laster
Investment Inversión Inbertsio
Left-hand tool Herramienta a izquierdas Ezkerretarako erraminta
Load Cargar Kargatu
Loop Lazo Lotura
Machine zero Cero máquina Zero makina bilatzea
Machining centre Centro de mecanizado Mekanizatu zentru
Modal Modal Modal
Noise Ruido Zarata
Offset Corrector Zuzentzaile
Offset table Tabla de correctores Taula zuzentzaile
Open loop Lazo abierto Lotura irekia
Part zero Cero pieza Zero pieza
Peck Picada Ziztada
Pecking Punteado Punteaketa
Pin Pasador Ziri
Pocket Cajera Kajera
Power failure Fallo de alimentación eléctrica Elikadura elektriko gabezia
Profiling Perfilado / Contorneado Perfilaketa / Kontorneaketa
Punched tape Tarjeta perforada Tarjeta perforatu
Rapid traverse Recorrido rápido Ibilbide azkar
Reamer Escariador Otxabu

by Endika Gandarias 80
GLOSSARY

ENGLISH SPANISH BASQUE


Reaming Escariado Otxabuketa
Reference system Sistema de referencias Erreferentzi sistema
Referencing block Bloque de referencia Erreferentzi bloke
Repeatability Repetibilidad Errepikagarritasun
Rigth-hand tool Herramienta a derechas Eskuinetarako erraminta
Roughing Desbaste Arbastaketa
Round corner Arista matada Ertz hila
Setter gauge Calibre de alturas Altuera kalibratzailea
Set-up Puesta a punto Prestaketa
Skip Salto Jauzi
Slot Ranura Arteka
Speed Velocidad de giro Biraketa abiadura
Spot drill Broca de puntear Punteatzaile
Square corner Arista viva Ertz bizia
Stationary chuck Parte no movil Atal ez higikor
Stylus Estilete Estilete
Tap Macho de roscar Hariztatze ardatz
Tapping Roscado (con macho de roscar) Hariztaketa (hariztatze ardatzarekin)
Target position Posición objetivo Jomuga posizio
Thermal growth Alargamiento térmico Luzapen termikoa
Threading Roscado Hariztaketa
Tip Punta Punta
Tool magazine Cambiador de herramienta Erraminta aldatzaile
Tool presetting machine Máquina de pre-reglaje Doikuntza makina
Touch probe Palpador Haztagailu
Track Pista Pista
Trueness Veracidad Egiatasun
Unnoticeable Imperceptible Hauteman ezin

by Endika Gandarias 81
GLOSSARY

ENGLISH SPANISH BASQUE


Vise Mordaza Baraila
Wear Desgaste Higadura
Withdrawal planes Planos de salida Irteera planu
Workholding Sistema de amarre de pieza Pieza lotze sistema

by Endika Gandarias 82