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Daniel Donovan 1

Foundations of Reading Training

Foundations of Reading Training


Daniel Donovan
EIST 6110: Instructional Design
Instructional Design
Daniel Donovan 2
Foundations of Reading Training

Table of Contents
About this Guide: ........................................................................................................3
Section I: Analysis .......................................................................................................4
Problem Summary: ..................................................................................................................................................4
Needs Assessment:...................................................................................................................................................4
Learner Analysis: ......................................................................................................................................................7
Contextual Analysis: ................................................................................................................................................8
Unit Goals:....................................................................................................................................................................9
Task Analysis:.............................................................................................................................................................9
Instructional Objectives:..................................................................................................................................... 13
Section II: Design ...................................................................................................... 14
Instructional Objectives:..................................................................................................................................... 14
Sequencing: .............................................................................................................................................................. 14
Instructional Message:......................................................................................................................................... 17
Strategies Table:..................................................................................................................................................... 18
Text Design:.............................................................................................................................................................. 19
Multimedia Design: ............................................................................................................................................... 19
Section III: Development ........................................................................................... 20
Instructional Materials: ....................................................................................................................................... 20
Delivery Methodology: ........................................................................................................................................ 21
Section IV: Implementation ....................................................................................... 23
Unit Overview:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………23
Pre-Workshop Planning:..………………………………………………………………………………………………29
Instructional Environment, Equipment and Materials:…………………………………………………….30

Section V: Evaluation ………….……………………………………………………………………………………33


Initial Evaluation:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..33
During Instruction Evaluation: ........................................................................................................................ 33
After the Instruction Evaluation: .................................................................................................................... 34
Alignment of the Unit Goals to the Evaluation Process: ........................................................................ 35
Formative Evaluation: ......................................................................................................................................... 36
References: ............................................................................................................... 44
Appendices: .............................................................................................................. 45
Appendix A ............................................................................................................................................................... 45
Appendix B ............................................................................................................................................................... 47
Appendix C................................................................................................................................................................ 49
Appendix D ............................................................................................................................................................... 50
Appendix E ............................................................................................................................................................... 51
Appendix F................................................................................................................................................................ 52
Appendix G ............................................................................................................................................................... 53
Appendix H ............................................................................................................................................................... 54
Daniel Donovan 3
Foundations of Reading Training

About this Guide:


This guide is designed to provide and overview of the Foundations of
Reading Training for teachers in Fourth and Fifth Grade. It is designed to show
teachers within the Charlotte- Mecklenburg School District, how to successfully
implement training for teachers on Reading Foundational Skills for under
performing students. This training guide is divided into four different sections: Unit
Overview, Pre- Workshop Planning, a section on Instructional Environment,
Equipment and Materials, finally a Section on Assessments to show demonstration
of mastery on content. This training and guide was developed with the Morrison,
Ross & Kemp Model in conjunction with the use of the ADDIE Model. Use this guide
to utilize resources and materials needed for implementation of this training
program.
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Foundations of Reading Training

Section I: Analysis
Problem Summary:
Due to the shift in focus from learning how to read in primary grades to
reading to learn, fourth and fifth grade teachers struggle with how to appropriately
implement phonics instruction to their low level reading students. This resulted in
an overall drop in reading performance as measured by the 2018- 2019 End of
Grade Assessment.

Needs Assessment:

Comparative Needs:
Comparative Needs Analysis was used to compare XYZ Elementary’s Student
Growth based on the 2017- 2018 School year when compared to the 2018- 2019
School Year. This designer paid particular attention to how students grew from
those who were in third grade and fourth grade during the 2017- 2018 school year
and compared their projected to actual growth in the 2018- 2019 school year. Data
was measured based on the 2018- 2019 Reading End of Grade Assessment.

Student Performance on 2018- 2019 Reading End of Grade Assessment

Student Grade Level Exceeded Growth Maintained Growth Did Not Meet Growth
(As Determined by (As Determined by (As Determined by
2017- 2018 School 2017- 2018 School 2017- 2018 School
Year) Year) Year)
Fourth Grade
Students 7.7% 52.3% 40%

Fifth Grade Students 30.9% 33.8% 35.3%

Based on this chart one can see an apparent lack of growth of students in
fourth grade. Furthermore, a majority of students in the fifth grade either stayed the
same or did not exceed expected growth for the 2018- 2019 school year, when one
compares these students to their achievement in the 2017- 2018 school year. When
discussing the significance of this data with administration, the goal for students is
to out perform their scores and achievements from the previous year. Therefore,
one can see the potential concerns that have arisen from this data.

Felt Needs:
Based off the comparative analysis, it became apparent there was a cause for
the drop in overall student performance. In order to identify the potential causes for
the gap, I interviewed a total of nine individuals. These individuals included: three
fourth grade teachers; three fifth grade teachers, two instructional coaches and one
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Foundations of Reading Training

principal. The following questions were asked to these individuals in order to


identify potential rout causes learning gaps amongst students in the school:

 In terms of the English Language Arts Curriculum, how do you feel this year
is going?
 What is an area of need, which you need help with?
 What areas of phonics do you need further assistance in?
 What materials might you benefit from?

Based off of interviews with these individuals the following comments were brought
up in terms of comments on the curriculum at XYZ Elementary School and overall
comments about English Language Arts Curriculum at the fourth and fifth grade
levels.
 Individuals mentioned in the past the district in which XYZ Elementary
belongs to has not had a uniform curriculum. Therefore individual teachers
applied different curriculums with varying degrees of fidelity. Individuals
were not properly trained in specific curriculum. Therefore, teachers often
brought outside materials in which they felt would best suit the needs of
their learners. Individuals mentioned the curriculum assumes a level of
understanding of specific concepts by learners. However, remedial skills
have not been fully mastered. This causes teachers to have to take a step back
and provide remediation during large group instruction while also staying on
pace with other schools in the district. Students are expected to meet lesson
objectives as indicated by Bloom’s Taxonomy, but are still working to achieve
lower level objectives.
 Many individuals identified phonics as a leading cause for performance gaps
amongst students. Many individuals mentioned even high performing
students lack some of the basic reading skills in order to decode words.
Students who are under performing are those who are learning English as a
Second Language.
 Teachers mentioned a shift between Kindergarten and Second Grade and
teaching those in Third through Fifth Grade. The marked shift occurs in
terms of the large and small group instruction. Those interviewed,
mentioned by fourth and fifth grade, reading strategies to attain new
information is the focus of English Language Arts Curriculum. Therefore,
teaching students foundational reading strategies is an area where an area of
need. Teachers mentioned they understood the concepts of phonics and
decoding but felt they needed assistance in how to deliver in a small group
setting.
 Instructional Facilitators and Teachers mentioned a need for resources to
teach phonics. It was mentioned a lack of time to gather what they needed for
their students. In addition, small group materials would be an area of benefit
as well as activities to teach their English Language Learners phonic skills.

Expressed Needs:
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Foundations of Reading Training

Based off 2018- 2019 Reading End of Grade Assessments and interviews
with these individuals, training has been requested for fourth and fifth grade
teachers on how to incorporate phonics into their large group instruction and
provide phonics instruction in small group activities.

Anticipated Needs:
During the 2019- 2020 school year, the school district adopted a new English
Language Arts Curriculum for teachers in grades: Kindergarten through Third Grade
and Sixth Grade. During the 2020- 2021 school year, fourth and fifth grade teacher
will use this new curriculum. While content might look different from a first grade
classroom to a fourth or fifth grade classroom, in this design I will incorporate ways
to integrate phonics into large group instruction as the new curriculum the district
uses has an extended direct instruction component. By subtly integrating phonics
and decoding skills in this part of the lesson, teachers will be able to prepare
themselves for the new curriculum in the upcoming school year.

Actual Performance vs. Optimal Performance:

Current Performance Optimal Performance


50% of learners feel knowledgeable and 100% of learners feel knowledgeable and
confident to incorporate phonics instruction confident to incorporate phonics instruction
into their large and small group lessons. into their large and small group lessons.
16% of learners feel knowledgeable and 84- 100% of learners will feel
confident in how to incorporate phonics knowledgeable and confident in how to
instruction that is tailored to English incorporate phonics instruction that is
Language Learners into their large and small tailored to English Language Learners in
group instruction. their large and small group instruction.
0% of learners feel and know where 100% of learners feel and know where
resources are available to them to resources are available to them to
incorporate phonics instruction into their incorporate phonics instruction to their
large and small group lessons. large and small group lessons.

Possible Solutions:

Based off data collected through interviews and identifying where learners
are the following solutions have been proposed:
 Develop a training, which provides learners a background and firm
understanding of what phonics instruction looks like. This would focus on:
stages of phonemic awareness, decoding skills, skills which students should
be able to do at appropriate reading levels and strategies to help meet those
needs.
 Focus a portion of the training on the English Language Learner students,
providing teachers with strategies to meet those specific needs.
 Provide and model trainings for which learners could gather resources,
which are, tailored their students’ specific needs.
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Foundations of Reading Training

Learner Analysis:
The training program will consist of six teachers and two facilitators. The
number of learners will not exceed nine. These individuals are those employed by
the county district and either directly or indirectly interacts with fourth and fifth
grade students attending XYZ Elementary School.

General Characteristics:
Learners attending this training program are both men and women. Their
ages vary from 25- 64. A majority of learners are women. Experience in the
classroom varies. Some teachers became teachers as a second career and have been
teaching for over ten years and have come to love the teaching profession. Several
learners have taught in different countries and states in the United States. Together
teachers have taught in the following countries include: Jamaica, Japan, Canada and
India. Some have taught in other states including: Minnesota, Idaho and New York.
In addition to a variety of teaching experiences, several teachers have taught
students in grades: two through twelve. Most teachers reported having a strong
passion for teaching students in grade four and five. Learners attending this training
are current fourth and fifth grade teachers. In addition two facilitators will be in the
room to receive the training and support the teachers as they go through the
training.
The teachers in this training come from the same socio economic status.
However, the learners have students who represent a variety of socioeconomic
statuses. In addition, many teachers have learners who come from diverse
backgrounds.

Specific Entry Characteristics:


In order to be eligible for this course, learners must have at a minimum a
Bachelor’s Degree or an equivalent, which allows them to be a certified teacher in
the State of North Carolina.

Educational Background:
Learners in this training program all have at a minimum of a Bachelor’s
Degree in Education or have a degree, which has made them eligible to hold a North
Carolina Teaching License. 84% of learners in this course have earned a Master’s
Degree. One learner is currently earning a Master’s Degree.

Motivational/ Attitude Toward Subject Area:


Based off interviews with supervisors and learners, there is an overall
excitement towards the upcoming training. It was apparent through interviews, that
while some learners are a little ambivalent about receiving, “another training,” the
learners want to do whatever it takes to help their students grow. The learners have
a passion to serve their students. This motivation is enhanced by the possibility of
receiving materials and learning how to access materials in a streamlined way. This
follows adult learning principles, which explain learners are able to learn best when
they are able to apply what they learn in a realistic scenario.
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Foundations of Reading Training

Language Proficiency:
All learners attending this training speak English as their primary language.

Learners with Disabilities:


All learners attending this training do not have any known physical or mental
impairments, which might impede on attaining the intended outcomes of this
course. Several learners have vision problems however to remediate this, learners
will wear eyeglasses to view materials associated with this course.

Contextual Analysis:

Orienting Context:
There are several Orienting Factors being considered for this upcoming
instruction. The first is the knowledge my learners have concerning phonics and
how it might look in the classroom. Many of the learners have a foundation for what
phonics instruction is. However, due to not having used the instruction in recent
years, learners have cited it as an area of need. In addition, learners expressed a
need of lack of ready available phonics centered resources. As a designer this helps
one understand motivations for attending this course. Through discussions, learners
feel the benefit of this instruction would be they attain new teaching strategies and
resources for which they could use in their small group instruction. Learners will
receive follow up observation on whether or not they are using the skills learned
through administration observations. This is different than the person teaching the
course. The designer will provide learners with a follow up survey on integration of
the applied learning.

Instructional Context:
There are several environmental factors, which should be noted for the
desired training plan. The instruction for my learning will take place in the
“Planning Room” of my school. It is a medium sized room, with white painted bricks.
Posters hang from the wall that showcase planning ideas from the various grade
levels. In this room there are three desks for which the K-1 Facilitator plans and
develops instruction for the Kindergarten and First Grade Teams. A 2nd and 3rd
Grade Facilitator desk and a Fourth and Fifth Grade Facilitator desk, these
individuals are often seen coming in and out of the room to either attend meetings,
develop instructional materials for their teams and work on other projects. These
desks are on one half of the room. In addition to the desks is a bookshelf, which
contains a variety of Reading and Mathematics resources. These can be accessed for
all teachers to use and can be a valuable resource to supplement additional
resources to provide strong instruction for students. There is a door, which leads to
a fifth grade classroom. This training session will be completed during the fourth
and fifth grade planning periods or may occur before school. In the event it occurs
during the Fourth Grade planning period, there might be some minimal noise heard
from the room next door.
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Foundations of Reading Training

On the other side of the room is a long maple wood table. A projector is on
the table for the facilitator or teacher to display their personal laptops for the team
to view. Eight chairs can be found around the circumference of the table ensuring all
learners are able to see the board and can collaborate with each other. Furthermore
because the table is long and wide, learners will have the ability to place their
laptops on the table as well as have room for notebooks and browse any resources
provided to them.

Transfer Context:
As was mentioned in the Orienting Context, part of the reason why these
learners feel open to receiving professional development on this topic is the idea of
being able to take their learning and apply it to the classroom setting. Learners will
be able apply phonics skills and concepts to their small groups. Furthermore,
learners will be able to readily find and locate resources on this topic and apply to
their specific small groups.

Unit Goals:

The goal of this training is to inform teachers in fourth and fifth grade on how
to reach low achieving students by informing them of strategies used to teach
English Language Arts in the Kindergarten through Second Grade setting.
Instructional Goals include:
 Teachers will identify and explain reading foundational terms and their
definitions.
 Teachers will implement foundational reading strategies and activities to
their small groups.
 Teachers will be able to navigate and locate reading foundational
strategies and activities that have been provided by the district.

Task Analysis:

Topic Analysis

I. Teaching Students How to Read


a. Why teach phonics?
b. Big 5 Components of Reading Instruction
i. Phonemic Awareness
ii. Phonics
iii. Fluency
iv. Vocabulary
v. Comprehension
c. Developmental Stages
i. Stages of Readers in First Grade through end of Second Grade
1. EL Curriculum Phases
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Foundations of Reading Training

a. Full Alphabetic Phase


b. Consolidated Phase
d. Focus of Training is On:
i. Phonics
ii. Fluency
iii. Vocabulary
e. Who are our learners?
i. Meet the needs of the exceptional child
ii. Meet the needs of English Language Learners
II. Teachers will Apply Small Group Instruction on Teaching Reading
Methodologies
a. Full Alphabetic Phase
i. Small Group Activity on Phonics
1. Focus on Early Full Alphabetic
2. Focus on Middle Full Alphabetic
3. Focus on Late Full Alphabetic
ii. Fluency Activities
1. Focus on Early Full Alphabetic
2. Focus on Middle Full Alphabetic
3. Focus on Late Full Alphabetic
iii. Vocabulary Activities
1. Focus on Vocabulary Words/ Word Patterns found in
Words in Small Group Activities
iv. Strategies for the Exceptional Child and English Language
Learner
b. Consolidated Alphabetic Phase
i. Small Group Activity on Phonics
1. Focus on Early Consolidated
2. Focus on Middle Consolidated
3. Focus on Late Consolidated
ii. Fluency Activities
1. Focus on Early Consolidated
2. Focus on Middle Consolidated
3. Focus on Late Consolidated
iii. Vocabulary Activities
1. Focus on Vocabulary Words/ Word Patterns found in
Words in Small Group Activities
iv. Strategies for the Exceptional Child and English Language
Learner
III. Resources and Materials Used
a. Focus on EL Curriculum Website
i. Focus on Tools of How to Navigate It
b. Focus on FCRR Materials

Procedural Analysis:
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I. Topic One: Foundational Principles in Reading Instruction


a. What will learners do?
i. First, learners will identify relevant differences between
Kindergarten through Second Grade and Third through Fifth
Grade Instruction.
ii. Next, learners will listen to direct instruction on the following
topics: phonics, fluency, vocabulary.
iii. Then, learners will turn and talk and about the differences
between: phonics, fluency and vocabulary small group
instruction.
iv. Next, learners will listen to instruction of how teachers may
teach English Language Learners
v. After, Learners will read an article on how to teach English
Language learners instruction.
vi. Learners will participate in an informal quiz activity using
Kahoot.com to test their knowledge.
vii. Learners will write down any wonderings they have from the
day’s instruction.
b. What does the learner need to do in this step?
i. Learners need to have a basic foundational knowledge of
reading strategies and methodology to deliver instruction.
c. What cues inform the learner that there is a problem, the step is done,
or a different step is needed?
i. Problem:
1. Learner’s students have mastered a skill or are lacking
an understanding of a skill.
ii. Complete.
1. Learner is able to determine the next skill needed to
show mastery of reading concepts.
II. Topic Two: Small Group Instruction
a. What will learners do?
i. Learners will participate in a warm- up activity reviewing the
previous day’s content.
ii. Learners will watch direct instruction about different
components of small groups.
iii. Learners will watch direct instruction over the differences
between: Phonics, Fluency and Vocabulary based small groups
iv. Learners will participate in different targeted small groups,
which focus on different aspects of the big five, components of
Reading Instruction: Phonics, Fluency and Vocabulary.
v. Learners will identify the parts of small group instruction.
vi. Learners plan different type of small groups from materials
provided by instructor
b. What does the learner need to know to do this step?
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Foundations of Reading Training

i. Understanding of foundational reading definitions


ii. Knowledge of what to do when students have demonstrated
mastery of a skill or if a skill is too difficult
iii. Understanding of how a mini- lesson works
iv. Understanding of how to manage a small group.
c. What cues inform the learner that there is a problem, the step is done,
or a different step is needed?
i. Problem:
1. Learner does not identify differences between the types
of small group instruction.
III. Topic Three: Finding and Developing Additional Materials for Small Group
Activities
a. What will learners do?
i. Learners will watch the instructor navigate the CMS teacher
portal to access the EL Curriculum
ii. Learners will practice navigating CMS teacher portal to access
EL Curriculum
iii. Learners will watch the instructor navigate FCRR Manuals
iv. Learners will navigate FCRR Manuals
v. Learners will identify materials for small group instruction.
vi. Learners will gather materials for potential small group
instruction.
vii. Learners will write out small group plans and activities for
future use.
viii. Learners will justify choices for the lessons and materials.
chosen and explain relevancy to the specific aspect of reading.
1. Learners will share with their grade level teams.
2. Learners will then do this to share out with the whole
group.
b. What does the learner need to know to do this step?
i. Learners will need to know how to access CMS teacher portal
ii. Learners will need to know how to locate FCRR Manual
iii. Learners will need to know how to access reading manuals
c. What cues inform the learner that there is a problem, the step is done,
or a different step is needed?
i. Problem:
1. Learner cannot find desired lesson to meet student
need.
ii. Solution:
1. Learner modifies materials to meet the need
iii. Completion of Step:
1. Learners make one small group lesson for each of the
reading categories
2. Learners will have written plans of 2 other small group
lesson and activities for future implementation.
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Instructional Objectives:

 Given access to handouts and resources, fourth and fifth grade teachers will
be able to identify and label reading terms and their terminology with 90%
accuracy.
 Given access to a reading professional development, fourth and fifth grade
teachers will apply materials and strategies gathered by implementing
activities into small group instruction.
 Given access to a foundational reading professional development, fourth and
fifth grade teachers will be able to locate appropriate phonics reading
resources for small group instruction.
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Foundations of Reading Training

Section II: Design


Instructional Objectives:
By the end of this instructional training, learners will be able to:
1. Given access to handouts and a Power Point Presentation, fourth and fifth
grade teachers will be able to identify and label reading terms and their
terminology with 90% accuracy.
2. Given access to a reading professional development, fourth and fifth grade
teachers will apply materials and strategies gathered by implementing
activities into small group instruction.
3. Given access to a foundations of reading professional development, fourth
and fifth grade teachers will be able to locate appropriate phonics reading
resources for small group instruction.

Sequencing:
The purpose of this training program is to help fourth and fifth grade
teachers at XYZ Elementary School increase End of Grade Assessment scores. The
primary concern is some students in fourth and fifth grade have not fully achieved
reading concepts, which are typically mastered by the end of second grade. In order
to fill in this gap a common vocabulary of reading concepts will be taught to the
students. Once this is done, learners will observe and participate in a training which
shows fourth and fifth grade teachers how to teach their learners in a small group
setting, Phonics, Vocabulary and Fluency Skills. Finally, learners will be shown
where they can find necessary resources to develop materials and will be allotted
time to develop their own individualized activities to address student needs. This
sequence follows the Learning- Related Sequencing Technique. In the book it
requires, “There are identifiable prerequisites a learner must master before
demonstrating a more complex task.” (Morrison et al., 2013, p. 124) Learners are
expected to achieve relatively simple objectives at the beginning of the program and
gradually apply new concepts in more real world and concrete places.

Sequence Description Time Objective Justification

Providing learners a pretest


Pre- Instructional Activity: allows learners to showcase
Learners will take a pre- test what they already know when
1 assessing understanding of 5 1, 2, 3 compared to the learning
concepts to be taught. minutes outcomes. Furthermore, it
prepares learners to focus on
expected outcomes for the
training module.
Pre- Instructional Strategy:
The trainer will provide Providing an overview will help
2 overview of expected activities 5 1, 2, 3 learners plan for the activities
for the day’s training. minutes and application of the course
objectives ahead in the
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Foundations of Reading Training

upcoming lessons and activities.

3 Direct Instruction: This will direct instruction will


Trainer will provide information 20 1&2 allow learners the opportunity
to learners via Power Point. minutes to master concepts needed to
Learners will cover explanations achieve objectives 1 & 2.
of the five components of Learners need to have a firm
reading. Further topics will understanding of the definitions
explore reading phases as of the components of reading in
prescribed by the EL Reading order to effectively teach their
Curriculum. learners.

4 Interactive Activity: This will guide the learner


Learners will complete a fill in 1& 2 through the direct instruction
the blank handout as they work 20 activities in the Power Point.
through the Power Point. minutes

5
Informal Assessment: 10 This activity will provide
Learners will complete an minutes 1&2 learners with the opportunity to
informal quiz to assess their practice the definitions of terms
knowledge of new information and terminologies they have
learned in the training. learned in the lesson.

6
Direct Instruction: Because learners have an
Learners will watch a video the 30 2 adequate understanding of
instructor conducting three minutes reading terminology, learners
separate small groups. One video will be able to identify and
will focus on Phonics. The next differentiate the different
video will focus on: Vocabulary. components and focus of:
The final video will focus on: Phonics, Vocabulary and
Fluency. Fluency based small groups.

Practical Application: 10 Having learners reflect on the


minutes 3 videos will allow learners and
Learners will look at their opportunity to see the
7 handouts and will look at what relevancy to this training.
they observed. Learners will Learners will have an
identify differences they saw appreciation and will begin
within the different small group thinking about how they might
focuses. apply what they observed in the
small group settings to the
fourth and fifth grade classroom
setting.
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Foundations of Reading Training

Practical Application: The beneficial nature of


8 Learners will write out what 5 3&4 discussing what materials were
they saw what materials the minutes available will help learners get
small group had. set up for the next part of the
training which will focus on
how to gain access to materials
for the class.

Direct Instruction: This direct instruction will


Learners will watch a video 10 3 provide learners and
9 navigating the CMS Portal to minutes opportunity to see how
access EL Curriculum Small teachers can interact with the
Group Materials. The video will EL Curriculum to find
explain how to access materials differentiated small group
and what teachers can find. materials.

This direct instruction will


10 provide learners an opportunity
Direct Instruction: to see how to use the FCRR
Learners will watch a video 10 3 website. This will allow
navigating the FCRR website. minutes teachers an opportunity to use a
website which will allow
learners to create their own
small group activities which can
aid in targeting their specific
learner needs.

11

Practical Application: 20 3 Learners will begin developing


After watching the videos, minutes activities and resources for
learners will then apply what their small groups. Resources
they have learned and will such as paper and other
gather and create small group materials will be provided to
activities for their students aid the teachers in their small
group activity development.

12
10 A post assessment will help
Post- Assessment: minutes 1, 2, 3 determine if the learners met
A post assessment will mirror the intended outcomes of the
the Pre- Assessment to see if training.
learners mastered the concepts
discussed in the training
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Foundations of Reading Training

sequence.

Instructional Message:

Strategy Function Content Structure Learner Task Attributes


Overview Learners Learners will
Provide An brief overview are fourth learn through
learners with an will be provided to or fifth direct instruction,
opportunity to the learners about grade watch videos, will
learn about all the skills they will teachers. All collaborate with
the content they attain after learners colleagues and
will be expected completing the have at least will participate in
to learn and do instructional a Bachelor’s hands on
in the module. training. degree and activities to meet
have taught the stated
for at least overview
one year. requirements.

Pretest This will allow Learners will be Learners Learners have


learners to give five minutes to are fourth background
activate answer the or fifth information
background following questions: grade regarding the
knowledge 1. What are teachers. All objectives taught
through the five learners as seen through
completing elements of have at least their teacher
three open effective a Bachelor’s program trainings
ended questions reading degree and and other
relating to instruction have taught trainings
topics covered and define for at least provided by the
in the training each term. one year. school district.
module. 2. What are Questions are
the geared to
differences stimulate learner
between: thinking on the
Phonics, subjects.
Vocabulary
and Fluency
small group
activities.
3. Where can
you go to
find
resources to
create and
develop
effective
small group
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Foundations of Reading Training

activities for
your
students?

Strategies Table:

Procedure Strategy Initial Presentation and


Generative Strategy
Given access to handouts and a
Power Point Presentation, fourth Recall, Integration Learners in this course will receive
and fifth grade teachers will be a Power Point, which focuses on
able to identify and label reading key terms and terminologies for
terms and their terminology reading instruction used in the
with 90% accuracy. Primary Grades. Learners will take
this information and will apply it to
a short quiz.
Learners will be encouraged to
think and reflect how they can use
this information in upcoming small
group activities.

Given access to a reading Demonstration, Learners will watch a video


professional development, Organization, recording of three separate small
fourth and fifth grade teachers Elaboration groups. In these small groups,
will apply materials and learners will identify the different
strategies gathered by ways the teacher interacts with the
implementing activities into students. The learners will be
small group instruction. encouraged to differentiate how the
small groups differ in focus based
on the topic: Phonics, Vocabulary
and Fluency.

Learners will reflect on how they


might apply the strategies used in
the videos to create their own small
group instruction.

Students will fill out a note-taking


guide to document observations
and wonderings they had about the
small group.
Given access to a foundations of Demonstration, Learners will watch two videos to
reading professional Organization, identify where they can gather
development, fourth and fifth Elaboration and resources for their upcoming small
grade teachers will be able to Practice groups. Learners will answer
locate appropriate phonics questions about how the resources
reading resources for small are similar and how they are
group instruction. different.
Daniel Donovan 19
Foundations of Reading Training

Learners will think about how they


can use the resources to effectively
teacher their under performing
students.

Students will practice the skills


taught as they will be allotted time
to create their own small group
materials for use.

Text Design:
The text-based materials will include instructional outlines for which
learners will fill in the blanks as they follow along in the Power Point. Furthermore,
documents with guiding questions will be provided to the learner. Typographical
signals will include: headings and subheadings. Furthermore, bold-faced font will be
used on a consistent basis to indicate terms with non-italicized, plain print to
indicate definitions of new information. A pre and post assessment will be used with
size twelve fonts. This will ensure the text is easy for the reader to read. Videos will
not have any text features within it.

Multimedia Design:
The general format of this presentation will be a self- paced Power Point.
Learners will have access to the Power Point. This means they will be able to go
back and access the materials and which can serve as a resource if learners would
like to go back and revisit concepts taught in the lesson. The Power Point will have
links to videos posted to the learners during the training. The visuals will aid and
enhance learning. Furthermore, learners will have access to note taking guides and
visuals, which will be embedded in the Power Point presentation.
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Foundations of Reading Training

Section III: Development


Instructional Materials:
For this instructional intervention, I will provide my learners with a
PowerPoint Presentation that can either is self paced or gone through, in a large
group setting. This PowerPoint will contain information needed for learners to
understand the importance of having an understanding of Reading Foundations.
Furthermore, the Power Point Presentation will have images of relevant
information. According to Morrison (2013) “Drawings, graphics, graphs and
photographs provide a referent, or an image, for words.” (Morrison et., al, 2013, p.
190) Furthermore, “Interspersing examples (e.g. pictures and concrete words) of
the abstract ideas can add concreteness to the text.” (Morrison et. al., 2013, p. 191)
This means providing learners with visual aids, coupled with explanations provides
the learners an enhanced understanding of the topic. The PowerPoint will also
include a narrated video showing learners how to navigate and access small group
materials using the EL Curriculum Website. Learners will have an opportunity to
practice this after watching the video. The narrated instructional video allows for
learners to complete the process of locating and identifying needed materials.
According to the book, “Using consistent terminology and providing references to
prior learning provide contextual cues to the learner.” (Morrison et al., 2013, p.191)
This video controls the step size by referencing prior information learned in the
course.
In addition to these resources in the Power Point I will provide the learners
with a Pre-assessment. According to the book, “Pretests work best when the
instructional time is relatively short, allowing the learner to remain focused on the
questions.” (Morrison et. al., 163) Due to the trainees being teachers and their busy
schedules, instructional time is limited. The pre-assessment would last no longer
than five minutes, however it would allow me to gather base line information.
In addition to the pre-assessment, I will provide my learners with several
note-taking sheets and handouts will be provided to the learner. According to
Morrison (2013) providing handouts will, “Stimulate active processing of
information.” (Morrison et al., 2013, p. 205) This provides learners with the
opportunity to be actively engaged with the content and foster higher order
thinking. Note taking sheets will be provided for learners when they are watching
videos for the narrated video to access the curriculum and also to watch future
videos of students participating in small group instruction. Learners will also have a
printed out copy of the Power Point with approximately three slides per page. This
allows learners to take notes and record wonderings they have. (Morrison et. al.,
2013, p. 205) According to the book, one of the drawbacks to lecture style learning
is, “Learning is typically very passive… Instructors can add questiong to their
lectures with individual responses or personal responders (e.g., “clickers”) to obtain
responses from all students.” (Morrison et. al., 2013, p. 203) In addition to note
taking sheets, I also developed a Kahoot. This quiz based activity enables
interactivity and engagement for learners as it treats the review of concepts as a
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Foundations of Reading Training

game.

Sample Materials:
Kahoot Review Questions (Appendix A)
PowerPoint (Appendix B)
Pre-assessment (Appendix C)
Narrated Training Video (Appendix D)
EL Curriculum Training Video Response Sheet (Appendix E)
FCRR Note Taking Sheet (Appendix F)
Small Group Video Observation Form (Appendix G)
Summative Assessment (Appendix H)

Delivery Methodology:

The delivery methodology for this training will follow two distinct parts.
Parts I and II will follow a Group Presentation style format and Part III will follow a
Self- Paced format. According to the book, “Group presentation or lecture method,
the instructor tells, shows, demonstrates, dramatizes or otherwise disseminates
subject content to a group of learners.” (Morrison et. al., 2013, p.203) For this piece
of the instruction, the teacher will instruct learners on the fundamentals of reading
instruction. Some of the benefits for providing this type of instruction to the
learners include: control over the learning environment, everyone can receive
instruction within a short period of time, changes to the presentation can be made
quickly and easily and can provide learners with motivation to helping learners
achieve the intended outcomes of the course. (Morrison et. al., 2013, p. 203) Some of
this information will be new to the learners and therefore, having learners receive
direct instruction. Some potential limitations to using Group Instruction include:
maintaining learner focus, when questions are asked, learning does not go forward,
thus learners who understand the concept are forced to wait. In addition, when
learners are watching videos, one makes an assumption that all learners are
accessing and understanding the material at the same rate. (Morrison et. al., 2013, p.
204) To compensate for these weaknesses, interactivity is built into the PowerPoint
presentation by having learners reflecting on how the information connects to their
lives. Furthermore, handouts will be provided so that learners are actively engaged
in the presentation.
Part III will be self- paced. According to Morrison (2013) in a self- paced unit,
“Activities and resources are carefully selected in terms of the required objectives.”
(Morrison et. al., 2013, p. 208) The second and third objectives in this training
course, learners will watch videos showing them how to navigate using the EL
Curriculum and the FCRR Website. After watching these videos on how to locate
resources, learners will be given time to create their own materials in order to
develop small group activities. Some of the benefits of this self- paced instruction
include, “Both slow and advanced learners can complete the instruction according
to their own abilities and under appropriate learning conditions. The instruction can
give increased attention to the individual learner.” (Morrison et. al., 2013, p. 209)
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Foundations of Reading Training

From this one can see, learners are able to develop and meet this objective on their
own time. In addition, as an instructor, one is able to provide additional support to
learners who may have trouble accessing or finding relevant materials. Some
drawbacks from this instruction include, “Learning can become monotonous and
uninteresting.” (Morrison et. al., 2013, p. 209) This reminds us the activities
involved need to have relevance to the learner to keep them engaged.
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Foundations of Reading Training

Section IV: Implementation

Unit Overview
Background of the Instructional Module:

Identified Problems:
The XYZ Elementary located in Charlotte, North Carolina has approximately 380
students. In that group approximately 133 students took either the Grade 4 End of
Grade Reading test or the Grade 5 End of Grade Assessment. Based off this data,
approximately 40% of students did not make expected growth from the 2018- 2019
school year and 52% of students did not make or fall behind in terms of reading
growth. When looking at students in Fifth Grade, 35% of students did not meet their
expected growth at the end of the year and almost 34% of student did not exceed or
loose one year’s growth of progress. Through analysis, it was uncovered students
lacked the foundational reading skills to make additional growth on this
standardized assessment.

Instructional Context:
XYZ Elementary Schools is a Magnet School located in Charlotte, North Carolina.
Students attending this school come from all around Charlotte- Mecklenburg
County. Approximately 65 fourth grade students took the End of Grade Reading
Assessment during the 2018- 2019 School Year. 63% of these students were male.
37% are female. 75% of students were African American, 12% of students were
Hispanic, 9% of students were white and the remaining 3% identified as two or
more races. In fifth grade 57% of students were male, 43% of students were female.
65% of students were African American, 14% were of Hispanic descent, 8% were
white, 5% were Asian, and 1% identified as two or more races. This information
indicates students in both fourth and fifth grade come from diverse backgrounds.
Students have ready access to computers and WiFi. The school has a one to one
student to computer ratio. Furthermore, students had access to a variety of grade
level texts, which cover diverse genres. Students had access to resources including:
Edginuity and RAZ Kids. Furthermore for students in Fourth Grade, the End of Grade
Assessment is presented on the computer. This is different from third grade where
students were given the End of Grade Assessment on paper.

Historical Background:
The English Language Arts Curriculum taught in fourth and fifth Grade shifts from
teaching learners how to read, to teaching readers to learn. Teachers are tasked
with helping students learn how to answer questions about texts. These questions
might be literal or inferential questions. Furthermore, small group instruction
focuses on different reading strategies on how to comprehend a text. As a result it is
often noted the achievement gap begins to widen during these grade levels between
high achieving and low achieving students. This is because students who struggle
with reading are not receiving the phonics instruction they need in order to help
Daniel Donovan 24
Foundations of Reading Training

support their comprehension of the texts. Last school year, teachers taught directly
from the Common Core State Standards. Teachers often found resources from
websites and adjusted the activities to match the standards. This lack of continuity
from classroom to classroom and lack of consistent small group instruction may
have contributed to the noted decline in the scores.

Problem Summary:
Due to the shift in focus from learning how to read in primary grades to
reading to learn, fourth and fifth grade teachers struggle with how to appropriately
implement phonics instruction to their low level reading students. This resulted in
an overall drop in reading performance as measured by the 2018- 2019 End of
Grade Assessment.

Needs Assessment:

Comparative Needs:
Comparative Needs Analysis was used to compare XYZ Elementary’s Student
Growth based on the 2017- 2018 School year when compared to the 2018- 2019
School Year. This designer paid particular attention to how students grew from
those who were in third grade and fourth grade during the 2017- 2018 school year
and compared their projected to actual growth in the 2018- 2019 school year. Data
was measured based on the 2018- 2019 Reading End of Grade Assessment.

Student Performance on 2018- 2019 Reading End of Grade Assessment

Student Grade Level Exceeded Growth Maintained Growth Did Not Meet Growth
(As Determined by (As Determined by (As Determined by
2017- 2018 School 2017- 2018 School 2017- 2018 School
Year) Year) Year)
Fourth Grade
Students 7.7% 52.3% 40%

Fifth Grade Students 30.9% 33.8% 35.3%

Based on this chart one can see an apparent lack of growth of students in
fourth grade. Furthermore, a majority of students in the fifth grade either stayed the
same or did not exceed expected growth for the 2018- 2019 school year, when one
compares these students to their achievement in the 2017- 2018 school year. When
discussing the significance of this data with administration, the goal for students is
to out perform their scores and achievements from the previous year. Therefore,
one can see the potential concerns that have arisen from this data.

Felt Needs:
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Foundations of Reading Training

Based off the comparative analysis, it became apparent there was a cause for
the drop in overall student performance. In order to identify the potential causes for
the gap, I interviewed a total of nine individuals. These individuals included: three
fourth grade teachers; three fifth grade teachers, two instructional coaches and one
principal. The following questions were asked to these individuals in order to
identify potential rout causes learning gaps amongst students in the school:

 In terms of the English Language Arts Curriculum, how do you feel this year
is going?
 What is an area of need, which you need help with?
 What areas of phonics do you need further assistance in?
 What materials might you benefit from?

Based off of interviews with these individuals the following comments were brought
up in terms of comments on the curriculum at XYZ Elementary School and overall
comments about English Language Arts Curriculum at the fourth and fifth grade
levels.
 Individuals mentioned in the past the district in which XYZ Elementary
belongs to has not had a uniform curriculum. Therefore individual teachers
applied different curriculums with varying degrees of fidelity. Individuals
were not properly trained in specific curriculum. Therefore, teachers often
brought outside materials in which they felt would best suit the needs of
their learners. Individuals mentioned the curriculum assumes a level of
understanding of specific concepts by learners. However, remedial skills
have not been fully mastered. This causes teachers to have to take a step back
and provide remediation during large group instruction while also staying on
pace with other schools in the district. Students are expected to meet lesson
objectives as indicated by Bloom’s Taxonomy, but are still working to achieve
lower level objectives.
 Many individuals identified phonics as a leading cause for performance gaps
amongst students. Many individuals mentioned even high performing
students lack some of the basic reading skills in order to decode words.
Students who are under performing are those who are learning English as a
Second Language.
 Teachers mentioned a shift between Kindergarten and Second Grade and
teaching those in Third through Fifth Grade. The marked shift occurs in
terms of the large and small group instruction. Those interviewed,
mentioned by fourth and fifth grade, reading strategies to attain new
information is the focus of English Language Arts Curriculum. Therefore,
teaching students foundational reading strategies is an area where an area of
need. Teachers mentioned they understood the concepts of phonics and
decoding but felt they needed assistance in how to deliver in a small group
setting.
 Instructional Facilitators and Teachers mentioned a need for resources to
teach phonics. It was mentioned a lack of time to gather what they needed for
Daniel Donovan 26
Foundations of Reading Training

their students. In addition, small group materials would be an area of benefit


as well as activities to teach their English Language Learners phonic skills.

Expressed Needs:
Based off 2018- 2019 Reading End of Grade Assessments and interviews
with these individuals, training has been requested for fourth and fifth grade
teachers on how to incorporate phonics into their large group instruction and
provide phonics instruction in small group activities.

Anticipated Needs:
During the 2019- 2020 school year, the school district adopted a new English
Language Arts Curriculum for teachers in grades: Kindergarten through Third Grade
and Sixth Grade. During the 2020- 2021 school year, fourth and fifth grade teacher
will use this new curriculum. While content might look different from a first grade
classroom to a fourth or fifth grade classroom, in this design I will incorporate ways
to integrate phonics into large group instruction as the new curriculum the district
uses has an extended direct instruction component. By subtly integrating phonics
and decoding skills in this part of the lesson, teachers will be able to prepare
themselves for the new curriculum in the upcoming school year.

Actual Performance vs. Optimal Performance:

Current Performance Optimal Performance


50% of learners feel knowledgeable and 100% of learners feel knowledgeable and
confident to incorporate phonics instruction confident to incorporate phonics instruction
into their large and small group lessons. into their large and small group lessons.
16% of learners feel knowledgeable and 84- 100% of learners will feel
confident in how to incorporate phonics knowledgeable and confident in how to
instruction that is tailored to English incorporate phonics instruction that is
Language Learners into their large and small tailored to English Language Learners in
group instruction. their large and small group instruction.
0% of learners feel and know where 100% of learners feel and know where
resources are available to them to resources are available to them to
incorporate phonics instruction into their incorporate phonics instruction to their
large and small group lessons. large and small group lessons.

Possible Solutions:

Based off data collected through interviews and identifying where learners
are the following solutions have been proposed:
 Develop a training, which provides learners a background and firm
understanding of what phonics instruction looks like. This would focus on:
stages of phonemic awareness, decoding skills, skills which students should
be able to do at appropriate reading levels and strategies to help meet those
needs.
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Foundations of Reading Training

 Focus a portion of the training on the English Language Learner students,


providing teachers with strategies to meet those specific needs.
 Provide and model trainings for which learners could gather resources,
which are, tailored their students’ specific needs.

Learner Analysis:
The training program will consist of six teachers and two facilitators. The
number of learners will not exceed nine. These individuals are those employed by
the county district and either directly or indirectly interacts with fourth and fifth
grade students attending XYZ Elementary School.

General Characteristics:
Learners attending this training program are both men and women. Their
ages vary from 25- 64. A majority of learners are women. Experience in the
classroom varies. Some teachers became teachers as a second career and have been
teaching for over ten years and have come to love the teaching profession. Several
learners have taught in different countries and states in the United States. Together
teachers have taught in the following countries include: Jamaica, Japan, Canada and
India. Some have taught in other states including: Minnesota, Idaho and New York.
In addition to a variety of teaching experiences, several teachers have taught
students in grades: two through twelve. Most teachers reported having a strong
passion for teaching students in grade four and five. Learners attending this training
are current fourth and fifth grade teachers. In addition two facilitators will be in the
room to receive the training and support the teachers as they go through the
training.
The teachers in this training come from the same socio economic status.
However, the learners have students who represent a variety of socioeconomic
statuses. In addition, many teachers have learners who come from diverse
backgrounds.

Specific Entry Characteristics:


In order to be eligible for this course, learners must have at a minimum a
Bachelor’s Degree or an equivalent, which allows them to be a certified teacher in
the State of North Carolina.

Educational Background:
Learners in this training program all have at a minimum of a Bachelor’s
Degree in Education or have a degree, which has made them eligible to hold a North
Carolina Teaching License. 84% of learners in this course have earned a Master’s
Degree. One learner is currently earning a Master’s Degree.

Motivational/ Attitude Toward Subject Area:


Based off interviews with supervisors and learners, there is an overall
excitement towards the upcoming training. It was apparent through interviews, that
while some learners are a little ambivalent about receiving, “another training,” the
Daniel Donovan 28
Foundations of Reading Training

learners want to do whatever it takes to help their students grow. The learners have
a passion to serve their students. This motivation is enhanced by the possibility of
receiving materials and learning how to access materials in a streamlined way. This
follows adult learning principles, which explain learners are able to learn best when
they are able to apply what they learn in a realistic scenario.

Language Proficiency:
All learners attending this training speak English as their primary language.

Learners with Disabilities:


All learners attending this training do not have any known physical or mental
impairments, which might impede on attaining the intended outcomes of this
course. Several learners have vision problems however to remediate this, learners
will wear eyeglasses to view materials associated with this course.

Introduction to the Unit:


Instructional Objectives:

 Given access to handouts and resources, fourth and fifth grade teachers will
be able to identify and label reading terms and their terminology with 90%
accuracy.
 Given access to a reading professional development, fourth and fifth grade
teachers will apply materials and strategies gathered by implementing
activities into small group instruction.
 Given access to a foundational reading professional development, fourth and
fifth grade teachers will be able to locate appropriate phonics reading
resources for small group instruction.
Daniel Donovan 29
Foundations of Reading Training

Pre- Workshop Planning

Preparing the Participants:


In order for students to be successful in completing this training program
learners should have the following skills: a Bachelor’s Degree or Master’s Degree in
Education or related field, familiarity with Charlotte Mecklenburg Schools Mission of
Equitable Reading Instruction, Basic knowledge of teaching the foundations of
Reading, and a familiarity of the teacher side of the Charlotte- Mecklenburg
Navigational Interface. This training is suitable for all teachers from those who are
engaging in: Student Teaching through Veteran Teachers having over twenty- five
years of experience in the classroom. Learners are strongly encouraged to attend
this training with an open mind and willingness to learn new materials.

Student Grouping:
For purposes of this training, it will be given to those a small group of Fourth
and Fifth Grade teachers. Learners will meet during their common Professional
Learning Community Time to receive this training. However, learners can access
this training through a variety of methods, which include a large group Instructional
Setting. For this training, it is recommended that teacher work in small group tables
around those of the same grade level. This will allow learners the opportunities to
share resources and experiences relevant to this training. The third portion of this
training, learners will benefit from seeing other resources individuals within their
own grade level develop.

Advanced Information:
For this training module, upon approval for the training program by the
Principal, Literacy Facilitators will provide teachers with a letter indicating the
purpose of the training for which they are going to participate in. This letter will go
over a brief summary of the purpose of the training and benefits of attendance. The
letter will also provide learners with: a date for the training, intended outcomes of
the training program, and materials they will need to come with.
Daniel Donovan 30
Foundations of Reading Training

Instructional Environment, Equipment and Materials


Considerations for Delivery of Environment:

For purposes of this training, the trainer should go to the schools for which
the teachers work. This will allow for teachers to have ready access to materials
from their own classroom. The training should be held in teacher’s Professional
Learning Community Room. This room should be quiet such that no outside noise
could be seen as a deterrent from the learning process. Should noise levels from
other classrooms become a distraction, the training session should be moved to a
more quiet area. Lighting should be sufficient making it easy for participants to take
notes, work at their computers and see a projector without causing strain to a
participant’s eyes. Furthermore, learners should have enough room so they may
move around to observe other teacher’s activities.

Equipment:
For optimal student learning outcomes the following materials should be
provided:
Room Equipment:
Lights
Internet Access
Projector with, computer ports and jacks
Chairs
Chart Paper
Construction Paper
Markers
Crayons
Sharpie Pens
Index Cards
Printer Paper

Handouts, Materials, Media:

Teachers will need to bring their fully charged computers or cell phones with access
to the internet
Note Taking Guide of PowerPoint (One per student)
Pre-assessment (One per student)
EL Curriculum Training Video Response Sheet (One per student)
FCRR Note Taking Sheet (One per student)
Small Group Video Observation Form (Three per student)
Daniel Donovan 31
Foundations of Reading Training

Assessment of Learning

Pre- Assessment Strategies:

Prior to the beginning of this Training Module, learners will take a Pre-
Assessment. During this Pre-assessment there will be three questions. Each
question aligns to the three learning objectives for the assessment. The question and
the Learning Objective are indicated below:

Pre- Assessment Questions

Question Objective Alignment


What are the five elements of effective reading Objective 1: Given access to handouts and
instruction and define each term. resources, fourth and fifth grade teachers will be
able to identify and label reading terms and their
terminology with 90% accuracy.

What are the differences between: Phonics, Objective 1: Given access to handouts and
Vocabulary and Fluency small group activities? resources, fourth and fifth grade teachers will be
able to identify and label reading terms and their
terminology with 90% accuracy.
What are some activities you can create and use Objective 2:Given access to a reading
to implement: Phonics, Fluency and Vocabulary professional development, fourth and fifth grade
games and activities into your classroom? teachers will apply materials and strategies
gathered by implementing activities into small
group instruction.

List the steps needed find resources to create Objective 3: Given access to a foundational
and develop effective small group activities for reading professional development, fourth and
your students in the EL Curriculum and the fifth grade teachers will be able to locate
FCRR Website? appropriate phonics reading resources for small
group instruction.

Formative Assessment Strategies:

PowerPoint Presentation Note Sheets:

During Training, the instructor will hand provide each participant with a
copy of the Powerpoint. Each page will have 3 slides on it. This will allow learners to
take notes as the presenter instructs the group. The instructor will circulate the
room and will look at student responses to determine student understanding. To
enhance this component of Direct Instruction, participants will be allowed to Turn
and Talk to each other about content presented to them. The instructor is to listen to
the group to confirm or challenge any participant misconceptions. In Parts II and III,
learners will be able to use their Powerpoint Presentation notes to document any
wonderings they have about the content.
Daniel Donovan 32
Foundations of Reading Training

Foundations of Reading Kahoot Game:

At the end of Part I, the instructor will activate the Foundations of Reading
Kahoot Game. This will allow learners an opportunity to complete ten multiple
choice and true and false questions about the content learned. The goal for learners
is to answer approximately nine out of ten questions correctly.

EL Curriculum Video Questions:

Participants will watch a video and will be given approximately 3 minutes to


reflect on the video they watched. Learners will be asked to answer a set of
questions at the end of the EL Curriculum Video. This will serve as an opportunity
for the instructor to assess students’ ability to navigate the EL Curriculum website
from the Charlotte- Mecklenburg Schools Navigation Platform.

FCRR Website Video Questions:

Participants will watch a video and will be given approximately 3 minutes to


reflect on the video they watched. Learners will be asked to answer a set of
questions at the end of the FCRR Website Video. This will serve as an opportunity
for the instructor to assess students’ ability to navigate the FCRR website from the
Google Chrome browser.

Summative Assessment Strategies:

A summative assessment will be provided to learners. The ten question


assessment consists of Short Answer questions. Questions are aligned to the three
content objectives for this training. Participants are required to name and identify
necessary components of reading instruction. Furthermore, students are expected
to identify relationships between different activities conducted throughout the
training. They will show an internalization of the new activities they have developed
as learners will be expected to name and explain how the activities they developed
relate to the different small group instruction they designed.
Daniel Donovan 33
Foundations of Reading Training

Section V: Evaluation

Initial Evaluation:
For the purposes of this a four question pre-assessment will be provided to
the participants. The pre-test is aligned each of the course objectives. More
specifically, it will assess knowledge over background knowledge reading principles
and strategies learned in their teacher preparation courses. Furthermore, questions
will assess learners knowledge of resources available to teachers in order to
enhance fourth and fifth grade small group instructions. The pre-assessment will be
made through Microsoft Word and will have the following questions:
 What are the five elements of effective reading instruction and define each
term.
 What are the differences between: Phonics, Vocabulary and Fluency?
 List the steps needed to find resources to create and develop effective small
group activities for your students in the EL Curriculum and the FCRR
Website.
 What are some activities you can create and use to implement: Phonics,
Fluency and Vocabulary games and activities into your classroom.

During Instruction Evaluation:

During Part I of the training, learners will be assessed informally. This will be
done through the instructor asking questions and having learners turn and talk to
their partners about how about what the different parts of the Foundations of
Reading are. Furthermore, learners will be asked to share with each other examples
of different phonetic patterns, vocabulary examples and fluency activities teachers
have used in their small groups.

During Part II of the training of the learners will be evaluated on their ability
to fill out three note taking guides on the different types of small groups and
activities presented in the videos. Learners will watch three Small Group Videos.
One video will focus on Phonics, another will be on Vocabulary and the final video
will be on Fluency Small Group Instruction. Learners will be expected to take notes
on observations of what the teacher is doing. Furthermore, participants will take
notes on the activity presented by the instructor and will observe what the students
are doing in the small group. After watching the video, learners will be expected to
write a paragraph summarizing how the small groups were similar and different.
Participants will be asked to share with each other how the small groups might
transfer from a first grade setting into a fourth grade setting. These questions align
with the course’s second main objective, which is for learners to see the differences
between: Phonics, Vocabulary and Fluency Small Group Instruction.
During Part III of the training module, learners will be expected to take notes
on and watch two videos showing learners how to identify and make small group
materials for which teachers can implement in their small groups. Learners will
Daniel Donovan 34
Foundations of Reading Training

complete a video note-taking guide and will be provided time to use the resources
seen in the videos to make their small group materials. Learners will show mastery,
as they will be expected to share one small group activity they made to the group at
the end of time. This aligns with the third lesson object which focuses on identifying
and making appropriate phonics, fluency or vocabulary resources for their small
groups.

After the Instruction Evaluation:


At the end of Part I learners will be evaluated through participating in a ten
question quiz using the website: Kahoot. This interactive online quiz allows learners
to answer multiple choice and true and false questions regarding different
foundation of reading teaching methodologies. Furthermore, the quiz focuses on
different phases readers go through in First in Second Grade. The phases of reading
development have been determined by the EL Curriculum. Below questions used in
the Kahoot Quiz Activity.
Multiple Choice Questions:
 Which of the following is not one of the Big Five?
 What is an Onset?
 What is Phonics?
 Dog is a(n):
 Work is an example of:
 Why should we teach fluency?
True and False Questions:
 Phonological Awareness is one’s ability to break words into individual
sounds.
 A morpheme is the most basic unit of sound which carries meaning.
 Learners in the Consolidated Alphabetic Phase use invented spelling to
spell unfamiliar words.
 Learners in the Full Alphabetic Phase have a large knowledge of sight
words and spelling multisyable words.
These questions align with the first lesson objective of this training program
as the questions determine whether or not learners have a strong understanding of
the five main components of reading instruction.

In Part II learners will be expected to identify the different components of


Small Group instruction for the areas of: Phonics, Vocabulary and Fluency.

In Part III learners will be expected to share one resource they made for one
of their small groups. That is, teachers should: find and develop a small group
activity for which they can use in their small groups. Learners will be expected to
share how they found the resources and what steps were taken to find and make the
activity. To assess whether or not learners have applied the learning, administrators
and supervisors will come in to the teacher’s classroom to see what activities have
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Foundations of Reading Training

been developed for students to participate in during small group and center
instructional times.

Learner Reaction Survey:


Following the completion of the Training, participants were provided a
fifteen-question survey about the training using Google Forms. From the form,
eleven of the questions followed a Likert Scale format. The numbers ranged from
one through five. One indicating strongly disagree, through five which represented
strongly agree. Four of the fifteen questions required participants to provide a short
answer. The images below indicate the data collected from the survey.

Alignment of the Unit Goals to the Evaluation Process:

This training program was designed to review the Five Major Components of
Reading Instruction. Learners were expected to have a firm understanding of the
importance of incorporating all five elements of reading instruction into fourth and
fifth grade classrooms. Learners were expected to identify similarities and
differences between: Phonics, Vocabulary and Fluency based small groups. At the
end learners were expected to utilize resources provided by the Charlotte-
Mecklenburg School District to make small group activities, which could be
integrated, into their classrooms.

Alignment of Goals Kirkpatrick’s Evaluation Alignment of Levels


Students at XYZ Elementary Level 1: Reaction Teachers will attend a
School did not make Foundations of Reading
anticipated growth for the Training. The training will
2018- 2019 school year. focus on: Reading
With new staff entering the Terminology, Components of
building entering during that different kinds of small
school year, could a lack of groups, and using the EL
understanding application of Curriculum and Florida
foundational reading be the Center for Reading Research
cause for scores to increase Websites.
as expected?
Given access to handouts Level 2: Learning Teachers will attend a
and resources, fourth and training that reviews the
fifth grade teachers will be different elements of reading
able to identify and label instruction. Teachers will
reading terms and their learn reading terms and
terminology with 90% examples of each term.
accuracy.

Given access to a reading Level 3: Behavior Learners will watch videos


professional development, of teachers doing focused
fourth and fifth grade small group strategies
teachers will apply materials around certain reading
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Foundations of Reading Training

and strategies gathered by concepts. Learners will show


implementing activities into what they have learned in
small group instruction. the training by identifying
skills taught by the teacher
and materials used to convey
skills to the students.
Teachers will complete a
Summative Assessment
identifying these
components with 90%
accuracy.
Given access to a Level 4: Results Teachers will be able to
foundations of reading locate and make small group
professional development, games and activities from
fourth and fifth grade the EL Education Curriculum
teachers will be able to and the Florida Center for
locate and develop Reading Research website.
appropriate phonics reading Teachers will take these
resources for small group resources and incorporate
instruction. them into their small groups
during the day.

Justification for Evaluation Design:

The evaluation of this training required several steps. First, learners were
provided a pre-assessment to determine their foundational knowledge of reading
principles. The focus of this part of the training was to ensure all learners had a firm
understanding of what the Five Major Elements of Reading Instruction are and how
the different components relate to each other. The goal being teachers will be able
to take this new knowledge and apply it to their classroom settings. Summative
assessment data was used to determine whether or not teachers had the mastery
and were ready to explore the next portion of the training which focused on
different types of small groups and how they might look using the district’s new
curriculum

Formative Evaluation:

Pre and Post Assessment Results


Four participants took part in a part of this training module. Learners
participated in Part I of the Foundations of Reading Training. This portion focused
primarily on the elements of reading instruction. Three participants were teachers
each having over fifteen years of experience in the fourth and fifth grade classroom.
One of the three teachers mentioned had two-years teaching first grade. A second of
the three teachers had taught two years of second grade.The fourth participant was
the fourth and fifth grade reading and math facilitator.
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Foundations of Reading Training

Participant Pre- Assessment Post- Assessment Analysis


Score Score
Teacher 1 38% 100% This participant had
no experience
teaching learners in
grades kindergarten
through second
grade. This teacher
expressed in an
interview that they
knew mainly how to
teach
comprehension
strategies. The first
question was out of
ten parts and this
learner could only
label three of the ten
parts.

Based on the post-


assessment the
learner appeared to
only need a brief
refresher on the
content taught.
Teacher 2 53% 100% This learner had
taught two years in
first grade. This
teacher named the
five elements of
reading instruction
but did not define
each term..

This learner showed


complete mastery by
the end of the
assessment having
been an active
participant in the
training.
Teacher 3 46% 100% This learner had
taught two years of
second grade. Like
other teachers, this
teacher named the
five elements of
reading instruction
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Foundations of Reading Training

but did not define


each term..

During the training,


the teacher appeared
intent on taking
notes. This appeared
to aid in their ability
to recall necessary
information for the
post- assessment.
Facilitator 53% 100% This individual was
the fourth and fifth
grade reading and
math coach. Like
many who
participated in this
program, it is
apparent that they
misread the first
question and only
got half of it correct.
The learner was able
to get full credit on
the second question.

The learner was seen


and heard
throughout the
presentation
elaborating and
helping their
colleagues explain
ideas mentioned in
the first part. The
trainer also clarified
and answered
questions for the
fourth grade team.

Reflections:
When going through the Pre- Assessments, it was noted the first question,
while central to the lesson objective, appeared to have multiple parts. One revision
that will occur is word the question in such a way where learners are only expected
to list the elements of reading instruction. This opposed to having learners name
and define each term.

Survey Questions and Results


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Foundations of Reading Training

After completing this portion of the training, the four participants were asked
to complete a survey regarding the training. The survey was fifteen questions.
Eleven questions used a Likert Scale to rate their response to each question. The
rating went from one through five. One indicated: strongly disagree, two indicated:
disagree, three: neither agree nor disagree, four: agree and five: strongly agree.
Three questions were short response which required learners to provide additional
feedback on the training.
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Foundations of Reading Training
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Foundations of Reading Training

Based off the survey results, learners found the PowerPoint and the guide to be
helpful in aiding their learning of the Foundations of Reading Content. When looking
at the data, it is noted that for the questions: “I found the note taking guide helpful”
and “I know where I can find the EL Curriculum resources” two respondents for
each category answered “Helpful” and two respondents said “Very Helpful” for each
question. This tells me that while overall learners found the resources to be
beneficial in aiding their learning, the resources might need to be modified to
increase participant satisfaction. When looking at the open ended responses to the
questions, appreciated clear examples of content being taught and that learners had
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Foundations of Reading Training

access to the materials for later reference. One critique that was mentioned was
having additional time to complete the required activities during the allotted
training time. For the training session allotted an unexpected event limited the
amount of time to be conduct the training, however in the future it is recommended
that a review of the sequence of the content be looked at. Perhaps planning ahead in
the future to determine ways where forms can be conducted as the training occurs
will aid in ensuring all materials are completed within the time where the learning
takes place.
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Foundations of Reading Training

References:
Morrison, G. et al. (2013). Designing Effective Instruction, 7th Eddtion. John Wiley &
Sons, Inc. Hoboken, NJ.
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Foundations of Reading Training

Appendices:
Appendix A

Kahoot Activity:
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Appendix B

Power Point Presentation:


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Appendix C

Pre- Assessment:
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Foundations of Reading Training

Appendix D

EL Navigation Video:

Link to Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wdNhsFMNn6Y


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Foundations of Reading Training

Appendix E

EL Education Video Observation Form:


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Foundations of Reading Training

Appendix F

FCRR Video Observation Form:


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Foundations of Reading Training

Appendix G

Small Group Observation Form:


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Foundations of Reading Training

Appendix H

Summative Evaluation: