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A Device and Routing protocol for heterogeneous ad hoc

Vaidya Suyash Vilas #1, Prof. S.S.Patil*2
Department of Electronics and Telecommunication, Sinhgad Institute of Technology
Department of Electronics and Telecommunication, Sinhgad Institute of Technology

Abstract:- networks are typically deployed where there is no

Energy efficient routing in ad hoc networks has infrastructure available or reliable, and fast network
been the subject of intensive study in recent years. establishment and self-reconfiguration are required.
Most work has been focused on residual battery For example, soldiers in a battlefield can have
power related cost metrics for a homogeneous ad handsets to communicate with each other, or in
hoc network, where all the nodes are considered emergency situations like earthquakes where the
identical in terms of functioning and available existing infrastructure has been destroyed, an ad hoc
resources. In this paper, we propose a Device and network can instantly be deployed to aid in disaster
Energy Aware Routing protocol (DEAR) for a recovery. Sensor networks are a subclass of ad hoc.
heterogeneous wireless ad hoc network where there Networks wherein a group of sensors capable of
exist two different classes of nodes, battery-powered making various measurements exchange information
nodes and externally powered nodes. By embedding with each other.MANET has various potential
both the energy and the device-type awareness into applications. Some typical examples include
the routing protocol, we force the externally emergency search-rescue operations, meeting events,
powered nodes to forward more traffic and perform conferences, and battlefield communication between
more routing functions than a battery-powered moving vehicles and soldiers. With the abilities to
node. The simulation results show that DEAR meet the new demand of mobile computation, the
protocol achieves better system lifetime when MANET has a very bright future. Cluster-based
compared to the conventional energy efficient routing is a solution to address nodes heterogeneity,
routing protocols.R2003ElsevierScience(USA). and to limit the amount of routing information that
propagates inside the network. The idea behind
clustering is to group the network nodes into a
Keywords— Cluster, load-balancing, mobility, number of overlapping clusters. Clustering makes
cluster head. possible a hierarchical routing in which paths are
recorded between clusters instead of between nodes.
1. Introduction:- This increases the routes lifetime, thus decreasing the
Ad hoc networks are dynamically formed,
amount of routing control overhead. Inside the cluster
infrastructure-less, wireless multi-hop networks.
one node that coordinates the cluster activities is
They can be deployed anywhere without the need for
clusterhead (CH). Inside the cluster, there are
any fixed infrastructure like base stations. The nodes
ordinary nodes also that have direct access only to
configure themselves into a network and
this one clusterhead, and gateways. Gateways are
cooperatively maintain network connectivity. An
nodes that can hear two or more clusterheads. By
intermediate node is used to forward packets if two
replacing the nodes with clusters, existing routing
nodes wishing to communicate are not within
protocols can be directly applied to the network. Only
transmitting range of each other. Hence each node
gateways and clusterheads participate in the
acts as a router and a host. The nodes discover multi-
propagation of routing control/update messages. In
hop routes to each other by exchanging topology
dense networks this significantly reduces the routing
information in the form of control messages. These
overhead, thus solving scalability problems for
routing algorithms in large ad hoc networks. 2. Energy aware routing protocol:-
Combined metrics based clustering or weighted 2.1. Maximum system lifetime routing metric.At the
clustering algorithm [1,2] takes a number of metrics network layer, power efficient routing protocols are
into account for cluster configuration, including node designed to select the best path such that the total
degree, residual energy capacity, moving speed, and energy consumed is minimized or the system lifetime
so on. One advantage of this clustering scheme is that is maximized. The shortest path algorithms are still
it can flexibly adjust the weighting factors for each used but with other carefully designed power-aware
metric to adjust to different scenarios. In clustered ad cost metrics instead of the simple hop count metric.
hoc networks, Clusterheads bear extra responsibility Power-aware metrics for determining routes with
of routing packets for others. If a cluster head has too various objectives have been proposed in[13]. One
many neighbors it may become bottleneck, since it metric that aims to maximize the life of all nodes in
has to perform routing related works of all of its the network is defined as follows: cj ¼X k 1 i¼1
members [3]. There may exist some situations where fiðxiÞ; ð1Þ where cj is the cost of sending packet j
some regions of the network become overcrowded from node n1 to node nk via intermediate nodes
(for example location near the speaker in a n2ynk1; xi represents the total energy expended by
conference) and the clusterheads lying in such node i so far and fiðxiÞ denotes the cost or weight of
regions may be overloaded due to movement of some node i: Since fi represents a node’s reluctance to
nodes with in this area. The performance of the forward packets, we have chosen fiðxiÞ¼ 1 Eixi ;
network may degrade due to congestion and buffer ð2Þ where fiðxiÞ denotes the current cost of using
flow at the clusterheads. Authors proposed a new node i; xi denotes the energy expended by node i so
technique for load sharing to relieve the clusterheads far (noting xi is time-varying), and Ei is the initial
from overload. Energy conservation is an important energy of node i when the network is deployed. Thus,
issue in ad hoc networks as nodes are usually battery fi is the reciprocal of the residual energy of node i:
powered. Even though a node may not have any Therefore, as the energy of a node decreases the cost
message of its own to transmit, its battery is drained of using that node increases. The authors in [13]
when it acts as a router and forwards packets for presented some results using this metric in a shortest
other nodes. Unlike the microprocessor industry or path routing algorithm. However, they did not
the communication hardware industry, where implement it as a protocol. Following their lead, we
computation capability or the line rate have been incorporate this metric as the link cost function into
continuously improved (regularly doubled every 18 the Distributed Bellman-Ford (DBF) routing protocol
months), battery technology has been relatively for ad hoc networks. This implementation will be
unchanged for many years. The lifetime of the battery referred to as the energy aware routing (EAR)
imposes a limitation on the operation hours of an ad protocol for the rest of this paper (not to be confused
hoc network. Research in energy-conserving with the eavesdrop and register concept in sensor
protocols in ad hoc networks has dramatically networks). The benefit of EAR protocol comes from
increased recently. Researchers are investigating the dynamic load balancing among different nodes.
energy conservation at every layer in the traditional The protocol needs to keep track of the changing link
protocol stack, from the radio layer up to the costs in a timely fashion. A table-driven protocol
transport layer and application layer [7–9]. could gather this information actively while a source-
Significant energy savings have been achieved at the initiated routing protocol presents a large latency in
physical layer, data link layer and network layer. obtaining such changes. This is the reason for
Low power electronics, energy efficient modulation, implementing the poweraware metric in the DBF
and minimum transmission power level are some protocol (the simplest of all table-driven routing
basic approaches adopted at the radio layer. The protocols). In order to reduce the routing overhead
minimum transmitting power level is used to generated by the table-driven protocol, our
maintain the link connectivity thus the power implementation of DBF just sends periodic updates
efficiency is improved while the interference is of the routing table and does not trigger an update
reduced [10]. whenever there is a change in the routing table.
2.2. Performance of EAR:-
Whenever multiple paths exist from a source to a The time from the time of network deployment to the
destination, EAR makes use of different paths and time of the first node failure was noted as the system
tends to balance the load by optimizing the residual lifetime. Each node had a transmission range of 1 k
energy. Hence, the system lifetime will be more than and thenodes were distributed over a rectangular
that obtained by using conventional routing region with minimum area of N2 k; where N is the
protocols. We evaluate its performance and compare number of nodes.
it with conventional ad hoc routing protocols by
simulation. All the simulations are implemented
within the GloMoSim library [20], which is a
scalable simulation environment for wireless network
systems. The traffic pattern is CBR traffic with each
packet 512 bytes long. The packet rate between each
source destination pair (a session) is generated
randomly from an exponential distribution with mean
equal to one packet per second. The number of nodes
and the number of sessions vary in each simulation
2.2.1. Effect of number of nodes:-
set. However, we made the configuration of each
The effect of the number of nodes N on the system
simulation identical when comparing with different
lifetime is studied in the first simulation set. For each
routing protocols. In our simulation, we consider the
N; nodes are placed randomly with the only
energy consumed by communication subsystems
constraint that there should be at least a few pairs of
only, as almost all the EAR protocols do. Each node
nodes with multiple paths between them. This is
was initialized with a fixed amount of energy/battery
because whenever there exists only a single path
reserve (20000 energy units) before network
between pairs of nodes, the minimum-hop path and
deployment. We assume that the cost for a node to
the minimum-cost (energy) path will be identical.
send or receive a packet can be modeled as the linear
Therefore, the performance of EAR will be the same
addition of the following two parts, a fixed cost
as that of DBF. The system lifetime for a particular N
associated with channel access cost and an
was obtained as the average over a number of
incremental cost proportional to the size of packet
simulations with different topologies. The results of
[21]. Since we use data packets of fixed size, we
the simulation on five different routing protocols are
further simplify the energy consumption model as
shown inFig. 1. It is observed that the system lifetime
that it takes twice the energy to transmit a packet
is the highest when EAR is used. It can also be
when compared to receiving a packet [11]. ]. Two
inferred from the trend-line shown in the figure that
units of energy were subtracted from a nodes battery
the system lifetime decreases with an increase in the
reserve for each packet transmission and one unit of
number of nodes. This is because the number of
energy was subtracted for every packet received at
messages that a node might forward as a router
MAC layer.
increases with an increase in the number of nodes
leading to a faster depletion of energy reserves. As
the number of nodes increases, it is expected that the
percentage increase in system lifetime between EAR
and DBF will increase. This is expected because as
the number of nodes increases, each node may have
more routes (to every other node) to choose from.
However, this statement cannot be generalized
because the area over which the network is deployed
is another parameter that affects the system lifetime.
If this area is kept constant, as the number of nodes
increases, nodes become crowded and many of them
are within transmission range of each other, i.e. the 3.LITERATURE REVIEW:-
connectivity of the network increases. Therefore, in A number of clustering algorithms for mobile ad hoc
this case, as the number of nodes increases, each networks have been proposed in the literature. In
node will be used as a router less frequently. Since Lowest ID cluster algorithm (LIC) [1] a node with
there are more single-hop transmissions from a the minimum id is chosen as a clusterhead. Drawback
source node to a destination node, the performance of of lowest ID algorithm is that certain nodes are prone
EAR and DBF will start converging, and the to power drainage [2] due to serving as clusterheads
percentage increase of the system lifetime between for longer periods of time. 3-hop between adjacent
EAR and DBF will actually decrease with an increase clusterheads (3-hBAC) [3] algorithm introduce a new
in the number of nodes. This is further explained in node status, “clusterguest”. When a mobile node
the next section. However, in our simulation, we finds out that it cannot serve as a clusterhead or join a
examine the situation where the area over which the cluster as a clustermember, but some neighbor is a
network is deployed is also increased proportional to clustermember of some cluster, it joins the
the number of nodes increased in the system, e.g. we corresponding cluster as a clusterguest.
keep the node density constant. As shown in Fig. 2, In LCC [4] the clustering algorithm is divided into
in this case, the percentage increase in system time two steps: cluster formation and cluster maintenance.
with respect to DBF also increases with the The cluster formation simply follows LIC, i.e.
increasing of the number of nodes. initially mobile nodes with the lowest ID in their
neighborhoods are chosen as clusterheads. Re-
2.2.2. Effect of edge density:- clustering is event-driven and invoked if two cluster
This simulation set studies the effect of edge density heads move into the reach range of each other and
on system lifetime. Any two nodes that can transmit when a mobile node cannot access any cluster head.
and receive messages directly without the use of an Adaptive clustering for mobile wireless network [5]
intermediate node are said to have an edge between ensures small communication overhead for building
them. The ratio of the number of edges in the clusters because each mobile node broadcasts only
network and the number of edges in a fully connected one message for the cluster construction. An optimal
network with the same number of nodes is known as energy-efficient clustering method in wireless sensor
edge density. The results are shown in Fig. 3. It is networks using multi-objective genetic algorithm [6]
observed that EAR again gives the highest system is a multi-objective genetic algorithm (GA) whose
lifetime. The system lifetime increases as the edge goal is to obtain clustering schemes in which the
density increases since the load is balanced over a network lifetime is optimized for different delay
larger number of routes. values. A load balancing energy efficient clustering
algorithm [7] in this paper, the author proposed a
dynamic energy-efficient clustering algorithm that
prolongs the network lifetime by electing cluster-
heads taking into consideration, in addition to other
parameters such as mobility, their residual energies
and making them dynamically monitor their energy
consumption to either diminish the number of their
cluster-members or relinquish their roles. Energy
efficient routing in ad hoc networks has been the
subject of intensive study in recent years. Most work
has been focused on residual battery power related
Ad hoc networks are dynamically formed, cost metrics for a homogeneous ad hoc network,
infrastructure-less, wireless multi-hop networks. where all the nodes are considered identical in terms
They can be deployed anywhere without the need for of functioning and available resources.
any fixed infrastructure like base stations.
In weighed cluster algorithm [1] the selection of
clusterhead is performed after considering a number
of performance parameters including degree
difference, distance with neighbors, mobility of Where (xv, yv) and (xk, yk) are the coordinates of the
nodes and remaining battery power. The proposed node v and node k respectively. Summation is done
work “Load Sharing in Weighted Clustering for all neighbors k of node v. The parameter “Sum of
Algorithm (LS-WCA)” follow the clusterhead distances” is used for energy consumption at the time
selection procedure given in WCA. of clusterhead selection.

3.1 Cluster head selection:- 3.1.3 Mobility:-

The parameters considered for clusteread selection Mobility or stability is an important factor in
are described below deciding the clusterheads. In order to avoid frequent
clusterhead changes, it is desirable to elect a
3.1.1 Degree Difference:- clusterhead that does not move very quickly. When
In cluster-based structure a performance parameter the clusterhead moves fast, the nodes may be
for load balancing is degree difference (Δv) [1], for detached from the clusterhead and as a result, a
each node v which is defined as the difference of reaffiliation occurs. Reaffiliation can increase
ideal node degree (δ) and actual degree (connectivity) computation and processing, which is not a desirable
of that node. Degree of node (dv) is the number of feature [1]. The running average of the speed for
neighbors of node v that are in the transmission every node till current time T gives a measure of
range. Ideal degree is the number of neighbors that a mobility and is denoted by Mv, as
cluster head can handle effectively.

3.1.2 Energy Consumption:-

Cluster head has to perform extra task for routing
and forwarding the packets, so it is more prone to
energy drainage. More power is needed for
communicating long distant neighbors. In mobile ad
hoc network nodes communicate with each other 3.1.4 Power
through the wireless channel, the Friis transmission A clusterhead consumes more battery than an
equation is as follows ordinary node because it has extra responsibilities. It
can estimate the remaining battery power by the
amount of time spent by the node as a clusterhead.
The parameter Pv is the cumulative time of a node
being a clusterhead. Pv is used to measure how much
battery power has been consumed by the node [1].
Higher the value of Pv lower the remaining battery
power. All four parameters (Δv ,Sdv, Mv ,and Pv, )
explained above can be used as a performance matrix
Where, Pt is transmitted power and Pr is power at for selection of a node as a clusterhead. Weight of
the receiving antenna, Gt and Gr are the antenna these parameters can change according to
gains, λ is the wavelength used and R is the distance requirement.
between the nodes. Energy-consumption of a node is Weighing factors are chosen in such a way that
directly proportional to the distance of that node with
its neighbors. Sum of distance to all neighbors (Sdv) W1+ W2+ W3+ W4 = 1
is found as
Combined weight of a node Wv is calculated as
Wv = W1. Δv + W2.Sdv+W3.Mv + W4.Pv REFERENCES:-
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node with suitable weight is assigned as the new
clusterhead. Uniform distribution of the load on the
selected clusterheads can improve the performance in
terms of PDF, throughput, E2E delay and Load
balancing. A clusterhead consumes more battery than
an ordinary node because it has extra responsibilities.
It can estimate the remaining battery power by the
amount of time spent by the node as a clusterhead.
The parameter Pv is the cumulative time of a node
being a clusterhead. Pv is used to measure how much
battery power has been consumed by the node [1].
Higher the value of Pv lower the remaining battery
power. Ad hoc networks are dynamically formed,
infrastructure-less, wireless multi-hop networks.
They can be deployed anywhere without the need for
any fixed infrastructure like base stations The nodes
configure themselves into a network and
cooperatively maintain network connectivity.