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 Discourse analysis is concerned with the relationship between language

and the contexts it is used in. ,
 an awareness of how language is used in relation to context, roles and
relationship of speakers, can sometimes be used and be useful in the
classroom, especially in getting learners to sound more natural.
Discourse Analysis:
 discourse analysis investigates how utterances in spoken language and
sentences in written language constitute larger units of language that is
meaningful, unified, and purposeful.
 Discourse analysis concerns many things.
a. The impact of the selection of grammatical items. Like- verbs, tenses,
determiners on the structure of the discourse.
b. The relationship between utterances or sentences in the discourse.
 Discourse analysis is the examination of language use by members of a
speech community.
 It involves looking at both language form and language functions.
 It includes the study of both spoken interaction and written texts.
 It identifies linguistic features that characterize different genres as well
as social and cultural factors that aid in our interpretation and
understanding of different texts and types of talk.

 many texts take advantage of cohesive devices which contribute to the

unity of texts, but might disturb their understanding by a speaker who is
not aware of their occurrence.
 Discourse analysts have analyzed schematically occurring items of texts
and how learners from different backgrounds acquire them and later on
 The most prominent role in producing sophisticated discourse, and
therefore one that requires much attention on the part of teachers and
learners is that of words and phrases which signal internal relation of
sections of discourse, namely conjunctions.
 it is advisable to provide learners with contexts which would exemplify
how native users of language take advantage of anaphoric references,
ellipses, articles and other grammar related elements of language which,
if not crucial, are at least particularly useful for proficient


 it is most profitable to teach new terminology paying close attention to

context and co-text.
 Discourse analysts describe co-text as the phrases that surround a given
word, whereas,
 context is understood as the place in which the communicative product
was formed .
 lexical chains is thought to be a series of related words which, referring
to the same thing, contribute to the unity of a communicative product
and make its perception relatively easy.
 semantic context which is useful for understanding, or inferring the
meaning of words, notions and sentences.
 Discourse analysts maintain that knowledge of vocabulary-connected
discourse devices
 it ought to bring students to organize new items of vocabulary into
groups with common context of use to make them realize how the
meaning of a certain word might change with circumstances of its use or
cotext. Moreover, it should also improve learners' abilities to choose the
appropriate synonym,collocation or hyponym.
 The writing classroom in English as a second language can be
organized so that students themselves learn to analyze the written
discourse of the society around them and appropriate the results of their
analysis for their own writing purposes.
 In so doing, they can personalize their learning, choosing discourse
materials suitable for their own proficiency level and areas of special
 By introducing specific discourse analysis techniques and tasks,
instructors can foster greater independence in their students as they
develop the ability to take control of their own language development.
 A discourse analysis approach also leads to greater writing versatility, as
student writers are exposed to a variety of written genres, or types of
written discourse.
 Each genre presents a different set of rhetorical choices—from lexicon
and grammar to format, content, and organization—that students can
study and adapt to their own writing.
 Because cultures use genres to accomplish their social interactions,
discourse analysis provides a window on the values and priorities of the
community that created them.


 Interpretation of a written text might be defined as the act of grasping

the meaning that the communicative product is to convey.
 It is important to emphasize that clear understanding of writing is reliant
on not only what the author put in it, but also on what a reader brings to
this process.
 The knowledge of the world is not always sufficient for successful
discourse processing.
 Content and formal schemata. Content, as it refers to shared knowledge
of the subject matter, and formal, because it denotes the knowledge of
the structure and organization of a text.
 In order to aid students to develop necessary reading and comprehension
skills attention has to be paid to aspects concerning the whole system of
a text, as well as crucial grammar structures and lexical items.
 In sum, teachers can use discourse analysis not only as a research
method for investigating their own teaching practices but also as a tool
for studying interactions among language learners.
 Learners can benefit from using discourse analysis to explore what
language is and how it is used to achieve communicative goals in
different contexts.
 Thus discourse analysis can help to create a second language learning
environment that more accurately reflects how language is used and
encourages learners toward their goal of proficiency in another language.