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Dec 19, 2019

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Chemistry - Calibration

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Chemistry - Calibration

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1

Use of Analytical Balance and Calibration of Volumetric Glassware

[CHM131L: Analytical Chemistry 1 (Laboratory), A01 – Group 2]

A. Data and Results

I. ANALYTICAL WEIGHING

Table 1.1. Effect of fingerprints in weighing

Condition Mass (g)

Mass of beaker using crucible tongs 30.1630 g

Mass of beaker handled with bare hands 30.1632 g

Conditions Mass / Volume

2.1. Mass crucible cover, g 15.3069 g

2.2. Mass crucible and cover, g 38.0440 g

2.3. Mass crucible, g 22.7370 g

2.4. Mass crucible and cover – mass crucible 15.3070 g

only, g

2.5.a. Mass of bottle with NaCl, g 8.9367 g

2.5.b. Mass of wash bottle, g 292.0592 g

2.5.c. Mass of dry beaker, g 28.2442 g

2.6. Mass of bottle – NaCl, g 7.4072 g

2.7. Mass of beaker + NaCl, g 29.7661 g

2.8. Mass beaker + NaCl + water, g 40.2524 g

2.9. Mass wash bottle – water, g 281.5591 g

2.10. Mass salt (by addition) (2.7. – 2.5.c), g 1.5219 g

Mass salt (by difference) (2.5.a. – 2.6), g 1.5295 g

2.11. Mass water (by addition) (2.8 – 2.7), g 10.4863 g

Mass water (by difference) (2.5.b. – 2.9), 10.5001 g

g

II. STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF MEASUREMENT

Table 1.3. Mass of individual coin and statistical analysis.

COIN Mass, g Coin (in increasing Mass, g

mass)*

1st coin 5.3891 g 1 5.2775 g

2nd coin 5.9922 g 2 5.2991 g

3rd coin 5.2775 g 3 5.3026 g

4th coin 5.3950 g 4 5.3636 g

5th coin 5.4205 g 5 5.3649 g

6th coin 5.4308 g 6 5.3891 g

7th coin 5.3636 g 7 5.3950 g

8th coin 5.2991 g 8 5.4205 g

9th coin 5.3026 g 9 5.4308 g

10th coin 5.3649 g 10 5.9922 g

Q – test 5.9922 g

Mean 5.3603 g

Average deviation (-) 0.0014

Range 0.1533

Standard Deviation 0.0554

Coefficient of Variation 1.03%

Confidence limits of the 4.7493 g – 5.9713 g

mean (90% level)

The mass of the coins has undergone the Q-test method to know if an outlier is present in the

data. According to the test, the second coin with a mass of 5.9922 is considered an outlier of

the group. Here are sample calculations as to why it became an outlier.

Qcrit at 90% confidence level = 0.412

|𝑠𝑢𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 − 𝑛𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒| |5.2775 − 5.2991|

𝑄5.2775 = = = 0.0302

|𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 − 𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒| |5.9922 − 5.2775|

|𝑠𝑢𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 − 𝑛𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒| |5.9922 − 5.4308|

𝑄5.9922 = = = 0.7855

|𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 − 𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒| |5.9922 − 5.2775|

Qcrit > Qlowest = Not an outlier

Qcrit < Qhighest = An outlier

Qcrit at 90% confidence level = 0.437

|𝑠𝑢𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 − 𝑛𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒| |5.2775 − 5.2991|

𝑄5.2775 = = = 0.1409

|𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 − 𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒| |5.4308 − 5.2775|

|𝑠𝑢𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 − 𝑛𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒| |5.4308 − 5.4205|

𝑄5.4308 = = = 0.0672

|𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 − 𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒| |5.4308 − 5.2775|

Qcrit > Qlowest = Not an outlier

Qcrit > Qhighest = Not an outlier

∑𝑥 5.2775 + 5.2991 + 5.3026 + 5.3636 + 5.3649 + 5.3891 + 5.3950 + 5.4205 + 5.4308

𝑥̅ = = = 5.3603

𝑛 9

𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒, 𝑛 = 𝑥𝑛 − 𝑥1 = 5.4308 − 5.2772 = 0.1533 𝑔

∑(𝑥𝑖 − 𝑥̅ )2

𝑠𝑡𝑑 𝑑𝑒𝑣 = √ = 0.0554

𝑛−1

Where:

xi = individual mass

𝑥̅ = mean

n = number of samples

𝐶𝑉 = 𝑥 100 = 𝑥 100 = 1.03%

𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑛 5.3603

𝑡 1.833

𝐶𝐼 = 𝑥̅ ± = 5.3603 ± = 4.7493g – 5.9713g

√𝑛 √9

Table 1.4. The Water temperature

Container Temperature (degree Celsius)

250 mL beaker 20.5°C

Distilled water bottle 21.5°C

Table 1.5. Calibration of 50 mL buret.

Conditions Trial 1

Mass of Erlenmeyer Flask, g 111.4058 g

10-mL delivery (1st)

Final volume, mL 10 mL

Initial volume, mL 0 mL

Volume used, mL 10 mL

Mass of flask + 10 mL water, g 121.3706 g

Mass of water, g 9.9648 g

10-mL delivery (2nd)

Final volume, mL 20 mL

Initial volume, mL 10 mL

Volume used, mL 10 mL

Mass of flask + 10 mL water, g 131.3324 mL

Mass of water, g 9.9618 g

10-mL delivery (3rd)

Final volume, mL 28.9 mL

Initial volume, mL 20 mL

Volume used, mL 8.89 mL

Mass of flask + 10 mL water, g 141.4258 g

Mass of water, g 9.7937 g

10-mL delivery (4th)

Final volume, mL 40 mL

Initial volume, mL 28.9 mL

Volume used, mL 11.1 mL

Mass of flask + 10 mL water, g 151.2195 g

Mass of water, g 10.0934 g

10-mL delivery (5th)

Final volume, mL 50 mL

Initial volume, mL 40 mL

Volume used, mL 10 mL

Mass of flask + 10 mL water, g 161.2675 g

Mass of water, g 10.0480 g

Mass of Erlenmeyer flask, g 111.5023 g

20-mL delivery (1st)

Final volume, mL 40 mL

Initial volume, mL 20 mL

Volume used, mL 20 mL

Mass of flask + 20 mL water, g 131.5789 g

Mass of water, g 20.0775 g

20-mL delivery (2nd)

Final volume, mL 40 mL

Initial volume, mL 20 mL

Volume used, mL 20 mL

Mass of flask + 20 mL water, g 151.5520 g

Mass of water, g 19.9722 g

Mass of Erlenmeyer flask, g 111.6224 g

30-mL delivery (1st)

Final volume, mL 30 mL

Initial volume, mL 0 mL

Volume used, mL 30 mL

Mass of flask + 30 mL water, g 141.4123 g

Mass of water, g 29.7899 g

Mass of Erlenmeyer flask, g 111.6199 g

40-mL delivery (1st)

Final volume, mL 40 mL

Initial volume, mL 0 mL

Volume used, mL 40 mL

Mass of flask + 40 mL water, g 151.5522 g

Mass of water, g 39.9323 g

Mass of Erlenmeyer flask, g 111.6225 g

50-mL delivery (1st)

Final volume, mL 50 mL

Initial volume, mL 0 mL

Volume used, mL 50 mL

Mass of flask + 50 mL water, g 161.5668 g

Mass of water, g 49.9443 g

Conditions Trial 1

10-mL delivery (1st)

Apparent volume, mL 10 mL

Mass of water, g 9.9648 g

Corrected mass, g 9.9800 g

True volume, mL 10.0000 mL

Correction value, mL 0 mL

10-mL delivery (2nd)

Apparent volume, mL 10 mL

Mass of water, g 9.9618 g

Corrected mass, g 9.9770 g

True volume, mL 9.9970 mL

Correction value, mL -0.003 mL

10-mL delivery (3rd)

Apparent volume, mL 8.89 mL

Mass of water, g 9.7937 g

Corrected mass, g 9.8087 g

True volume, mL 9.8284 mL

Correction value, mL 0.9384 mL

10-mL delivery (4th)

Apparent volume, mL 11.1 mL

Mass of water, g 10.0934 g

Corrected mass, g 10.1088 g

True volume, mL 10.1291 mL

Correction value, mL -0.9790 mL

10-mL delivery (5th)

Apparent volume, mL 10 mL

Mass of water, g 10.0480 g

Corrected mass, g 10.0634 g

True volume, mL 10.0836 mL

Correction value, mL 0.0836 mL

20-mL delivery (1st)

Apparent volume, mL 20.1 mL

Mass of water, g 20.0775 g

Corrected mass, g 20.1082 g

True volume, mL 20.1486 mL

Correction value, mL 0.0486 mL

20-mL delivery (2nd)

Apparent volume, mL 20 mL

Mass of water, g 19.9722 g

Corrected mass, g 20.0028 g

True volume, mL 20.0430 mL

Correction value, mL 0.0430 mL

30-mL delivery (1st)

Apparent volume, mL 29.9 mL

Mass of water, g 29.7899 g

Corrected mass, g 29.8355 g

True volume, mL 29.8954 mL

Correction value, mL -0.0046 mL

40-mL delivery (1st)

Apparent volume, mL 40.05 mL

Mass of water, g 39.9323 g

Corrected mass, g 39.9934 g

True volume, mL 40.0737 mL

Correction value, mL 0.0237 mL

50-mL delivery (1st)

Apparent volume, mL 50 mL

Mass of water, g 49.9443 g

Corrected mass, g 50.0207 g

True volume, mL 50.1211 mL

Correction value, mL 0.1211 mL

The values in table 1.4 Calibration of 50 mL buret were used for the calculation of the true

volume and correction values. True volume is the volume that accounts all other forces that

affect the result, specifically the density and buoyancy. To get first the true volume, corrected

mass should be calculated by the equation:

𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ 𝑏𝑢𝑜𝑦𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑦 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 = 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 ∗ 𝑏𝑢𝑜𝑦𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

Mass of water with buoyancy = 49.9443 g * 1.00153 is the buoyancy correction at 21°C

= 50.0207 g

The corrected mass is then divided by the density at specified temperature (21°C) to get its

true volume.

𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 50.0207

𝑇𝑟𝑢𝑒 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 = = = 50.1211 𝑚𝐿

𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 0.9979955

The correction value is simply the difference between the true volume and the apparent

volume.

Conditions Trial 1 Trial 2

Mass of beaker, g 28.2437 g 28.2440 g

10-mL delivery (1st trial)

Volume delivered, mL 10 mL 10 mL

Mass of beaker + 10 mL 38.1724 g 38.2183 g

water, g

Mass of water, g 9.9287 g 9.9743 g

Corrected mass, g 9.9439 g 9.9896 g

True volume, mL 9.9639 mL 10.0097 mL

10-mL delivery (2nd trial)

Volume delivered, mL 10 mL 10 mL

Mass of beaker + 10 mL 48.0190 mL 48.0190 mL

water, g

Mass of water, g 9.8466 g 9.8007 g

Corrected mass, g 9.8617 g 9.8157 g

True volume, mL 9.8815 mL 9.8354 mL

10-mL delivery (3rd trial)

Volume delivered, mL 10 mL 10 mL

Mass of beaker + 10 mL 57.8295 g 58.0325 g

water, g

Mass of water, g 9.8105 g 10.0135 g

Corrected mass, g 9.8255 g 10.0188 g

True volume, mL 9.8452 mL 10.0389 mL

Sample calculations:

Note: the initial mass to be used after every delivery is the mass of the beaker + 10 mL water

Mass of water with buoyancy = 9.9287 g * 1.00153 is the buoyancy correction at 21°C

= 9.9439 g

The corrected mass is then divided by the density at specified temperature (21°C) to get its

true volume.

𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 9.9439

𝑇𝑟𝑢𝑒 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 = = = 9.8815 mL

𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 0.9979955

STATISCIAL ANALYSIS

Average volume 9.8969 mL 9.9613 mL

Standard Deviation 0.0207 0.0550

RSD 0.21% 0.55%

95% confidence level 8.5921 – 11.2017 8.6565 – 11.2661

% relative error -1.031% -0.39%

Sample calculations for Trial 1:

∑𝑥 9.9639 + 9.8815 + 9.8452

𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑛 = = = 9.8969

𝑛 3

∑(𝑥 − 𝜇)2

𝑠𝑡𝑑 𝑑𝑒𝑣 = √ = 0.0207

𝑛

𝑠𝑡𝑑 𝑑𝑒𝑣

𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑑 𝑑𝑒𝑣 = 𝑥100 = 0.21%

𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑛

𝑡 2.26

𝐶𝐼 = 𝑥̅ ± = 9.8969 ± = 8.5921 – 11.2017

√𝑛 √3

𝑥̅ − 𝜇 9.8969 − 10

%𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑒𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑟 = 𝑥100 = 𝑥 100 = −1.031%

𝜇 10

B. Discussion

In part I Analytical Weighing, fingerprints play a role in determining the mass of an object,

in this case, the beaker. When the beaker is held with gloves, the object weighed 30.1630 g

and it weighed 30.1632 g when removed and held with bare hands. This means that the

0.0002 g difference between the mass accounts for the added fingerprint in the beaker. The

analytical balance can therefore weigh even the slightest change on an object and is very

sensitive to addition and removal of fine increments. Other means of weighing may include

the use of crucible tongs.

Due to the sensitivity of the analytical balance, different precautions must be observed

when weighing an object. But first, the analytical balance must be “tared” or recalibrated to

0.0000g. This is to ensure that balance will not indicate something other than 0.0000g.

Analytical balances have a draft shield or weighing chamber which are glass doors-like that

enclose the weighing pan to give more accurate results. These doors should be closed while

weighing in order to prevent air currents from disturbing the results. Objects must also be

measured at room temperature because an object with higher temperature than normal

would have a mass lighter than it really is. This is due to the set-up of a convection current

inside the balance enclosure. Warm air inside the enclosure is less dense than the air that it

displaces, resulting also to a negative determinate error. Before usage of an analytical

balance, it is important to check the leveling on the balance. This is done through looking at

the leveling bubble on the floor of the weighing chamber and checking if it is centered. If not,

it must be centered by turning the leveling screws on the bottom toward the back of the

balance. After turning it on, a row of zeros will appear which indicates that the balance is

zeroed and leveled and is ready for use. While weighing, the table in which the balance is

placed must not be leaned on since slightest vibrations may impact the readings.

In part 1 Analytical weighing table 1.2, the crucible, bottle with NaCl, dry beaker and wash

bottle were weighed through the analytical balance. The table shows the values that are

measured either directly or indirectly. Direct weighing is calibrating the balance to "zero"

and calibrating it with the container to "zero" before weighing your sample and record.

Indirect weighing means weighing by means of the direct measurement. There are two

indirect weighing methods, weighing by addition and weighing by difference.

Weighing by addition means getting the mass of a sample indirectly by pre-weighing the

beaker, for this experiment, and then adding the desired object to be weighed while the

beaker is still on the weighing pan. The difference in the weight obtained will be the mass of

the desired object. On the other hand, weighing by difference means measuring an object

indirectly by removal of parts. In this experiment, the bottle with NaCl was measured first,

and the bottle was weighed again without the NaCl this time. The difference in the obtained

mass from this will result to the mass of the NaCl that has been removed. Same is through

for the mass of the distilled water. According to David Chesney (2018), weighing by

difference is the most accurate method to measure quantitatively the mass of a solid sample.

Results show that there is a difference when using the weighing by addition and weighing

by difference. The mass of NaCl by addition is 1.5219 g, and the mass by difference is 1.5295g.

The 0.0076 variation in the mass is due to other factors affecting each result. For weighing

by difference, only the removed substance is accounted so the result has better

accuracy/precision. In weighing by addition, some transfer methods may result to

inaccuracy since substances may be lost during transfer. For the mass of the water, mass by

addition is 10.4863 g while the mass by difference is 10.5001g. The 0.0138 variation is also

due to the factors affecting the results as stated above.

For the measurement of the crucible, the difference between the direct weighing of

crucible cover (15.3069g) and weighing by difference of mass crucible cover and mass

crucible only (15.3070mg) is 0.0001g. The result agrees within the 0.5 mg, so the methods

are comparable to each other.

In part II Statistical evaluation of measurements table 1. 3, ten one-peso coins were

weighed individually. By applying Q-test, it is found that the second coin measurement,

5.9922 g, lies an abnormal distance from other values of the samples, and thus differ

significantly from other observations. It may be due to variability in the measurement or it

may indicate experimental error, so it is excluded from the data set. The average value of all

the data except the outlier is 5.3603. All values lie around this central value. This has a

standard deviation of 0.0554 which indicates how spread out the data set is around the

central tendency. The lowness of this value suggests that most of the numbers are close to

the mean. Same goes for the coefficient of variation. With a value of 1.03%, this suggests that

the level of dispersion around the mean is low. Lastly, the mean at 90% confidence level lies

between 4.7493 - 5.9713.

The results show that the data are dispersed closely around the mean. Thus, the product

of the machine for all one-peso coin varies insignificantly since it has high precision.

For the part III table 1.4, the distilled water is equilibrated first to room temperature to

minimize potential calibration errors and convection currents during calibration. The room

temperature obtained in the laboratory is 20.5 degree Celsius.

In the calibration of volumetric glassware, there are two types according to its

functionality. The first one is the TC or “to contain”. Volumetric glassware that are to contain

usually have an accurate measure of the volume contained, thus, the last drop must be blown

out or washed out with a solvent. On the other hand, TD or “to deliver” glassware is

calibrated to accurately transfer desired volume, and the last drop must not be blown out.

The calibration was done by delivering the equilibrated water from the beaker into the buret

until it reached the 0 mark. Then, 10 mL was delivered into the E. flask five times until it hit

the 50 mL mark. Same procedure was done for the 20 mL, which was delivered two times 30

mL, 40 mL and 50 mL which were delivered only once. At the beginning of every set, the

E.flask was first weighed. The initial volume and final volume were recorded, and the mass

of the flask with the added volume was weighed. The mass of the water was measured by

addition, where the initial mass of E.flask is subtracted from the mass of the flask + added

volume. When reading the volume mark, a buret card was used to see easily and read the

meniscus level to a perpendicular position to avoid the parallax error and eliminate other

sources of error while doing volumetric analyses.

To interpret each result, the corrected mass of water where the effect of buoyancy is

considered, the true volume where density is taken into account, and the correction values

are all calculated. These correction values are the difference between the apparent volume

(the volume used in the delivering process) and the true volume.

The graph illustrates the trend of correction values vs apparent volume in the calibration

of the burette.

Apparent volume vs Corresponding correction values

1.5

1

Correction values

0.5

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

-0.5

-1

-1.5

Apparent volume

As seen in the figure above, all correction values lie on a close range except for two values.

It may indicate that there is an accuracy in the reading of the volume by the analyst, which

lead to a high correction value.

The first delivery of the 10 mL volume has resulted to 0 correction value, with a true

volume of 10 mL. This suggests that the reading that was read by the analyst was accurate

and precise. For the second delivery of 10 mL into the E. flask, a correction value of -0.003

mL was recorded. this means that the volume read was 0.003 lower than it actually is. For

the third and fourth delivery, a 0.9384 mL and -0.9790 mL correction values were calculated,

respectively. These readings do not agree within the ± 0.05 mL tolerance, which means that

the reading was done inaccurately by the analyst. The fifth 10 mL delivery has a correction

value of 0.0836 mL, which still does not conform to the tolerance value, but is almost near to

the accepted values. The first and second deliveries for 20 mL have correction values of

0.0486 mL and 0.0430 mL, which indicates that the readings are read accurately by the

analyst at eye level. Same is through for the 30 mL delivery and 40 mL delivery, with a

calculated correction value of -0.0046 mL and 0.0237 mL, respectively. On the 50 mL

delivery, the correction value is 0.1211 mL. This indicates that random or systematic errors

have occurred during the experiment. Some systematic errors that may have occurred

during the experiment is a change in temperature in the laboratory, changing the calibration

of the volumetric glassware. Parallax error, which is the deceptive change in the relative

position of an object with a change in the position of the observer, may have also contributed

to the calculated error Random errors are non-integer experimental measurement and are

usually estimated from the readability of the device.

Calibration of 10 mL volumetric pipet was done by getting the initial mass of the beaker

and getting the mass of the water by subtracting the initial mass of beaker to the final mass

with the added 10 mL volume. Then, the corrected mass is calculated to get the true volume

delivered.

During calibration, random errors may have occurred. These random errors cancel by

averaging, since the experiment is repeated many times. Upon many trials, random errors

have an effect only on the precision of a measurement. The average of the true volume of all

delivery in trial one and trial two is 9.8969 mL and 9.9613 mL, respectively. These values

have a standard deviation of 0.0207 and 0.0550, which indicates how dispersed the values

are around the mean. To interpret this result, the standard deviation shows that the data are

near to each other. Trial 1 has a relative error of -1.031% and trial 2 have a relative error of

-0.39% which is a measure of the uncertainty of measurement compared to the size of the

measurement. Both results indicate that the data gathered are lower compared to the true

value of the volume. In comparison, trial 1 has greater relative error than trial 2 which means

it has better accuracy.

C. Conclusion

In conclusion, this experiment shows the different types of techniques and methods that

can be used to measure the mass of the sample and the factors that directly affect the

measurements observed and gathered. Moreover, there are evident attributes that could

influence the precision and accuracy of the measurements. These are known as random and

systematic errors. For instance, temperature difference, parallax error, build up moisture

and others are all factors that can affect true measurements of samples. Errors cannot be

eliminated or avoided, but they can be lessened, minimized and controlled when the right

techniques and methods are used. Data gathered are analyzed statistically by determining

the measures of central tendency and measure of spread. This helped the analysts to better

interpret the results and have a better view of the true measurement.

The different set-ups of the experiment gave a clear way directed to fulfilling the

objective of the experiment, which is to develop proper techniques in using analytical

balance and in calibration of volumetric glass wares while being able to define the principles

behind it.

D. References

https://support.hach.com/app/answers/answer_view/a_id/1003829/~/what-is-

the-difference-between-to-contain-and-to-deliver-glassware?-.

http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/lab/equipment/analytical/instructions.

html.

Chesney, D. (2018). Weighing by Difference. Retrieved from

https://pages.mtu.edu/~hyliu/ch4212/ch2212/syllabus_files/WEIGHING BY

DIFFERENCE.pdf.

https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Ancillary_Materials/Demos,_Techniques,_

and_Experiments/General_Lab_Techniques/Proper_Use_of_Balances.

What is the difference between TD and TC Pipettes? Westlab. (n.d.). Retrieved from

https://www.westlab.com.au/blog/2017/07/19/what-is-the-difference-between-

td-and-tc-pipettes.

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