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THREE COMPONENT SYSTEM : WATER, TOLUENE,

ETHANOL
Aida Saefa Fitriarieswa, Audhea Kartini Puspaningrum
Chemistry Education, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and
Natural Science, Universitas Negeri Semarang
Abstract
The aim of this experiment is to know or test the behaviour of three component system.
The system consist of ethanol-toluene-water. The experiment was done by mixing the
ethanol and toluene in the termostate condition, then added by water or distilled water
dropwise, until the system cloudy. The composition of ethanol and toluene that used were
1:9; 3:7; 5:5; 7:3; 9:1; 9,5:0,5. The experiment result shows that increasing of ethanol
amount, cause the amount of water added increase. The turbidity of components occur
caused by the miscible toluene-ethanol system form two phase, there are toluene-ethanol
phase, and water-ethanol phase. The terner diagram can be drawn by calculate the mole
fraction of each component in each proportion. Amount of ethanol-toluene system is less
than water toluene system. Because, ethanol was more attrackted by water.

Keyword : System three component, ethanol, toluene, water, phase

1. Introduction
Phase is defined as the homogen system has a chemical and physical
properties that uniform. One phase : the example are pure metal, a solid,
compound.
Equilibrium is if a system has minimum Gibbs Free Energy on the certain
temperature and pressure also composition, there is no change in condition. The
higher free energy, the atom move randomly. Phase equilibrium is equilibrium
on the system that consist of more than one phase. Each phase doesn’t change in
condition (Dogra dan Dogra, 2009).
On the system three component, presence amount of A, B, C is 100%, and
it usually draw in a triangular coordinate. Each angle pf triangle represent a pure
component, and each side is divided become similar 100 part showimg
component precentage. The composition showed by a point with three angle
which is gained through a calculation of precentage A, B, and C (Tim Dosen
Kimia Fisika, 2017).
Three-component systems can be graphically represented in 2D and 3D
space by applying ternary graphs. The main conditions for application of ternary
graphs are :
0 ≤ Xi ≤ 1, ∑3𝑖=1 𝑋𝑖 = 1
Xi – The relative proportion of a component in the mixture. From the
previously mentioned conditions it is obvious that the proportion of each
component in the mixture depends on the proportion of the remaining two
components (Grkovic dkk, 2013).
Various properties can be drawn form the diagram, such as formation of
solid on the certain temperature. This principle is well explained through the
formation of two phases liquid in the ethanol-toluene-water system. Mixture that
occurs between ethanol and toluene can be made, and the minimum amount of
water gives turbidity can be determined (Tim Dosen Kimia Fisika, 2017).
Thermodynamic equilibrium is the distribution of components in all phases at
a certain temperature, pressure and fugitas, so that there will be similarities in
pressure, temperature an fugitas of each component in all phases that are in
equilibrium. As for the things that affect the equilibrium system, namely: Pressure
(P), Temperature (T), Concentration of component A in the liquid phase (x) and
Concentration of component A in the vapor phase (y) (Sari, 2010).

2. Method
The experiment was done on November, 29th 2019 in Physical Chemistry
Laboratory, Departement of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural
Science, Universitas Negeri Semarang.
Apparatus and Reagent
In this experiment, we used apparatus such as erlenmeyer flasks 125 mL
and 50 mL, beaker glass, buret, plastic, rubber, volumetric pippete 10 mL. The
reagen that we used in this experiment are ethanol, toluene, and aquadest.
Procedure
The procedure of experiment was, first we prepared the apparatus and
reagent were reachable and also can be used well. The next was made
composition of ethanol 10%. 30 %, 50%, 70%, 90% and 95%. Places the solution
of toluene and ethanol appropriate with the composition in the different
erlenmeyer. Then, setted the temperture before mixing in termostat. After sure
the temperature was termostat, added toluene to the erlenmeyer of ethanol
dropwise and shaked. The result was a mixture.
The mixture was titrated using water or aquadest with end point of
titration had done if the mixture become cloudy. The titration was done twice for
the same ratio of ethanol and toluene.
For more clarity, see the chart below.
Toluene

Added to the erlenmeyer flask

Ethanol

Added to the erlenmeyer flask, and setted the teperature of ethanol


and ethanol was termostate

Toluene and Ethanol

Added the toluene into the ethanol dropwise

Mixture

Titrated using aquades in burrete

Result

3. Result and Discussion


Our experiment was done to know the composition or amount’s
behaviour of 3 component system, toluena-ethanol-ether on the constant
temperature and to draw phase diagram on these temperature. (sumber tentang
kelarutan komponen).
So that is why, when ethanol and toluene were mixed, they were
completely misible. The mixture seemed clear in one phase. Ethanol is semi
polar and toluene is nonpolar. The structure of ethanol can be seen below.
H2
H3C C OH

The hidroxyl functional group, maka the ethanol more polar than
toluene, but less polar than water, so the ethanol is semipolar.
The structure of toluene can be seen below.
CH3
We can see on the structure, toluene has no hydroxyl functional group.
There is only carbon chain, forming cycle chain, or benzil. The reason why
toluene is nonpolar.
The ethanol and toluene misible when first mixed, then the mixture was
titrated using water or distilled water or aquadest. Before it, the temperature was
setted to be termostate, so the temperature did not give any contribution to the
system. Addition of water, was done dropwise by burret for titration, so we can
see when the mixture become cloudy, as the end of titration. First in addition of
water, formed one phase of system, because ethanol has two side functional
group that can atrrack to water and toluene. And water are the polar solvent. But
larger amount of water will pull the ethanol out so it form two phase. That is
why the mixture become cloudy.
On our experiment, in every ratio of system, the amount of water added
to the mixture increasing as the increase of ethanol. That is means that, when the
miscible of toluene and ethanol was added by water, the ethanol in mixture of
ethanol-toluene, miscible with water apart. So the cloudy happen because of
ethanol and water are completely miscible, and there was also a mixture of
ethanol-toluene, but decrease from the first amount. Or we can say it, that after
the solution become cloudy, the system become two phase, there were water-
ethanol system and ethano-toluene system. Amount of ethanol-toluene system is
less than water toluene system. Because, ethanol was more attrackted by water.
We can see the graph of tsystem three component below.

From the graph, we can see that the plot form a curve, showing
increasing of water amount, make the mixture of water-ethanol increase than the
composition of toluene. But the curve no totally perfect right because, the curve
has to more curved, so the connector between the point can become a tie-line,
that form a boundaries between one phase and two phase. In the bottom of line
means there is one phase in system and in the upper of plot means there are two
phase in system.
This property is important in discussing the addition or removal of a
component to the system without change in the amount of the other two
components present (Castellan, 1983)
4. Conclusion
From the experiment, we can conclude that, a system from two
components are completely miscible, can be separated become two phase with
addition of the third system. In our experiment, the completely miscible of
ethanol-toluene become two phase when amount of water added to the system.
The larger amount of water, increase along the increasing amount of ethanol.
Ethanol and water are completely miscible, also ethanol and toluene, but amount
of rich toluene less than amount of rich water phase. The terner diagram can be
plotted using a ration or mole fraction of toluene-water-ethanol, which can be
found or determined by this experiment.

5. References
Castellan, G.W. 1983. Physical Chemistry Third Edition. Menlo Park : Addison
Wesley Publishing Company.
Dogra, S.K dan Dogra, S. 2009. Kimia Fisik dan Soal-Soal Terjemahan. Umar
Mansyu. UI Press : Jakarta.
Grkovic, V; Petrovis, Z; Kolarevic, M; and Radicevic, B. 2013. Application of
tthe Triangular Coordinate System for Creation of Plane and Spatial
Ternary Graphs. Journal of production Engineering Serbia. 9. 69-73.
Sari, Ni Ketut. 2010. Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) Water-Ethanol from
Bulrush Fermentation. Jurnal Teknik Kimia. 5(1).
Tim Dosen Kimia Fisika. 2017. Buku Ajar/Diktat Praktikum Kimia Fisika.
Semarang : Universitas Negeri Semarang.
6. Appendix
a. Calculation

Volume of Volume of Volume of aquades (mL)


System
ethanol (mL) toluene (mL) V1 V2 V average
1 1 9 0,4 0,3 0,35
2 2 8 0,6 0,6 0,60
3 5 5 0,9 1 0,95
4 7 3 1,4 1,3 1,35
5 9 1 1.9 1,7 1,80
6 9.5 0,5 2,1 2 2,05
ρwater = 1,00 g/mL
ρethanol = 0,789 g/mL
ρtoluene = 0,867 g/mL
Mrwater = 18 g/mol
Mrethanol = 46,06844 g/mol
Mrtoluene = 92,14 g/mol
Tool’s uncertainity :
Burette : 0,1 mL (20oC)
Measuring pipette : 0,1 mL (20oC)
1) System 1
Vethanol = 1 ± 0,05 mL
𝑉𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 𝑥 𝜌𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 (1 ± 0,025)𝑚𝐿 𝑥 0,789𝑔/𝑚𝐿
nethanol = = = 0,0171 ± 0,05 mole
𝑀𝑟𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 46,06844 𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙

Vtoluene = 9 ± 0,05 mL
𝑉𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒 𝑥 𝜌𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒 (9 ± 0,025)𝑚𝐿 𝑥 0,867𝑔/𝑚𝐿
ntoluene= = = 0,0847 ± 0,05 mole
𝑀𝑟𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒 92,14 𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙

Vwater = 0,35 ± 0,05 mL

1 𝑛𝛴𝑥𝑖 2 −(𝛴𝑥𝑖)2 1 2𝑥0,25−0,49


Uncertainity = 𝑛(√ = : 2(√ ) = 0,05 mL
𝑛−1 2−1

𝑉𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑥 𝜌𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 (0,35 ± 0,05)𝑚𝐿 𝑥 1𝑔/𝑚𝐿


nwater= = = 0,0194 ± 0,05 mole
𝑀𝑟𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 18 𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙

Mole Fraction
ntotal = 0,0171 ± 0,05 mole + 0,0847 ± 0,05 mole + 0,0194 ± 0,05 mole =
(1,5832 ± 0,15) mole
𝑛𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 0,0171 ±0,05
Xethanol = = 0,1213 ±0,15 = 0,1412 ± 0,33
𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙
𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒 0,0847 ±0,05
Xtoluene = = 0,1213 ±0,15 = 0,6984 ± 0,33
𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

𝑛𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 0,0194 ±0,05


Xwater= = 0,1213 ±0,15 = 0,1604 ± 0,33
𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

2) System 2
Vethanol = 3 ± 0,05 mL
𝑉𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 𝑥 𝜌𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 (3 ± 0,025)𝑚𝐿 𝑥 0,789𝑔/𝑚𝐿
nethanol = = = 0,0514 ± 0,05 mole
𝑀𝑟𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 46,06844 𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙

Vtoluene = 7 ± 0,05 mL
𝑉𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒 𝑥 𝜌𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒 (7 ± 0,025)𝑚𝐿 𝑥 0,867𝑔/𝑚𝐿
ntoluene= = = 0,0659 ± 0,05 mole
𝑀𝑟𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒 92,14 𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙

Vwater = 0,6 ± 0,05 mL

1 𝑛𝛴𝑥𝑖 2 −(𝛴𝑥𝑖)2 1 2𝑥0,72−1,44


Uncertainity = 𝑛(√ = : 2(√ ) = 0 mL
𝑛−1 2−1

𝑉𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑥 𝜌𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 (0,6 ± 0)𝑚𝐿 𝑥 1𝑔/𝑚𝐿


nwater= = = 0,0333 ± 0 mole
𝑀𝑟𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 18 𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙

Mole Fraction
ntotal = 0,0514 ± 0,05 mole + 0,0659 ± 0,05 mole + 0,0333 ± 0 mole = (0,1506
± 0,1) mole
𝑛𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 0,0514 ±0,05
Xethanol = = = 0,3412 ± 0,5
𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 0,1506±0,1

𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒 0,0659 ±0,05


Xtoluene = = = 0,4374 ± 0,5
𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 0,1506 ±0,1

𝑛𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 0,0333 ±0
Xwater= = 0,1506 ±0,1 = 0,2214 ± 0,5
𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

3) System 3
Vethanol = 5 ± 0,05 mL
𝑉𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 𝑥 𝜌𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 (5 ± 0,025)𝑚𝐿 𝑥 0,789𝑔/𝑚𝐿
nethanol = = = 0,0856 ± 0,05 mole
𝑀𝑟𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 46,06844 𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙

Vtoluene = 5 ± 0,05 mL
𝑉𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒 𝑥 𝜌𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒 (5 ± 0,025)𝑚𝐿 𝑥 0,867𝑔/𝑚𝐿
ntoluene= = = 0, 0470 ± 0,05 mole
𝑀𝑟𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒 92,14 𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙

Vwater = 0,95 ± 0,05 mL

1 𝑛𝛴𝑥𝑖 2 −(𝛴𝑥𝑖)2 1 2𝑥1,81−3,61,49


Uncertainity = 𝑛(√ 𝑛−1
= : 2(√ 2−1
) = 0,05 mL
𝑉𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑥 𝜌𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 (0,95 ± 0,05)𝑚𝐿 𝑥 1𝑔/𝑚𝐿
nwater= = = 0,0528 ± 0,05 mole
𝑀𝑟𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 18 𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙

Mole Fraction
ntotal = 0,0856 ± 0,05 mole + 0,0470 ± 0,05 mole + 0,0528 ± 0,05 mole =
(0,1855 ± 0,15) mole
𝑛𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 0,0856 ±0,05
Xethanol = = 0,1855 ±0,15 = 0,4617 ± 0,33
𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒 0,0847 ±0,05


Xtoluene = = 0,1213 ±0,15 = 0,6984 ± 0,33
𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

𝑛𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 0,0528 ±0,05


Xwater= = 0,1855 ±0,15 = 0,2846 ± 0,33
𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

4) System 4
Vethanol = 7 ± 0,05 mL
𝑉𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 𝑥 𝜌𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 (7 ± 0,025)𝑚𝐿 𝑥 0,789𝑔/𝑚𝐿
nethanol = = = 0,1199 ± 0,05 mole
𝑀𝑟𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 46,06844 𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙

Vtoluene = 3 ± 0,05 mL
𝑉𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒 𝑥 𝜌𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒 (3 ± 0,025)𝑚𝐿 𝑥 0,867𝑔/𝑚𝐿
ntoluene= = = 0,0282 ± 0,05 mole
𝑀𝑟𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒 92,14 𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙

Vwater = 1,35 ± 0,05 mL

1 𝑛𝛴𝑥𝑖 2 −(𝛴𝑥𝑖)2 1 2𝑥3,65−7,29


Uncertainity = 𝑛(√ = : 2(√ ) = 0,05 mL
𝑛−1 2−1

𝑉𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑥 𝜌𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 (1,35 ± 0,05)𝑚𝐿 𝑥 1𝑔/𝑚𝐿


nwater= = = 0,0750 ± 0,05 mole
𝑀𝑟𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 18 𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙

Mole Fraction
ntotal = 0,1199 ± 0,05 mole + 0,0282 ± 0,05 mole + 0,0750 ± 0,05 mole =
(0,2231 ± 0,15) mole
𝑛𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 0,11991 ±0,05
Xethanol = = = 0,5373 ± 0,33
𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 0,2231 ±0,15

𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒 0,0282 ±0,05


Xtoluene = = 0,2231 ±0,15 = 0,1265 ± 0,33
𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

𝑛𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 0,0750 ±0,05


Xwater= = 0,2231 ±0,15 = 0,3361± 0,33
𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

5) System 5
Vethanol = 9 ± 0,05 mL
𝑉𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 𝑥 𝜌𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 (9 ± 0,025)𝑚𝐿 𝑥 0,789𝑔/𝑚𝐿
nethanol = = = 0,1541 ± 0,05 mole
𝑀𝑟𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 46,06844 𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙

Vtoluene = 1 ± 0,05 mL
𝑉𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒 𝑥 𝜌𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒 (1 ± 0,025)𝑚𝐿 𝑥 0,867𝑔/𝑚𝐿
ntoluene= = = 0,0094 ± 0,05 mole
𝑀𝑟𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒 92,14 𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙

Vwater = 1,8 ± 0,1 mL

1 𝑛𝛴𝑥𝑖 2 −(𝛴𝑥𝑖)2 1 2𝑥6,5−12,96


Uncertainity = 𝑛(√ = : 2(√ ) = 0,1 mL
𝑛−1 2−1

𝑉𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑥 𝜌𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 (1,8 ± 0,1)𝑚𝐿 𝑥 1𝑔/𝑚𝐿


nwater= = = 0,1000 ± 0,1 mole
𝑀𝑟𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 18 𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙

Mole Fraction
ntotal = 0,1541 ± 0,05 mole + 0,0094 ± 0,05 mole + 0,1000 ± 0,1 mole = (0,2635
± 0,2) mole
𝑛𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 0,1541 ±0,05
Xethanol = = = 0,5849 ± 0,25
𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 0,2635 ±0,2

𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒 0,0094 ±0,05


Xtoluene = = = 0,0357 ± 0,25
𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 0,2635 ±0,2

𝑛𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 0,1000 ±0,05


Xwater= = = 0,3794± 0,25
𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 0,2635 ±0,2

6) System 6
Vethanol = 9,5 ± 0,05 mL
𝑉𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 𝑥 𝜌𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 (9,5 ± 0,025)𝑚𝐿 𝑥 0,789𝑔/𝑚𝐿
nethanol = = = 0,1627 ± 0,05 mole
𝑀𝑟𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 46,06844 𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙

Vtoluene = 0,5 ± 0,05 mL


𝑉𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒 𝑥 𝜌𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒 (0,5 ± 0,025)𝑚𝐿 𝑥 0,867𝑔/𝑚𝐿
ntoluene= = = 0,0047 ± 0,05 mole
𝑀𝑟𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒 92,14 𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙

Vwater = 2,05 ± 0,05 mL

1 𝑛𝛴𝑥𝑖 2 −(𝛴𝑥𝑖)2 1 2𝑥 8,41−16,81


Uncertainity = 𝑛(√ = : 2(√ ) = 0,05 mL
𝑛−1 2−1

𝑉𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑥 𝜌𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 (2,05 ± 0,05)𝑚𝐿 𝑥 1𝑔/𝑚𝐿


nwater= = = 0,1139 ± 0,05 mole
𝑀𝑟𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 18 𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙

Mole Fraction
ntotal = 0,1627 ± 0,05 mole + 0,0047 ± 0,05 mole + 0,1139 ± 0,05 mole =
(0,2813 ± 0,15) mole
𝑛𝑒𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 0,1627 ±0,05
Xethanol = = 0,2813 ±0,15 = 0,5784 ± 0,33
𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒 0,0047 ±0,05


Xtoluene = = 0,2813 ±0,15 = 0,0167 ± 0,33
𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

𝑛𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 0,1139 ±0,05


Xwater= = 0,2813 ±0,15 = 0,4049± 0,33
𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

Table of mole fraction each system


System Ethanol Toulene Water
1 0,1412 0,6984 0,1604
2 0,3412 0,4374 0,2214
3 0,4617 0,2537 0,2846
4 0,5373 0,1265 0,3361
5 0,5849 0,0357 0,3794
6 0,5784 0,0167 0,4049
b. Documentation

Cloudy system

Toluene-ethanol system
Termostate setting

c. Answer to the question


1. What is meaned by the consolute temperature is higher than phenol-water system?
What are the effect if some KCl was added to the system? What do you think about
this experiment and what is the fuction?
Answer :
Consolute point upper or the temperature of critical solution is a temperatue limit
point where a solution with certain composition that in the its low temperature
exist in two phase, increasing the temperature with constant composition then
pass the limit temperature, so will form one phase. Concolute point is higher than
phenol-water system means that in the consolute temperature, phenol-water
system will form one phase that need higher temperature to reach that
temperature.
2. What happen if alcohol as KCl changer is added to the water?
Answer :
So the water will form one phase with alcohol, from the polarity of alcohol that
is semipolar.
3. On the temperature 35oC, determine the diagram : Ratio of components in the
mixture.
Answer :
On the temperature 35oC
4. Suggest two technical alternative that phisically can be used for this experiment?
Answer :
Mixture of 3 component water, toluene and ethanol, and also mixture of a salt
and alcohol, and addition of another salt will form 2 phase.
5. What is meaned by tie line? How can you determine the tie-line in this system?
Answer :
On the same pressure, points of bubble ponit line and dew point line is connected
by a horizontal line. Tie-line is determined by pull a straight line between percent
weigh of raffinat and percent weigh of extract.
6. What is mean by a “plait-point”?
Answer :
Plait-point is critical isthermal point.
7.What condition of variabels except T and P that can be used to draw the system 2
component or system of 3 components?
Answer :
Composition variable.