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Solutions to Problems in Goldstein, Classical Mechanics, Second Edition Homer Reid August 22, 2000 Chapter 1 Problem 1.1 A nucleus, originally at rest, decays radioactively by emitting an electron of mo- ‘mentum 1.73 MeV/c, and at right angles to the direction of the electron a neutrino ‘with momentum 1.00 MeV/c. (‘The MeV (million electron volt) is a unit of energy, ‘used in modern physics, equal to 1.60 x 10-® erg. Correspondingly, MeV/c is @ ‘unit of linear momentum equal to 5.34 x 10! gm-cm/sec.) In what direetion does the nucleus recoil? What is its momentum in MeV/c? If the mass of the residual nucleus is 3.90 x 10-? gam, what is its kinetic energy, in electron volts? Place the nucleus at the origin, and suppose the electron is emitted in the positive y direction, and the neutrino in the positive x direction. Then the resultant of the electron and neutrino momenta has magnitude VOTE +T =2 MeV/c, and its direction makes an angle Pet 1178 _ gos tant SP = 60 with the x axis. ‘The nucleus must acquire a momentum of equal magnitude and directed in the opposite direction. The kinetic energy of the nucleus is pe AMeV? ec? 1.78-10-"7 gm P= om = 239: 10-7 gm’ 1 MeVe? This is much smaller than the nucleus rest energy of several hundred GeV, so the non-relativistic approximation is justified. =9.lev Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 2 Problem 1.2 ‘The escape velocity of a particle on the earth is the minimum velocity required at the surface of the earth in order that the particle can escape from the earth’s ‘gravitational field. Neglecting the resistance of the atmosphere, the system is con- servative. From the conservation theorem for potential plus kinetic energy show that the escape velocity for the earth, ignoring the presence of the moon, is 6.95 smi /see. If the particle starts at the earth’s surface with the escape velocity, it will just manage to break free of the earth’s field and have nothing left. Thus after it has escaped the earth’s field it will have no kinetic energy left, and also no potential energy since it’s out of the earth's field, so its total energy will be zero. Since the particle’s total energy must be constant, it must also have zero total energy at the surface of the earth. This means that the kinetic energy it has at the surface of the earth must exactly cancel the gravitational potential energy it has there: 12 yn g|(2EMRY _ (2(6.67-10" m kg? 5-2) - (6.98. 10 kg) Rn 638-10 m 1m = 12 km/s 6.95 mi/s. Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 3 Problem 1.3 Rockets are propelled by the momentum reaction of the exhaust gases expelled from the tail. Since these gases arise from the reaction of the fuels carried in the rocket ‘the mass of the rocket is not constant, but decreases as the fuel is expended. Show that the equation of motion for a rocket projected vertically upward in a uniform gravitational field, neglecting atmospheric resistance, is, dy _ pdm "a a ™ where m is the mass of the rocket and vis the velocity of the eseaping gases relative to the rocket. Integrate this equation to obtain v as a funetion of m, assuming a constant time rate of loss of mass. Show, for a rocket starting initially from rest, with o equal to 6800 ft/sec and a mass loss per second equal to 1/60th of the intial ‘mass, that in order to reach the escape velocity the ratio of the weight of the fuel to the weight of the empty rocket must be almost 300! Suppose that, at time ¢, the rocket has mass m(t) and velocity v(t). The total external force on the rocket is then F = gm(t), with g = 32.1 ft/s?, pointed downwards, so that the total change in momentum between ¢ and ¢ + dt is Fat = —gm(t)dt. @) At time t, the rocket. has momentum Pit) = m(t}u(t). @) On the other hand, during the time interval dt the rocket releases a mass Am of gas at a velocity v' with respect to the rocket. In so doing, the rocket's velocity increases by an amount dv. The total momentum at time ¢ + dt is the sum of the momenta of the rocket and gas: Dit + dl) = pp + py = [mm(t) ~ Am|fu(t) + do] + Amfv(t) +e] (3) Subtracting (2) from (3) and equating the difference wi first order in differential quantities) (1), we have (to —gm(t)dt = m(t)dv + v'Am no) a9" mi) at Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 4 which we may write as (a) ‘This is a differential equation for the function v(t) giving the velocity of the rocket as a function of time. We would now like to recast this as a differential equation for the function v(m) giving the rocket’s velocity as a function of its mags. To do this, we first. observe that since the rocket is releasing the mass Am every dt seconds, the time derivative of the rocket’s mass is dm __Am We then have dy cc Substituting into (4), we obtain a= Ban rot Integrating, with the condition that v(mo) tom ven(2) Now, 7=(1/60)mo For mo >> m we can neglect the frst term inthe parentheses of the first term, ving v(m) = 1930 ft/s - (z = ) + 6800 ft/s -In sm) = ~190 fe/-+ 0800/19 (2) ‘The escape velocity is v = 6.95 mi/s = 36.7 - 10° ft/s. Plugging this into the equation above and working backwards, we find that escape velocity is achieved when mo/m=28. “Thanks to Brian Hart for pointing out an inconsistency in my original choice of notation for this problem. Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 5 Problem 1.4 Show that for a single particle with constant mass the equation of motion implies the following differential equation for the kinetic energy: aad ‘while if the mass varies with time the corresponding equation is dn) TEP We have F=p 6) If m is constant, 6) On the other hand, if m not constant, instead of v we dot p into (5) F-p=p-p Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 6 Problem 1.5 Prove that the magnitude R of the position vector for the center of mass from an arbitrary origin is given by the equation We have 50 alpetegme| w and similarly Baap [x mis mm a 1 PEE Zann ee iP [= mini + yn cr -a| @ On the other hand, Adding, er} ny and, in particular, r3, = 0, s0 Lomangehy = Domamseh + mange} —2mamytr-r)] a a = 2 mumyr? — 2 mamy(rv-13) ®) w wo Next, mt) Lobe + Domo? 0) w Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 7 4 " om (ew) ‘gure 1: My conception of the situation of Problem 1.8 Subtracting haf of (8) from (9), we have a_l 4, 2 2,2 MS mart — FY simon, = Tomi? + Domamyter-1y) 7 a and comparing this with (7) we see that we are done. Problem 1.8 ‘Two wheels of radius a are mounted on the ends of a common axle of length b such ‘that the wheels rotate independently. The whole combination rolls without slipping, ‘on a plane. Show that there are two nonholonomic equations of constraint, cos de + sin 8 dy = 0 sin Ode — cos dy = a(dé + d¢') (where 8, ¢, and ¢' have meanings similar to the problem of a single vertical disc, and (2, y) are the coordinates of a point on the axle midway between the two wheels) ‘and one holonomic equation of constraint, 46-¢) o=C-F(o-9') where C is a constant. My conception of the situation is illustrated in Figure 1. @ is the angle between the # axis and the axis of the two wheels. ¢ and ¢ are the rotation angles of the two wheels, and r and r! are the locations of their centers. The center of the wheel axis is the point just between r and W (@,y) = 5lte + resty +7). Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 8 Ifthe @ wheel rotates through an angle dé, the vector displacement of its center will have magnitude adg and direction determined by 8. For example, if @ = 0 then the wheel axis is parallel to the 2 axis, in which case rolling the ¢ wheel clockwise will cause it to move in the negative y direction. In general, referring to the Figure, we have adefoin #4 — cos 83) (ao) dr’ = adg'[sin@i — cos) (ay) Adding these componentwise we have! dr= slot dd!|sind dy $lde + 46! cos Multiplying these by sind or — cos and adding or subtracting, we obtain, sin dx — cos@dy = alde + d9'] cos 0 dz + sin Ody = 0. Next, consider the vector riz = r—r' connecting the centers of the two wheels. ‘The definition of @ is such that its tangent must just be the ratio of the y and components of this vector: wa tand = 5002 040 = = 8 dove + Fda Subtracting (11) from (10), see? 049 ala — a ( snd J ox) ne Again substituting for yi2/i2 in the first term in parentheses, sec? #0 = —a[d@ — d¢')—* (tanO sind + cos) ze do = add ~ df} (sin? cond + cs?) ald - dé) cost (2) "Thanks to Javier Garcia for pointing out a factorof-two error in the original version of ‘hese equations. Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 9 However, considering the definition of 8, we clearly have a2 aa Gh tay? because the magnitude of the distance between r1 and rs is constrained to be b by the rigid axis. Then (12) becomes do = 5 [dd — do] with immediate solution o= ayy - Fl6- 01) with C a constant of integration. Problem 1.9 A particle moves in the « — y plane under the constraint that its velocity vector is, alvways directed towards a point on the axis whose abscissa is some given function of time f(t). Show that for f(t) differentiable, but otherwise arbitrary, the constraint is nonholonomic. ‘The particle's position is (e(2),y(t)), while the position of the moving point is (f(t),0)- Then the vector d from the particle to the point has components d, =2(t)— f(t) dy = y(t). (a3) ‘The particle's velocity v has components dey ee ae ue dt aa) and for the vectors in (18) and (28 to be in the same direction, we require wt Uz de dy/dt dy _ vl) defat ~ de ~ FO - FO dy_ ae 7 EHO (a5) For example, if f(t) = at, then we may integrate to find Iny(t) = Infa(t) - a] +0 u(t) = C- [a(t at) which is a holonomic constraint. But for general f(t) the right side of (15) is hot integrable, so the constraint is nonholonomic. Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 10 _ {| 4 \@ Figure 2: My conception of the situation of Problem 1.10 Problem 1.10 ‘Two points of mass m are joined by a rigid weightless rod of length 1, the center of which is constrained to move on a circle of radius a. Set up the kinetic energy in generalized coordinates. My conception of this one is shown in Figure 2. @ is the angle representing how far around the circle the center of the rod has moved. ¢ is the angle the rod makes with the x axis. ‘The position of the center of the rod is (z,y) = (acos@,asind). The positions of the masses relative to the center of the rod are (tretsdret) = +(1/2)(1cos ,1sin ). Then the absotute positions of the masses are 0) = (00030 =f cosg,asine + 4 sing) and their velocities are (e:0)) = (-asin9d% § sing g,acos06 + } e089) ‘The magnitudes of these are lol = + E98 4 ald glsin din + co80e089) =F + ‘ £alb dcos(@ ~ 4) When we add the kinetic energies of the two masses, the third term cancels, and we have Po Smt mitts 2 Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 u Problem 1.11 Show that Lagrange’s equations in the form of Eq. 1-53 can also be written as or ar 34; 78g; Qs. ‘These are sometimes known as the Nielsen form of the Lagrange equations. Problem 1.12 A point particle moves in space under the influence of a force derivable from a generalized potential of the form U(e,v) =V(r) +a-L where r is the radius veetor from a fixed point, L is the angular momentum about, that point, and o is a fixed vector in space. (a) Find the components of the force on the particle in both Cartesian and spherical polar coordinates, on the basis of Eq. (1-58). (b) Show that the components in the two coordinate systems are related to each other as in Bg. (1-49). (©) Obtain the equations of motion in spherical polar coordinates. Problem 1.13 A particle moves in a plane under the influence of a force, acting toward a center of force, whose magnitude is 2k za) where r is the distance of the particle to the center of force. Find the generalized potential that will result in such a force, and from that the Lagrangian for the ‘motion in a plane. (‘The expression for F represents the force between two charges in Weber's electrodynamics). Ie we take Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 2 then and 50 ‘The Lagrangian for motion in a plane is, -v= tn sboe— 3 (14 252) L= ; Problem 1.14 If L is a Lagrangian for a system of n degrees of freedom satisfying Lagrange’s equations, show by direct substitution that 4 AEs st) ir also satisfies Lagrange’s equations, whore F is any arbitrary, but dllferentiabe, function of its arguments We have Ol! _ OL | 8 dF eure ae 6 Bas ~ Bq, * Bq, dt © ond on ok, Oak an Dis Bis * Diy ae For the function F we may write ar aa Dog or and from this we may read off OaF _OF 4, dé ~ Bq, ‘Then taking the time derivative of (17) gives dau! dab dt OG; dh OG Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 13 so we have av adt _ Ob dob, Oar dor qi dt AG Dg dt AG," Ogi dt dt Qi” ‘The fist two terms on the RHS cance! because Z satisfies the Euler-Lagrange equations, while the second two terms cancel because F is differentiable. Hence L satisfies the Euler-Lagrange equations. Problem 1.16 A Lagrangian for a particular physical system can be written as U = Maa? + 2hig + of?) — Kaa? + 2bay + oy"), where a,b, and c are arbitrary constants but subject to the condition that 6° — ac # 0. What are the equations of motion? Examine particularly the two cases a = 0 = ¢ and b= 0,¢ = —a. What is the physical system described by the above Lagrangian’? Show that the usual Lagrangian for this system as defined by Eq. (1-56) is related ‘to L! by a point transformation (cf. Exercise 15 above). What is the significance of, the condition on the value of ? ~ ac? Cleary we have Sh Kar Koy OE = mat-+mby so the Euler Lagrange equation fori ob _ dL Ox dt Ox Similarly, for y we obtain m(by + ci) ‘Those are the equation of motion for a pari of mass m undergoing simple farmonte motion into elimersons, a6 bound by two sings of spring com, stant K. Normally we would express the Lagrangian in unravelled form, by transforming to new coordinates us and ws with m(az + bi) —K (az + by). —K(be + ey). uy sartby w= brtey. The condition 6? ~ ac # 0 is the condition that the coordinate transformation not be degenerate, ic. that there are actually two distinet dimensions in which the particle experiences a restoring force. If 6? = ac then we have just a one- dimensional problem. Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 u Problem 1.17 Obtain the Lagrangian equations of motion for a spherical pendulum, ie. a mass point suspended by a rigid weightless rod. Denoting the mass of the particle by m, the length of the rod by L, and the angle between the rod and the vertical by 8, we have the particle’s linear velocity given in magnitude by v = Ld, while its height is h= —Lcos@ (where the fulcrum of the pendulum is taken as the origin of coordinates). Then L=T-V= pout +mgLcos8 so the equation of mation is OL _ dan ay eng ase Td. Problem 1.18 A particle of mass m moves in one dimension such that it has the Lagrangian rr L + meV (2) -V7(2), ‘where V is some differentiable function of 2. Find the equation of motion for 2(0) and describe the physical nature of the system on the basis ofthis equation. We have Ob gs on™ Ob _ mt SE pt Bmav Ce) HOE _ 932(¢)°8 + 2m¥V(2) + 2meLV(o GSE = mi (a)?5 + 2maV (a) + 2mETV (2) at In the last equation we ean use vy aa gl @=* ‘Then the Euler-Lagrange equation is a ob _oL 2a) 2® avy aoa! 7 m2 (6)°E + 2mEV (@) + ma? + (a) Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 45 “ w (me + £) (ma? +.2V(2)) If we identify F = —dV/dz and T = mé*/2, we may write this as (F—m#)(T +V)=0 So, this is saying that, at all times, either the difference between F and ma is zero, or the sum of kinetic and potential energy is zero. Problem 1.19 ‘Two mass points of mass m; and my are connected by a string passing through a hole in a smooth table so that m; rests on the table and my hangs suspended. Assuming m2 moves only in a vertical line, what are the generalized coordinates for the system? Write down the Lagrange equations for the system and, if possible, discuss the physical significance any of them might have. Reduce the problem to & single second-order differential equation and obtain a first integral of the equation, What is its physical significance? (Consider the motion only so long as neither m: nor my passes through the hole). Let d be the height of mz above its lowest possible position, so that d= 0 when the string is fully extended beneath the table and m, is just about to fall through the hole. Also, let @ be the angular coordinate of m, on the table. Then the kinetic energy of ma is just mad? /2, while the kinetic energy of m is md? /2+ myd°6? /2, and the potential energy of the system is just the gravitational potential energy of ms, U = magd. Then the Lagrangian is L= Jom + madd + Fm? — mag and the Euler-Lagrange equations are ae Semi) =0 (may + ma)d = —mag + my dé? From the first equation we can identify a frst integral, m2 = U where fis a constant. With this we can substitute for 8 in the second equation: re (mm +ma)d = —mag + a Because the sign of the two terms on the RHS is different, this is saying that, if ‘is big enough (if m, is spinning fast enough), the centrifugal force of m; can balance the downward pull of ma, and the system can be in equilibrium. Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 16 Problem 1.20 Obtain the Lagrangian and equations of motion for the double pendulum illustrated in Fig. 1-4, where the lengths of the pendula are /; and ly with corresponding masses ‘mand m2. ‘Taking the origin at the fulcrum of the first pendulum, we can write down the coordinates of the frst. mass point: n= hsind = 00864 The coordinates of the second mass point are defined relative to the coordi- nates of the first mass point by exactly analogous expressions, so relative to the coordinate origin we have 2 = 0, +lsinBy w= —hc0s6 Differentiating and doing a little algebra we find ne 202 + 203 — 2h 126462 c0s(0 — 62) H+ B+8 ‘The Lagrangian is 1 (oma) + Sonat 363 mall ba cos(B,—B,) +(ns) gla cos8+magla cose with equations of motion 4 [om + malta — malta os(@, ~@2)] = (mi + maging and [labs — uA, cost, —62)] = -gsind If 6, = 0, so that the fulcrum for the second pendulum is stationary, then the second of these equations reduces to the equation we derived in Problem 1.17. Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 wv Problem 1.21 ‘The electromagnetic field is invariant under a gauge transformation of the scalar and vector potential given by ADA+ THEO, 10W eset where th is arbitrary (but differentiable). What effect does this gauge transformation have on the Lagrangian of a particle moving in the electromagnetic field? Is the motion affected? The Lagrangian for a particle in an electromagnetic field is L=T—g¥(x(d) + A(x(9) -¥(0) If we make the suggested gauge transformation, this becomes a rmafoowy=2 5 . ]+facw v() Y- VHCR()] a = 1 ab(a(o) + taca(o) veo + 2[FF +v-vHER(0)] = a8(x(o) + 2A) vo + LS 90) Yx(t)) So the transformed Lagrangian equals the original Lagrangian plus a total time derivative. But we proved in Problem 1.15 that adding the total time derivative of any function to the Lagrangian does not affect the equations of motion, s0 the motion of the particle is unaffected by the gauge transformation. Problem 1.22 Obtain the equation of motion for a particle falling vertically under the influence of gravity when frictional forces obtainable from a dissipation function hv? are present. Integrate the equation to obtain the velocity as a function of time and show that the maximum possible velocity for fall from rest is v = mg/t. ‘The Lagrangian for the particle is Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 18 and the dissipation function is k2?/2, so the equation of motion is d (aL OL | OF _ k (28) omen t ‘This says that the acceleration goes to zero when mg = ki, or 2 = mg/k, 80 Urea sobre trl fee al he a pence eoere ares ee ee sere See er eee ace Solutions to Problems in Goldstein, Classical Mechanics, Second Edition Homer Reid December 1, 2001 Chapter 3 Problem 3.1 A particle of mass m is constrained to move under gravity without frietion on the inside of a paraboloid of revolution whose axis is vertical. Find the one-dimensional problem equivalent to its motion. What is the condition on the particle's initial velocity to produce circular motion? Find the period of small oscillations abou this cizeular motion, We'll take the and potential ene paraboloid to be defi =ar?, The kinetic jes of the particle are {by the equati T= FP ++ 2) (7? + 9° + dar?) V = mgz = mgar? Hone the Laggan is b= Bat date)? +20] — mgt mr? = constant. Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3 2 For r we have the derivatives OE seme? + mnrB2 — 2mgar SE = sa2mei® + mrd® — 2mgi aL Ee Fe ml +a?) aol _ yaa a op a Smatre? + m(l + 4a2rAhe Hence the equation of motion for is 8ma?ri? + m(1 + das?) = da?mri? + mrd® — 2mgar (1+ 4a212)F + Ama?r#? ~ mB? + 2igar In terms of the constant angular momentum, we may rewrite this as E 2 + 2mgar (1 + a2?) + dma? So this is the differential equation that determines the time evolution of r If initially # = 0, then we have 2424 e (1 + dar?) + = + 2mgan 0. Evidently, # will then vanish—and hence # will remain 0, giving circular motion— if e Sas = 2ingar or a= V0. So if this condition is satisfied, the particle will execute circular motion (assum- ing its initial r velocity was zero). It’s interesting to note that the condition on 6 for circular motion is independent of r. Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3 3 Problem 3.2 A particle moves in a central force field given by the potential where k and a are positive constants. Using the method of the equivalent one- dimensional potential discuss the nature of the motion, stating the ranges of and E appropriate to each type of motion, When ate circular orbits possible? Find the period of small radial oscillations about the circular motion, The Lagrangian is LaF [P+ re] + As usual the angular momentum is conserved mr? = constant. We have OL _ np? — be = mri? —k (1+ ar) aL OL = nt so the equation of motion for r is Pk om = aa ean. w ‘The condition for circular motion is that this vanish, whieh yields (2) What this means is that that if the particle's initial @ velocity is equal to the above function of the starting radius rp, then the second derivative of r will remain zero for all time. (Note that, in contrast to the previous problem, in this case the condition for circular motion does depend on the starting radius.) ‘To find the frequency of small oscillations, let's suppose the particle is exe- cuting a circular orbit with radius ro (in which case the @ velocity is given by (2)), and suppose we nudge it slightly so that its radius becomes r = ro +, where 2 is small. Then (1) becomes k mk sire Fa (tar) Ft abo +a) oe @) Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3 4 Since 1 is small, we may write the second term approximately as ~ EES bare +a0y(1 ar) (1-22) ar enam (001 +ar -20 22) me 7 EE (ys 2 sata) ‘The first term here just cancels the first term in (?2), so we are left with hewn me : (us 2 rem) by an x that grows (or decays) exponentially, rather than oscillates. Somehow. Tinessed up the sign of the RHS, but I can't find where-can anybody help? Problem 3.3 ‘Two particles move about each other in circular orbits under the influence of grav- itational forces, with a period +. Their motion is suddenly stopped, and they are then released and allowed to fall into each other. Prove that they collide after a time r/4V2. Since we are dealing with gravitational forces, the potential energy between the partictes is ue) ene spat wi @ ki If the particles are to move in circular orbits with radius ro, (4) must vanish at =r, Which yields a relation between ro and 6: ~=(5)" ~(i) ® Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3 5 where we used the fact that the angular velocity in the circular orbit with period 1 is 0 = 2n/r, ‘When the particles are stopped, the angular velocity goes to zero, and the first term in (4) vanishes, leaving only the second term: k ie (6) ‘This differential equation governs the evolution of the particles after they are stopped. We now want to use this equation to find ras a funetion of f, which ‘we will then need to invert to find the time required for the particle separation 1 to-go from rp 00. “The first step is to multiply both sides of (6) by the integrating factor 2: oi — 7k from which we conclude @ ‘The constant C is determined from the boundary condition on #. ‘This is simply that # = 0 when r= ro, since initially the particles are not moving at all. With the appropriate choiee of C in (7), we have e's We could now proceed to solve this differential equation for r(2), but since in fact we're interested in solving for the time difference corresponding to given boundary values of r, it’s easier to invert (8) and solve for ¢(r) af (g)« “Gye ("Gy Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3 6 We change variables tou =r/ro,du = dr/ro (ye? P(e) Next we change variables to u = sin? x,du = 2sinecosarde (wre Now plugging in (5), we obtain oe)" @ Ave as advertised. Problem 3.6 (a) Show that if a particle deseribes a circular orbit under the influence of an attractive central force directed at a point on the eizcle, then the force varies 1s the inverse fifth power of the distance, (b) Show that for the orbit described the total energy of the particle is zero. (c) Find the period of the motion. (@) Find 2, j, and v as a function of angle around the circle and show that all three quantities are infinite as the particle goes through the center of force. Let's suppose thie center of force is at the origin, and that the particle's orbit is a circle of radius R contered at (x = R,y = 0) (so that the leftmost point of the particle's origin is the center of force). The equation describing such an orbit is 148) = VER(A + c0s26)!/? 0 L L ®) = Ta) ~ Fan costa? © Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3 Differentiating, du in 28 @ ~ VBR( + e082) du 20320) sin? 20 ] @ ~ VBR [T+ cos29? * 85 cos2ay? 1 1 JR + con 20 Adding (9) and (10), 2.0820 + 200s?2043sin®24]. (10) Bu 1 BROS com 2= 1 = Jammy tome _ 4 © V2R(.+ c0s20)9/? = SRP, (yy [(0. + 0520)? + 20520 + 2cos? 20 + Bsin? 26] ‘The differential equation for the orbit is @u 4,(2 > Gpeu- Boy (2) 2) Plugging in (11), we have asm by fl a=; av (2) VQ) eu) Joy=-2 8 fn) which is the advertised r dependence of the force, (b) The kinetic energy of the particle is Tr pe 8 (as) Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3 8 We have 1 = V2R(1 + cos26)!/? 1? = 2R¥(1 + cos 20) sin2@ Fe VERT cox 20? _ opi sit ORT cos 8 Plugging into (15), T+ esd | In terms of = mr%, thi Ree mrt Bt this is just the negative of the potential energy, (13): hence the total particle energy T+ V is zero () Suppose the particle starts out at the farthest point from the center of force on its orbit, Le the point « = 2R,y = 0, and that it moves counter-clockwise from this point to the origin. ‘The time roquived to undergo this motion is balf the period of the orbit, and the particle's angle changes from 3/2. Hence we can caleulate the period as hn 9 Using im Be T 4 3xk mn Ti Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3 9 Problem 3.8 (a) For circular and parabolic orbits in an attractive 1/r potential having the same ‘angular momentum, show that the perihelion distance of the parabola is one half the radius of the circle, (b) Prove that in the same central force as in part (a) the speed of a particle at any point in a parabolic orbit is v2 times the speed in a circular orbit passing through the same point, (a) The equations deseribing the orbits are ; mk (circle) : Evidently, the perihelion of the parabola occurs when @ = 0, in which ease = P/2mk, or one-half the radius of the circle. (b) For the parabola, we have e sin? . 5 (ee (6) _ 4 sind rT) =e [ae + | P A+ 1+ 2cos8 + cos? @ (+ e088)? oy2g [2 ara lil ark aaa 2 =re| a) in terms of the angular momentum | = mr?§2. On the other hand, for the circle #=0, 0 as) Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3 10 where we used that fact that, since this is a circular orbit, the condition k/r = {P/ms® is satisfied. Evidently (17) is twice (18) for the same particle at the same point, so the unsquated speed in the parabolic orbit is V2 vimes that in the eizeular orbit at the same point Problem 3.12 At perigee of an elliptic gravitational orbit a particle experiences an impulse $ (cf Exercise 9, Chapter 2) in the radial direction, sending the particle into another elliptic orbit, Determine the new semimajor axis, eccentricity, and orientation of major axis in terms of the old. ‘The orbit equation for elliptical motion is a(l-2) 1 cc0s(0— 0a) e 0 for the initial motion of the particle. Then which is to say the major axis of the orbit is on perigee happens when 8 = the 2 axis, ‘Then at the point at which the impulse is delivered, the particle's momentum is entirely in the y direction: p, = pj. After receiving the impulse $ in the radial (2) direction, the particle's y momentum is unchanged, but its momentum is now pz = $. Hence the final momentum of the particle is py = Si+pd. Since the particle isin the same location before and after the impulse, its potential energy is unchanged, but its kinetic energy is increased due to the added momentum: Bynes S, (20) Hence the semimajor axis length shrinks accordingly: k a = “3B; ~~ BE Sm ~ TF SOME (21) Next, since the impulse is in the same direction as the particle's distance from the origin, we have AL = rx Ap = 0, ie. the impulse does not change the particle's angular momentum: y= (2) With (20) and (22), we ean compute the change in the particle's eccentricity _ fae rt ae EL, ES = 1+ Be Ee (23) Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3 uu What remains is to compute the constant 6p in (19) for the particle's orbit after the collision. ‘To do this we need merely observe that, since the location of the particle is unchanged immediately after the impulse is delivered, expression (19) must evaluate to the same radius at @ = 0 with both the “before” and “after” values of @ and ai(L~@) _ as(l~G) 14G They e050 1 fat 9)_ ofan} Problem 3.13 A uniform distribution of dust in the solar system adds to the gravitational attrac tion of the sun on a planet an additional force F=-mCr ‘where m is the mass of the planet, C'is a constant proportional to the gravitational constant and the density of the dust, and r is the radius vector from the sun to the planet (both considered as points). This additional force is very small compared to the direct sun-planet gravitational force. (a) Caleulate the period for a circular orbit of radius ro of the planet in this com- bined field (b) Calculate the period of radial oscillations for slight disturbances from this eit ceular orbit (©) Show that nearly circular orbits can be approximated by a precessing ellipse ‘and find the precession frequency. Is the precession the same or opposite direction to the orbital angular velocity? (a) The equation of motion for r is (24) (25) Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3 2 [kro + m2Cr§ ee ee rmermcr _ [Ee med \ ing K k mrt ag tae] ‘Then the period is 3/2 i where 19 = 2a) is the period of circular motion in the absence of the perturbing potential. (b) We return to (24) and put r= rp +r with 2 € ry Se k mirosa (ota? 5 (1-32) - 5 (1-22) - mem mex Using (25), this reduces to fa] = mC(r9 +2) with a we [{- 2-4 ner ind -(-Al” meg ir where in going to the last line we used (25) again. Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3 3 Problem 3.14 Show that the motion of a particle in the potential field vy --k a4 is the same as that of the motion under the Kepler potential alone when expressed in terms of a coordinate system rotating or precessing around the centr of force. For negative total energy show that ifthe additional potential term is very small compared to the Kepler potential, then the angular speed of precession of the ellip tical orbit is 2nmh Pr ‘The perihelion of Mercury is observed to precess (after corrections for known plan- etary perturbations) at the rate of about 40” of arc per century. Show that this precession could be accounted for classieally ifthe dimensionless quantity k a (whieh is a measure of the perturbing inverse square potential relative to the grav- itational potential) were as small as 7 x 10%. (The eecentecity of Mercury's orbit is 0.206, and its period is 0.24 year) ‘The effective one-dimensional equation of motion is Bok he mi= 5 -GtS B+ 2mh ke mart 12 + 2mh-+ (mh/L)? — (mh/L)? ra IL + (mah L)]? — (mh)? | k If mh < L, then we can neglect the term (mh/L)? in comparison with L?, and write [L+(mb/Ly? ke mr r ‘hich is just the normal equation of motion for the Kepler problem, but with the angular momentum L augmented by the additive term AL = mh/L. Such an augmentation of the angular momentum may be accounted for by ink (26) Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3 u 1g the angular velocity: ame (0 + 7) = mr (: + ) P LP = mr*6 + mr? where ‘mh _ 2nmh Bb Dr is a precession frequency. If we were to go back and work the problem in the reference frame in which everything is precessing with angular velocity 8, but there is no term h/r? in the potential, then the equations of motion would come out the same as in the stationary case, but, with a term AL = mr? added to tho effective angular momentum that shows up in the equation of motion for r, just as we found in (26). ‘To put in the numbers, we observe that 0-2) CGV Aen =(1-@)rfprec ‘where in going to the third-to-last line we used Goldstein's equation ( in the last line T put fprec = 9/2. Putting in the mumbers, we find A ; ve (22) (Lrevolution (1 century!) B= (1 206%) - (024 yx) 0 (=r) (tages) (Leta = =71 10%, 2), and Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3 6 Problem 3.22 In hyperbolie motion in a 1/r potential the analogue of the eecentrie anomaly is F defined by a(ecosh F~1), where a1 ~ ¢) is the distance of closest approach, Find the analogue to Kepler’s equation giving ¢ from the time of closest approach as a function of F. ‘We start with Goldstein's equation (3.65) ar wate of a (27) 0 9/ Br? + kr — With the suggested substitution, the thing under the radical in the denom- inator of the integrand is rt tlc Pace 41) + hate? 1) = Be nk Fah 280) ah + (Eo! to) It follows from the orbit. equation that, if a(e — 1) is the distance of closest approach, then a = k/22. Thus Be Te eont? p-E Ba 2 -Bfe cosh? = Be cosh? p— 1) = BE sinh? p= oP sinh? = EE feost? P= 1] = EE sink? # = ot Asin? F Plugging into (27) and observing that dr = ae sinh F dF, we have — (Ff a(ecosh F — 1) dF [e(sinh F — sinh Fy) — (F — Fo)] and I suppose this equation could be a jumping-off point for numerical or other investigations of the time of travel in hyperbolic orbit problems, Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3 16 Problem 3.26 Examine the scattering produced by a repulsive central force f = kr-*. Show the differential cross section is given by A _(=2)de 2E PQ —a)P sinner o(0)d0 = where zx is the ratio @/x and E is the energy. ‘The potential energy is U = k/2r? = ku?/2, and the differential equation for the orbit reads or with solution Acos@+ Bsiny® (28) where (29) Well set up our coordinates in the way traditional for scattering experiments: initially the particle is at angle 9 = 7 and a great distance from the force center, and ultimately the particle proceeds off to r = oo at some new angle 8. The first of these observations gives us a relation between A and B in the orbit equation (28): u(@ ==) + Acos yn + Bsinyx =0 a Branyn. (30) The condition that the particle head off to r = oo at angle 0 = 0, yields the condition Acos 6, + Bsiny@, = 0. Using (80), this becomes = c0878, tan yx + sin 78, = 0 Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3 Ww or ~ 00870, sin ye + sin 70, €08-77 = 0 + siny(@,~) =0 = @-m) =" or, in terms of Goldstein's variable «= 6/r. 7 (31) Plugging in (29) and squaring both sides, we have PO ep Now 1 = muys = 2mB)}/2s with s the impact parameter and E the particle energy. Thus the previous equation is ‘Taking the differential of both sides, k 2 ly & 2sds = bP =»? 32-2) Fe 7 nam” 2E k [ze =1(@ = 2) ~ (@~1)%(e- 2) ~ a(e- 1) 2E k [ 21-2) ] oe a F E | 23( 7 ‘The differential cross section is given by _|sds} aan = !asl Plugging in (32), we have (an * | 0-9) 2B |e 2)? sind as advertised. Solutions to Problems in Goldstein, Classical Mechanics, Second Edition Homer Reid April 21, 2002 Chapter 7 Problem 7.2 Obtain the Lorentz transformation in which the velocity is at an infinitesimal angle dd counterclockwise from th ‘means of a similarity transformation applied to Eq. (7-18). Show directly that the resulting matrix is orthogonal and that the inverse matrix is obtained by substituting —v for v. We can obtain this transformation by first applying a pure rotation to rotate the = axis into the boost axis, then applying a pure boost along the (new) axis, and then applying the inverse of the original rotation to bring the = axis back in line with where it was originally. Symbolically we have L = R-'KR where R is the rotation to achieve the new = axis, and K is the boost along the Goldstein tells us that the new = axis is to be rotated dé counterclockise from the original axis, but he doesn't tell us in which plane, i.e. we know @ Dut not 6 for the new > axis in the unrotated coordinates. We'll assume the = axis is rotated around the 2 axis, in a sense such that if you're standing on the positive 2 axis, looking toward the negative 2 axis, the rotation appears to be counterclockwise, so that the positive 2 axis is rotated toward the negative y Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 7 2 axis. ‘Then, using the real metric, 1 0 0 0\/10 0 0 1 0 o 0 po |{% sd sind o}fo1 0 0 0 cosd@ —sindd 0 =| 0 -sindd cosaa 0} 0 0 y =a |] 0 sinae cosde 0 0 0 o i/\oo -% 4 oo oon 1 0 0 o\/1 0 0 0 _[ 0 cosda sina 0 ){ 0 cod? — —sinda 0 =| 0 -sindd cosda 0} | 0 ysind® — yeosd@ 9 00 0 1) \o -sysinde —sreosda 1 0 0 0 _[ 0 cos? da+ysin?dd (7 —1)sinddeosd® —(sindB =| 0 (= 1)sinddcosdd sin?d-+c0s?dd =f cosdé 0 By sin de =r eos 4 Problem 7.4 A rocket of length Ip in its rest system is moving with constant speed along the ‘axis of an inertial system. An observer at the origin observes the apparent length of the rocket at any time by noting the = coordinates that ean be seen for the head ‘and tail of the rocket. How does this apparent length vary as the rocket moves from the extreme left of the observer to the extreme right? Let's imagine a coordinate system in which the rocket is at rest and centered at the origin, Then the world lines of the rocket’s top and bottom are 0,0,4L0/27) 28 = (0,0, —Lo/2,7} where we are parameterizing the world lines by the proper time 7. Now, the rest frame of the observer is moving in the negative = direction with speed v = Se relative to the rest frame of the rocket, Transforming the world lines of the rocket’s top and bottom to the rest frame of the observer, we have 4), = {0.0,9(Lo/2 + v7).9(r + BLo/2e)} « ah, = {0,0,4(—Lo/2 + vr), 1(7 — BLo/2c)} 2) Now consider the observer. At any time ¢ in his own reference frame, he is ng light. from two events, namely, the top and bottom of the rocket moving, past imaginary distance signposts that we pretend to exist up and down the 2 axis. He sees the top of the rocket lined up with one distance signpost and the bottom of the rocket lined up with another, and from the difference between the ‘two signposts he computes the length of the rocket. Of course, the light that he sees was emitted by the rocket some time in the past, and, moreover, the Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 7 3 light signals from the top and bottom of the rocket that the observer receives simultancously at time # were in fact emitted at different proper times + in the rocket’s rest frame. First consider the light received by the observer at time fp coming from the bottom of the rocket. Suppose in the observer's rest frame this light were emitted at time ty ~ At, Le. At seconds before it reaches the observer at the origin; then the rocket bottom was passing through 7 = ~cAt when it emitted this light. But then the event identified by (z,f) = (—eAt,ty ~ Ay) must lie on the world line of the rocket’s bottom, which from (2) determines both At and the proper time 7 at which the light was emitted: Heat = (-Lo/2+ 07) : (say” o-22 to Ar = 27 + BL0/2e) 1-3 Fe =o) We use the notation 7p(Fo) to indicate that this is the proper time at which the bottom of the rocket emits the light that arrives at the observer's origin at the observer's tine fo. At this proper time, from (2), the position of the bottom of the rocket in the observer's reference frame was 20(to(to)) = —rLo/2 + wvto(to) ~ arto {(F8)" @) Similarly, for the top of the rocket we have alto) = (38) "+ 2 and salrelt) ® Subtracting (3) from (4), we have the length for the rocket computed by the observer from his observations at time fo in his reference frame: L(to) = 9(1 + B)Lo va Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 7 4 Problem 7.17 ‘Two particles with rest masses m, and my are observed to move along the observer's 2 axis toward each other with speeds v and vp, respectively. Upon collision they are observed to coalesce into oue particle of rest mass my moving with speed cy relative to the observer. Find ms and vg in terms of rm, ma, v1, and va. Would it be possible for the resultant particle to be a photon, that is m3 = 0, if neither my Equating the 3rd and dth components of the initial and final 4-momentum of the system yields aamyey — semana = yymavy jaime + ramae = yamae Solving the second for ms yields m= zm + Bm 6) and plugging this into the frst yields vs in terms of the properties of particles amin = jag nam; + rams maa mums 7am, mi + Qavramama + and — [nf mE BE + amb Grim + yam? ft) + ob$ (1 = 83) + 27ers mal Cuomi+ amma)? = me + m3 + 2yvvamimna( — 3152) - (amy +72ma)* 2yvyamimeph So) 5x2) and hence jimmy + 9am)? 18> [2 nd = nd + 21 7ammmalL 0 BB oO Now, (5) shows that, for ms to be zero when either m) or me is zero, we must have 9g ~ 00. That this condition eannot be met for nonzero ma, is evident from the denominator of (6), in which all terms are positive (since (33) <1 if fear alam) Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 7 5 Problem 7.19 A meson of mass 7 comes to rest and disintegrates into a meson of mass jx and a. neutrino of zero mass. Show that the kinetic energy of motion of the 1 meson (ie. without the rest mass energy) is con on a Working in the rest frame of the pion, the conservation relations are xe = (yeh + pet)" + re (energy conservation) O-p.+p (omentum conservation). From the second of these it follows that the muon and neutrino must have the same momentum, whose magnitude we'l eal p. ‘Then the energy conservation relation becomes ne = tet + Pe)? + po ren pPare re 2 er) ‘Then the total energy of the muon is ayia By = (eel +r 2 (# . eae" (any? + (9? — 2)? (on? +p) ‘Then subtracting out the rest energy to get the kinetic energy, we obtain (x? + 1?) — pe? (n? +p? — 2p) as advertised. Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 7 6 Problem 7.20 A x* meson of rest mass 139.6 MeV collides with a neutron (rest mass 939.6 MeV) stationary in the laboratory system to produce a K+ meson (rest mass 494 MeV) and a A hyperon (rest mass 1115 MeV). What is the threshold energy for this reaction in the laboratory system? We'll put ¢ = 1 for this problem. The four-momenta of the pion and neutron before the collision are Par =(Ps72Mz)s Pain = (Osa) and the squared magnitude of the initial four-momentum is thus Paarl [Pal? + Gams + mn)? [pal? + 72m? + m2 + 2ygmenin = m2 + m2 + 2yemqMn (ms + 1n)® + Aye — Lg, a) ‘The threshold energy is the energy needed to produce the K and A particles at rest in the COM system. In this case the squared magnitude of the four- ‘momentum of the final system is just (mx + ma)*, and, by conservation of ‘momentum, this must be equal to the magnitude of the four-momentum of the initial system (7) mix + Mn)? + (ye — Lattin (mm + my)? (rac + may? = (mg + mn)? = Ime a+ 6.43 ‘Then the total energy of the pion is T = >,my = (6.43 139.6 MeV) = 808 MeV, while its kinetic energy is K = — m= 758 MeV. ‘The above appears to be the correct solution to this problem. On the other hand, I first tried to do it a different way, as below. This way yields a different and hence presumably incorrect answer, but I can't figure out why. Can anyone find the mistake? ‘The K and A particles must have, between them, the same total momentum in the direction of the original pion’s momentum as the original pion had. Of course, the K and A may also have momentum in directions transverse to the original pion momentum (if so, their transverse momenta must be equal and opposite). But any transverse momentum just increases the energy of the final system, which increases the energy the initial system must have had to produce the final system. Hence the minimum energy situation is that in which the K and A both travel in the direction of the original pion's motion, (This is equivalent to Goldstein's conclusion that, just at threshold, the produced particles are at Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 7 rest in the COM system). ‘Then the momentum conservation relation becomes simply Pe = PK +PR (8) and the energy conservation relation is (with ¢ = 1) (rm, + Dh)? + ray = (rn + i)? + (mh + WAIN? (9) ‘The problem is to find the minimum value of p, that satisfies (9) subject to the constraint (8). ‘To solve this we must frst resolve a subquestion: for a given p,, what is the relative allocation of momentum to px and py that minimizes (9) ? Minimizing By = (ke + vi)? + (mh + PRY? subject to px +Px = Pz, We obtain the condition bs ts _ me, RHEE ame MSD Combining this with (8) yields my mx ae a mag mn PR age ma” ae PA For a given total momentum pp, the minimum possible energy the final system can have is realized when pz is partitioned between px and py according to (11). Plugging into (8), the relation defining the threshold momentum is (m2 +92)? 4 m9 = (ni + (atta) 2)" + (ms + (an) Solving numerically yields p; * 655 MeV/c, for a total pion energy of about, 670 MeV, 2 yin 2) Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 7 8 Problem 7.21 A photon may be deseribed classically as a particle of zero mass possessing never theless a momentum h/A = hv /c, and therefore a kinetic energy hy. If the photon collides with an electron of mass m at rest it will be scattered at some angle @ with ‘anew energy hv’. Show that the change in energy is related to the scattering angle by the formula 0 = 2resin? N= A= 2dcsin? 5, where Ae = h/me, known as the Compton wavelength, Show also that the kinetic ‘energy of the recoil motion of the electron is = ty 2D § 152 (%) sin? 72 Let's assume the photon is initially travelling along the axis. Then the sum of the initial photon and electron four-momenta is 0 0 0 0 0 0 Paa=PartPee=l nn (+o |=] aya a2) Aja me me+h/a Without loss of generality we may assume that the photon and electron move in the zz plane after the scatter. If the photon’s velocity makes an angle 0 with the 2 axis, while the electron’s velocity makes an angle , the four-momentum after the collision is (h/")sin® pesind (h/X) sin 0 + pe sind _ 0 0 _ 0 Put Part Poe =V (nyreosd }* | — pecose | ~ | (h/X’) cos + pe cose hiN Jb + pe (h)X) + nF + pe (3) Equating (12) and (13) yields three separate equations: (h/X)sind + pe sind =0 (ad) (h/¥)€080 + pec086 = h/A (as) AYN + Vim PE = met h/d (a6) From the first of these we find h hyoy Leandro [is( yard sing Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 7 and plugging this into (15) we find 2 = satya 2 cos On the other hand, we can solve (16) to obtain afi_1)\? 1 = (2-2) samen (2 Comparing these two determinations of pe yields or 0 this is advertised result number 1 Next, to find the kinetic en me+* = ames t amet y 0 -me= K = 1 ( NP+ 2A. sin"(@/2] Lh (0/2) eer + 2x0" amy) where we put x = Ae/ Problem 7.22 ar) ray of the electron after the collision, we can write the conservation of energy equation in a slightly different form: A photon of energy € collides at angle @ with another photon of energy E. Prove that the minimum value of € permitting formation of a pair of particles of mass m_ ‘ amet Eu = FT — coat) We'll suppose the photon of energy Eis traveling along the positive = axis, while that with energy € is traveling in the «= plane (ie., its velocity has Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 7 10 spherical polar angles @ and @ = 0). Then the 4-momenta are n= (0022) m= (Es, Fou) E+Ecost bee) € Its convenient to rotate our reference frame to one in which the space portion of the composite four-momentum ofthe two photons ial along the = direction Ta this fame the total fout-momentam is w= (002 JER E+ DEE cos, est). (as) At threshold energy, the two produced particles have the same four-momenta: pa = ps= (0,0,p, (ne? + p?)/?) (ag) and 4-momentum conservation requires that twice (19) add up to (18), which yields two conditions: 2p = LVETTEPTIEE Cs) — pe aymbrrpe = HE mb Pe Subtracting the first of these from the second, we obtain 4(€2 + B? + 2BE cos) 4(e2 + B24 288) aot. BE 7 mec! = (1 ~ cos) or amie! Ed — e088) as advertised. Solutions to Problems in Goldstein, Classical Mechanics, Second Edition Homer Reid October 29, 2002 Chapter 9 Problem 9.1 One of the attempts at combining the two sets of Hamilton's equations into one tries to take q and p as forming a complex quantity. Show directly from Hamilton's equations of motion that for a system of one degree of freedom the transformation Q ip P=Q is not canonical if the Hamiltonian is left unaltered. Can you find another set. of coordinates Q’, P’ that are related to Q,P by a change of scale only, and that are ‘canonical? Generalizing a tle, we put Q=Hla+ir), P= vlq~%). a) “The reverse transformation is Llp. Lftp i 4 5 (ted). p 3 (40-2). ‘The direct conditions for canonicality, valid in cases (like this one) in which the Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 9 2 transformation equations do not depend on the time explicitly, are 29 _ Og OP. 29 __ m4 Op oP oP _ op. (2) oq aQ oP _ ov ap 8Q” When applied to the case at hand, all four of these yield the same condition, namely 1 0 Sip For f= v = 1, whieh is the case Goldstein gives, these conditions are clearly not satisfied, so (1) is not canonical. But putting r= 1,v = —2 we see that equations (1) are canonical, Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 9 3 Problem 9.2 (a) For a one-dimensional system with the Hamiltonian Poa u=5-o show that there is a constant of the motion p= Fut (b) As a generalization of part (a), for motion in a plane with the Hamiltonian H=|pl—ar-", ‘here p is the vector of the momenta conjugate to the Cartesian coordinates, show that there is a constant of the motion PB p=P*_ am. (©) The transformation Q = Ag,p = AP is obviously canonical. However, the san transformation with ¢ time dilatation, Q = Ag, p= AP.t" = \%, is not. Show that, however, the equations of motion for g anid p for the Hamiltonian in part (a) are invariant under the transformation. ‘The constant of the motion D is said to be associated with this invariance. (a) The equation of motion for the quantity D is aD ap DH} + ot ‘The Poisson bracket of the second term in D clearly vanishes, so we have Somat} Fons} 4 fon} =a. @) ‘The first Poisson bracket is, @) Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 9 4 Next, 2000)2(#) _ o0n,?(#) ag ap Op aq 2 -3)a -2 (6) Plugging (4) and (5) into (3), we obtain Da on dt 2 6. (b) We have = (oh ph +p)" — ale bd 4 28) a = anay(a? + ah 4 28-02 ane 2 yn/2—t Bp 7 lo + wa + vy Then lpia + pare + sts) OH _ Olpres + pate + sts) OH ton -Df a, on 2. Bet Y foottot + rh + ny" —anatat tad as} = mph + pd + pay"? — an(a} + 93 + 25)? (6) s0 if we define D = p-r/n — Ht, then aw ap ae OM ae aD 1 =tpnn- 2 Substituting in from (6), = [paren =o, Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 9 5 (ce) We put, a= (G2), P= Fe(H) ” es, they satisfy Since q and p are the original canonical coordi () On the other hand, differentiating (7), we have dQ _ a(t a x (z) 1 (tt w(z) = Pt) 1 ia w(x) 14 ate) 1 FH) which are the same equations of motion as (8). Problem 9.4 Show directly that the transformation P=qeotp = toe (3 sino) is canonical. ‘The Jacobian of the transformation is Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 9 Hence cam (-2 ep )( 0 1)( -} cotp wom=( oh pace )(4 0) (at -ratp ) -} cot cop —qese*p cotp -gexctp )( 1 corp _ 0 esc? p — cot” p (cot? p ese? p 0 o1 -10 I so the symplectic condition is satisfied. Problem 9.5 Show directly for a system of one degree of freedom that the transformation 9 = arctan J P so the symplectic condition is satisfied Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 9 Problem 9.6 ‘The transformation equations between two sets of coordinates are = log(t +4! eosp) 21 +4 cosp)a/?sinp (a) Show directly from these transformation equations that Q,P are canonical variables if q and p are. (b) Show that the function that generates this transformation is Fy = —(e% — 1)? tanp. (a) The Jacobian of the transformation is (28) ai _( Oss aria 2 sinp+2cospsinp 2g'/? cos p+ 2gcos* p— 2gsin? p .( Oss ~ ris 2sinp+sin2p 2q'/? cosp + 2gcos 2p Hence we have Mum = ( (2) sarees, 7? sinp + sin2p ) CEB, 20!eosp + 2ac0s2p -@) ares Tha Foo i qPsinp + sin 2p car aiad) 088 pin? pg! cos peos pg! sn pain dp ae Trot tcomp opin pt! eepemapta'? npn 6 so the symplectic condition is satisfied. Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 9 8 (b) For an 5 funetion the relevant relations are q = —OF/Op, P= We have Fa(0.Q) = ~(€? ~ 1)? tanp Ory 2e%e% — 1) tanp ors oe ‘The second of these may be solved to yield @ in terms of g and p: Q = log(1 + q'/? cos p) = (8 = 1)? seep and then we may plug this back into the equation for P to obtain Pa agi? sinp + qsin2p as advertised. Problem 9.7 (a) If each of the four types of generating functions exist for a given canonical transformation, use the Legendre transformation to derive relations between them, (b) Find a generating function of the F, type for the identity transformation and of the Fs type for the exchange transformation. (c) For an orthogonal point transformation of qin a system of n degrees of freedom, show that the new momenta are likewise given by the orthogonal transforma tion of an n-dimensional vector whose components are the old momenta plus a gradient in configuration space, Problem 9.8 Prove directly that the transformation Qian, Po =m- 2m Qa=p, Pe =-2n-a is canonical and find a generating funetion. After a little hacking I came up with the generating function Fia(Pi,Q1, 42, Q2) = —(rr — 2Q2)Qi + m2Q2 Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 9 9 which is of mixed Fa, type. This is Legendre-transformed into a function of the Fy type according to Fi(ai, Q1,42,Qz2) = Fis + pin ‘The least action principle then says vs + pan — Hla) = PQs + PQs = KU) + Fp 4 FE 4 Diag 4 0G, soa sah Das 2 + Fede + Pt + ah Os whence clearly i-@ =-2n-w Vv. Problem 9.14 By any method you choose show that the following transformation is canonical: ra (yPPisinQ +P), pe = $VPieosQi - 3) v= RvB eos@ +), $V BPisin Qs — Ps) ‘where as some fixed parameter that is perpendicular to a constant this problem in the (Qj, P;) coordinates, letting the parameter a take the form 4B From this Hamiltonian obtain the motion of the particle as a function of time. We will prove that the transformation is canonical by finding a generating function. Our first step to this end will be to express everything as a function Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 9 10 of some set of four variables of which two are old variables and two are new After some hacking, I arrived at the set {.r,Q1,2y,@z}- In terms of this set, the remaining quantities are 5 (Fe- an) cot Qi + $Qe 0 1 @ 5) cot: ~ $Q2 (20) 1 12) ose? SE Son, + stant) 2 a (a) Sri, (22) ‘We now seek a generating fumetion of the form F (x, Q1, Py, 2). This is of mixed type, but can be related to a generating function of pure Fi character according to File, Q1,y.@2) = F(x, Qi, Py Q2) ~ upy- ‘Then the principle of least action leads to the condition o-PO 5,08, OF, | OF) . OF , Pet + ul = PQ + Qa + FE + Diy + 9g, + 9Q, 02 + Wi + Pol from which we obtain (13) (a) (a5) (16) Doing the easiest first, comparing (12) and (16) we see that F must have the form Fle, QisP91Q2) = ~3202 — 20,Q2 + ol Q) a7) Plugging this in to (14) and comparing with (14) we find se. Qivee) = (Jats + saat) oot Qs + 466.0) (as) Plugging (17) and (18) ito (13) and compating with (10), we soe that Be cot, Or 4 Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 9 uu or a w(@,Qr) SF cota. (19) Finally, combining (19), (18), (17), and (15) and comparing with (11) we see that we may simply take 6(Q)) = 0. The final form of the generating function is then F(a, QuspyQ2) =~ (22+ 4p,) Qa+ (SE — Lap, + Lt) cot. Qs. Py. Qa 52+ GPu) Qe (SS ~ 5209 + 5 aH) cots and its existence proves the canonicality of the transformation, ‘Turning now to the solution of the problem, we take the B field in the = direction, ie, B = Boke, and put Then the Hamiltonian is H(2.2.Pe.Py) = 5 (p- 4a) Bo)? Bo)" “(8 2? @\? £1) +02] ‘gB{ec. In terms of the new variables, this is Hy [(evEoma,)' + (ovIFsinas)'] where we put a! A(Q1, Qa, Pi, Pa) where we = @B/me is the cyclotron frequency. From the Hamiltonian equations of motion applied to this Hamiltonian we see that Qz, P;, and P2 are all constant, while the equation of motion for Q) is an O.= aR = for some phase 9. Putting r= y3Pi/a, zo = Po/a, yo = Q2/a we then have We + Qi = wt +o earfsinwct +0) +20, Pe = [reos(wet + 4) — yo] 2 in agreement with the standard solution to the problem, y=r(cosuct +3) +u, Py irsin(wct + 4) +20] Solutions to Problems in Goldstein, Classical Mechanics, Second Edition Homer Reid August 10, 2003 Chapter 10 Problem 10.3 Solve the problem of the motion of a point projectile in a vertical plane, using the Hamilton-Jacobi method. Find both the equation of the trajectory and the dependence of the coordinates on time, assuming the projectile is fired off at time #=0 from the origin with the velocity vy, making an angle a with the horizontal. ‘The Hamiltonian is 2h BaF Bs moy so the Hamilton-Jacobi equation becomes 1 (a8)? , 1 (as\? as | #(S) +5 (FR) ems Bao. w We seek a solution of the form SlesnusB,t) = 92+ fly, B) - Et @ where y and E are to be the (constant) transformed momenta. With this ansatz for S, (1) becomes 41 (any - Ft am (5h) +m=8 2m ay. Of «mE R oy Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 10 2 Integrating, So) = fay’ Van — P= Pay 1 2 omgy |? = Sng PME = 2mgy] ‘Then Hamilton’s principal function (2) is Sa 2mE — 9? — 2m? gy)”!? — Bt. 1 3/2 ~ Snity © ) The (constant) transformed coordinates conjugate to the constant transformed momenta E and 7 are as = a, fpmet— 2? ~ ant)” - @ as Be y + 7; Lome 2? - nto)” Oy ‘Turning these inside out to obtain + and y as functions of time and the constants, we find mg” 2nPq t= bt 2+ pi) Finally, from the given initial conditions we obtain the following equations for the constants F7, 81, 82 y(t =0)=0 2(t=0)=0 (t= 0) = wsina (t= 0) = v9 cosa Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 10 3 wwe obtain 7 = mvp cosa fy =-2sina 9 Br = cosasina 9 Py and the solutions for 2(@) and y(t) become 19 = snot a(t) = weosat. Problem 10.6 A charged particle is constrained to move in a plane under the influence ofa central force potential (nonelectromagnetic) V = hkr?, and a constant magnetic field B perpendicular to the plane, so that 1 A=5Bxr. Set up the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for Hamilton's characteristic function in plane polar coordinates. Separate the equation and reduce it to quadratures, Discuss the ‘motion if the canonical momentum pp is zero at time t = 0. | got alittle confused on the introduction of the polar coordinates in this problem and found it useful to start with the Lagrangian in Cartesian coordinates: L +i) +%e-a)- kate) 2 Inserting the vector potential A = }B(-yi + 2) +9) + Beej—y2)— he ty"). Now we go over to polar coordinates according to r= 70080, — ¢=Feosd—résind sind, y= Fsind + rd cose v Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 10 4 and obtain = Mp2 4 262) 4 F2H b= Fe +) +S k ce ‘To go over to the Hamiltonian we introduce the canonical momenta: ‘Then the Hamiltonian is H=pi+pi-L DG? 86) + Li? 2 Jy (pp) 4} Bm? * Sac (» 2e ) 43K ‘The Hamilton-Jacobi equation is 1 (as\?, 1 (aS_qB,\?_1,, as a(S) + One? (B- 2) + ght — 5 =O ®) Since # is cyclic its corresponding conjugate momentum must be constant, and we look fora solution of the form S(r,4, Bat) = f(r, Bya) +08 — Et. ©) Equation (5) becomes 1 (af\?, 1 QB \? 1,9 (28) gba (oe) whee with formal solution s00= fa foment If a= this simplifies to I(r) = few oem B — mu + ur? and the problem becomes just that of the normal harmonic oscillator, with frequency wa Vibe Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 10 5 af is the natural frequency of the particle in the nonelectromagnetic potential well, and where = = ame is half the cyclotron frequency of the particle in the given magnetic field. (Why does half the eyelotton frequency enter the problem?) Problem 10.7 (a) A single particle moves in space under a conservative potential. Set up the Hamilton-Jacobi equation in ellipsoidal coordinates u,v,¢ defined in terms of the usual cylindrical coordinates r, =, by the equations reasinhvsinu, 2 =aoshveosu. For what forms of V(u,v, ) is the equation separable? (b) Use the results of part (a) to reduce to quadratures the problem of a point particle of mass m moving in the gravitational field of two unequal mass points fixed on the 2 axis a distance 2a apart. (a) In cylindrical polar coordinates, the Lagrangian is LaF (P +e +2) - Vinee). (a) We have a6 cosh vsinu + aiisinh vcosu 0 sinh v cosu — aizcosh v sin. Plugging into (7), L = [(o? + #2) cosh 2u + 4? sinh? vsin? u] - V(u,, 9). 6) ‘The conjugate momenta are 1a? sinh? v sin? w Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 10 6 and the Hamiltonian is H= Vora -L 7 a (+ i2)cosha0 + 8 sink? van] + Vee) -_# we vs ~ 2a? cosh 20 * 2ma* cosh 2v * 2a? sinh? vsin®u This is of the form in Goldstein’s (10-44) with a +V(u,0,9). O and the T matrix defined by 1 [sho 0 0 Tt 0 sech 2v 0 . (9) 0 0 (esch veseu)? ‘Then the form ofthe potential necessary for soparablty i, trom Goldstein (72), V(u2,6) = Ho) + MO + HO cosh 2v sink? vsin®w ‘To write down the three separated H: a matrix 6 satisfying sn-Jacobi equations we need to find ep R(T yy FH b23 (a9) and with the additional condition that first, second, and third rows of ¢ depend only on v,u, and @ respectively. ‘To find such a matrix, we postulate the form Lio) fale) falv) gama | 0 glu) ga(u) 0 0 1 with inverse mma fiat) : : 1 ( nu) —folv) folv)ga(u) — falv)or(u) ) where * denotes entries about which we don’t care, From (10) and (9) we obtain the conditions 1 1 ma? f,(v) ~ ma? cosh 20 (v), ma? fi(v)gi(u) fa(v)ga(u) = fa(v)ar(u) ma? fi(v)gi(u) Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 10 7 AA little inspection shows that there is no solution, which means the form we postulated for ¢ doesn’t work, so we need to go back and try something else, except this is the point at which I decided I would temporarily shelve this problem, (b) The potential energy is V@,2) = -6 = -¢_ ms (=O Tar aaa Vie arar Gm) m ma =- 9 [savant mae tena] which doesn’t appear to be of the form required for Problem 10.8 ‘Suppose the potential in a problem of one degree of freedom is linearly dependent ‘on time, such that the Hamiltonian has the form =P H= F mate, where A is a constant. Solve the dynamical problem by means of Hamilton's pri cipal function, under the initial conditions t= 0, 2 = 0, p= mvo. ‘The Hamilton-Jacobi equation is 1 (as)? as. #(B) -mae +B We postulate a solution of the form S(e,t) = fz + alt). ay ‘Then (11) becomes ay M1 H(t) = LPO -mate+ (2+ =0. Matching powers of x, we obtain Amat + fo L=ma => KD = 5 and 1p #0=-E FO == [Jose =] 1 [m?a? am | a i+ mAfol + 8] Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 10 8 80 = 745, Atos , 8, a) = MK 4 Aloe s Bis gy ‘The Hamilton’s principal function is mi, Aba fh S(e,t, fo) = aes + fox — As — Alo — Si, ‘The constant transformed coordinate conjugate to fo is a8 48, Ay tit Bagar def ‘Turing this inside-out, rap de sh To to satisfy the conditions 2(¢ = 0) = 0, #(t = and fo = mvp, and we then have = up, we must take = 0 A vot + oI = 6 Problem 10.13 ‘A particle moves in periodic motion in one dimension under the infiuence of potential V(x) = Fl2|, where F is a constant. Using action-angle variables find the period of the motion as a function of the particle’s energy. ‘The Hamilton-Jacobi equation is a 2m The action integral is ow J=$ Ge (2) = aff ° ami = InP ede (where 29 are the extremes of the particle’s orbit, and where we have restricted the integral over the whole period to an integral over the first quarter-period and multiplied by 4 to compensate) = 3mF {lame = 2mF ro? ~ pamzy"} Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 10 9 but the first term here vanishes since E = Fz9, so 4 3/2 J = gp me 2 (13) Expressing the Hamiltonian in terms of J, we then obtain 28 a (=) pe, am q ‘The frequency is, Wine (a4) On the other hand, on the basis of elementary considerations we could reason as follows: If the particle starts out with momentum p = 72m, and itis always under the influence of the constant force F = dp/dt, then the time it takes for the particle’ initial momentum to decay to zero, which is one-fourth the total period of the motion, is p__ VimE "A> apy =F ‘The total period is just 4rj« and the frequency is F Ana = fan 4V2mE in accordance with (14). Problem 10.14 A particle of mass m moves in one dimension under a potential V = —k/|z|. For ‘energies that are negative the motion is bounded and oscillatory. By the method of action-angle variables find an expression for the period of motion as a function of the particle's energy. ‘The Hamilton-Jacobi equation is 1 (08)? _ kas 2m \ dx ial * oF Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 10 10 Wo seck a solution of the form $= W(x, B) — Bt, in which case _ 1 awy?_ ik = am Var 1h OW vam [e+ al alsa” since we know the energy is negative. Then the turning points of the motion are at ¢ = +k/|B], and the action variable is I= f ria (15) = "|B -af" =o [ [Ef a We have [ipa fp au 12, 2da = du/ fa [ vir@en Change variables to a Now change to a = sin 2, da = cos.xdz af = 2 com ade 2 2m J = 2k, || ‘Then the (constant) Hamiltonian expressed in terms of the action variable is 0 (16) becomes _ 8mn?? H=B= Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 10 u ‘The frequency associated with the corresponding angle variable is y= DH _ Mmx?k* Or Biv = vm @ It’s interesting to compare this with the solution we obtained to Problem 3.3, since in that case the motion of the particles (after the orbital motion is stopped) is one-dimensional with the kind of force law considered here. In that problem the energy of the two-particle system would be Plugging in our expression (equation (5) in solutions to Chapter 3) for ro in terms of 7, we find 28 (#2) rw Then the frequency of the motion, from (17), is y = 3. The time for the particles to fall into each other would be just a quarter-period, so on this theory wwe would get dor 2 whereas the answer we obtained in Chapter 3 was 7/42. But I can't figure out where Iam making a mistake. Problem 10.16 time for particles to fall into each other A particle of mass m is constrained to move on a curve in the vertical plane defined by the parametric equations y= "(1 cos 2d) 2 =1(26-+ sin29) ‘There is the usual constant gravitational force acting in the vertical y direction. By the method of action-angle variables find the frequency of oscillation for all initial conditions such that the maximum of ¢ is less than or equal to =/4. ‘The kinetic energy is r=F@+i) TF [(2osin26)? + (26 + 25 c0s6)"] = 8ml? cos? 44”. Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 10 2 ‘The potential energy is V = mgy = mgl(1 — cos28) = 2mgl sin? 6. (as) ‘Then the Lagrangian is = 8m? cos? 6d? — 2mglsin? 6 so the canonical momentum conjugate to ¢ is aL 19 = — = 16ml? cos? Poa, 3 cos” bo and the Hamiltonian is H=E=pd-k ml? cos? dei? + 2glsin? & — 8 apt sin? Bim oost 7” otsin’ 6. Solving for py as a function of E and ¢, we have Pe aVtnB oxo [1— et in? q”. ‘The action variable for periodic motion is I= f roa = roan | cose f — Pt int as 2a sin g - ase! f inva ah Here the upper integration limit is 2mgl Uy E bo. where dy is the maximum value attained by ¢. On the other hand, referring back to (18), 2mgl sin? ¢p is just the potential energy of the particle at its maximum Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 10 13 bh wich J ttl energy ie ha ro Kin nay a tha pot Hone B weve “Th ton itge i hen seront [' vimea =a Ta +n = sont ; a ‘Then the Hamiltonian expressed in terms of the action variable is =-p-1/9 n=n= hts oH _ 1 fy OF eV and the frequency is just Problem 10.17 A three-dimensional harmonie oscillator has the force constant hy in the « and y directions and ky in the = direction. Using cylindrical coordinates (with the axis of the eylinder in the = direction) describe the motion in terms of the corresponding action-angle variables, showing how the frequencies can be obtained. ‘Transform to the “proper” action-angle variables to eliminate degenerate frequencies. ‘The Lagrangian is, MY 2p 4g Pare +e 2 rre + with canonical momenta Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 10 u ‘The Hamiltonian is H= SD pai-L = Pe) d 1 a +2] phir + phe 2 PL PEA, dh 2m * Bm? * Im * ah + he