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PT Notes:

 Material Properties

I. Concrete and Rebar

 Concrete compressive strength (Service loads)=f’c
 Concrete compressive strength (At time of jacking)= f’ci=0.8* f’c
 Rebar Yield strength – 60000 ksi

 Unbonded tendons
 Dia. Of strand – ½”
 No of strands in one tendon – 7
 Area of one strand – 0.153
 Assumed PT losses – 15 to 20 ksi
 Ultimate strength of strand – 270 ksi
 Effective pre stress – (0.7*270) – 15 = 175 ksi
 Capacity per tendon - Peff = Aeff*fse =0.153*175=26.6 kips/strand

 Slab Thickness Criteria

 Span to depth ratio (L/h) – 45 for floor
48 for roof
 Minimum Slab thickness – 5”
 Use equivalent frame method for two way slab design (ACI 13.7)

 Design Criteria
 As per ACI 318 18.3.3 the slabs are designed as per following criteria:
1. Class U - Un-cracked condition (For Two way slabs)
2. Class C - Cracked condition
3. Class T - Transition condition

 Design parameters for Class U (un-cracked) condition

 Allowable stresses at the time of Jacking (ACI 18.4.1)
1. Compression = 0.60*f’ci
2. Tension = 3√ f’ci
 Allowable Stresses at service loads (ACI 18.4.2 (a))
1. Compression = 0.45*f’c
2. Tension = 6√ f’c
 Average pre-compression Limit (ACI 18.12.4)
 P/A = 125 psi (min)
300 psi (max)

Load balancing: Consider 60-80% of DL (Self Weight) as Balance load.

Cover Requirements

Cover Thickness, inches, For fire

Restrained or Unrestrained Aggregate Type Endurance of
1hr 1.5hr 2hr 3hr 4hr
Carbonate 3/4 1 1- 2 -
Siliceous 3/4 1-1/4 1- 2 -

Light Weight 3/4 1 1- 1- -

1/4 1/2
Carbonate 3/4 3/4 3/4 1 1-
Siliceous 3/4 3/4 3/4 1 1-
Light Weight 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 1

Note: The end supports of the continuous slab is treated as unrestrained suopports and
the interior supports are treated as restrained supports.

 Tendon Profile :

Tendon Ordinate Tendon CG location

(from bottom of slab)
Exterior Support - Anchor h/2
Interior support-top h-(cover)-(strand diameter/2)
Interior span-bottom (cover)-(strand diameter/2)
End span - bottom (cover)-(strand diameter/2)

In above image Support A and D is the end support which are treated as
Support B and C are the interior supports which are treated as Restrained.
Span AB and CD are the end spans and span BC is the interior span.
 Set tendon Drape Profile:
Tendon drape profile refers to the maximum sag distance of the tendon profile through the slab.

That has been calculated at the mid span of interior span aint and mid span of the end span aend as
shown in the figure.

aint = CG of interior support – CG of interior span

aend = ( CG of exterior support + CG of interior support)/2 + CG of Exterior span

Eccentricity, e, is the distance from the centre to tendon to the neutral axis; varies along the span.

The lesser the value of tendon drape the more post-tensioning force it will require.

Pre-stress force required to balance desired percentage of self-weight:

Generally we assume 67% of self-weight as balance load.

Wb = 0.67*WDL*Tributary width

Post-Tensioning Force,
𝑊 𝐿2
At Interior Fint = 8𝑎𝑏 k

𝑊 𝐿2
At End Fend = 8𝑎𝑏 k

Calculate number of tendons required to resist the post-tensioning force by dividing the post
tensioned force to capacity of each tendon.

Check for amount of load to be balanced:

Percentage of amount of load to be balanced = Wb/(Wdl+Wsdl)*100

This percent should be less than 100.

Check slab stresses:

To check the slab stresses compute the Bending moments that generates due to DL, LL and Balance

Stage 1: Stresses immediately after jacking (DL + PT) (ACI 18.4.1)

Mid-span Stresses

ftop= (-MDL+ Mbal)/S - P/A

fbot= (+MDL- Mbal)/S - P/A

Support stresses

ftop= (+MDL- Mbal)/S - P/A

fbot= (-MDL+ Mbal)/S - P/A

Stage 2: Stresses at service load (DL + LL + PT) (18.3.3 and 18.4.2)

Mid-span Stresses

ftop= (-MDL- MLL+ Mbal)/S - P/A

fbot= (+MDL+ MLL- Mbal)/S - P/A

Support Stresses

ftop= (+MDL+ MLL- Mbal)/S - P/A

fbot= (-MDL- MLL+Mbal)/S - P/A

Note : The positive stresses are considered as Tensile stresses and the Negative stresses are
considered as Compressive stresses.

Check for ultimate strength:

Calculate Primary Post Tensioning moments,


e=0 in for exterior supports

e=Difference between cg of interior support and cg of exterior support

Calculate secondary Post tensioning moments,

Msec= Mbal-M1; This moment will act at the interior supports & similarly calculate at mid spans.

Typical Load combination for Ultimate strength Design is given by:

Mu = 1.2MDL + 1.6MLL + 1.0Msec

Check the ultimate moment at mid-span and support.

Determination of minimum bonded Reinforcement:

Check the positive moment region. (Generally it will be located in interior spans)

Check the value to tensile stresses ft from the Service Load stage.

 If the tensile stresses at interior span ft <2√f’c (ACI; No positive reinforcement
 If the tensile stresses at interior span 2√f’c < ft < 6√f’c (ACI Provide minimum
positive reinforcement.
 Minimum positive reinforcement calculation:

 The Tensile force NC is given by,

Nc = 𝑺
∗ 𝟎. 𝟓 ∗ 𝒚 ∗ 𝒍𝟐

Where, y = ft / (ft +fc) h

L2= Tributary width

As,min=NC/(0.5fy * Tributary width)

 Reinforcement for Negative Moment region: (ACI

The negative moment reinforcement is generally required at supports.

As,min = 0.00075Acf

Acf = max of [h*(average length of span) ] or [h*tributary width]

1. Minimum 4 bars are required in each direction.

2. Place the bar from 1.5h away from the face of the support.

 Check minimum reinforcement is it is sufficient for Ultimate strength or not

ФMn > Ф(Asfy+ Apsfps)*(d-a/2) to satisfy the reinforcement requirement.

d = effective depth = h- cover -strand dia./2

Aps = 0.153*number of tendons

fps = fse+ 10,000 + (f'cbd)/(300Aps) (ACI 18.7.2 Eq-18-5)

a = (Asfy+ Apsfps) / (0.85f'cb)