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# CHAPTER 2: FLUIDS IN

## RELATIVE EQUILIBRIUM (FLUID

STATIC)

BFC 10403
PRESSURE

Ex. 1
Calculate the force trying to separate the flanges of valve when the pressure
is 2 Mpa and the diameter of pipe bore is 50 mm
Pressure Reference Levels
The pressure relative to an absolute
vacuum is called absolute pressure, P abs .

## The atmosphere on earth exerts atmospheric

pressure, P atm , on everything in it

## The pressure relative to the atmospheric

pressure is called the gage pressure Pgage

## Gauge pressure is negative it is termed a

vacuum pressure, P vac
Pressure in a Fluid

 We applied the definition of a fluid to the static case and determined that there must be
no shear forces acting and thus only forces normal to a surface act in a fluid
 Pascal’s law which states that the pressure at a point in a fluid at REST is EQUAL in
magnitude in all directions (x,y,z) (Pascal’s Law)
 Tangential stress cannot exist if a fluid is to be at rest.
 This is possible only if the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is the same in all directions so
that the resultant force at that point will be zero.
 PROOF
As with all static objects the forces in the x and y directions should balance. Hence:
PRESSURE VARIATION IN STATIC FLUID
(HYDROSTATIC LAW)
 Pressure in a continuously distributed uniform static fluid varies only with vertical
distance and is independent of the shape of the container.
 The pressure is the same at all points on a given horizontal plane in the fluid.
 The pressure increases with depth in the fluid.
Pressure Variation in Fluid with Constant Density
The pressure at a point within a stationary fluid is directly related to the weight of the
column of fluid above that point

𝑃 = 𝜌𝑔ℎ

𝑃2 − 𝑃1 = 𝜌𝑔(ℎ2 − ℎ1 )

∆𝑃 = 𝜌𝑔(∆ℎ)
Ex 2
1) An open container has water to a depth of 2m and above this an oil of
SG = 0.9 for a depth of 1m. If atmospheric pressure is 101.3 kPa. Find the
absolute pressure at the interface of two liquids and at the bottom of the
tank and sketch the pressure distribution

## 2) A closed, 5-m-tall tank is filled with water to a depth of 4 m. The top

portion of the tank is filled with air which, as indicated by a pressure gage
at the top of the tank, is at a pressure of 20 kPa. Determine the pressure
that the water exerts on the bottom of the tank in atm unit.

## 3) A pressure gage at 8 m above of the bottom tank containing liquid reads

0.67bar ; another gage at 5 m reads 0.92bar. Determine the specific
weight and mass density of the fluid.
Static Pressure measurements
Barometer
(1) Piezometer (2) U-tube manometers
To write the gauge equation for manometers
 Convert all given pressure to meters of water and
assume unknown pressure in meters of waters.
 Starting from one end move towards the other
observing the following points.
 Any horizontal movement inside the same liquid will
not cause change in
pressure
 Vertically downward movement causes increase in
pressure and upward
motion causes decrease in pressure.
 Convert all vertical columns of liquids to meters of
water by multiplying them by corresponding specify
gravity
 Take atmospheric pressure as zero (gauge pressure
computation)
 Solve for the unknown quantity and convert it into the
required unit.
 If required calculate absolute pressure.
Example 3
 For the arrangement shown in figure, determine gauge and absolute pressure at the
point M

## Note: Atmospheric pressure is 101 kPa

Example 4
 An inverted U-tube manometer is shown in figure. Determine the pressure difference
between A and B in N/m2.
Example 5
The figure shows inverted U-tube manometer contains oil (SG=0.85) and water as
shown. The pressure differential between pipes A and B, is -6 kPa. Determine the
differential reading, h.
Example 6
Determine the pressure of the water in pipe A shown in Figure if the gage pressure of
the air in the tank is 0.2 bar.
Hydrostatic Forces on Plane Surfaces
 The total hydrostatic force

##  and the centroid slant distance

from the surface to the plate is

Example 5
The 200-kg, 5-m-wide rectangular gate shown in Figure is hinged at B and leans
against the floor at A making an angle of 45° with the horizontal. The gate is to
be opened from its lower edge by applying a normal force at its center.
Determine the minimum force F required to open the water gate. (Neglecting
the force due to gate)
Example 6
A 3-m-high, 6-m-wide rectangular gate is hinged at the top edge at A
and is restrained by a fixed ridge at B.

## (i)Determine the hydrostatic force exerted on the gate by the 5-m-high

water and the location of the pressure center.
(ii)Minimum force at point B to open the gate
Buoyancy
Two laws of buoyancy (Archimedes in the third century B.C)

## 1) A body immersed in a fluid experiences a vertical buoyant

force equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces
2) A floating body displaces its own weight in the fluid in
which it floats.
Example 7
Determine the mass of cylinder in kg as shown in figure
Example 8
A wooden raft has a density of 5 x 102 kg/m3 and
dimensions of 3 m × 6 m × 0.4 m.
(i) How deep does it sink into the water when unloaded
(ii) Number of 50 kg cement bag can the raft carry before it
sink?
Stability
The basic floating position is calculated
from equation below

## The body’s center of mass G and center of

buoyancy B are computed

The body is tilted a small angle Δθ, and a new waterline is established for the body to float at
this angle. The new position B’ of the center of buoyancy is calculated. A vertical line drawn
upward from B’ intersects the line of symmetry at a point M, called the metacenter, which is
independent of Δθ for small angles.

If point M is above G, that is, if the metacentric height MG is positive, a restoring moment is
present and the original position is stable. If M is below G (negative MG) the body is unstable
and will overturn if disturbed. Stability increases with increasing MG

## 𝐼𝐶 If MG > 0 then body is stable. If MG < 0 then body is

MG = ± BG unstable.

Strategy for solving buoyancy problems
From geometry of body and density of fluid and body equate; Weight of
displaced fluid = Total weight of body. This gives the depth of immersion of the
body or the weight of the body, whichever is unknown.

To assess stability, first find the location of the centre of gravity G of the body.

Find the location of the centre of buoyancy B (centroid of displaced volume). For a
regularly shaped body this will be at half the height of the immersed portion of the
body.

## Calculate the distance GB.

Calculate MB, using MB = I / Vd (Vd is the liquid volume displaced) Note I = π D4/64 (π
R4/4) for a circular section body and ab3/12 for a rectangular section body.

## Calculate metacentric height, MG = MB – GB. If MG > 0 then body is stable. If MG < 0

then body is unstable.
Example 9
The diameter of wooden cylinder (SG=0.6) is 1 m with 0.8 m of
length. If the cylinder was floated with its axis vertical in oil (SG =
0.8), determine whether the cylinder is stable or not stable.
Example 10
 The cylinder has internal diameter of 30 cm with 15 cm of thickness, 90 cm of length
and 64 kg of mass. If the cylinder was submerged in the water as shown in figure,
Compute the buoyant force and determine whether the cylinder is stable or not
stable 15 cm 15 cm

90 cm

30 cm
From geometry of body and density of fluid and body equate; Weight of
displaced fluid = Total weight of body. This gives the depth of immersion of the
body or the weight of the body, whichever is unknown.

To assess stability, first find the location of the centre of gravity G of the body.

Find the location of the centre of buoyancy B (centroid of displaced volume). For a
regularly shaped body this will be at half the height of the immersed portion of the
body.
Calculate the distance GB.

Calculate MB, using MB = I / VS. Note I = π D4/64 for a circular section body and ab3/12
for a rectangular section body (Iyc).

## 𝜋𝑅4 𝜋(0.34 −(0.154 )

𝐼𝑥𝑥 = = = 0.00596
4 4

## Calculate metacentric height, MG (= zM – zG), from MG = MB – GB. If MG > 0 then

body is stable. If MG < 0 then body is unstable.