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Edison P.

Maarat
BSECE-5
1. Following are the three types of multiple access techniques and their respective modulation
techniques being used.
 FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) - is the division of the frequency band allocated
for wireless cellular telephone communication into 30 channels, each of which can carry a voice
conversation or, with digital service, carry digital data. ... With FDMA, each channel can be
assigned to only one user at a time. In FDMA it uses frequency Shift keying modulation.The
eight time slots can be voice signals or data such as texts or e-mails. The frame is transmitted at a
270-kbit/s rate using Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK), which is a form of frequency shift
keying (FSK) modulation.

 TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) - Time-division multiple access (TDMA) is a


channel access method for shared-medium networks. It allows several users to share the same
frequency channel by dividing the signal into different time slots. The users transmit in rapid
succession, one after the other, each using its own time slot. In TDMA (time division multiple
access) uses a type of modulation called Pi/4 DPSK (differential phase shift keying). Differential
Phase Shift Keying DPSKDPSK the phase of the modulated signal is shifted relative to the
previous signal element. No reference signal is considered here. The signal phase follows the high
or low state of the previous element. This DPSK technique doesn’t need a reference oscillator.
Differential phase shift keying (DPSK) is a common type of phase modulation that conveys data
by changing the phase of the carrier wave. In DPSK the phase of the modulated signal is shifted
relative to the previous signal element. The signal phase follows the high or low state of the
previous element.

 CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) - is a channel access method used by various radio
communication technologies. CDMA is an example of multiple access, where several transmitters
can send information simultaneously over a single communication channel. CDMA is used as
the access method in many mobile phone standards. In CDMA Techniques generally used are
direct sequence spread spectrum modulation (DS-CDMA), frequency hopping or
mixed CDMA detection (JDCDMA). Here, a signal is generated which extends over a wide
bandwidth. A code called spreading code is used to perform this action. Code-division
multiplexing (synchronous CDMA) the digital modulation method is analogous to those used in
simple radio transceivers. In the analog case, a low-frequency data signal is time-multiplied with
a high-frequency pure sine-wave carrier and transmitted.

2. Can all the modulation techniques be applied to each accessing techniques.

FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access)


In FDMA, all users share the satellite transponder or frequency channel simultaneously but each user
transmits at single frequency. FDMA can be used with both analog and digital signal but it generally used
with analog signal. FDMA is distinct from frequency division duplexing (FDD). While FDMA allows
multiple users simultaneous access to a transmission system, FDD refers to how the radio channel is
shared between the uplink and downlink (for instance, the traffic going back and forth between a mobile-
phone and a mobile phone base station). Frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) is also distinct from
FDMA. FDM is a physical layer technique that combines and transmits low-bandwidth channels through
a high-bandwidth channel. FDMA, on the other hand, is an access method in the data link layer.
 FDMA requires high-performing filters in the radio hardware, in contrast to TDMA and CDMA.
 FDMA is not vulnerable to the timing problems that TDMA has. Since a predetermined
frequency band is available for the entire period of communication, stream data (a continuous
flow of data that may not be packetized) can easily be used with FDMA.
 Due to the frequency filtering, FDMA is not sensitive to near-far problem which is pronounced
for CDMA.
 Each user transmits and receives at different frequencies as each user gets a unique frequency
slots
 Each user transmits and receives at different frequencies as each user gets a unique frequency
slots

TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)


The users transmit in rapid succession, one after the other, each using its own time slot. This
allows multiple stations to share the same transmission medium (e.g. radio frequency channel) while
using only a part of its channel capacity. In radio systems, TDMA is usually used alongside frequency-
division multiple access (FDMA) and frequency division duplex (FDD); the combination is referred to as
FDMA/TDMA/FDD. This is the case in both GSM and IS-136 for example. Exceptions to this include
the DECT and Personal Handy-phone System (PHS) micro-cellular systems, UMTS-TDD UMTS variant,
and China's TD-SCDMA, which use time-division duplexing, where different time slots are allocated for
the base station and handsets on the same frequency.
A major advantage of TDMA is that the radio part of the mobile only needs to listen and
broadcast for its own time slot. For the rest of the time, the mobile can carry out measurements on the
network, detecting surrounding transmitters on different frequencies. This allows safe inter frequency
handovers, something which is difficult in CDMA systems, not supported at all in IS-95 and supported
through complex system additions in Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS). This in
turn allows for co-existence of microcell layers with macrocell layers.

 Shares single carrier frequency with multiple users


 Non-continuous transmission makes handoff simpler
 Slots can be assigned on demand in dynamic TDMA
 Less stringent power control than CDMA due to reduced intra cell interference
 Higher synchronization overhead than CDMA
 Advanced equalization may be necessary for high data rates if the channel is "frequency
selective" and creates Inter symbol interference
 Cell breathing (borrowing resources from adjacent cells) is more complicated than in CDMA
 Frequency/slot allocation complexity
 Pulsating power envelope: interference with other devices

CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access


CDMA is a spread-spectrum multiple-access technique. A spread-spectrum technique spreads the
bandwidth of the data uniformly for the same transmitted power. A spreading code is a pseudo-random
code that has a narrow ambiguity function, unlike other narrow pulse codes. In CDMA a locally generated
code runs at a much higher rate than the data to be transmitted. Data for transmission is combined by
bitwise XOR (exclusive OR) with the faster code. The figure shows how a spread-spectrum signal is
generated.
 Synchronous CDM (code-division 'multiplexing', an early generation of CDMA) was
implemented in the Global Positioning System (GPS). This predates and is distinct from its use
in mobile phones.
 The Qualcomm standard IS-95, marketed as cdmaOne.
 The Qualcomm standard IS-2000, known as CDMA2000, is used by several mobile phone
companies, including the Global star network.
 The UMTS 3G mobile phone standard, which uses W-CDMA.
 CDMA has been used in the OmniTRACS satellite system for transportation logistics.