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AP Environmental Science - Homework 3 - 1

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

__b__ 1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a mineral?


a. crystal structure
b. organic
c. naturally occurring
d. solid
e. inorganic
d 2. All of the following are broad classes of rock except
a. sedimentary.
b. igneous.
c. metamorphic.
d. crystal.
e. plasticized.
__b__ 3. Lava is an example of ____ rock.
a. metamorphic
b. igneous
c. sedimentary
d. plasticized
e. crystal
_a__ 4. The change of rocks from one type to another is known as
a. metamorphism.
b. the rock cycle.
c. petrography.
d. consolidation.
e. hydrogeology.
_c___ 5. Which of the following does not belong with the others?
a. basalt
b. granite
c. sandstone
d. volcanic rocks
e. pumice
__b__ 6. Which of the following rocks is most likely to be formed from compacted shells and skeletons?
a. coal
b. limestone
c. rock salt
d. marble
e. granite
a____ 7. Which of the following rocks is most likely to be formed from compacted plant remains?
a. coal
b. limestone
c. rock salt
d. marble
e. Granite
_d___ 8. Lignite and bituminous coal are ____ rocks.
a. metamorphic
b. igneous
c. tectonic
d. sedimentary
e. crystal
c____ 9. Slate, anthracite, and marble are ____ rocks.
a. primary
b. secondary
c. metamorphic
d. igneous
e. tertiary
__c_ 10. Soil is developed most directly through
a. moving tectonic plates.
b. earthquakes.
c. weathering.
d. mass wasting.
e. volcanoes.
__e__ 11. Soil is a complex mixture of
a. mineral nutrients.
b. eroded rock.
c. air and water.
d. decaying organic matter.
e. all of these answers
a 12. A cross-sectional view of the ____ in a soil is properly termed a soil ____.
a. horizons . . . profile
b. horizons . . . sample
c. profile . . . sample
d. surface litter . . . profile
e. profile . . . horizon
_c___ 13. The zones that compose a mature soil are known as
a. strata.
b. profiles.
c. horizons.
d. laminae.
e. samples.
_d___ 14. The surface litter horizon is described by the letter
a. A.
b. B.
c. C.
d. O.
e. D.
__c__ 15. The ____-horizon of a soil contains no organic material and is composed of parent material.
a. A
b. B
c. C
d. O
e. D
_a___ 16. The A-horizon of soil is commonly referred to as
a. topsoil.
b. surface litter.
c. subsoil.
d. parent rock.
e. humus.
__a__ 17. The topsoil horizon is described by the letter
a. A.
b. B.
c. C.
d. O.
e. D.
_d___ 18. As it is weathered, ____ gives rise to the C-horizon.
a. parent material
b. leaching
c. subsoil
d. bed rock
e. B-horizon
__d__ 19. The dissolving of material from the upper layers of the soil and its movement to lower horizons is called
a. percolation.
b. weathering.
c. accumulation.
d. leaching.
e. humus.
_d___ 20. Humus is
a. indicative of poor soils.
b. light colored or nearly white.
c. poisonous to soil microorganisms.
d. partially decomposed organic matter.
e. freshly, fallen leaves.
_c___ 21. Topsoil that is ____ in color is the most highly fertile.
a. gray
b. red
c. dark brown or black
d. yellow
e. green
__a__ 22. Soil texture most directly determines
a. porosity.
b. pH.
c. color.
d. nutrient content.
e. mineral content.
__d__ 23. Which of the following types of soils has the least pore space?
a. silt
b. loam
c. clay
d. sand
e. they all have equal pore space
_c___ 24. Clay has ____ permeability and ____ porosity.
a. high . . . high
b. high . . . low
c. low. . . high
d. low. . . low
e. medium . . . medium
__b__ 25. Sand has ____ permeability and ____ porosity.
a. high . . . high
b. high . . . low
c. low . . . high
d. low . . . low
e. medium . . . medium