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# Q.

A bed of fairly large and dense particle is designed to operate at conditions of minimum fluidization,
preliminary experiments show that when upper part is satisfactorily fluidized the lower part is not
fluidized and when the lower part is fluidized satisfactorily the upper part behaved sluggishly. Design a
tapered bed for the above operation with following data and a constant gas velocity through the bed? Also
calculate the angle of inclination of tapered bed?
Data: ØsDp=1 mm, density of particle=7000 kg/m3, €mf=0.5
Required height of bed=140 cm
Desired average diameter=15 cm
Compressed air enters at 20° C, and leaves at 1atm.
Sol; properties of fluidized air at 20 C and 1 atm may be taken to be (literature)
μ =0.0178 cps => 0.00178 gm/cm-sec

## ρg =0.001204 gm/cc at 1 atm.

For a bed at minimum fluidization, the pressure drop is found as-

## ∆p= (1-0.5)*(7000-1.204)*150 {in CGS units}

=524.907 gm-wt. /cm2
So, the pressure drop across the distribution= 0.1*∆p
=52.9 gm-wt. /cm2
∆p=p3-p4
=>524.9/1033=0.5081 atm
P3=1+0.5081=>1.5081 atm
P2=1.5081+0.5081=>2.01623 atm
To find umf for large particles, we have to use

## 𝑢𝑚𝑓 = ( 1.75 ) ((ρs -ρg)/ρg)*g*€3mf

Ø𝑠𝐷𝑝

Solving the above equation using the data obtained Umf= 201.719 cm/sec.
We want the velocity throughout the bed to be uniform and this value for a cylindrical bed, the
velocity attained at the top is usually terminal velocity Ut. Under the given conditions and assuming
spherical particles
1
4∗(ρs −ρg)2 ∗g2 3
Ut =( 225∗Ρg∗μ ) ∗ 𝐷𝑝Ø𝑠
1
4∗(7 −0.001204)2 ∗9812 3
Ut =( 225∗0.001204∗0.000178 ) ∗ 0.1 ; Ut=338.29 cm/sec

Equation of continuity can be applied for mass balance at the top and bottom section of the column
where column diameter is given as follows
A1 V1=A2 V2 {comparing top and random cross section of taper bed}
Π/4 (15)2 * 338.21= π/4 (Dt)2 *201.71
Dt =19.42 cm
Calculation of bottom diameter
Avg diameter =15 cm
(Dtop+Dbottom)/2=15; Dbottom=30-19.42cm=10.58cm;
Ratio of area of top and bottom section of the taperbed is calculated as

Top diameter=19.42
cm

15 cm =average diameter

Using the property of similarity between triangles , angle of inclination of taper can be calculated as
follows
10.58/x=19.42/(150+x) => x=179.52 cm {where x= height of bottom section from apex of cone}
Now then total height of the cone
Htotal=150+179.52=329
Tan Ø=19.42/329; => 0.0295

Ø=1.69°