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BULACAN STATE UNIVERSITY

Sarmiento Campus

“Absenteeism of Students”

In partial Fulfillment of the requirements in

Principles of Teaching

Submitted by:

Jennifer L. Concepcion

BEED-2A

Submitted to:

Mrs. Perpetua Serapio


Table of Contents

Abstract………………………………………………………………………………………4

Chapter I Problem and its Background

Introduction………………………………………………………………………………….5

Statement of the problem…………………………………………………………………….5

Significance of the study………………………………………………………………...….5-6

Chapter II Theoretical Framework

Relevant theories…………………………………………………………………………….7-8

Related Literature………………………………………………………………………..….9-13

Related studies…………………………………………………………………………….. 14-16

Conceptual Framework…………………………………………………………………...…17

Definition of Terms……………………………………………………………………….…17

Chapter III Methods of Research

Research Design………………………………………………….………………………...18

Methods and techniques……………………………………………………………………18

Research instrument………………………………………………………………………..19

Statistical treatment…………………………………………………………………………...20
Chapter IV Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data ………………………....21-22

Chapter V Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation ……………………………………

Reference……………………………………………………………………………………….
Abstract

Student absenteeism is a perennial problem of all teachers. Every curriculum year, it is one of the

problems that they have to contend to. It is not only the teachers who are concerned with this

problem but the school administrators as well.

This action research examined the causes of absenteeism of the students of Bulacan State

University Sarmiento Campus,

This was gathered from the

data contained in the daily attendance record being passed around and kept by the teacher-

leader’s office everyday and is regularly filled up by the teachers in each year level for the

whole year. Now that they are in college, some of them are still frequent absentees. It is for

this reason that this research was undertaken. It has the end in view of understanding and

correcting such undesirable student behavior. Based on the findings, methods/strategies were

recommended to minimize, if not eradicate absenteeism or truancy.


Chapter I
The Problem and its background

Introduction

Absenteeism, according to Merriam-Webster dictionary means chronic absence. In the context of

the school it is the habitual or intentional failure from going to school. It cannot be denied that

every now and then, students may miss some school activities and lessons. But it becomes a

problem if the student will be away from school for many days.

Going to school regularly is crucially important for a student’s education and social skills.

Chronic absentee students are placed at a disadvantage both socially and academically. They

miss out on critical stages of social interaction and development with their peers and at the same

time impacts negatively on their academic progress. This can result to low self-esteem, social

isolation and dissatisfaction that could well have precipitated non-attendance in the first place.

School absenteeism is an alarming problem for administrators, teachers, parents and the society

in general, as well as for the students in particular. Unaccepted absence has a negative effect on

peer relationship which could cause absence. According to Malcolm, Wilson, Davidson and Kirk

(2003) teachers identified effects of absenteeism on children as: academic under- achievement,

difficulty in making friends which could lead to boredom, loss of confidence. Also, prolonged

absence can have deleterious effects for the child in later life. Students who are absent from

school are at the greatest risk of dropping out of school early.

Absenteeism also affects the teacher’s ability present class work in a sequential and organized

way. This can have an effect on the progress of all the students attending the class.
The families of habitual absentees can also suffer. For a poverty-stricken family, it may mean a

continuation of the poverty and unemployment cycle that may run in the family. This also

contributes to family conflicts.

The society also suffers as the children of school age hang around in the streets. They can be

found just gallivanting around. Since they have nothing to do, they resort to petty crimes like

stealing other people’s belongings and properties. Others may resort to drug addiction and other

behavior that is detrimental to society. Thus, if the student keeps on being away from school for

too long, he may grow up to be a liability of his community and of his country as a whole.

It is the aim of every school to lessen, if not eradicate absenteeism among its students. One way

of addressing this problem is to identify the causes why students become truant from school.

Once they are singled out, understood and analyzed, specific actions and measures can be

undertaken. This will eventually redound to the better performance of the students, teachers and

the school in general.

It is in this context that this action research was undertaken, that is, to identify the causes why the

Bulacan State University students in this school absent themselves from their classes.

Statement of the problem

This study aimed to determine the causes of absenteeism among the Bulacan State University
student. Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:

1. What are the common causes why pupils are absent from their classes?

2. Which among these causes is the most prevalent?


Significance of the study

The result of the study will determine the factor that makes the student absences or being late
from school.

Following:

To the parents, this study will improve the rapport of parents to their children as they support
them financially, emotionally, physically.

To the teachers, this study will serve as a guide for teachers to make for the students who have
problems.

To the students, this study will inform the student about the factors that they have to avoid to
continue their studies.

To the researchers, this will guide other researchers in conducting a study that will better provide
readers information about the factors that students absences from school.

Scope

This study was limited to the causes of absenteeism among the Bulacan State University students

for school year 2012-2013. All of the sixty (60) Bulacan State University students

were made as respondents. They were asked to accomplish a questionnaire for the purpose.
Chapter II
Theoretical Framework

Relevant theories

Tinto’s original theory involved five specific factors that contributed to student retention: (1) a
student’s pre-entry attributes (prior schooling and family background); (2) goals and
commitment (the students and faculty and peer interaction); (3) experience at the institution
(academics and faculty and peer interactions); (4) external commitments while at the institution;
(5) integration both academically and socially (Metz 4). In the second edition of his book, Tinto
argues against models of attrition that “see student departure as reflecting some shortcoming
and/or weakness in the individual” (85), further reinforcing the fifth aspect of his attribution
model: the subjective category of integration. In essence, Tinto is arguing that a student may be
passing classes with flying colors and still decide to absent for reason unrelated to “shortcoming
and/or weakness”. He suggest that the act of absences should not necessarily carry a negative
connotation.

This first theory has, of course, since been criticized and manipulated to fit later theories in the
collective effort to create a single unifying attrition model. In his “involvement theory,” Astin
suggested that “certain variables influence student persistence, notably various forms of financial
aid,” and that “students learn by becoming involved” in college-sponsored activities (Metz 5).
Although Tinto certainly includes the latter in his theory, he clearly ignores the former argument
of Astin. John Bean further “expanded on the previous work of Tinto and Astin by integrating
academic variables, student intent, goals, expectations, and external and internal environmental
factors into a revised model of persistence” (Metz 8). Bean’s attrition model includes another set
of five facets: (1) reutilization – the idea that student life becomes routine; (2) instrumental
communication – how well an institution distributes information about student life; (3)
participation in classroom decisions; (4) integration; (5) distributive justice – whether rewards
are consistent with effort expended (Ishitani and Desjardin 6-7. Both Metz and Ishitani and
Desjardins agree that “most researchers have continued to criticize other aspects of Tinto’s
theory. Tierney argues against Tinto’s reliance on a traditional age for college students, which
ignores a large number of older, returning students (Metz 9). Others have argued against the
theory for its ignorance of the two-year against Tinto’s reliance on a traditional age for college
students, which ignores a large number of older, returning students (Metz 9). Others have argued
against the theory for its ignorance of the two-year college, and its failure to take into account the
differing circumstances of minority students.
Chapter III
Methods of Research

Research Design

This paper described the topic in descriptive form; all the details were discussed all over the

paper with given supportive details and citation to make the information concrete.

Respondents of the Study

The respondents consist of (60) selected students at Bulacan State University Sarmiento Campus,

City of San Jose Del Monte Bulacan.

Methods of Research

Data were gathered through gathering necessary data and conducting a survey. Statistical survey

is an important and useful method of data collection. It is used to collect information about items

in a population.

Conducting the survey, the surveys questionnaires were given to the respondents and were given

by the researcher. Questionnaires provide answers using the 5 pt and 3 pt. Likert Scale for the

respondents to choose. A Likert Scale is a psychometric scale commonly involved in research

that employs questionnaires. It is the most widely approach to scaling responses in survey
research. When responding to a Liker questionnaire item, respondents specify their level of

agreement or disagreement on a symmetric agrees-disagree scale for series statements.

Research Instruments

In this research, the researcher used a survey-questionnaire as an instrument. The survey method
has been selected because it is well organized, easily understood, and less expensive.

Name: (optional)

Course and year:

Instructions: Check the box that describes your answer the following questions.

5-always

4-very

3-sometimes

2-rarely

1-never

Factors that make students absences from 1 2 3 4 5


school
Physical factors
Health
Personal attitude
Teacher- related
Classroom atmosphere
Home related factors

Statistical treatment

A statistical treatment will be used to describe the collected information and the analysis of the

existing facts. A frequency distribution shows us a summarized grouping of data divided into
mutually exclusive classes and the number of occurrences in a class. Univar ate frequency

distributions are often presented as lists ordered by quality showing the number of times each

value appears.

Percentage was utilized to analyze the gathered data. Below is the formula use:

% f = + f/n x 100

Where:

f= frequency

n=total of respondents
Chapter IV
Presentation, Analysis, and Interpretation of Data

This study used the descriptive survey method. A questionnaire was used to determine the causes

of absenteeism among the students where they rated each situation/reason/cause presented.

All the data gathered from the respondents were organized, tallied, tabulated and presented in a

series of tables and graphs. Frequency counts, percentage weight values and weighted mean were

used in the analysis and interpretation of data.

The responses of the pupils were analyzed using a 5-point Likert Scale with the following

equivalent:

1 -Never

2 -Rarely

3 -Sometimes

4 -Very Often

5 -Always

It is be to be noted that the questionnaire given to the students were given in their native dialect

in order for them to understand better what they were answering, thus, giving more chances of

accurate responses.
The rounding of figures was done to signify classification of responses. The measure of central

tendency specifically the mean was used to determine the average value of response or response

average of the student.

Result of the survey

This survey happened from March 11 to March 15, 2013. The Researcher asked 60 students from

Bulacan State University Sarmiento Campus. Sixty student from education student fill out the

survey form.

Frequency Distribution

Figure 1

Percentage: factors that make students absents from schooling

Factors that make students absences from 1 2 3 4 5


schooling
Physical factors 1.04
Health 2.4 1.67 1.61 1.31
Personal attitude 1.91 1.45 1.37 1.26 1.22
Teacher- related 1.38 1.32
Classroom atmosphere 1.77 1.39
Home related factors 1.52 1.47 1.08

A. Physical Factors

Among the items cited, the distance of their house to the school and the danger posed by walking

to the school has the same response average or a mean of 1.04. It means that both are not reasons

for them to be absent from school.


B. Health

Fever/flu is the most common reason of students for being absent. It has the highest response

average of 2.4. It is followed by headache with an average response of 1.67. Other diseases like

diarrhea come in third with 1.61 average responses. The least common reason for them for being

absent is stomachache with 1.39 averages.

C. Personal Attitude

That the student doesn’t wake up early is the most common reason why he/she is absent. This

account for 1.91 mean. Another reason commonly cited is that they can’t concentrate on their

studies and that they were not able to study their lessons. This resulted from 1.45 and 1.37 mean

respectively. Feeling lazy and playing computer games also keep them away from school. The

former has a response average of 1.26 while the latter has 1.22.

D. Teacher-Related

When the students are scolded for their bad behavior by the teacher, this tends to make them be

absent from their classes. It has the highest average response of 1.38 while the reason that they

can’t understand their lessons follow close behind with 1.32 mean.

E. Classroom Atmosphere

The highest mean of 1.77 was accorded to noise inside the classroom which means that this is the

primary reason why they tend to be truant. Bullying by fellow student follows with 1.39 response

average.

F. Home-Related

“My parents ask me to be absent from school” reason resulted to the highest mean of 1.52.

Household chores come second with a response average of 1.47. The other reasons ranged from

1.08 to 1.39 include having no money to spend for snacks and other small expenses in school, no

breakfast/food, and that their parents quarreled.


The response average or the mean was computed by multiplying the percentage of responses by

the equivalent value of each frequency and then adding them all.

e.g.(5 x 0%) + (4 x 3%) + (3 x 13%) + (2 x 7%) + (1 x 77%) = 1.42

Chapter V

Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation

Though conducting a survey at Bulacan State University Sarmiento Campus, the


researcher was able to know the factors that make the students to absent from school. Majority of
the respondents strongly agreed that having a fever or any other disease is the major problem
why the students absent.

Conclusions

Among all the causes presented, health is the primary reason why students are absent from their

classes. Flu/fever is the leading culprit in this category. Oral health, which according to the

Department of Education is the main reason why pupils are absent, is just third among the

reasons cited in the said category by the Grade VI students studying in Zapote Elementary

School for the school year 2012-2013.

Classroom atmosphere, personal attitude, teacher factor and home-related reasons follow in that

order. The least reason they give is related to their physical environment.

Considering all the factors/categories cited, the top 10 reasons of student absenteeism are as
follows:

1) Flu/fever

2) Can’t wake up early

3) Noise inside the classroom


4) Headache

5) Other diseases such as diarrhea

6) Parents asking them to be absent

7) Pre- occupation with household chores

8.3) Toothache

8.3) No money to buy snacks in school

8.3) Bullied by a classmate/classmates

Recommendations

The following are recommended to limit the students’ absenteeism and prevent their

occurrences:

1. Educate the students on how to take care of their overall well-being. Emphasis should be given

to oral health and over-all body wellness. Teach them how to avoid communicable diseases as

well. Give them information on how to properly wash their hands which is the main source of

germs and bacteria among children.

Let them develop proper eating habits. Since most of the children in the school come from poor

families, point out to them the cheap but healthy foods. Ask them to pass on this information to

their parents.

2. Time and again, classroom atmosphere should be made conducive to learning. Noise-

reduction among students should be a priority as this really affects them. Students tend to have
louder voices so it should be inculcated in them how to speak

softly and without needing to shout. The key here is discipline. The teacher must also see to it

that the students are comfortable and have no other concerns except the lesson at hand. There

should be a lively interaction between the teacher and the students but the teacher should see to it

that it will be in modulated voices so as not to impair the hearing of the students due to too much
noise when doing classroom activities.

Include proper room ventilation and lighting so as not to distract pupils from their learning.

3. During parents conferences, inform the parents about the benefit of keeping their children in

school at all times when there are classes. Emphasize to them that if they keep on asking their

children to be absent, this will set a bad precedence to the child. If the parents themselves will be

the one to keep them away from school, they will think that household concerns are more

important than their education, thus the children will take for granted their coming to school

regularly and suffer the consequences of it.

4. Although it can’t be avoided that the teacher gets peeved with students’ bad behavior, he/she

should refrain from scolding the erring pupils. As much as possible, remind them of their wrong

doing in a most diplomatic manner. Self-control should be a virtue which the teacher should

practice in the course of her teaching everyday of the school week.

5. Give extra attention to those who are left behind in the lessons. Tap the bright tudents to teach

their slower classmates, for all we know, these slow students might learn/understand better if

persons of their same age are the ones explaining to them. In other words, cooperative learning

should be practiced in the teaching-learning process. Once a slow student fully understands the

lesson, he/she can keep up with his/her other classmates, thus self-confidence is gained. This

way, they will be more motivated to come to school regularly.

6. Imbibe in the mind of the children that their academic success is very much dependent on their

attitude towards school. Motivate them so they will be looking forward to attending their classes

regularly. For those who wake up late, encourage them to have an alarm clock. Do not scold the

pupils who come late. Give them a time-table to change their sleeping habit for the better. In line

will this, studying before retiring to bed instead of watching TV should be prioritized and

instilled to the pupils.


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APPENDIX
STUDENT’S PROFILE

Name: (optional)

Course and Year:

Instruction: check the box that describes your answer on the following questions.

Always Very Often Sometimes Rarely Never


(5) (4) (3) (2) (1)

A. Physical Factor
1. Our house is far from the school.
2. It is unsafe to go to school.
3. Nobody accompanies me in going
to school since it is far.
B. Health
1. I have a toothache.
2. My stomach hurts.
3. I have a headache
4. I'm down with fever/flu.
5. I have other diseases like diarrhea,
etc.
C.Personal Attitude
1. I am not interested in my studies.
2. I feel lazy.
3. My friends influence me to be
absent from my classes.
4. I can't concentrate in my studies.
5. I didn't wake up early.
6. I did not study/make my
assignments the night before.
7. I got fond of playing computer
games.
D. Teacher-Related Factors
1. My teacher scolded me.
2. I can't understand my teacher's
lessons.
3. I don't like my teacher.
E. Classroom atmosphere
1. Our classroom is hot and
uncomfortable.
2. It's noisy inside our classroom.
3. A classmate/classmates bully me.
4. I have no friends in our class.
F. Home-Related Factors
1. My parents ask me to be absent
from class.
2. My parents quarreled.
3. My parents don't care about my
studies.
4. I'm too pre-occupied with
household chores.
5. I have no money to buy snacks in
school.
6. We have no food/I did not eat.
Jennifer L. Concepcion

Tc-5 Area G Brgy. Citrus Sapang Palay

City of San Jose Del Monte Bulacan

jenconcepcion12@yahoo.com

PERSONAL BACKGROUND

Name: Jennifer L. Concepcion

Age: 18 years old

Gender: Female

Date of Birth: September 12,1994

Place of Birth: Sapang Palay Bulacan

Civil Status: Single

Nationality: Filipino

Educational Background:

College: Bulacan state University sarmiento campus

(Present)
Secondary: Sapang Palay National High School

(Class 2011)

Elementary: Bagong Buhay G

(Class 2007)

I hereby certify that the above information is true and correct to the best of my knowledge and
belief.

Jennifer L. Concepcion