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Solutions to Problems in Goldstein,
Classical Mechanics, Second Edition
Homer Reid
August 22, 2000
Chapter 1
Problem 1.1
A nucleus, originally at rest, decays radioactively by emitting an electron of mo-
‘mentum 1.73 MeV/c, and at right angles to the direction of the electron a neutrino
‘with momentum 1.00 MeV/c. (‘The MeV (million electron volt) is a unit of energy,
‘used in modern physics, equal to 1.60 x 10-® erg. Correspondingly, MeV/c is @
‘unit of linear momentum equal to 5.34 x 10! gm-cm/sec.) In what direetion does
the nucleus recoil? What is its momentum in MeV/c? If the mass of the residual
nucleus is 3.90 x 10-? gam, what is its kinetic energy, in electron volts?
Place the nucleus at the origin, and suppose the electron is emitted in the
positive y direction, and the neutrino in the positive x direction. Then the
resultant of the electron and neutrino momenta has magnitude
VOTE +T =2 MeV/c,
and its direction makes an angle
Pet
1178 _ gos
tant SP = 60
with the x axis. ‘The nucleus must acquire a momentum of equal magnitude
and directed in the opposite direction. The kinetic energy of the nucleus is
pe AMeV? ec? 1.78-10-"7 gm
P= om = 239: 10-7 gm’ 1 MeVe?
This is much smaller than the nucleus rest energy of several hundred GeV, so
the non-relativistic approximation is justified.
=9.levHomer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 2
Problem 1.2
‘The escape velocity of a particle on the earth is the minimum velocity required
at the surface of the earth in order that the particle can escape from the earth’s
‘gravitational field. Neglecting the resistance of the atmosphere, the system is con-
servative. From the conservation theorem for potential plus kinetic energy show
that the escape velocity for the earth, ignoring the presence of the moon, is 6.95
smi /see.
If the particle starts at the earth’s surface with the escape velocity, it will
just manage to break free of the earth’s field and have nothing left. Thus after
it has escaped the earth’s field it will have no kinetic energy left, and also no
potential energy since it’s out of the earth's field, so its total energy will be zero.
Since the particle’s total energy must be constant, it must also have zero total
energy at the surface of the earth. This means that the kinetic energy it has at
the surface of the earth must exactly cancel the gravitational potential energy
it has there:
12
yn g|(2EMRY _ (2(6.67-10" m kg? 5-2) - (6.98. 10 kg)
Rn 638-10 m
1m
= 12 km/s
6.95 mi/s.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 3
Problem 1.3
Rockets are propelled by the momentum reaction of the exhaust gases expelled from
the tail. Since these gases arise from the reaction of the fuels carried in the rocket
‘the mass of the rocket is not constant, but decreases as the fuel is expended. Show
that the equation of motion for a rocket projected vertically upward in a uniform
gravitational field, neglecting atmospheric resistance, is,
dy _ pdm
"a a ™
where m is the mass of the rocket and vis the velocity of the eseaping gases relative
to the rocket. Integrate this equation to obtain v as a funetion of m, assuming a
constant time rate of loss of mass. Show, for a rocket starting initially from rest,
with o equal to 6800 ft/sec and a mass loss per second equal to 1/60th of the intial
‘mass, that in order to reach the escape velocity the ratio of the weight of the fuel
to the weight of the empty rocket must be almost 300!
Suppose that, at time ¢, the rocket has mass m(t) and velocity v(t). The
total external force on the rocket is then F = gm(t), with g = 32.1 ft/s?, pointed
downwards, so that the total change in momentum between ¢ and ¢ + dt is
Fat = —gm(t)dt. @)
At time t, the rocket. has momentum
Pit) = m(t}u(t). @)
On the other hand, during the time interval dt the rocket releases a mass
Am of gas at a velocity v' with respect to the rocket. In so doing, the rocket's
velocity increases by an amount dv. The total momentum at time ¢ + dt is the
sum of the momenta of the rocket and gas:
Dit + dl) = pp + py = [mm(t) ~ Am|fu(t) + do] + Amfv(t) +e] (3)
Subtracting (2) from (3) and equating the difference wi
first order in differential quantities)
(1), we have (to
—gm(t)dt = m(t)dv + v'Am
no)
a9" mi) atHomer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 4
which we may write as
(a)
‘This is a differential equation for the function v(t) giving the velocity of the
rocket as a function of time. We would now like to recast this as a differential
equation for the function v(m) giving the rocket’s velocity as a function of its
mags. To do this, we first. observe that since the rocket is releasing the mass
Am every dt seconds, the time derivative of the rocket’s mass is
dm __Am
We then have
dy
cc
Substituting into (4), we obtain
a= Ban rot
Integrating, with the condition that v(mo)
tom ven(2)
Now, 7=(1/60)mo
For mo >> m we can neglect the frst term inthe parentheses of the first term,
ving
v(m) = 1930 ft/s - (z = ) + 6800 ft/s -In
sm) = ~190 fe/-+ 0800/19 (2)
‘The escape velocity is v = 6.95 mi/s = 36.7 - 10° ft/s. Plugging this into the
equation above and working backwards, we find that escape velocity is achieved
when mo/m=28.
“Thanks to Brian Hart for pointing out an inconsistency in my original choice
of notation for this problem.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 5
Problem 1.4
Show that for a single particle with constant mass the equation of motion implies
the following differential equation for the kinetic energy:
aad
‘while if the mass varies with time the corresponding equation is
dn)
TEP
We have
F=p 6)
If m is constant,
6)
On the other hand, if m
not constant, instead of v we dot p into (5)
F-p=p-pHomer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 6
Problem 1.5
Prove that the magnitude R of the position vector for the center of mass from an
arbitrary origin is given by the equation
We have
50
alpetegme|
w
and similarly
Baap [x mis mm
a
1 PEE
Zann
ee iP [= mini + yn cr -a| @
On the other hand,
Adding,
er} ny
and, in particular, r3, = 0, s0
Lomangehy = Domamseh + mange} —2mamytr-r)]
a a
= 2 mumyr? — 2 mamy(rv-13) ®)
w wo
Next,
mt) Lobe + Domo? 0)
wHomer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 7
4
" om (ew)
‘gure 1: My conception of the situation of Problem 1.8
Subtracting haf of (8) from (9), we have
a_l 4, 2 2,2
MS mart — FY simon, = Tomi? + Domamyter-1y)
7 a
and comparing this with (7) we see that we are done.
Problem 1.8
‘Two wheels of radius a are mounted on the ends of a common axle of length b such
‘that the wheels rotate independently. The whole combination rolls without slipping,
‘on a plane. Show that there are two nonholonomic equations of constraint,
cos de + sin 8 dy = 0
sin Ode — cos dy = a(dé + d¢')
(where 8, ¢, and ¢' have meanings similar to the problem of a single vertical disc,
and (2, y) are the coordinates of a point on the axle midway between the two wheels)
‘and one holonomic equation of constraint,
46-¢)
o=C-F(o-9')
where C is a constant.
My conception of the situation is illustrated in Figure 1. @ is the angle
between the # axis and the axis of the two wheels. ¢ and ¢ are the rotation
angles of the two wheels, and r and r! are the locations of their centers. The
center of the wheel axis is the point just between r and W
(@,y) = 5lte + resty +7).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 8
Ifthe @ wheel rotates through an angle dé, the vector displacement of its center
will have magnitude adg and direction determined by 8. For example, if @ = 0
then the wheel axis is parallel to the 2 axis, in which case rolling the ¢ wheel
clockwise will cause it to move in the negative y direction. In general, referring
to the Figure, we have
adefoin #4 — cos 83) (ao)
dr’ = adg'[sin@i — cos) (ay)
Adding these componentwise we have!
dr= slot dd!|sind
dy
$lde + 46! cos
Multiplying these by sind or — cos and adding or subtracting, we obtain,
sin dx — cos@dy = alde + d9']
cos 0 dz + sin Ody = 0.
Next, consider the vector riz = r—r' connecting the centers of the two wheels.
‘The definition of @ is such that its tangent must just be the ratio of the y and
components of this vector:
wa
tand =
5002 040 = = 8 dove + Fda
Subtracting (11) from (10),
see? 049 ala — a ( snd J ox)
ne
Again substituting for yi2/i2 in the first term in parentheses,
sec? #0 = —a[d@ — d¢')—* (tanO sind + cos)
ze
do = add ~ df} (sin? cond + cs?)
ald - dé) cost (2)
"Thanks to Javier Garcia for pointing out a factorof-two error in the original version of
‘hese equations.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 9
However, considering the definition of 8, we clearly have
a2 aa
Gh tay?
because the magnitude of the distance between r1 and rs is constrained to be b
by the rigid axis. Then (12) becomes
do = 5 [dd — do]
with immediate solution
o=
ayy
- Fl6- 01)
with C a constant of integration.
Problem 1.9
A particle moves in the « — y plane under the constraint that its velocity vector is,
alvways directed towards a point on the axis whose abscissa is some given function
of time f(t). Show that for f(t) differentiable, but otherwise arbitrary, the constraint
is nonholonomic.
‘The particle's position is (e(2),y(t)), while the position of the moving point
is (f(t),0)- Then the vector d from the particle to the point has components
d, =2(t)— f(t) dy = y(t). (a3)
‘The particle's velocity v has components
dey
ee ae ue dt aa)
and for the vectors in (18) and (28 to be in the same direction, we require
wt
Uz de
dy/dt dy _ vl)
defat ~ de ~ FO - FO
dy_ ae
7 EHO (a5)
For example, if f(t) = at, then we may integrate to find
Iny(t) = Infa(t) - a] +0
u(t) = C- [a(t at)
which is a holonomic constraint. But for general f(t) the right side of (15) is
hot integrable, so the constraint is nonholonomic.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 10
_
{| 4
\@
Figure 2: My conception of the situation of Problem 1.10
Problem 1.10
‘Two points of mass m are joined by a rigid weightless rod of length 1, the center of
which is constrained to move on a circle of radius a. Set up the kinetic energy in
generalized coordinates.
My conception of this one is shown in Figure 2. @ is the angle representing
how far around the circle the center of the rod has moved. ¢ is the angle the
rod makes with the x axis.
‘The position of the center of the rod is (z,y) = (acos@,asind). The
positions of the masses relative to the center of the rod are (tretsdret) =
+(1/2)(1cos ,1sin ). Then the absotute positions of the masses are
0) = (00030 =f cosg,asine + 4 sing)
and their velocities are
(e:0)) = (-asin9d% § sing g,acos06 + } e089)
‘The magnitudes of these are
lol = + E98 4 ald glsin din + co80e089)
=F + ‘ £alb dcos(@ ~ 4)
When we add the kinetic energies of the two masses, the third term cancels,
and we have
Po Smt mitts 2Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 u
Problem 1.11
Show that Lagrange’s equations in the form of Eq. 1-53 can also be written as
or ar
34; 78g; Qs.
‘These are sometimes known as the Nielsen form of the Lagrange equations.
Problem 1.12
A point particle moves in space under the influence of a force derivable from a
generalized potential of the form
U(e,v) =V(r) +a-L
where r is the radius veetor from a fixed point, L is the angular momentum about,
that point, and o is a fixed vector in space.
(a) Find the components of the force on the particle in both Cartesian and spherical
polar coordinates, on the basis of Eq. (1-58).
(b) Show that the components in the two coordinate systems are related to each
other as in Bg. (1-49).
(©) Obtain the equations of motion in spherical polar coordinates.
Problem 1.13
A particle moves in a plane under the influence of a force, acting toward a center
of force, whose magnitude is
2k
za)
where r is the distance of the particle to the center of force. Find the generalized
potential that will result in such a force, and from that the Lagrangian for the
‘motion in a plane. (‘The expression for F represents the force between two charges
in Weber's electrodynamics).
Ie we takeHomer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 2
then
and
50
‘The Lagrangian for motion in a plane is,
-v= tn sboe— 3 (14 252)
L= ;
Problem 1.14
If L is a Lagrangian for a system of n degrees of freedom satisfying Lagrange’s
equations, show by direct substitution that
4 AEs st)
ir
also satisfies Lagrange’s equations, whore F is any arbitrary, but dllferentiabe,
function of its arguments
We have Ol! _ OL | 8 dF
eure ae 6
Bas ~ Bq, * Bq, dt ©
ond
on ok, Oak an
Dis Bis * Diy ae
For the function F we may write
ar
aa Dog or
and from this we may read off
OaF _OF
4, dé ~ Bq,
‘Then taking the time derivative of (17) gives
dau! dab
dt OG; dh OGHomer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 13
so we have
av adt _ Ob dob, Oar dor
qi dt AG Dg dt AG," Ogi dt dt Qi”
‘The fist two terms on the RHS cance! because Z satisfies the Euler-Lagrange
equations, while the second two terms cancel because F is differentiable. Hence
L satisfies the Euler-Lagrange equations.
Problem 1.16
A Lagrangian for a particular physical system can be written as
U = Maa? + 2hig + of?) — Kaa? + 2bay + oy"),
where a,b, and c are arbitrary constants but subject to the condition that 6° — ac #
0. What are the equations of motion? Examine particularly the two cases a = 0 = ¢
and b= 0,¢ = —a. What is the physical system described by the above Lagrangian’?
Show that the usual Lagrangian for this system as defined by Eq. (1-56) is related
‘to L! by a point transformation (cf. Exercise 15 above). What is the significance of,
the condition on the value of ? ~ ac?
Cleary we have
Sh Kar Koy OE = mat-+mby
so the Euler Lagrange equation fori
ob _ dL
Ox dt Ox
Similarly, for y we obtain
m(by + ci)
‘Those are the equation of motion for a pari of mass m undergoing simple
farmonte motion into elimersons, a6 bound by two sings of spring com,
stant K. Normally we would express the Lagrangian in unravelled form, by
transforming to new coordinates us and ws with
m(az + bi)
—K (az + by).
—K(be + ey).
uy sartby w= brtey.
The condition 6? ~ ac # 0 is the condition that the coordinate transformation
not be degenerate, ic. that there are actually two distinet dimensions in which
the particle experiences a restoring force. If 6? = ac then we have just a one-
dimensional problem.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 u
Problem 1.17
Obtain the Lagrangian equations of motion for a spherical pendulum, ie. a mass
point suspended by a rigid weightless rod.
Denoting the mass of the particle by m, the length of the rod by L, and
the angle between the rod and the vertical by 8, we have the particle’s linear
velocity given in magnitude by v = Ld, while its height is h= —Lcos@ (where
the fulcrum of the pendulum is taken as the origin of coordinates). Then
L=T-V= pout +mgLcos8
so the equation of mation is
OL _ dan ay
eng ase Td.
Problem 1.18
A particle of mass m moves in one dimension such that it has the Lagrangian
rr
L
+ meV (2) -V7(2),
‘where V is some differentiable function of 2. Find the equation of motion for 2(0)
and describe the physical nature of the system on the basis ofthis equation.
We have
Ob gs
on™
Ob _ mt
SE pt Bmav Ce)
HOE _ 932(¢)°8 + 2m¥V(2) + 2meLV(o
GSE = mi (a)?5 + 2maV (a) + 2mETV (2)
at
In the last equation we ean use
vy aa
gl @=*
‘Then the Euler-Lagrange equation is
a ob _oL 2a) 2® avy
aoa! 7 m2 (6)°E + 2mEV (@) + ma? + (a)Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 45
“ w
(me + £) (ma? +.2V(2))
If we identify F = —dV/dz and T = mé*/2, we may write this as
(F—m#)(T +V)=0
So, this is saying that, at all times, either the difference between F and ma is
zero, or the sum of kinetic and potential energy is zero.
Problem 1.19
‘Two mass points of mass m; and my are connected by a string passing through
a hole in a smooth table so that m; rests on the table and my hangs suspended.
Assuming m2 moves only in a vertical line, what are the generalized coordinates
for the system? Write down the Lagrange equations for the system and, if possible,
discuss the physical significance any of them might have. Reduce the problem to &
single second-order differential equation and obtain a first integral of the equation,
What is its physical significance? (Consider the motion only so long as neither m:
nor my passes through the hole).
Let d be the height of mz above its lowest possible position, so that d=
0 when the string is fully extended beneath the table and m, is just about
to fall through the hole. Also, let @ be the angular coordinate of m, on the
table. Then the kinetic energy of ma is just mad? /2, while the kinetic energy
of m is md? /2+ myd°6? /2, and the potential energy of the system is just the
gravitational potential energy of ms, U = magd. Then the Lagrangian is
L= Jom + madd + Fm? — mag
and the Euler-Lagrange equations are
ae
Semi) =0
(may + ma)d = —mag + my dé?
From the first equation we can identify a frst integral, m2 = U where fis a
constant. With this we can substitute for 8 in the second equation:
re
(mm +ma)d = —mag + a
Because the sign of the two terms on the RHS is different, this is saying that, if
‘is big enough (if m, is spinning fast enough), the centrifugal force of m; can
balance the downward pull of ma, and the system can be in equilibrium.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 16
Problem 1.20
Obtain the Lagrangian and equations of motion for the double pendulum illustrated
in Fig. 1-4, where the lengths of the pendula are /; and ly with corresponding masses
‘mand m2.
‘Taking the origin at the fulcrum of the first pendulum, we can write down
the coordinates of the frst. mass point:
n= hsind
= 00864
The coordinates of the second mass point are defined relative to the coordi-
nates of the first mass point by exactly analogous expressions, so relative to the
coordinate origin we have
2 = 0, +lsinBy
w= —hc0s6
Differentiating and doing a little algebra we find
ne
202 + 203 — 2h 126462 c0s(0 — 62)
H+
B+8
‘The Lagrangian is
1
(oma) + Sonat 363 mall ba cos(B,—B,) +(ns) gla cos8+magla cose
with equations of motion
4 [om + malta — malta os(@, ~@2)] = (mi + maging
and
[labs — uA, cost, —62)] = -gsind
If 6, = 0, so that the fulcrum for the second pendulum is stationary, then the
second of these equations reduces to the equation we derived in Problem 1.17.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 wv
Problem 1.21
‘The electromagnetic field is invariant under a gauge transformation of the scalar
and vector potential given by
ADA+ THEO,
10W
eset
where th is arbitrary (but differentiable). What effect does this gauge transformation
have on the Lagrangian of a particle moving in the electromagnetic field? Is the
motion affected?
The Lagrangian for a particle in an electromagnetic field is
L=T—g¥(x(d) + A(x(9) -¥(0)
If we make the suggested gauge transformation, this becomes
a rmafoowy=2 5 . ]+facw v() Y- VHCR()]
a
= 1 ab(a(o) + taca(o) veo + 2[FF +v-vHER(0)]
= a8(x(o) + 2A) vo + LS 90)
Yx(t))
So the transformed Lagrangian equals the original Lagrangian plus a total time
derivative. But we proved in Problem 1.15 that adding the total time derivative
of any function to the Lagrangian does not affect the equations of motion, s0
the motion of the particle is unaffected by the gauge transformation.
Problem 1.22
Obtain the equation of motion for a particle falling vertically under the influence
of gravity when frictional forces obtainable from a dissipation function hv? are
present. Integrate the equation to obtain the velocity as a function of time and
show that the maximum possible velocity for fall from rest is v = mg/t.
‘The Lagrangian for the particle isHomer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 1 18
and the dissipation function is k2?/2, so the equation of motion is
d (aL OL | OF _ k
(28) omen t
‘This says that the acceleration goes to zero when mg = ki, or 2 = mg/k, 80
Urea sobre trl fee al he a
pence eoere ares ee ee sere
See er eee aceSolutions to Problems in Goldstein,
Classical Mechanics, Second Edition
Homer Reid
December 1, 2001
Chapter 3
Problem 3.1
A particle of mass m is constrained to move under gravity without frietion on the
inside of a paraboloid of revolution whose axis is vertical. Find the one-dimensional
problem equivalent to its motion. What is the condition on the particle's initial
velocity to produce circular motion? Find the period of small oscillations abou
this cizeular motion,
We'll take the
and potential ene
paraboloid to be defi =ar?, The kinetic
jes of the particle are
{by the equati
T= FP ++ 2)
(7? + 9° + dar?)
V = mgz = mgar?
Hone the Laggan is
b= Bat date)? +20] — mgt
mr? = constant.Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3 2
For r we have the derivatives
OE seme? + mnrB2 — 2mgar
SE = sa2mei® + mrd® — 2mgi
aL Ee
Fe ml +a?)
aol _ yaa a
op a Smatre? + m(l + 4a2rAhe
Hence the equation of motion for is
8ma?ri? + m(1 + das?) = da?mri? + mrd® — 2mgar
(1+ 4a212)F + Ama?r#? ~ mB? + 2igar
In terms of the constant angular momentum, we may rewrite this as
E
2 + 2mgar
(1 + a2?) + dma?
So this is the differential equation that determines the time evolution of r
If initially # = 0, then we have
2424 e
(1 + dar?) + = + 2mgan
0.
Evidently, # will then vanish—and hence # will remain 0, giving circular motion—
if
e
Sas = 2ingar
or
a= V0.
So if this condition is satisfied, the particle will execute circular motion (assum-
ing its initial r velocity was zero). It’s interesting to note that the condition on
6 for circular motion is independent of r.Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3 3
Problem 3.2
A particle moves in a central force field given by the potential
where k and a are positive constants. Using the method of the equivalent one-
dimensional potential discuss the nature of the motion, stating the ranges of and
E appropriate to each type of motion, When ate circular orbits possible? Find the
period of small radial oscillations about the circular motion,
The Lagrangian is
LaF [P+ re] +
As usual the angular momentum is conserved
mr? = constant.
We have
OL _ np? — be
= mri? —k (1+ ar)
aL
OL = nt
so the equation of motion for r is
Pk om
= aa ean. w
‘The condition for circular motion is that this vanish, whieh yields
(2)
What this means is that that if the particle's initial @ velocity is equal to the
above function of the starting radius rp, then the second derivative of r will
remain zero for all time. (Note that, in contrast to the previous problem, in this
case the condition for circular motion does depend on the starting radius.)
‘To find the frequency of small oscillations, let's suppose the particle is exe-
cuting a circular orbit with radius ro (in which case the @ velocity is given by
(2)), and suppose we nudge it slightly so that its radius becomes r = ro +,
where 2 is small. Then (1) becomes
k mk sire
Fa (tar) Ft abo +a) oe @)Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3 4
Since 1 is small, we may write the second term approximately as
~ EES bare +a0y(1 ar) (1-22)
ar enam
(001 +ar -20 22)
me 7
EE (ys 2 sata)
‘The first term here just cancels the first term in (?2), so we are left with
hewn
me
:
(us 2 rem)
by an x that grows (or decays) exponentially, rather than oscillates. Somehow.
Tinessed up the sign of the RHS, but I can't find where-can anybody help?
Problem 3.3
‘Two particles move about each other in circular orbits under the influence of grav-
itational forces, with a period +. Their motion is suddenly stopped, and they are
then released and allowed to fall into each other. Prove that they collide after a
time r/4V2.
Since we are dealing with gravitational forces, the potential energy between
the partictes is
ue)
ene spat
wi @
ki
If the particles are to move in circular orbits with radius ro, (4) must vanish at
=r, Which yields a relation between ro and 6:
~=(5)"
~(i) ®Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3 5
where we used the fact that the angular velocity in the circular orbit with period
1 is 0 = 2n/r,
‘When the particles are stopped, the angular velocity goes to zero, and the
first term in (4) vanishes, leaving only the second term:
k
ie
(6)
‘This differential equation governs the evolution of the particles after they are
stopped. We now want to use this equation to find ras a funetion of f, which
‘we will then need to invert to find the time required for the particle separation
1 to-go from rp 00.
“The first step is to multiply both sides of (6) by the integrating factor 2:
oi — 7k
from which we conclude
@
‘The constant C is determined from the boundary condition on #. ‘This is simply
that # = 0 when r= ro, since initially the particles are not moving at all. With
the appropriate choiee of C in (7), we have
e's
We could now proceed to solve this differential equation for r(2), but since in
fact we're interested in solving for the time difference corresponding to given
boundary values of r, it’s easier to invert (8) and solve for ¢(r)
af (g)«
“Gye
("GyHomer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3 6
We change variables tou =r/ro,du = dr/ro
(ye? P(e)
Next we change variables to u = sin? x,du = 2sinecosarde
(wre
Now plugging in (5), we obtain
oe)" @
Ave
as advertised.
Problem 3.6
(a) Show that if a particle deseribes a circular orbit under the influence of an
attractive central force directed at a point on the eizcle, then the force varies
1s the inverse fifth power of the distance,
(b) Show that for the orbit described the total energy of the particle is zero.
(c) Find the period of the motion.
(@) Find 2, j, and v as a function of angle around the circle and show that all
three quantities are infinite as the particle goes through the center of force.
Let's suppose thie center of force is at the origin, and that the particle's orbit
is a circle of radius R contered at (x = R,y = 0) (so that the leftmost point
of the particle's origin is the center of force). The equation describing such an
orbit is
148) = VER(A + c0s26)!/?
0
L L
®) = Ta) ~ Fan costa? ©Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3
Differentiating,
du in 28
@ ~ VBR( + e082)
du 20320) sin? 20 ]
@ ~ VBR [T+ cos29? * 85 cos2ay?
1 1
JR + con 20
Adding (9) and (10),
2.0820 + 200s?2043sin®24]. (10)
Bu 1
BROS com 2=
1
= Jammy tome
_ 4
© V2R(.+ c0s20)9/?
= SRP, (yy
[(0. + 0520)? + 20520 + 2cos? 20 + Bsin? 26]
‘The differential equation for the orbit is
@u 4,(2 >
Gpeu- Boy (2) 2)
Plugging in (11), we have
asm by fl
a=; av (2)
VQ) eu)
Joy=-2 8 fn)
which is the advertised r dependence of the force,
(b) The kinetic energy of the particle is
Tr
pe 8 (as)Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3 8
We have
1 = V2R(1 + cos26)!/?
1? = 2R¥(1 + cos 20)
sin2@
Fe VERT cox 20?
_ opi sit
ORT cos 8
Plugging into (15),
T+ esd |
In terms of = mr%, thi
Ree
mrt
Bt this is just the negative of the potential energy, (13): hence the total particle
energy T+ V is zero
() Suppose the particle starts out at the farthest point from the center of force
on its orbit, Le the point « = 2R,y = 0, and that it moves counter-clockwise
from this point to the origin. ‘The time roquived to undergo this motion is balf
the period of the orbit, and the particle's angle changes from 3/2.
Hence we can caleulate the period as
hn 9
Using
im Be
T 4
3xk mn
TiHomer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3 9
Problem 3.8
(a) For circular and parabolic orbits in an attractive 1/r potential having the same
‘angular momentum, show that the perihelion distance of the parabola is one
half the radius of the circle,
(b) Prove that in the same central force as in part (a) the speed of a particle at
any point in a parabolic orbit is v2 times the speed in a circular orbit passing
through the same point,
(a) The equations deseribing the orbits are
;
mk (circle)
:
Evidently, the perihelion of the parabola occurs when @ = 0, in which ease
= P/2mk, or one-half the radius of the circle.
(b) For the parabola, we have
e sin? .
5 (ee (6)
_ 4 sind
rT)
=e [ae + |
P A+ 1+ 2cos8 + cos? @
(+ e088)?
oy2g [2
ara lil
ark
aaa
2
=re|
a)
in terms of the angular momentum | = mr?§2. On the other hand, for the circle
#=0, 0
as)Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3 10
where we used that fact that, since this is a circular orbit, the condition k/r =
{P/ms® is satisfied. Evidently (17) is twice (18) for the same particle at the
same point, so the unsquated speed in the parabolic orbit is V2 vimes that in
the eizeular orbit at the same point
Problem 3.12
At perigee of an elliptic gravitational orbit a particle experiences an impulse $ (cf
Exercise 9, Chapter 2) in the radial direction, sending the particle into another
elliptic orbit, Determine the new semimajor axis, eccentricity, and orientation of
major axis in terms of the old.
‘The orbit equation for elliptical motion is
a(l-2)
1 cc0s(0— 0a) e
0 for the initial motion of the particle. Then
which is to say the major axis of the orbit is on
perigee happens when 8 =
the 2 axis,
‘Then at the point at which the impulse is delivered, the particle's momentum
is entirely in the y direction: p, = pj. After receiving the impulse $ in the radial
(2) direction, the particle's y momentum is unchanged, but its momentum is
now pz = $. Hence the final momentum of the particle is py = Si+pd. Since the
particle isin the same location before and after the impulse, its potential energy
is unchanged, but its kinetic energy is increased due to the added momentum:
Bynes S, (20)
Hence the semimajor axis length shrinks accordingly:
k a
= “3B; ~~ BE Sm ~ TF SOME
(21)
Next, since the impulse is in the same direction as the particle's distance from
the origin, we have AL = rx Ap = 0, ie. the impulse does not change the
particle's angular momentum:
y= (2)
With (20) and (22), we ean compute the change in the particle's eccentricity
_ fae
rt ae
EL, ES
= 1+ Be Ee (23)Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3 uu
What remains is to compute the constant 6p in (19) for the particle's orbit after
the collision. ‘To do this we need merely observe that, since the location of the
particle is unchanged immediately after the impulse is delivered, expression (19)
must evaluate to the same radius at @ = 0 with both the “before” and “after”
values of @ and
ai(L~@) _ as(l~G)
14G They e050
1 fat 9)_
ofan}
Problem 3.13
A uniform distribution of dust in the solar system adds to the gravitational attrac
tion of the sun on a planet an additional force
F=-mCr
‘where m is the mass of the planet, C'is a constant proportional to the gravitational
constant and the density of the dust, and r is the radius vector from the sun to the
planet (both considered as points). This additional force is very small compared to
the direct sun-planet gravitational force.
(a) Caleulate the period for a circular orbit of radius ro of the planet in this com-
bined field
(b) Calculate the period of radial oscillations for slight disturbances from this eit
ceular orbit
(©) Show that nearly circular orbits can be approximated by a precessing ellipse
‘and find the precession frequency. Is the precession the same or opposite
direction to the orbital angular velocity?
(a) The equation of motion for r is
(24)
(25)Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3 2
[kro + m2Cr§
ee ee rmermcr
_ [Ee med
\ ing K
k mrt
ag tae]
‘Then the period is
3/2
i
where 19 = 2a) is the period of circular motion in the absence of the
perturbing potential.
(b) We return to (24) and put r= rp +r with 2 € ry
Se k
mirosa (ota?
5 (1-32) - 5 (1-22) - mem mex
Using (25), this reduces to
fa]
= mC(r9 +2)
with
a we
[{- 2-4
ner ind
-(-Al”
meg ir
where in going to the last line we used (25) again.Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3 3
Problem 3.14
Show that the motion of a particle in the potential field
vy --k a4
is the same as that of the motion under the Kepler potential alone when expressed
in terms of a coordinate system rotating or precessing around the centr of force.
For negative total energy show that ifthe additional potential term is very small
compared to the Kepler potential, then the angular speed of precession of the ellip
tical orbit is
2nmh
Pr
‘The perihelion of Mercury is observed to precess (after corrections for known plan-
etary perturbations) at the rate of about 40” of arc per century. Show that this
precession could be accounted for classieally ifthe dimensionless quantity
k
a
(whieh is a measure of the perturbing inverse square potential relative to the grav-
itational potential) were as small as 7 x 10%. (The eecentecity of Mercury's orbit
is 0.206, and its period is 0.24 year)
‘The effective one-dimensional equation of motion is
Bok
he
mi= 5 -GtS
B+ 2mh ke
mart
12 + 2mh-+ (mh/L)? — (mh/L)?
ra
IL + (mah L)]? — (mh)? | k
If mh < L, then we can neglect the term (mh/L)? in comparison with L?, and
write
[L+(mb/Ly? ke
mr r
‘hich is just the normal equation of motion for the Kepler problem, but with
the angular momentum L augmented by the additive term AL = mh/L.
Such an augmentation of the angular momentum may be accounted for by
ink (26)Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3 u
1g the angular velocity:
ame (0 + 7) = mr (: + )
P LP
= mr*6 + mr?
where
‘mh _ 2nmh
Bb Dr
is a precession frequency. If we were to go back and work the problem in the
reference frame in which everything is precessing with angular velocity 8, but
there is no term h/r? in the potential, then the equations of motion would come
out the same as in the stationary case, but, with a term AL = mr? added to
tho effective angular momentum that shows up in the equation of motion for r,
just as we found in (26).
‘To put in the numbers, we observe that
0-2)
CGV
Aen
=(1-@)rfprec
‘where in going to the third-to-last line we used Goldstein's equation (
in the last line T put fprec = 9/2. Putting in the mumbers, we find
A ; ve (22) (Lrevolution (1 century!)
B= (1 206%) - (024 yx) 0 (=r) (tages) (Leta =
=71 10%,
2), andHomer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3 6
Problem 3.22
In hyperbolie motion in a 1/r potential the analogue of the eecentrie anomaly is F
defined by
a(ecosh F~1),
where a1 ~ ¢) is the distance of closest approach, Find the analogue to Kepler’s
equation giving ¢ from the time of closest approach as a function of F.
‘We start with Goldstein's equation (3.65)
ar
wate
of a (27)
0 9/ Br? + kr —
With the suggested substitution, the thing under the radical in the denom-
inator of the integrand is
rt tlc Pace 41) + hate? 1)
= Be nk Fah 280) ah + (Eo! to)
It follows from the orbit. equation that, if a(e — 1) is the distance of closest
approach, then a = k/22. Thus
Be
Te eont? p-E
Ba 2
-Bfe cosh?
= Be cosh? p— 1) = BE sinh? p= oP sinh?
= EE feost? P= 1] = EE sink? # = ot Asin? F
Plugging into (27) and observing that dr = ae sinh F dF, we have
—
(Ff a(ecosh F — 1) dF [e(sinh F — sinh Fy) — (F — Fo)]
and I suppose this equation could be a jumping-off point for numerical or other
investigations of the time of travel in hyperbolic orbit problems,Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3 16
Problem 3.26
Examine the scattering produced by a repulsive central force f = kr-*. Show
the differential cross section is given by
A _(=2)de
2E PQ —a)P sinner
o(0)d0 =
where zx is the ratio @/x and E is the energy.
‘The potential energy is U = k/2r? = ku?/2, and the differential equation
for the orbit reads
or
with solution
Acos@+ Bsiny® (28)
where
(29)
Well set up our coordinates in the way traditional for scattering experiments:
initially the particle is at angle 9 = 7 and a great distance from the force center,
and ultimately the particle proceeds off to r = oo at some new angle 8. The
first of these observations gives us a relation between A and B in the orbit
equation (28):
u(@ ==)
+ Acos yn + Bsinyx =0
a
Branyn. (30)
The condition that the particle head off to r = oo at angle 0 = 0, yields the
condition
Acos 6, + Bsiny@, = 0.
Using (80), this becomes
= c0878, tan yx + sin 78, = 0Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 3 Ww
or
~ 00870, sin ye + sin 70, €08-77 = 0
+ siny(@,~) =0
= @-m) ="
or, in terms of Goldstein's variable «= 6/r.
7 (31)
Plugging in (29) and squaring both sides, we have
PO ep
Now 1 = muys = 2mB)}/2s with s the impact parameter and E the particle
energy. Thus the previous equation is
‘Taking the differential of both sides,
k 2 ly &
2sds =
bP =»?
32-2) Fe 7 nam”
2E
k [ze =1(@ = 2) ~ (@~1)%(e- 2) ~ a(e- 1)
2E
k [ 21-2) ] oe
a F
E | 23(
7
‘The differential cross section is given by
_|sds}
aan = !asl
Plugging in (32), we have
(an * | 0-9)
2B |e 2)? sind
as advertised.Solutions to Problems in Goldstein,
Classical Mechanics, Second Edition
Homer Reid
April 21, 2002
Chapter 7
Problem 7.2
Obtain the Lorentz transformation in which the velocity is at an infinitesimal angle
dd counterclockwise from th ‘means of a similarity transformation applied
to Eq. (7-18). Show directly that the resulting matrix is orthogonal and that the
inverse matrix is obtained by substituting —v for v.
We can obtain this transformation by first applying a pure rotation to rotate
the = axis into the boost axis, then applying a pure boost along the (new)
axis, and then applying the inverse of the original rotation to bring the = axis
back in line with where it was originally. Symbolically we have L = R-'KR
where R is the rotation to achieve the new = axis, and K is the boost along the
Goldstein tells us that the new = axis is to be rotated dé counterclockise
from the original axis, but he doesn't tell us in which plane, i.e. we know @
Dut not 6 for the new > axis in the unrotated coordinates. We'll assume the =
axis is rotated around the 2 axis, in a sense such that if you're standing on the
positive 2 axis, looking toward the negative 2 axis, the rotation appears to be
counterclockwise, so that the positive 2 axis is rotated toward the negative yHomer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 7 2
axis. ‘Then, using the real metric,
1 0 0 0\/10 0 0 1 0 o 0
po |{% sd sind o}fo1 0 0 0 cosd@ —sindd 0
=| 0 -sindd cosaa 0} 0 0 y =a |] 0 sinae cosde 0
0 0 o i/\oo -% 4 oo oon
1 0 0 o\/1 0 0 0
_[ 0 cosda sina 0 ){ 0 cod? — —sinda 0
=| 0 -sindd cosda 0} | 0 ysind® — yeosd@ 9
00 0 1) \o -sysinde —sreosda
1 0 0 0
_[ 0 cos? da+ysin?dd (7 —1)sinddeosd® —(sindB
=| 0 (= 1)sinddcosdd sin?d-+c0s?dd =f cosdé
0 By sin de =r eos 4
Problem 7.4
A rocket of length Ip in its rest system is moving with constant speed along the
‘axis of an inertial system. An observer at the origin observes the apparent length
of the rocket at any time by noting the = coordinates that ean be seen for the head
‘and tail of the rocket. How does this apparent length vary as the rocket moves from
the extreme left of the observer to the extreme right?
Let's imagine a coordinate system in which the rocket is at rest and centered
at the origin, Then the world lines of the rocket’s top and bottom are
0,0,4L0/27) 28 = (0,0, —Lo/2,7}
where we are parameterizing the world lines by the proper time 7. Now, the rest
frame of the observer is moving in the negative = direction with speed v = Se
relative to the rest frame of the rocket, Transforming the world lines of the
rocket’s top and bottom to the rest frame of the observer, we have
4), = {0.0,9(Lo/2 + v7).9(r + BLo/2e)} «
ah, = {0,0,4(—Lo/2 + vr), 1(7 — BLo/2c)} 2)
Now consider the observer. At any time ¢ in his own reference frame, he is
ng light. from two events, namely, the top and bottom of the rocket moving,
past imaginary distance signposts that we pretend to exist up and down the 2
axis. He sees the top of the rocket lined up with one distance signpost and the
bottom of the rocket lined up with another, and from the difference between the
‘two signposts he computes the length of the rocket. Of course, the light that
he sees was emitted by the rocket some time in the past, and, moreover, theHomer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 7 3
light signals from the top and bottom of the rocket that the observer receives
simultancously at time # were in fact emitted at different proper times + in the
rocket’s rest frame.
First consider the light received by the observer at time fp coming from
the bottom of the rocket. Suppose in the observer's rest frame this light were
emitted at time ty ~ At, Le. At seconds before it reaches the observer at the
origin; then the rocket bottom was passing through 7 = ~cAt when it emitted
this light. But then the event identified by (z,f) = (—eAt,ty ~ Ay) must lie on
the world line of the rocket’s bottom, which from (2) determines both At and
the proper time 7 at which the light was emitted:
Heat = (-Lo/2+ 07) : (say” o-22
to Ar = 27 + BL0/2e) 1-3 Fe =o)
We use the notation 7p(Fo) to indicate that this is the proper time at which the
bottom of the rocket emits the light that arrives at the observer's origin at the
observer's tine fo. At this proper time, from (2), the position of the bottom of
the rocket in the observer's reference frame was
20(to(to)) = —rLo/2 + wvto(to)
~ arto {(F8)" @)
Similarly, for the top of the rocket we have
alto) = (38) "+ 2
and
salrelt) ®
Subtracting (3) from (4), we have the length for the rocket computed by the
observer from his observations at time fo in his reference frame:
L(to) = 9(1 + B)Lo
vaHomer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 7 4
Problem 7.17
‘Two particles with rest masses m, and my are observed to move along the observer's
2 axis toward each other with speeds v and vp, respectively. Upon collision they
are observed to coalesce into oue particle of rest mass my moving with speed cy
relative to the observer. Find ms and vg in terms of rm, ma, v1, and va. Would it
be possible for the resultant particle to be a photon, that is m3 = 0, if neither my
Equating the 3rd and dth components of the initial and final 4-momentum
of the system yields
aamyey — semana = yymavy
jaime + ramae = yamae
Solving the second for ms yields
m= zm + Bm 6)
and plugging this into the frst yields vs in terms of the properties of particles
amin = jag
nam; + rams
maa
mums 7am,
mi + Qavramama + and — [nf mE BE + amb
Grim + yam?
ft) + ob$ (1 = 83) + 27ers mal
Cuomi+ amma)?
= me + m3 + 2yvvamimna( — 3152)
- (amy +72ma)*
2yvyamimeph So)
5x2)
and hence
jimmy + 9am)?
18> [2 nd = nd + 21 7ammmalL
0
BB oO
Now, (5) shows that, for ms to be zero when either m) or me is zero, we must
have 9g ~ 00. That this condition eannot be met for nonzero ma, is evident
from the denominator of (6), in which all terms are positive (since (33) <1 if
fear alam)Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 7 5
Problem 7.19
A meson of mass 7 comes to rest and disintegrates into a meson of mass jx and a.
neutrino of zero mass. Show that the kinetic energy of motion of the 1 meson (ie.
without the rest mass energy) is
con
on a
Working in the rest frame of the pion, the conservation relations are
xe = (yeh + pet)" + re (energy conservation)
O-p.+p (omentum conservation).
From the second of these it follows that the muon and neutrino must have the
same momentum, whose magnitude we'l eal p. ‘Then the energy conservation
relation becomes
ne = tet + Pe)? + po
ren pPare re
2
er)
‘Then the total energy of the muon is
ayia
By = (eel +r
2 (# . eae"
(any? + (9? — 2)?
(on? +p)
‘Then subtracting out the rest energy to get the kinetic energy, we obtain
(x? + 1?) — pe?
(n? +p? — 2p)
as advertised.Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 7 6
Problem 7.20
A x* meson of rest mass 139.6 MeV collides with a neutron (rest mass 939.6 MeV)
stationary in the laboratory system to produce a K+ meson (rest mass 494 MeV)
and a A hyperon (rest mass 1115 MeV). What is the threshold energy for this
reaction in the laboratory system?
We'll put ¢ = 1 for this problem. The four-momenta of the pion and neutron
before the collision are
Par =(Ps72Mz)s Pain = (Osa)
and the squared magnitude of the initial four-momentum is thus
Paarl
[Pal? + Gams + mn)?
[pal? + 72m? + m2 + 2ygmenin
= m2 + m2 + 2yemqMn
(ms + 1n)® + Aye — Lg, a)
‘The threshold energy is the energy needed to produce the K and A particles
at rest in the COM system. In this case the squared magnitude of the four-
‘momentum of the final system is just (mx + ma)*, and, by conservation of
‘momentum, this must be equal to the magnitude of the four-momentum of the
initial system (7)
mix + Mn)? + (ye — Lattin
(mm + my)?
(rac + may? = (mg + mn)?
=
Ime
a+
6.43
‘Then the total energy of the pion is T = >,my = (6.43 139.6 MeV) = 808
MeV, while its kinetic energy is K = — m= 758 MeV.
‘The above appears to be the correct solution to this problem. On the other
hand, I first tried to do it a different way, as below. This way yields a different
and hence presumably incorrect answer, but I can't figure out why. Can anyone
find the mistake?
‘The K and A particles must have, between them, the same total momentum
in the direction of the original pion’s momentum as the original pion had. Of
course, the K and A may also have momentum in directions transverse to the
original pion momentum (if so, their transverse momenta must be equal and
opposite). But any transverse momentum just increases the energy of the final
system, which increases the energy the initial system must have had to produce
the final system. Hence the minimum energy situation is that in which the K and
A both travel in the direction of the original pion's motion, (This is equivalent
to Goldstein's conclusion that, just at threshold, the produced particles are atHomer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 7
rest in the COM system). ‘Then the momentum conservation relation becomes
simply
Pe = PK +PR (8)
and the energy conservation relation is (with ¢ = 1)
(rm, + Dh)? + ray = (rn + i)? + (mh + WAIN? (9)
‘The problem is to find the minimum value of p, that satisfies (9) subject to the
constraint (8).
‘To solve this we must frst resolve a subquestion: for a given p,, what is the
relative allocation of momentum to px and py that minimizes (9) ? Minimizing
By = (ke + vi)? + (mh + PRY?
subject to px +Px = Pz, We obtain the condition
bs ts _ me,
RHEE ame MSD
Combining this with (8) yields
my mx
ae a
mag mn PR age ma” ae
PA
For a given total momentum pp, the minimum possible energy the final system
can have is realized when pz is partitioned between px and py according to
(11). Plugging into (8), the relation defining the threshold momentum is
(m2 +92)? 4 m9 = (ni + (atta) 2)" + (ms + (an)
Solving numerically yields p; * 655 MeV/c, for a total pion energy of about,
670 MeV,
2
yin
2)Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 7 8
Problem 7.21
A photon may be deseribed classically as a particle of zero mass possessing never
theless a momentum h/A = hv /c, and therefore a kinetic energy hy. If the photon
collides with an electron of mass m at rest it will be scattered at some angle @ with
‘anew energy hv’. Show that the change in energy is related to the scattering angle
by the formula
0 = 2resin?
N= A= 2dcsin? 5,
where Ae = h/me, known as the Compton wavelength, Show also that the kinetic
‘energy of the recoil motion of the electron is
= ty 2D §
152 (%) sin? 72
Let's assume the photon is initially travelling along the axis. Then the sum
of the initial photon and electron four-momenta is
0 0 0
0 0 0
Paa=PartPee=l nn (+o |=] aya a2)
Aja me me+h/a
Without loss of generality we may assume that the photon and electron move
in the zz plane after the scatter. If the photon’s velocity makes an angle 0 with
the 2 axis, while the electron’s velocity makes an angle , the four-momentum
after the collision is
(h/")sin® pesind (h/X) sin 0 + pe sind
_ 0 0 _ 0
Put Part Poe =V (nyreosd }* | — pecose | ~ | (h/X’) cos + pe cose
hiN Jb + pe (h)X) + nF + pe
(3)
Equating (12) and (13) yields three separate equations:
(h/X)sind + pe sind =0 (ad)
(h/¥)€080 + pec086 = h/A (as)
AYN + Vim PE = met h/d (a6)
From the first of these we find
h hyoy
Leandro [is( yard
singHomer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 7
and plugging this into (15) we find
2
= satya 2 cos
On the other hand, we can solve (16) to obtain
afi_1)\? 1
= (2-2) samen (2
Comparing these two determinations of pe yields
or
0 this is advertised result number 1
Next, to find the kinetic en
me+* = ames t
amet y
0 -me= K = 1 (
NP+ 2A. sin"(@/2]
Lh (0/2)
eer + 2x0" amy)
where we put x = Ae/
Problem 7.22
ar)
ray of the electron after the collision, we can
write the conservation of energy equation in a slightly different form:
A photon of energy € collides at angle @ with another photon of energy E. Prove
that the minimum value of € permitting formation of a pair of particles of mass m_
‘ amet
Eu = FT — coat)
We'll suppose the photon of energy Eis traveling along the positive = axis,
while that with energy € is traveling in the «= plane (ie., its velocity hasHomer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 7 10
spherical polar angles @ and @ = 0). Then the 4-momenta are
n= (0022)
m= (Es, Fou)
E+Ecost bee)
€
Its convenient to rotate our reference frame to one in which the space portion
of the composite four-momentum ofthe two photons ial along the = direction
Ta this fame the total fout-momentam is
w= (002 JER E+ DEE cos, est). (as)
At threshold energy, the two produced particles have the same four-momenta:
pa = ps= (0,0,p, (ne? + p?)/?) (ag)
and 4-momentum conservation requires that twice (19) add up to (18), which
yields two conditions:
2p = LVETTEPTIEE Cs) — pe
aymbrrpe = HE mb Pe
Subtracting the first of these from the second, we obtain
4(€2 + B? + 2BE cos)
4(e2 + B24 288)
aot. BE 7
mec! = (1 ~ cos)
or
amie!
Ed — e088)
as advertised.Solutions to Problems in Goldstein,
Classical Mechanics, Second Edition
Homer Reid
October 29, 2002
Chapter 9
Problem 9.1
One of the attempts at combining the two sets of Hamilton's equations into one
tries to take q and p as forming a complex quantity. Show directly from Hamilton's
equations of motion that for a system of one degree of freedom the transformation
Q ip P=Q
is not canonical if the Hamiltonian is left unaltered. Can you find another set. of
coordinates Q’, P’ that are related to Q,P by a change of scale only, and that are
‘canonical?
Generalizing a tle, we put
Q=Hla+ir), P= vlq~%). a)
“The reverse transformation is
Llp. Lftp i
4 5 (ted). p 3 (40-2).
‘The direct conditions for canonicality, valid in cases (like this one) in which theHomer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 9 2
transformation equations do not depend on the time explicitly, are
29 _
Og OP.
29 __ m4
Op oP
oP _ op. (2)
oq aQ
oP _ ov
ap 8Q”
When applied to the case at hand, all four of these yield the same condition,
namely
1
0 Sip
For f= v = 1, whieh is the case Goldstein gives, these conditions are clearly
not satisfied, so (1) is not canonical. But putting r= 1,v = —2 we see that
equations (1) are canonical,Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 9 3
Problem 9.2
(a) For a one-dimensional system with the Hamiltonian
Poa
u=5-o
show that there is a constant of the motion
p= Fut
(b) As a generalization of part (a), for motion in a plane with the Hamiltonian
H=|pl—ar-",
‘here p is the vector of the momenta conjugate to the Cartesian coordinates,
show that there is a constant of the motion
PB
p=P*_ am.
(©) The transformation Q = Ag,p = AP is obviously canonical. However, the san
transformation with ¢ time dilatation, Q = Ag, p= AP.t" = \%, is not. Show
that, however, the equations of motion for g anid p for the Hamiltonian in part
(a) are invariant under the transformation. ‘The constant of the motion D is
said to be associated with this invariance.
(a) The equation of motion for the quantity D is
aD ap
DH} +
ot
‘The Poisson bracket of the second term in D clearly vanishes, so we have
Somat}
Fons} 4 fon} =a. @)
‘The first Poisson bracket is,
@)Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 9 4
Next,
2000)2(#) _ o0n,?(#)
ag ap Op aq
2
-3)a
-2 (6)
Plugging (4) and (5) into (3), we obtain
Da on
dt 2
6.
(b) We have
= (oh ph +p)" — ale bd 4 28)
a = anay(a? + ah 4 28-02
ane 2 yn/2—t
Bp 7 lo + wa + vy
Then
lpia + pare + sts) OH _ Olpres + pate + sts) OH
ton -Df a, on 2. Bet
Y foottot + rh + ny" —anatat tad as}
= mph + pd + pay"? — an(a} + 93 + 25)? (6)
s0 if we define D = p-r/n — Ht, then
aw ap
ae OM ae
aD
1
=tpnn- 2
Substituting in from (6),
= [paren
=o,Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 9 5
(ce) We put,
a= (G2), P= Fe(H) ”
es, they satisfy
Since q and p are the original canonical coordi
()
On the other hand, differentiating (7), we have
dQ _ a(t
a x (z)
1 (tt
w(z)
= Pt)
1 ia
w(x)
14
ate)
1
FH)
which are the same equations of motion as (8).
Problem 9.4
Show directly that the transformation
P=qeotp
= toe (3 sino)
is canonical.
‘The Jacobian of the transformation isHomer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 9
Hence
cam (-2 ep )( 0 1)( -} cotp
wom=( oh pace )(4 0) (at -ratp )
-} cot cop —qese*p
cotp -gexctp )( 1 corp
_ 0 esc? p — cot” p
(cot? p ese? p 0
o1
-10
I
so the symplectic condition is satisfied.
Problem 9.5
Show directly for a system of one degree of freedom that the transformation
9
= arctan
J P
so the symplectic condition is satisfiedHomer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 9
Problem 9.6
‘The transformation equations between two sets of coordinates are
= log(t +4! eosp)
21 +4 cosp)a/?sinp
(a) Show directly from these transformation equations that Q,P are canonical
variables if q and p are.
(b) Show that the function that generates this transformation is
Fy = —(e% — 1)? tanp.
(a) The Jacobian of the transformation is
(28)
ai
_( Oss aria
2 sinp+2cospsinp 2g'/? cos p+ 2gcos* p— 2gsin? p
.( Oss ~ ris
2sinp+sin2p 2q'/? cosp + 2gcos 2p
Hence we have
Mum = ( (2) sarees, 7? sinp + sin2p )
CEB, 20!eosp + 2ac0s2p
-@) ares Tha Foo
i qPsinp + sin 2p car aiad)
088 pin? pg! cos peos pg! sn pain dp
ae Trot tcomp
opin pt! eepemapta'? npn 6
so the symplectic condition is satisfied.Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 9 8
(b) For an 5 funetion the relevant relations are q = —OF/Op, P=
We have
Fa(0.Q) = ~(€? ~ 1)? tanp
Ory
2e%e% — 1) tanp
ors
oe
‘The second of these may be solved to yield @ in terms of g and p:
Q = log(1 + q'/? cos p)
= (8 = 1)? seep
and then we may plug this back into the equation for P to obtain
Pa agi?
sinp + qsin2p
as advertised.
Problem 9.7
(a) If each of the four types of generating functions exist for a given canonical
transformation, use the Legendre transformation to derive relations between
them,
(b) Find a generating function of the F, type for the identity transformation and
of the Fs type for the exchange transformation.
(c) For an orthogonal point transformation of qin a system of n degrees of freedom,
show that the new momenta are likewise given by the orthogonal transforma
tion of an n-dimensional vector whose components are the old momenta plus
a gradient in configuration space,
Problem 9.8
Prove directly that the transformation
Qian, Po =m- 2m
Qa=p, Pe =-2n-a
is canonical and find a generating funetion.
After a little hacking I came up with the generating function
Fia(Pi,Q1, 42, Q2) = —(rr — 2Q2)Qi + m2Q2Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 9 9
which is of mixed Fa, type. This is Legendre-transformed into a function of
the Fy type according to
Fi(ai, Q1,42,Qz2) = Fis + pin
‘The least action principle then says
vs + pan — Hla) = PQs + PQs = KU) + Fp 4 FE
4 Diag 4 0G, soa sah
Das 2 + Fede + Pt + ah
Os
whence clearly
i-@ =-2n-w Vv.
Problem 9.14
By any method you choose show that the following transformation is canonical:
ra (yPPisinQ +P), pe = $VPieosQi - 3)
v= RvB eos@ +), $V BPisin Qs — Ps)
‘where as some fixed parameter
that is perpendicular to a constant
this problem in the (Qj, P;) coordinates, letting the parameter a take the form
4B
From this Hamiltonian obtain the motion of the particle as a function of time.
We will prove that the transformation is canonical by finding a generating
function. Our first step to this end will be to express everything as a functionHomer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 9 10
of some set of four variables of which two are old variables and two are new
After some hacking, I arrived at the set {.r,Q1,2y,@z}- In terms of this set, the
remaining quantities are
5 (Fe- an) cot Qi + $Qe 0
1 @
5) cot: ~ $Q2 (20)
1 12) ose?
SE Son, + stant) 2 a (a)
Sri, (22)
‘We now seek a generating fumetion of the form F (x, Q1, Py, 2). This is of mixed
type, but can be related to a generating function of pure Fi character according
to
File, Q1,y.@2) = F(x, Qi, Py Q2) ~ upy-
‘Then the principle of least action leads to the condition
o-PO 5,08, OF, | OF) . OF ,
Pet + ul = PQ + Qa + FE + Diy + 9g, + 9Q, 02 + Wi + Pol
from which we obtain
(13)
(a)
(a5)
(16)
Doing the easiest first, comparing (12) and (16) we see that F must have
the form
Fle, QisP91Q2) = ~3202 — 20,Q2 + ol Q) a7)
Plugging this in to (14) and comparing with (14) we find
se. Qivee) = (Jats + saat) oot Qs + 466.0) (as)
Plugging (17) and (18) ito (13) and compating with (10), we soe that
Be cot,
Or 4Homer Reid's Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 9 uu
or a
w(@,Qr) SF cota. (19)
Finally, combining (19), (18), (17), and (15) and comparing with (11) we see
that we may simply take 6(Q)) = 0. The final form of the generating function
is then
F(a, QuspyQ2) =~ (22+ 4p,) Qa+ (SE — Lap, + Lt) cot.
Qs. Py. Qa 52+ GPu) Qe (SS ~ 5209 + 5 aH) cots
and its existence proves the canonicality of the transformation,
‘Turning now to the solution of the problem, we take the B field in the =
direction, ie, B = Boke, and put
Then the Hamiltonian is
H(2.2.Pe.Py) = 5 (p- 4a)
Bo)? Bo)"
“(8
2? @\?
£1) +02]
‘gB{ec. In terms of the new variables, this is
Hy [(evEoma,)' + (ovIFsinas)']
where we put a!
A(Q1, Qa, Pi, Pa)
where we = @B/me is the cyclotron frequency. From the Hamiltonian equations
of motion applied to this Hamiltonian we see that Qz, P;, and P2 are all constant,
while the equation of motion for Q) is
an
O.= aR =
for some phase 9. Putting r= y3Pi/a, zo = Po/a, yo = Q2/a we then have
We + Qi = wt +o
earfsinwct +0) +20, Pe = [reos(wet + 4) — yo]
2
in agreement with the standard solution to the problem,
y=r(cosuct +3) +u, Py
irsin(wct + 4) +20]Solutions to Problems in Goldstein,
Classical Mechanics, Second Edition
Homer Reid
August 10, 2003
Chapter 10
Problem 10.3
Solve the problem of the motion of a point projectile in a vertical plane, using
the Hamilton-Jacobi method. Find both the equation of the trajectory and the
dependence of the coordinates on time, assuming the projectile is fired off at time
#=0 from the origin with the velocity vy, making an angle a with the horizontal.
‘The Hamiltonian is
2h
BaF Bs moy
so the Hamilton-Jacobi equation becomes
1 (a8)? , 1 (as\? as |
#(S) +5 (FR) ems Bao. w
We seek a solution of the form
SlesnusB,t) = 92+ fly, B) - Et @
where y and E are to be the (constant) transformed momenta. With this ansatz
for S, (1) becomes
41 (any -
Ft am (5h) +m=8
2m ay.
Of «mE R
oyHomer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 10 2
Integrating,
So) = fay’ Van — P= Pay
1 2 omgy |?
= Sng PME = 2mgy]
‘Then Hamilton’s principal function (2) is
Sa 2mE — 9? — 2m? gy)”!? — Bt.
1 3/2
~ Snity © )
The (constant) transformed coordinates conjugate to the constant transformed
momenta E and 7 are
as
= a, fpmet— 2? ~ ant)” - @
as
Be y
+ 7; Lome 2? - nto)” Oy
‘Turning these inside out to obtain + and y as functions of time and the constants,
we find
mg” 2nPq
t= bt 2+ pi)
Finally, from the given initial conditions we obtain the following equations for
the constants F7, 81, 82
y(t =0)=0
2(t=0)=0
(t= 0) = wsina
(t= 0) = v9 cosaHomer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 10 3
wwe obtain
7 = mvp cosa
fy =-2sina
9
Br = cosasina
9
Py
and the solutions for 2(@) and y(t) become
19 = snot
a(t) = weosat.
Problem 10.6
A charged particle is constrained to move in a plane under the influence ofa central
force potential (nonelectromagnetic) V = hkr?, and a constant magnetic field B
perpendicular to the plane, so that
1
A=5Bxr.
Set up the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for Hamilton's characteristic function in plane
polar coordinates. Separate the equation and reduce it to quadratures, Discuss the
‘motion if the canonical momentum pp is zero at time t = 0.
| got alittle confused on the introduction of the polar coordinates in this problem
and found it useful to start with the Lagrangian in Cartesian coordinates:
L
+i) +%e-a)- kate)
2
Inserting the vector potential A = }B(-yi + 2)
+9) + Beej—y2)— he ty").
Now we go over to polar coordinates according to
r= 70080, — ¢=Feosd—résind
sind, y= Fsind + rd cose
vHomer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 10 4
and obtain
= Mp2 4 262) 4 F2H
b= Fe +) +S
k
ce
‘To go over to the Hamiltonian we introduce the canonical momenta:
‘Then the Hamiltonian is
H=pi+pi-L
DG? 86) + Li?
2
Jy (pp) 4}
Bm? * Sac (» 2e ) 43K
‘The Hamilton-Jacobi equation is
1 (as\?, 1 (aS_qB,\?_1,, as
a(S) + One? (B- 2) + ght — 5 =O ®)
Since # is cyclic its corresponding conjugate momentum must be constant, and
we look fora solution of the form
S(r,4, Bat) = f(r, Bya) +08 — Et. ©)
Equation (5) becomes
1 (af\?, 1 QB \? 1,9
(28) gba (oe) whee
with formal solution
s00= fa foment
If a= this simplifies to
I(r) = few oem B — mu + ur?
and the problem becomes just that of the normal harmonic oscillator, with
frequency
wa VibeHomer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 10 5
af
is the natural frequency of the particle in the nonelectromagnetic potential well,
and
where
=
= ame
is half the cyclotron frequency of the particle in the given magnetic field. (Why
does half the eyelotton frequency enter the problem?)
Problem 10.7
(a) A single particle moves in space under a conservative potential. Set up the
Hamilton-Jacobi equation in ellipsoidal coordinates u,v,¢ defined in terms of
the usual cylindrical coordinates r, =, by the equations
reasinhvsinu, 2 =aoshveosu.
For what forms of V(u,v, ) is the equation separable?
(b) Use the results of part (a) to reduce to quadratures the problem of a point
particle of mass m moving in the gravitational field of two unequal mass
points fixed on the 2 axis a distance 2a apart.
(a) In cylindrical polar coordinates, the Lagrangian is
LaF (P +e +2) - Vinee). (a)
We have
a6 cosh vsinu + aiisinh vcosu
0 sinh v cosu — aizcosh v sin.
Plugging into (7),
L = [(o? + #2) cosh 2u + 4? sinh? vsin? u] - V(u,, 9). 6)
‘The conjugate momenta are
1a? sinh? v sin? wHomer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 10 6
and the Hamiltonian is
H= Vora -L
7
a (+ i2)cosha0 + 8 sink? van] + Vee)
-_# we vs
~ 2a? cosh 20 * 2ma* cosh 2v * 2a? sinh? vsin®u
This is of the form in Goldstein’s (10-44) with a
+V(u,0,9).
O and the T matrix defined
by
1 [sho 0 0
Tt 0 sech 2v 0 . (9)
0 0 (esch veseu)?
‘Then the form ofthe potential necessary for soparablty i, trom Goldstein (72),
V(u2,6) = Ho) + MO + HO
cosh 2v sink? vsin®w
‘To write down the three separated H:
a matrix 6 satisfying
sn-Jacobi equations we need to find
ep R(T yy FH b23 (a9)
and with the additional condition that first, second, and third rows of ¢ depend
only on v,u, and @ respectively.
‘To find such a matrix, we postulate the form
Lio) fale) falv)
gama | 0 glu) ga(u)
0 0 1
with inverse
mma fiat) : :
1 ( nu) —folv) folv)ga(u) — falv)or(u) )
where * denotes entries about which we don’t care, From (10) and (9) we obtain
the conditions
1 1
ma? f,(v) ~ ma? cosh 20
(v),
ma? fi(v)gi(u)
fa(v)ga(u) = fa(v)ar(u)
ma? fi(v)gi(u)Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 10 7
AA little inspection shows that there is no solution, which means the form we
postulated for ¢ doesn’t work, so we need to go back and try something else,
except this is the point at which I decided I would temporarily shelve this
problem,
(b) The potential energy is
V@,2) = -6 = -¢_ ms
(=O Tar aaa Vie arar
Gm) m ma
=- 9 [savant mae tena]
which doesn’t appear to be of the form required for
Problem 10.8
‘Suppose the potential in a problem of one degree of freedom is linearly dependent
‘on time, such that the Hamiltonian has the form
=P
H= F mate,
where A is a constant. Solve the dynamical problem by means of Hamilton's pri
cipal function, under the initial conditions t= 0, 2 = 0, p= mvo.
‘The Hamilton-Jacobi equation is
1 (as)? as.
#(B) -mae +B
We postulate a solution of the form
S(e,t) = fz + alt).
ay
‘Then (11) becomes
ay M1 H(t) =
LPO -mate+ (2+ =0.
Matching powers of x, we obtain
Amat + fo
L=ma => KD = 5
and
1p
#0=-E FO
== [Jose =]
1 [m?a?
am | a
i+ mAfol + 8]Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 10 8
80
= 745, Atos , 8,
a) = MK 4 Aloe s Bis gy
‘The Hamilton’s principal function is
mi, Aba fh
S(e,t, fo) = aes + fox — As — Alo — Si,
‘The constant transformed coordinate conjugate to fo is
a8 48, Ay tit
Bagar def
‘Turing this inside-out,
rap de sh
To to satisfy the conditions 2(¢ = 0) = 0, #(t =
and fo = mvp, and we then have
= up, we must take = 0
A
vot + oI
= 6
Problem 10.13
‘A particle moves in periodic motion in one dimension under the infiuence of
potential V(x) = Fl2|, where F is a constant. Using action-angle variables find the
period of the motion as a function of the particle’s energy.
‘The Hamilton-Jacobi equation is
a
2m
The action integral is
ow
J=$ Ge (2)
= aff ° ami = InP ede
(where 29 are the extremes of the particle’s orbit, and where we have restricted
the integral over the whole period to an integral over the first quarter-period
and multiplied by 4 to compensate)
=
3mF
{lame = 2mF ro? ~ pamzy"}Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 10 9
but the first term here vanishes since E = Fz9, so
4 3/2
J = gp me 2 (13)
Expressing the Hamiltonian in terms of J, we then obtain
28
a (=) pe,
am
q
‘The frequency is,
Wine (a4)
On the other hand, on the basis of elementary considerations we could reason as
follows: If the particle starts out with momentum p = 72m, and itis always
under the influence of the constant force F = dp/dt, then the time it takes for
the particle’ initial momentum to decay to zero, which is one-fourth the total
period of the motion, is
p__ VimE
"A> apy =F
‘The total period is just 4rj« and the frequency is
F
Ana =
fan 4V2mE
in accordance with (14).
Problem 10.14
A particle of mass m moves in one dimension under a potential V = —k/|z|. For
‘energies that are negative the motion is bounded and oscillatory. By the method of
action-angle variables find an expression for the period of motion as a function of
the particle's energy.
‘The Hamilton-Jacobi equation is
1 (08)? _ kas
2m \ dx
ial * oFHomer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 10 10
Wo seck a solution of the form $= W(x, B) — Bt, in which case
_ 1 awy?_ ik
= am Var
1h
OW vam [e+ al
alsa”
since we know the energy is negative. Then the turning points of the motion
are at ¢ = +k/|B], and the action variable is
I= f ria (15)
= "|B -af"
=o [ [Ef a
We have
[ipa fp au
12, 2da = du/ fa
[ vir@en
Change variables to a
Now change to a = sin 2, da = cos.xdz
af
= 2 com ade
2
2m
J = 2k,
||
‘Then the (constant) Hamiltonian expressed in terms of the action variable is
0 (16) becomes
_ 8mn??
H=B=Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 10 u
‘The frequency associated with the corresponding angle variable is
y= DH _ Mmx?k*
Or
Biv
= vm @
It’s interesting to compare this with the solution we obtained to Problem 3.3,
since in that case the motion of the particles (after the orbital motion is stopped)
is one-dimensional with the kind of force law considered here. In that problem
the energy of the two-particle system would be
Plugging in our expression (equation (5) in solutions to Chapter 3) for ro in
terms of 7, we find
28
(#2)
rw
Then the frequency of the motion, from (17), is y = 3. The time for the
particles to fall into each other would be just a quarter-period, so on this theory
wwe would get
dor
2
whereas the answer we obtained in Chapter 3 was 7/42. But I can't figure out
where Iam making a mistake.
Problem 10.16
time for particles to fall into each other
A particle of mass m is constrained to move on a curve in the vertical plane defined
by the parametric equations
y= "(1 cos 2d)
2 =1(26-+ sin29)
‘There is the usual constant gravitational force acting in the vertical y direction. By
the method of action-angle variables find the frequency of oscillation for all initial
conditions such that the maximum of ¢ is less than or equal to =/4.
‘The kinetic energy is
r=F@+i)
TF [(2osin26)? + (26 + 25 c0s6)"]
= 8ml? cos? 44”.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 10 2
‘The potential energy is
V = mgy = mgl(1 — cos28)
= 2mgl sin? 6. (as)
‘Then the Lagrangian is
= 8m? cos? 6d? — 2mglsin? 6
so the canonical momentum conjugate to ¢ is
aL
19 = — = 16ml? cos?
Poa, 3 cos” bo
and the Hamiltonian is
H=E=pd-k
ml? cos? dei? + 2glsin? &
— 8 apt sin?
Bim oost 7” otsin’ 6.
Solving for py as a function of E and ¢, we have
Pe aVtnB oxo [1— et in? q”.
‘The action variable for periodic motion is
I= f roa
= roan | cose f — Pt int as
2a sin g
- ase! f inva
ah
Here the upper integration limit is
2mgl
Uy E bo.
where dy is the maximum value attained by ¢. On the other hand, referring back
to (18), 2mgl sin? ¢p is just the potential energy of the particle at its maximumHomer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 10 13
bh wich J ttl energy ie ha ro Kin nay a tha
pot Hone
B
weve
“Th ton itge i hen
seront [' vimea
=a Ta +n
= sont ;
a
‘Then the Hamiltonian expressed in terms of the action variable is
=-p-1/9
n=n= hts
oH _ 1 fy
OF eV
and the frequency is just
Problem 10.17
A three-dimensional harmonie oscillator has the force constant hy in the « and y
directions and ky in the = direction. Using cylindrical coordinates (with the axis of
the eylinder in the = direction) describe the motion in terms of the corresponding
action-angle variables, showing how the frequencies can be obtained. ‘Transform to
the “proper” action-angle variables to eliminate degenerate frequencies.
‘The Lagrangian is,
MY 2p 4g
Pare +e
2 rre +
with canonical momentaHomer Reid’s Solutions to Goldstein Problems: Chapter 10 u
‘The Hamiltonian is
H= SD pai-L
= Pe) d 1
a +2] phir + phe
2
PL PEA, dh
2m * Bm? * Im * ah + he

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