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NOVEMBER 20, 2019


All lesson plan formats have strengths and are designed to help you plan for student learning. Ever hear of
the 4-A model? Use this lesson to learn about what makes this format unique.

The 4-A Model

Lesson plans are an important part of education. They're a written plan of what a teacher will do in order
to achieve the goals during the school day, week, and year. Typically, lesson plans follow a format that
identifies goals and objectives, teaching methods, and assessment. These basic components can be
modified in many ways depending on specific student and teacher needs.
The 4-A lesson plan model focuses on four main concepts. Each is necessary for student success, and by
identifying how they will be used in instructional practices, teachers ensure they are front-and-center. The
four components are:

1. Activate prior knowledge

2. Acquire new knowledge
3. Application
4. Assessment

These somewhat broad categories, which we'll narrow down in a bit, allow teachers to make sure students
are ready to learn. By activating prior knowledge, students make important connections to past learning
and prepare their brains for new content. New content is presented and taught, then applied to real-world
or past situations. Finally, an assessment is given to determine student understanding. Let's dig a bit
deeper into these components.

Activating Prior Knowledge

What does it mean to activate prior knowledge, and how can teachers accomplish this? The term simply
refers to tapping into a student's previous experience with the topic. For example, if the new learning is
oceanic life, a teacher could activate students' prior knowledge by connecting to other life forms they
studied, or asking students to share experiences about the ocean. In fact, many instructional methods can
be used to activate prior knowledge, including:

 Brainstorming
 Games
 Journaling
 Conversations
 Concept Mapping

Virtually any way you can think of to get students thinking about a prior experience will do the trick.

Acquire New Knowledge

During this instructional time, teachers promote higher order thinking and prompt students to use inquiry
skills in order to master content. Why do this? Instead of a serve-and-return method of instruction, which
simply has students listen and repeat content, the 4-A model fosters a more rigorous learning model, one
that has students thinking deeply about content. This is accomplished in countless ways, such as having
guest speakers, using interactive learning logs, role-playing, and teaching mini-lessons. This is the typical
'instructional methods' portion of lesson plans with an emphasis on pushing towards high-level skills.
For one lesson in the oceanic life study, a teacher may have students watch a video of life in the ocean,
then read about how mammals and fish interact to survive. Another day she may have a zoologist speak to
the students, then have students respond to the experience by writing a letter asking further questions.

During this portion of the 4-A plan, teachers plan for ways students can take in the new information,
consolidate it, and apply it in new and useful ways. Students apply their knowledge by sharing their ideas,
creating a product, participating in activities, doing a case study, and so on.
In our oceanic example, students may create a 3-dimensional model of the ocean, applying all the
information they learned to demonstrate understanding.

Finally, teachers plan on methods to assess students both during and at the end of learning. These
assessments can be completed in typical ways, such as quizzes and tests, and more formative methods as
well, such as giving a 'thumbs up,' using think-pair-share, or using exit slips. Teachers use this data to
drive future instruction or determine final student understanding.