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Tagore Academy Public School

Assignment Biology - XII

Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Q1 Name the four well layers of a microsporangium.

Q2 What is tapetum? What is its function?

Q3 Describe microsporogenesis in angiospersms.

Q4 How are the cells of tepetum different from the cells of the other wall layers?

Q5 Differentiate between the vegetative cell and the generative cell of a pollen grain.

Q6 What is meant by ‘monocarpellary’ and ‘multicarpellary’ pistil? Give an example

of each.

Q7 You must have seen corn cobs with tassels. What do these tassels represent? What
is their significance/ advantage/

Q8 Differentiate between syncarpous and apocarpous pistils with an example for each.

Q9 Name two plants each, that have

(i) one ovule in the ovary and

(ii) more than one ovule in the ovary.

Q10 What is the ploidy of

(i) cells of nucellus.

(ii) microspore mother cell,
(iii) functional megaspore and
(iv) female gametophyte?

Q11 What is filiform apparatus? What it its function?

Q12 What are chasmogamous flowers? Give two examples.

Q13 Mention the adaptations the plants have, to ensure self-pollination/autogamy.

Q14 Differentiate between autogamy and geitonogamy.

Q15 Name any four biotic agents of pollination.

Q16 Why do species with abiotic mode of pollination produce larger number of pollen-
grains, when compared to those with biotic pollination?

Q17 How is pollination effected in sea grasses?

Q18 How is pollination carried out in fresh water submerged plants like Vallisneria?

Q19 Not all hydrophytes are pollinated by water. Justify by giving two examples.

Q20 What is micropyle in a seed? Mention its advantage.

Human Reproduction

Q1 Write the function of each one of the following:

(a) (Ovuiducal fimbriae) (b) Acrosome of human sperm

(c) Oxytocin

Q2 Write the function of each one of the following:

(a) Middle piece in human sperm (b) Seminal vesicle (c) Luteinsing hormone
in human males

Q3 Draw a labelled diagram of the reproductive system in a human female.

Q4 Describe how the changing levels of FSH, LH and progesterons during menstrual
cycle induce changes in the ovary and the uterus in human female.

O5 Draw a labelled sectional view of seminiferous tubule of a human male.

Q6 Study the sectional view of human testis showing seminiferous tubules given
below. Answer the questions that follows.

(i) Identify a, b and c.

(ii) Write the functions of a and d.

Q7 Spermatogenesis in human males is a hormone-regulated process. Justify.

Q8 (a) When does oogenesis begin?

(b) Differentiate between the location and function of Sertoli cells and Leydig

Q9 Mention the target cells of luteinizing hormone in human males and females.
Explain the effect and the changes which the hormone induces in each case.
Q10 Name the source of gonadotropins in human females. Explain the changes brought
about in the ovary by these hormones during menstrual cycle.

Q11 Draw a labelled diagram of the structure of a human sperm as revealed by an

electron microscope.

Q12 (a) Draw a sectional view of a human ovary. Label the following parts:

(i) Primary follicle (ii) Ovum (iii) Graafian follicle (iv) Corpus luteum

(b) Name the hormones influencing

(i) ovulation (ii) development of corpus luteum

Q13 (a)Draw a sectional view of seminiferous tubule of a human. Label the following
cells in the seminiferous tubule:

(i) Cells that divide by mitosis to increase their number

(ii) Cells that undergo meiosis I
(iii) Cells that undergo meiosis II
(iv) Cells that help in the process of spermiogenesis

(b) Mention the role of Leydig cells.

Q14 Explain the development of an ovum from an oogonium in a human female.

Q15 Draw a labelled diagram of a sectional view of human ovary showing various
stages of follicles growing in it.

Q16 Name the pituitary hormones influencing Leyding cells and Sertoli cells present in
human testes. Explain the functions of these cells.

Q17 Study the figure given below and answer the questions that follow:

a) Name the stage of human embryo the figure represents.

b) Identify ‘a’ in the figure and mention its function.
c) Mention the fate of the inner cell mass after implantation in the uterus.
d) Where are the stem cells located in this embryo.
Q18 (a)

Read the graph given above and correlate the uterine events that take place
according to the hormonal levels on:

(i) 6 – 15 days
(ii) 16 – 25 days
(iii) 26 – 28 days (if the ovum is not fertilized)
(b) Specify the sources of the hormones mentioned in the graph.

Q19 The events of the menstrual cycle are represented below. Answer the questions
following the diagram.

(i) State the levels of FSH, LH and Progesterone simply by mentioning high or
low, around 13th and 14th day and 21st to 23rd day.
(ii) In which day of the above mentioned phases does the egg travel to the
fallopian tube?
(iii) Why is there no menstruation upon fertilization?

Q20 The following is the illustration of the sequence of ovarian events (a - i) in a

human female.

(i) Identify the figure that illustrates ovulation and mention the stage of
oogeneisis it represents.
(ii) Name the ovarion hormone and the pituitary hormone that have caused the
above mentioned event.
(iii) Explain the changes that occur in the uterus simultaneously in the
(iv) Draw a labelled sketch of the structure of a human ovum prior of

Principle of Inheritance and Variations

Q1 Mention the salient features in Mendel’s methodology of investigation into the

inheritance pattern.

Q2 Enumerate Mendel’s observations of the hybridization experiments in garden pea.

Q3 Explain the law of segregation.

Q4 A smooth-seeded and red-flowered (SsRr) pea – plant is crossed with a smooth-

seeded and white-flowered. (ssrr) plant. Determine the phenotypic and genotypic
ratios of the F1 progeny.

Q5 In pisum sativum (peas), the pods may be inflated (I, dominant) or constricted (I,
recessive). What proportion of the offspring in the following crosses would be
expected to be inflated?

(a) II x ii (b) Ii x ii (c) II x II (d) Ii x Ii

Q6 A true – breeding tall plant is crossed with a true-breeding dwarf plant. F1 progeny
is 100% tall and F2 has tall: dwarf in the ratio 3:1.

(i) Explain why F1 shows only one type of parental phenotype.

(ii) Name the patterns of inheritance in which the ratio deviates from the above.
Also mention the deviated phenotypic ratios.

Q7 In cattle, hornless (H) is dominant over horned(h) and black (B) is dominant over
red (b). Consider that these two pairs of genes assort independently.

(i) What proportion of the offspring from the cross, BbHh x bbhh, would be
black and hornless?
(ii) From the cross Bbbh x Bbhh, how many will be\
a) black and horned and
b) red and horned

Q8 In a test cross, AaBb x aabb, 90 per cent of the progeny are like parents.

(i) the progeny type for the rest of the population?

(ii) Are the genes linked?
(iii) Is there any crossing over of the genes?
Q9 In garden pea, smooth seed coat is dominant over wrinkled seed coat. What will be
the expected ratio of phenotypes of the offspring in a cross between:\

(i) Heterozygous smooth x Heterozygous smooth

(ii) Heterozygous smooth x Homozygous wrinkled
(iii) Heterozygous smooth x Homozygous smooth.

Q10 In an experiment 3 : 3 : 1 : 1 phenotypic ratio was obtained on crossing a pea plant

bearing axial, violet flowers with another plea plant bearing axial, white flowers.
Judge the accuracy of this result using a Punnet square. Give the genotypes of the

Q11 A man with AB blood group marries a woman with O group blood.

(i) Work out all the possible phenotypes and genotypes of the progeny.
(ii) Discuss the kind of dominance in the parents and the progeny in this case.

Q12 Why did Mendel’s work remain unrecognized from 1865 to 1900? Who
rediscovered Mendel’s work?

Q13 Explain the mechanism of sex-determination in honeybees.

Q14 Describe sex determination in birds.

Q15 It is not possible to study the inheritance of traits in humans, the same way as in
peas. Give two main reasons for it and name the alternative method employed for
such a study.

Q16 Represent the change of base (Point mutation) that causes sickle-cell anaemia.
Represent diagrammatically the HbA and HbS polypeptides.

Q17 What is the cause of phenylketonuria? Explain the disorder.

Q18 Colour blindness is a recessive trait. A couple with normal vision have two sons,
one colour blind and one with normal vision. If the couple also has daughters, what
proportion of them will have normal vision?

Q19 List any four symptoms of Down’s syndrome. What is the basis of this disorder?

Q20 What is the chromosomal basis of Turner’s syndrome? Mention the sex and any
three symptoms of this disorder.

Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Q1 It is established that RNA is the first genetic material. Explain giving three reasons.

Q2 (a)Name the enzyme responsible for the transcription of tRNA and the amino acid,
the initiator tRNA gets linked with.

(b)Explain the role of initiator tRNA in initiation of protein synthesis.

Q3 How are the structural genes inactivated in lac operon in E.coli? Explain.

Q4 List the salient features of double helix structure of DNA.

Q5 How are the structural genes activated int eh lac operon in E.coli?

Q6 Why is DNA considered a better hereditary material than RNA?

Q7 How is hnRNA? Explain the changes hnRNA undergoes during the processing to
form mRNA.

Q8 State the conditions when ‘genetic code’ is said to be (i)degenerate

(ii)unambiguous and specific (iii)universal.

Q9 Explain the process of translation in a bacterium.

Q10 Explain the process of transcription in a bacterium.

Q11 (i) Name the enzyme the catalyses the transcription of hnRNA.

(ii) Why does the hnRNA need to undergo changes? List the changes hnRNA
undergoes and where in the cell such changes take place.

Q12 Answer the following questions based on Meselson and Stahi’s experiment:
a) Write the name of the chemical substance used as a source of nitrogen in the
experiment by them.
b) Why did the scientists synthesise the light and the heavy DNA molecules in the
organism in the experiment?
c) How did the scientists make it possible to distinguish the heavy DNA molecule
from the light DNA molecule? Explain.
d) Write the conclusion the scientists arrived, at, after completing the experiment.

Q13 (a) Name the scientist who called tRNA an adapted molecule.
(b) Draw a clover leaf structure of tRNA showing the following:
(i) tyrosine attached to its amino acid site.
(ii) anticodon for this amino acid in its correct site. (codon for tyrosine is
(c) What does the actual structure of tRNA look like?

Q14 Differentiate between the following :

(i) Promoter and Terminator in a transcription unit.

(ii) Exon and intron in an unprocessed eukaryotic mRNA.
(iii) Inducer and Repressor in operons.

Q15 Monocistronic structural genes in eukaryotes have interrupted coding sequences.

Explain. How are they different in prokaryotes?

Q16 Describe the initiation process of transcription in bacteria.

Q17 Describe the elongation process of transcription in bacteria.

Q18 In a series of experiments with Streptococcus and mice, F. Griffth concluded that
R-strain bacteria had been transformed. Explain.

Q19 Draw a schematic representation of a dinucleotide. Label the following:

(i) The components of a nucleotide

(ii) 5’ end
(iii) N- glycosidic linkage.
(iv) Phosphodiester linkage.

Q20 Explain the role of regulatory gene in lac operon. Why is the regulation of the
operon called negative regulation?


Q1 State the theory of Biogenesis. How does Miller’s experiment support this theory?

Q2 (a) Explain the theory of biogenesis.

(b) How did Miller demonstrate experimentally the chemical evolution that
happened three billion years ago.

Q3 How does industrial melanism support Darwin’s theory of Natural Selection?


Q4 Evolution is a change in the gene frequencies in a population in response to

changes in the environment in a time scale of years and not centuries. Justify this
statement with reference to DDT. How does the theory of Hugo de Vries support

Q5 Branching descent and natural selection are the two key concepts of Darwinian
theory of evolution. Explain each concept with the help of a suitable example.

Q6 Convergent evolution and divergent evolution are the two concepts explaining
organic evolution. Explain each one with the help of an example.

Q7 Explain the three ways in which natural selection operates on different trait in

Q8 Anthropogenic action can hasten evolution. Explain with the help of a suitable

Q9 Explain adaptive radiation and convergent evolution by taking examples of some

Australian marsupials and Australian placental mammals.

Q10 (a) What is adaptive radiation?

(b) Explain with the help of a suitable example, where adaptive radiation has
occurred to represent convergent evolution.

(a) Mention the specific geographical region where these organisms are found.
(b) Name and explain the phenomenon that has resulted in the evolution of such
diverse species in the region.
(c) Explain giving reasons the existence of placental wolf and Tasmanian wolf
sharing the same habitat.


(a) Write your observations on the variations see in the Darwin’s finches shown
(b) How did Darwin explain the existence of different varieties of finches on
Galapagos Islands?

Q12 Discovery of lobefins is considered very significant by evolutionary biologists.


Q13 (a) Rearrange the following in an ascending order of evolutionary tree; reptiles,
salamander, lobefins, frogs.

(c) Name two reproductive characters that make reptiles more successful than

Q14 How did Darwin’s theory of natural selection explain the appearance of new forms
of life on earth?

Q15 What is speciation? Explain the role of natural selection in speciation.

Q16 The study of

(i) fossils of dinosaurs
(ii) forelimbs of Cheeta, bat and human
(iii) thorn of Bougainvillea and tendril of Cucurbita
Shows that evolution of life forms has indeed taken place on earth. Explain.

Q17 In England, during the post- industrialised period, the count of melanic moths
increased in urban areas, but remained low in rural areas. Explain

Q18 Australian marsupials and placental mammals are suitable example of adaptive
radiation and convergent evolution.

Q19 Explain convergent and divergent evolution with the help of one example of each.

Q20 Darwin observed a variety of beaks in the small black birds inhabiting Galapagos
Island. Explain what conclusions did he drawn and how.

What do these pictures ‘a’ and ‘b’ illustrate with reference to evolution? Explain.

Reproductive Health

Q1 Why is CuT considered a good contraceptive device to space children?

Q2 Name an oral pill used as a contraceptive by human females. Explain how it does
prevent pregnancy.

Q3 Describe the Lactational Amenorrhoea method of birth control.

Q4 AT the time of Independence, the population of India was 350 million, which
exploded to over one billion by May, 2000. List any two reasons for the rise in
population and any two steps taken by the government to check this population

Q5 How do copper and hormone-releasing IUDs act as contraceptives?

Q6 Explain the zygote intra-fallopian transfer technique (ZIFT). How is intrauterine

transfer technique (IUT) different from it?

Q7 What is amniocentesis? Why has the government imposed a statutory ban inspite
of its importance in the medical field?
Q8 Why is ‘saheli’ a well-accepted contraceptive bill?

Q9 Identify a, b, c and d in the following table with reference to birth control?

Method Example
a Diaphragm

Female sterilization b

c Saheli

d CuT

Q10 Name the hormonal composition of the oral contraceptive used by human
females. Explain how it acts as a contraceptive.

Q11 Name any two copper-releasing Intrauterine Device (IUDs). List two reasons that
make them effective contraceptives.

Q12 (a) Expand IUD

(b) Why is hormone-releasing IUD considered a good contraceptive to space


Q13 How do surgical procedures prevent conception in humans? Mention the way it is
achieved in human males.

Q14 How do the following contraceptives act to prevent unwanted pregnancy in human

(i) Intrauterine Devices (IUDs)

(ii) Saheli

Q15 Explain any two methods of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) that have
helped childless couples to bear children.

Q16 Mention any six reproduction – related problems/issue.

Q17 Write any six characteristics that indicate a reproductively healthy society.

Q18 Describe the three different practices under natural methods of birth control.

Q19 Describe the three manners in which fertilization of human ovum by a sperm can
be prevented.

Q20 Represent diagrammatically the sterilization method, vasectomy.

Q21 Name any six venereal diseases.

Q22 Enumerate the complications that untreated STDs can lead to.

Q23 Enlist the probable causes of infertility.

Q24 Describe the different methods of embryo transfer.

Tagore Academy Public School

Date: M.M : 30

Class Test – BIOLOGY (XII) Food Production + Human Health

Q1 Trace the events that occur in human body to cause immunodeficiency when HIV
gains entry when HIV gains entry into the body. (3)

Q2 (i) How and at what stage does Plasmodium enter into a human body? (3)

(ii) With the help of a flow-chart, only show the stages of asexual reproduction in
the life-cycle of the parasite in the infected human. (iii) Why does the victim show
symptoms of high fever? (3)

Q3 These days people are switching to healthy organic foods. How are such foods
being made available to man? Give roles of various methodologies used in
growing such food item. (3)

Q4 Differentiate between humoral and cell-mediated immunity. (2)

Q5 What are the allergens? How do human beings respond to them? (2)

Q6 What are the constraints with conventional breeding in plants, for disease
resistance? How can it be solved? (2)

Q7 Draw a labelled diagram to show the structure of an antibody molecule. (3)

Q8 Explain the following terms: a) Outbreeding b) Inbreeding depression

(c) Soma-clones (d) Vaccine (2)

Q9 What are the primary and secondary lymphoid organs? Identify one of each
category from the list-Bone marrow, stomach, spleen, and kidney. (2)

Q10 Plant breeding brought green revolution in India. What are the steps followed in
creating a variation in a particular plant? Explain briefly. (5)
Tagore Academy Public School

Date: M.M : 30

Class Test – BIOLOGY (XII) Genetics

Q1 Describe Miller and Urey’s experiment, along with the product obtained. What is
the significance of this experiment? (3)

Q2 (a) A garden pea plant bearing terminal, violet flowers, when crossed with another
pea plant bearing axial, violet flowers, produced axial, violet flower and axial,
white flowers in the ratio of 3 : 1. Work out the cross showing the genotypes of the
parent pea plants and their progeny.

(b) Name and state the law that can be derives from this cross and not form a
monohybrid cross. (5)

Q3 Name a disorder, give the karyotype and write the symptoms where a human male
suffers as a result of an additional white X – chromosome. (3) Q4 For
flower colour in pea, the allele for purple flower (P) is dominant to the allele for
white flower. (p). A purple flowered plant therefore could be of genotype PP of Pp.
What genetic cross would you make to determine the genotype of a purple
flowered plant? Explain how your cross gives you the correct genotype of the
purple flowered plant? (3) Q5 (a) State the arrangement of different genes
that in bacteria is referred to as ‘operon’. (b) Draw a schematic labelled illustration
of lac operon in a ‘switched on’ state. (c) Describe the role of lactose in lac
operon. (5) Q6 What are the three types of RNA? Mention their relation to
protein synthesis. (3)

Q7 (a) How is DNA polymorphism the basis of DNA fingerprinting?

(b) Mention any tow applications of DNA fingerprinting technique than in forensic

(c) List the steps followed in DNA fingerprinting technique (5)

Q8 What are the key concepts in the evolution theory of Darwin? (3)

Tagore Academy Public School M.M.:25

Class Test – XII (Biology) (Evolution)

Q1 (a) Write and explain the conclusion Darwin arrived at after observing the
variations seen in the beaks of finches during his sea voyage.

(b) Marsupials and Australian placental mammals exhibit convergent evolution.

Explain how. (5)

Q2 (a) List the various causes of variations in the progeny of the population.
(b) Describe the three different ways in which the natural selection operates in
nature with regard to organic evolution. (5)

Q3 Describe the evidence of evolution from comparative anatomy and morphology?


Q4 Describe various stages of evolution of Man. (5)

Q5 (a) Give the evolutionary line of (i) Dinosaurs (ii) Dicot

(b) Describe – Theory of Ponopermis, Theory of spontaneous generation, Theory

of chemical evolution (5)

Tagore Academy Public School M.M.:25

Class Test – XII (Biology)

Q1 (a) Draw the sketches of a zoospore and a conidium. Mention two dissimilarities
between them and at least once feature common to both structures.

(b) Differentiate b/w (a) oestrus and menstrual cycles; (b) ovipary and vivipary.
Cite an example for each type. (5)

Q2 (i) Draw a diagram of the microscopic structure of human sperm. Label the
following parts in it and write their functions. (a) Acrosome (b) Nucleus
(c) Middle piece

(ii) Explain the steps that ensure cross pollination in an autogamous flower. (5)

Q3 (i) Why are Mosses & Liverworts unable to complete their sexual mode of
reproduction in dry conditions? Give reasons.

(ii) Draw a tranverse sectional view of an apple and label the following parts along
with their technical names:

(a) edible part

(b) encloses the embryo
(c) forms the fruit wall

(iii) What are the different ways by which gametes are transferred from site of
production to site of fertilization

(a) In higher plants

(b) In animals (5)

Q4 (i) Differentiate between the two cells enclosed in a mature male gametophyte of
an angiosperm with diagram. (5)
(ii) Give various ways by which infertile couples can be assisted to have children
in the following cases-

(a) When ovum from a donor is transferred to fallopian tube of another

female who cannot produce an ovum.
(b) When sperm is directly injected into the ovum.
(c) When the male is unable to produce sperms.

Q5 A woman has conceived an implantation has taken place. What change occurred in
zygote (5)

(a) after fertilization

(b) after implantation
(c) first trimester
(d) second trimester
(e) third trimester

Tagore Academy Public School

Class Test (2013-2014)

Time: Biology (Class – XII) M.M.: 25

Topic:- Human Reproduction + Reproductive Health

Q1 (a) Draw a sectional view of human ovary. Label the following parts:

(i) Primary follicle (ii) Ovum (iii) Graafian follicle (iv) Corpus

(b) Name the hormones influencing (i) ovulation, (ii) development of corpus
luteum (5)

Q2 (i) What happens to the blastocyst immediately after implantation?

(ii) What is pregnancy hormone? Why is it so called? Name two sources of this
hormone in a human female. (5)

Q3 (i) Trace the process of oogenesis

(ii) Spermatogenesis in human males in a hormone regulated process. Justify. (5)

Q4 (i) Write the role of hormones in contraception. (ii) Why is the term test tube
baby a misnomer? (5)

Q5 (i) Bring out one main difference between CuT and LNG-20.

(ii) The present population growth rate in India is alarming. Suggest ways to check
(iii) What is lactational amenorrhea? (5)

Tagore Academy Public School

Class Test (2013-14)

Time: Biology (Class – XII) M.M.:

Topic: - Reproduction in organisms + Reproduction in flowering plants

Q1 Name the world’s most problematic aquatic weed. What is the nature of the water
body in which the weeds grow abundantly? (2)

Q2 Give reasons of following: (2)

(i) Cells of tapetum have dense cytoplasm and more than one nucleus.
(ii) Exine is made up of sporopollenin.
(iii) Pollen grains are well preserved fossils.
(iv) Pollen tablets are in market.

Q3 Why blue stretches of road tracks in kerala were in news in October 2006? (2)

Q4 Name the organisms w.r.t to their diverse sexuality. (2)

1. Bisexual animal -------------

2. Monoecious plant -------------
3. Dioecious plant -------------
4. Bisexual flower -------------

Q5 What is the ploidy of following? (2)

Nucellus, MMC, Functional Megaspore, Female gametophyte.

Q6 Give reasons why: (5)

(i) Most zygotes in angiosperms divides only after certain amount of

endosperm is formed.
(ii) Groundnut seeds are exalbuminous and castor seeds are albuminous.
(iii) Micropyle remains as a small pore in the seed coat of a seed.
(iv) Integuments of an ovule harden and the water content is highly reduced, as
the seed matures.
(v) Apple and cashew are not called true fruits.

Q7 (i) The turkey usually produces females for several generations. How is this

(ii) The meiocyte of an onion plant contains 32 chromosomes. Workout the

number of chromosomes found in its endosperm. (2)
Q8 Name the type of cell division that takes place in the zygote of an organism
exhibiting haplontic life cycle. Explain. (2)

Q9 Mention the site where syngamy occurs in amphibians and reptiles respectively.(2)

Q10 (i) Draw a longitudinal section of a post – pollinated pistil showing entry of pollen
tube into a mature embryo- sac. Label filiform apparatus, chalazal end, hilum,
antipodals, male gametes and secondary nucleaus.

(ii) Pistil of a flower does not accept pollen from any plant other than from its own
kind. How does it happens? Explain. (4)

Q11 (a) Draw a labelled diagram of T.S. of mature anther and label those layers which
help in rupturing the anther.

(b) Give reason for each of the following:

i. Anthers of angiosperm flowers are described as dithecous.

ii. Hybrid seeds have to be produced year after year. (5)

Tagore Academy Public School

First Unit

1. Life span :- The period between birth and natural death of an organism is called life span.
2. Reproduction :- Reproduction is a biological process of self perpetuation in which the
grown up individuals give rise to young ones similar to them.
3. Asexual Reproduction :- It is a mode of multiplication in which new individuals develop
from a single parent without gamete formation which does not involve fusion of sex cells.
4. Clone :- All the individuals formed through asexual reproduction from a parent are
morphologically and genetically similar to one another as well their parent. They are
5. Ramets:- The term ramets is used for members of a clone.
6. Vegetative Propagation :_ Vegatative propagation is the foundation of new plants from
somatic parts like roots, stem, leaf or bud.
7. Sexual Reproduction :- It is the phenomenon of formation of young ones or offspring
through the process of formation of haploid gametes, fusion and the growth of resultant
diploid zygotes.
8. Phases in Life Cycle :- In relation to reproduction, life cycle wherein individuals have
the potential to reproduce.
9. Juvenile Phase:- It is prereproductive period in life cycle of an individual. The period is
characterized by rapid growth.
10. Reproductive Phase :- It is the phase of life cycle wherein individuals have the potential
to reproduce.
11. Monocarpic Plants:- They flower only once in their life after which they bear fruits and
die. Both annual (e.g., Sunflower, Rice, Wheat) and biennial (e.g., Henbane, Radish) are
monocarpic in nature.
12. Polycarpic Plants:- They are perennial plants which after reaching maturity flower every
year in particular seasons, e.g., Mango, Apple, Jackfruit, Grape vine, Orange.
13. Seasonal breeders :- Reproduce at particular period of the year, e.g., frog, lizards most,
birds, deer.
14. Continuouns breeders :- Continue to breed throughout their span of sexual maturity, e.g.
cattle, poultry, mice, rabbit, honey bee queen.
15. Menstrual Cycle :- It is a series of cyclic changes that occur in overies, reproductive tract
and homeone secretions of female primates (monkeys, apes and humans).
16. Oestrus Cycle:- (=Estrus Cycle). It is a series of cyclic changes that are found in the
ovaries, reproductive tract and hormones of female nonprimate mammals, e.g. cows,
dogs, cats, horse, buffalo.
17. Isogametes or Homogametes :- The gametes are structurally and functionally similar.
They are called isogametes or homogametes, e.g., Cladophora, Ulothrix.
18. Anisogametes :- Gametes are morphologically similar but differ in size. They are known
as anisogametes.
19. Dioecious Plants:- In Cycas (gymnosperm), Vallisneria, Date Palm and Papaya
(angiosperms) the male and female flower are borne on different plans. They are called
disoecious plants.
20. Monoecious Plants:- Cucurbits Coconut and Maize possess both male and female flower
on the same plants. They are called monoecious plants.
21. Unisexual:- Unisexual with distinct male and female individuals.
22. Hermaphrodite or Bissexual:- Both the types of sex organs are parent in the same
individual. These animals are called hermaphrodite or bisexual, e.g., Sponge, Tapeworm,
Leech, Earthworm.
23. Monothecous:- Single lobed anthers are called monothecous.
24. Bithecous or dithecous :- Two lobed anthers are known as bithecous or dithecous.
25. Microsporogenesis :- The phenomenon of formation of haploid microspores from a
microspore or pollen mother cell through meiosis is known as microsporogenesis.
26. Megasporogenesis :- It is the process of formation of haploid megaspores from diploid
megaspore mother cell or MMC.
27. Autogamy : It is transfer of pollen grain from another to the stigma of the same flower.
28. Geitonogamy :- It is transfer of pollen grains from another of one flower to the stigma of
another flower of the same plant.
29. Cross Pollination or Xenogamy :- It is the transfer to pollens fro anther of one flower to
the stigma or another flower belonging to genetically different plant of same species.
30. Anemophily:- (GK. Anemos-wind: Philein-to love). It is a mode of cross pollination performed
through the agency of wind.
31. Hydrophily :- (GK. Hydor-water: Philein-to love). It is pollination brought about through the
agency of water.
32. Entomophily:- It is transfer of pollen grains from anthers of one flower to the stigma of another
flower with the help of insects like moths, bees, wasps, butterflies, beetles, wasps ants flies, etc.
33. Ornithophily :- (GK. Ornis-bird; philein-to love). It is cross pollination performed through the
agency of birds.
34. Embryogeny : Formation of embryo from zygote is called embryogeny.
35. A Numinous or endospermic :- In abiminous or endospermic seeds, the whole of endorsperm is
not consumed during development of embrayo.
36. Perisperm :- It is part of seed. Perisperm represent remains of nucellus.
37. Pericarp:- It is part of fruit. It represent growth of overrian wall.
38. Epicotyl:- It is area of embryo axis between plumule nd cotyledonary node.
39. Hypocotyl:- It is area of embryo axis between radical and cotyledonary node.
40. Coleoptile:- It is covering of plumule in monocot grains.
41. Coleorphiza :- It is covering of radical-root cap complex in monocot grains.
42. Apomixis :- (GK. Apo-without, mixis, marriage; Winkler, 1908) is the formation of new
individuals by asexual methods which mimic sexual reproduction including seed formation but do
not involve fusion of gametes or sex cells.
43. Polyembryony :- Is the phenomenon of formation of more than one embryo during the
development of seed.
44. Parthenocarpy :- It is the formation of fruit without fertilization.
45. Gametogenesis:- It is formation of gametes through the process of meiosis inside sex organs,
testes in males and overies in females. Their gametes are respectively called sperms in males and
ova in females.
46. Insemination:- It is transfer of sperms by the male into the genital tract of the female.
47. Fertilization:- Male and female gametes fuse to form diploid cell called zygote.
48. Cleavage:- Zygote undergoes cleavage (mitotic division) to first form morula and then blastocyst.
49. Spermatogenesis:- It is the process of formation of haploid spermatozoa (=sperms) from diploid
spermatogonia inside the testes of the male.
50. Oogenesis :- It is the process of formation of functional haploid ova from the diploid germinal
cells in the ovary or female gonad.
51. Menstrual Cycle :- It is regular recurring physiological found in human females (and related
primates) at average interval of 28/29 days (lunar month) throughout their reproductive life from
menarche to menopause, except during pregnancy.
52. Menarche:- (Gk. Men-mouth, arche-beginning) is the first menstruation which occurs at the age
of 10-12 years.
53. Menopause : - (GK. Men-mouth, pausi-ending) is the climacterical cessation of menstruation. It
occurs between the age of 45-50 Years.
54. Implantation:- (L. in-into, plantare-to set). It is embedding of the blastocyst into endometrium of
55. Parturition :- (L. parturition-child birth). It is the process of giving birth to a baby.
56. Reproductive health:- Is a state of physical, emotional, behavioral and social fitness for leading a
responsible, safe and satisfying reproductive life.
57. Contraceptive :- They are devices which prevent conception or pregnancy without in any way
interfering in reproductive health of the individuals.
58. Intrauterine devices (IUDs):- They are devices made of plastic, metal or combination of the two
which is inserted into the uterus to prevent conception.
59. Oral Contraceptives (Oral Pills) :- They are preparations containing either
(=progestogen = progesterone) alone or a combination of proestogen and oesterogen
60. Tubectomy:- (I.tubes-pipe, ektome-excision). It is a surgical procedure of female sterilization
where a portion of both the fallopian tubes is excised of ligated to block the passage of ovum
through them.


 GENETICS It is the branch of science which deals with inheritance and variations.
 HOMOZYGOUS Organisms having identical allelic pair of TT, tt.
 HETEROZYGOUS Organisms having non identical alleles of a Tt.
 GENOTYPE Genetic constitution of an TT and tt are tall.
 PHENOTYPE Descriptive term which tell the external appearance are called
 DOMINANT AND RECESSIVE Among the dissimilar pair of alleles sometimes
one allele dominates the other so is called dominant allele and the other is called
recessive allele.
 FACTORS Characters are controlled by discrete units called factors.
 GENE It is a fragment of DNA that contain all the genetic information.
 LAW OF SEGREGATION Parents contain two alleles during gamete formation,
alleles of a pair segregate from each other, such that a gamete receive only one of the
two factors. It is known as law of segregation.
 INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE Sometimes F1 phenotype does not resemble either
of the parents and in the between or intermediate to two parents such a phenomena is
called incomplete dominance.
 CODIMINANCE In codominance offsprings produced in generations resembles both
of the parent and both allele express themselves.
 MULTIPLE ALLELES When more than two alleles are present to govern the same
characters, phenomena is called multiple allelism.
 LAW OF INDIPDENDENT ASSORTMENT One pair of allele will assort
independent of another pair of allele.
 RECOMBINATION Combination of non parental gene is known as recombination.
 MUTATION Mutation are sudden inheritable changes in DNA sequences which may
change genotype and phenotype of an organism.
 TEST CROSS It is a back cross between individuals with a dominant trait and its
recessive parent in order to know whether the individual is homozygous or
heterozygous for the trait.
 POINT MUTATION Mutation that arises due to change in a single base pair of
DNA are called point mutation.
 ALLELES Two alternative forms of a gene are called alleles.
 OFFSPRING Individual formed from sexual reproduction are called offspring.
 CLONES Group of individuals having some genotype is called clone.
 HEREDITY Heredity is defined as the transmission of characters from one
generations to successive generation.
 HEMIZYGOUS CHROMOSOME When in a pair of chromosome an allele is
present on one Chromosome but corresponding allele is absent on other chromosome
i.e XO.
 RETROVIRUS The virus containing the RNA as the genetic material is known as
 ANEUPLOIDY Changes in the individual chromosomes is known as aneuploidy.
 GENETIC MAP The assignment of relative position of genes on the chromosome
produces a genetic map of that chromosome.
 COMPLIMENTARY GENES Two independent genes present on different gene
loci which assist each other in expressing trait are known as complementary genes.
 PLEIOTROPY The multiple effect a gene is called pleiotropy.
 LINKAGE The tendency of the gene present on the same chromosome to segregate
together during the process of cell division is called linkage.
 NON DISJUCTION Sometimes the two homologous chromosomes of a particular
pair fail to separate in meiosis is known as non disjunction.
 PEDIGREE ANALYSIS Analysis of family members of 2-3 generations
transmitting an exceptional phenotype is called pedigree analysis.
 MONOHYBRID CROSS Cross done to study one pair of contrasting trait is called
monohybrid cross.
 DIHYBRID CROSS Cross done to study two pairs of contrasting trait is called
dihybrid cross.
 PUNNETT SQUARE The production of gametes by the parents, the formation of
zygotes, the F1 and F2 pairs can be understood through a diagram is called punnett
 PURE LINE A strain a organisms that is comparatively pure genetically
(homozygous) because of continued inbreeding.
 RECEIPROCAL CROSS A second cross involving the same traits but carried by
sexes opposite to those in the first cross.
 BACK CROSS A cross between F1 hybrid and one of its parents.
 HYBRID An organism produced after crossing two genetically different individuals.
 INHERITANCE The mechanism of transmission of characters from parents to their
 DOMINANT GENE A gene which is always expressed both in homozygous and
heterozygous combinations, is called dominant gene.
 RECESSIVE GENE A gene that a expressed only in home zygotes form, is called a
recessive gene.



 TRANSCRIPTION the process of making RNA from DNA is called transcription.

 CHARGAFF’S RULE chargaff stated that for a double stranded DNA, the ratios
between Adenine and Thymine and Guanine and Cytosine are constant and is equal to
 BACTERIOPHAGE viruses that infect bacteria are called bacteriophages.
 GENE gene is a structural and functional unit of inheritance.
 EXON coding sequences which express themselves are called exons.
 INTRONS non coding sequences in between the exons are called introns.
 TRANSLATION it is a process of polymerization of amino acids to form
polypeptides which in turn form the proteins.
 JUMPING GENES jumping genes are those which can shuffle their location from
one chromosome to another chromosome due to similarity of DNA sequences.
 CODON codon may be defined as sequence of base triplet on the mRNA.
 ANTICODON anticodon is the base triplet sequence on the tRNA molecule.
 NUCLEOID DNA is held with some protein in a region termed as nucleoid.
 CENTRAL DOGMA it states that the genetic information flows from DNA to RNA
to protein.
 HISTONES histones are the set of positively charged basic proteins.
 EUCHROMATIN the region of chromatin that is loosely packed in mucleus is called
 HETEROCHROMATIN densely packed and dark stained chromatin is called
 OPERON the operon is a model of gene regulation proposed by Jacob and Monad.
 DNA POLYMORPHISM if an inheritable mutation is observed in a population at
high frequency, it is referred to as DNA polymorphism.
 GENETIC CODE The base triplets of DNA or m-RNA that specify the different
amino acids.
 MESSENGER RNA RNA that carries the base sequences complementary to a DNA.
 CISTRON It is that segment of DNA which specifies synthesis of a polypeptide.
 MONOCISTRON It is that segment of the DNA that carrying the information for the
single mRNA and hence single polypeptide.
 POLYCISTRON It is that segment of the DNA that carrying the information for the
two or more mRNA and hence two or more polypeptide.
 MUTON The smallest unit of DNA that is involved in a mutation.
 OKAZAKI FRAGMENTS A small fragment of lagging strand of DNA that contains
numerous nucleotides.
 REPRESSOR A proteinaceous substance synthesized by the regulator gene.
 REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE A viral enzyme that synthesizes double stranded
DNA from the viral RNA.
 SILENT MUTATION A mutation that does not cause any change in the protein
RNA that transports amino acids to the ribosomes where they are assembled into
 DNA FINGER PRINTING OR DNA PROFILING – is the tech rique used for
determining nucleotide sequences of certain areas of DNA which are unique to each
 VNTRs (Variable number of tandem repeats) – A satellite DNA which showed
very high degree of poly morphism.
 AUTOSOMES are those chromosomes which determine morphophysio logical traits
of the organism other than sex relates features.
 ALLOSOMES or Sex Chromosomes are those chromosomes whose presence,
absence or particular form determines the sex of an individual.
 GENETIC POLYMORPHISM – It is the occurrence of more than one form of a
genetic material.
 TEMPLATE STRAND out of the two DNA strands, only one which carries the
genetic information are has 3’ 5’ polarity is called template OR ANTISENSE
 CODING OR SENSE STRAND the strand of DNA, with a polarity 5’ 3’ is called
 REPETITIVE DNA It is that part of DNA which contains the same sequence of
Nitrogen bases repeated more than once in the genome.
 SATELLITE DNA The region with long sequence of short repetitive DNA is called
satellite DNA.
 TYPES (1) MICROSATELLITE with 1-6 base pairs repeat units (II)
MINISTATELLITE – with 11-60 base pair repeat units.
 CONSTITUTIVE GENES are those genes which are continuously expressing
themselves in all the cells of the body also called House – keeping genes.
 STRUCTURAL GENES - which transcribe mRNA for polypeptide synthesis.
 INDUCIBLE OPERON – It is a regulated operon system in which the structural
genes remain switched off unless and until an inclucer is present in the medium. It
occurs in catabolic operon ex. Lactose operon
 REPRESSIBLE OPERON – A it is a regulated system of genetic material which
normally remain operational but can be switched off when its product is either not
required or crosses a threshold value. The system is found in anabolic pathway ex.
Tyrptophan operon.
 DNA PROBE – It is synthetic, radioactive DNA fragment which help in the
identification of VNTRs.

VNTR Probe

(i) It is natural small sequence of (i) It is synthetic DNA fragment.

(ii) VNTR is non – radioactive (ii) It is radioactive

(iii) It help in identification of a (iii) It helps in identification of

person. VNTRs.

 SOUTHERN BLOTTING The separated VNTR single stranded sequences are

transferred to nitrocellulose or nylon membrane placed over a gel. The procedure
is called Southern blotting.
 GENE REGULATION is the mechanism of switching off and switching on the
genes depending upon the requirement of the cells and state of development.
 NEGATIVE GENE REGULATION the genes continue expressing their effect
till their activity is suppressed. The negative gene expression is also called
repressible regulation.
 POSITIVE GENE REGULATION is the one in which the genes remain non-
expressed unless and until they are induced to do it. It is, therefore inducible
 INDUCER – is a chemical of diverse nature like metabolite, hormone, substrate,
etc. It can bind with repressor to free the operator gene.
 UNTRANSLATED REGION (UTR) – Additional sequences before the
initiation or start codon and beyond the stop codon of an mRNA which are not
 POLYRIBOSOME OR POLYSOME - The complex formed by the association
of a number of ribosomes with the same strand of mRNA.
 TRANSFORMATION – is change is genetic material of an organism by
obtaining genes from outside as from remains of its dead relatives.
 ADAPTER MOLECULE – (tRNAs) take part in transferring amino acids form
the cellular pool to ribosomes for polymerization to form polypeptides as per
transcribed code present over mRNAs. It is, therefore, called adapter molecule.
 FRAME SHIFT MUTATION – It is the gene mutation where the reading frame
of the codon is changed when the insertion or deletion of nucleotides/nitrogen
bases not in the number of three of multiple of three.
– They are the codons which cause termination of polypeptide synthesis. Ex.
 Initiation Codon or Start Codon – They are the codons which start the synthesis
the polypeptide. Ex AUG or methionine codona and GUG or valine codon.



EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY It is the study of history of life forms on earth i.e how
life has been evolved and what are its different form and their order of evolution.

HOMOLOGOUS ORGANS the organs which have similar anatomical structure but
different functions are called homologous organs.

ANALOGUOUS ORGANS the organs which have the some function but different
fundamental structure, embryonic origin, ancestry are called analogous organs.

VARIATIONS variations are the differences in trait among the individuals of a species.

FOUNDER’S EFFECT the original drifted population becomes founder and the effect is
called founder effect.

SPECIES species is the smallest unit of classification whose individuals can interbreed
among themselves.
LAMARKISM “evolution of life forms had occurred by use and disuse of organs.”

GENE POOL the gene pool is total genes and their alleles in a population.

GENETIC DRIFT when migration of a section of population to another place and

population occurs gene frequencies changes in original as well as in new population
new genes are added in new population and are lost from old population. If same
occurs by chance then it is called genetic drift.

ABIOGENESIS it means that the first form of life arose slowly through evolutionary
forces from none living molecules.

ANALOGY organisms that have no common ancestry, nor they anatomically similar
structures but they perform however similar functions.

NATURAL SELECTION it is a process in which heritable variations enabling better

survival are enabled to reproduce and leave greater number of progeny.

ADAPTIVE RADIATIONS process of evolution of different species in a given

geographical area starting from a point and radiating to other areas of habits is called
adaptive radiation.

CONVERGENT EVOLUTION when more than one adaptive radiation appeared to

have occurred in an isolated geographical area one can call this convergent or parallel

GENETIC EQUILIBRIUM the gene pool remain a constant and it is called





TRANSCRIPTION the process of making RNA from DNA is called transcription.

CHARGAFF’S RULE chargaff stated that for a double stranded DNA, the ratios
between Adenine and Thymine and Guanine and Cytosine are constant and is equal to

BACTERIOPHAGE viruses that infect bacteria are called bacteriophages.

GENE gene is a structural and functional unit of inheritance.

EXON coding sequences which express themselves are called introns.

INTRONS non coding sequences in between the exons are called introns.

TRANSLATION it is a process of polymerization of amino acids to form polypepitides

which in turn form the proteins.
JUMPING GENES jumping genes are those which can shuffle their location from one
chromosome to another due to similarity of DNA sequences.

CODON codon may be defined as sequence of base triplet on the mRNA.

ANTICODON anticondon is the base triplet sequence on the tRNA molecule.

NUCLEOID DNA is held with some protein in a region termed as nucleoid.

CENTRAL DOGMA it states that the genetic information flows from DNA to RNA to

HISTONES histones are the set of positively charged basic proteins.

EUCHROMATIN the region of chromatin that is loosely packed in nucleus is called


HETEROCHROMATIN densely packed and dark stained chromatin is called


OPERON the operon is a model of gene regulation proposed by Jacob and Monad.

DNA POLYMORPHISM if an inheritable mutation is observed in a population at high

frequency, it is referred to as DNA polymorphism.

VNTR the technique of DNA fingerprinting was initially developed by Alee Jeffreys. He
used a satellite DNA as probe that shows very high degree of polymorphism. It was
called variable number of tandem repeats.



Genetic disorder Deficiencies with which a child in born and the defects which the child
inherits from parents are known as genetic disorders.

Disease When the functioning of one or more organs of the body is adversely affected,
characterized by various signs and symptoms then it is known as disease.

Infectious disease Diseases which are easily transmitted from one person to another
person are called infectious diseases.

Pathogens Organisms belonging to bacteria, virus, fungi, protozoans, helminthes etc

could cause disease in men and such disease causing organisms are known as

Immunity Our body is able to defend itself from most of the foreign agents and this
overall ability of the host to fight the disease causing organism by the immune system
in known as immunity.

Innate immunity it is non specific type of defence that is pesent at the time of birth.

Acquired immunity it is pathogen specific defence and is characterized by memory.

Active immunity When a host is exposed to antigen which may be in the form of living
or dead microbe or other protein, antibodies are produced in the host body and this
type of immunity is called active immunity.

Passive immunity When readymade antibodies are directly given to protect the body
against foreign agents then it is known as passive immunity.

Allergy The exaggerated response of immune system to certain antigens present in the
environment is called allergy.

Lymphoid Organs The organs where origin and maturation and proliferation of
lymphocytes occurs is known as lymphoid organs

Tumors Cancerous cells divide in an uncontrolled manner giving rise to masses of the
cells called tumors.

Benign Tumor The tumor which remain confined to the original location and to do not
spread to other part of the body and cause little damage is known as benign tumor.

Malignant tumor it is the mass of proliferating cells which grow very rapidly invading
and damaging the surrounding normal tissues.

Metastasis Celle sloughed from malignant tumor each distant sites through blood and
wherever they get lodged in the body they start a new tumor there. The property is
called metastasis.

Carcinogens Transformation of normal cells into cancerous cell is induced by physical,

chemical or biological agents and these agents are known as carcinogens.

Adolescence It means both a period and a process during which a child becomes mature
in terms of attitude and belief for effective are known as carcinogens.

Addiction it is psychological attachment to certain effects associated with drugs and


Dependence it is the tendency of the body of manifest characteristics and unpleasant

without if regular dose of drugs is abruptly discontinued.

Chapter no 9 strategies for enhancement in food production

Animal husbandry It is the agricultural practice of breeding and raising livestock.

Dairying It is the management of animals for milk and its product for human

Poultry It is the class of domesticated fowl used for load or for their eggs.

Animal breeding Breeding of animal to increase the yield of animals and improving the
desirable qualities of the produce.

Inbreeding It refers to the mating of more closely related individuals within the same
breed for 4-6 generations.
Outbreeding It is the breeding of the unrelated animals which may be between
individuals of the same breed but having no common ancestors unto 4-6 generation.

Out crossing It is the practice of mating the animals within the same breed but having no
common ancestors upto 4-6 generation

Cross breeding In this method superior males of one breed are mated with superior
females of another breed.

Interspecific depression Continued inbreeding especially close inbreeding usually

reduces fertility and even productivity and this is known as inbreeding depression.

Artificial insemination in breeding experiments when the semen is collected from male
that is chosen as a parent and injected into the reproductive tract of the selected
female by the breeder is known as artificial insemination.

Apiculture It is the maintenance of hives of honeybees for the production of honey.

Fishery It is the an industry devoted to the catching, processing or selling of fish,

shellfish or other aquatic animal.

Plant breeding It is the purposeful manipulation of plant species in order to create

desired plant types that are better suited for cultivation, give better yields and are
disease resistant.

Germplasm collection Entire collection of plants having all the diverse alleles for all
genes in a given crop is called germplasm collection.

Green revolution The development of several high yielding varieties of wheat and rice in
the mid-1960s as a result of various plant breeding technique led to dramatic increase
in food production in our country. This phase is often referred to as the green

Mutation Mutation is the process by which genetic variations are created through changes in the
base sequence within gene resulting in the creation of a new character not found in the
parental type.

Explants Any part of a plant taken out and grown in a test tube under sterile conditions in a
special nutrient media.

Totipotency The capacity to generate a whole plant from any cell is called totipotency.

Micropropagation By the application of growth hormones in laboratory it is possible to achieve

propagation a large number of plants in a very short duration and this method of producing
thousands of plants through tissue culture is called micropropagation.

Somaclones The plants grown through tissue culture are genetically identical to the original plant
from which they are grown and are known as somaclones.

Somatic hybrids isolated protoplasts from the different varieties of plants each having desirable
characters can be used to get hybrid protoplast which can be further grown to form a new
plant and these hybrids are called somatic hybrids.

Chapter 10 microbes in human welfare

Fermentors Production of an industrial scale, requires growing microbes in very large vessels
called fementors.

Antibiotics These are the chemical substances which are produced by some microbes and can kill
or retard the growth of other microbes.

Sewage Large quantity of waste water are generated everyday in cities and town and a major
component of this water is human excreta. This municipal waste water is also called sewage.

Flocs Masses of bacteria associated with fungal filaments to form mesh like structure.

BOD Biochemical oxygen demand refers to the amount of the oxygen that would be consumed it
all the organic matter in one litre of water were oxidized by bacteria.

Biogas It is a mixture of gases produced by the microbial activity and which may be used as fuel.

Methanogens Certain bacteria which grow anerobically on cellulosic material produce large
amount of methane alongwith CO2 and H2. These bacteria are collectively called

Biocontrol It refers to the use of biological methods for controlling plant diseases and pests.

Biofertilizers These are the organisms that enrich the nutrient quality of the soil.


Chapter 11 biotechnology principle and processes

Biotechnology It deals with the technique of using live organisms or enzymes from organisms to
produce products and processes useful to humans.

Genetic engineering Technique to alter the chemistry of genetic material to introduce these into
host organisms and thus change the phenotype of the host organism.

Plasmid Autonomously replicating circular extra chromosomal DNA.

Recognition sequence It was found that restriction endonuclease Hind it always cut DNA
molecules at a particular point by recognizing a specific sequence of six base pairs. This
specific base sequence is known as recognition sequence.

Exonuclease It is the type of nuclease enzyme that remove nucleotide from the ends of the DNA.

Endonuclease It is the type of nucleases that cuts at specific position within the DNA.

Gel electrophoresis The fragments of DNA can be separated by a technique known as gel

Ori Origin of replication is the sequence from where replication starts and any piece of DNA
when linked to this sequence can be made to replicate within the host cell.

Transformation It is a procedure through which a piece of DNA is introduced in a host


Selectable marker It helps in identifying and eliminating non transformants and selectively
permitting the growth of transformants.
Micro injection it is a method in which the recombinant DNA is directly injected into the nucleus
of an animal cell.

Gene gun or biolistics It is a method suitable for plants in which cells are bombarded with high
velocity micro particles of gold or tungsten coated with DNA.

PCR in polymerase chain reaction multiple copies of the gene of interest is synthesized in vitro
using two sets of primers and the enzyme DNA polymerase.

Bioreactors These are the vessels in which raw materials are biologically converted into specific
products, individuals enzymes etc using microbial plant animal or human cell.

Chapter 12 biotechnology and its applications

GMO Plants, bacteria and animals whose genes have been altered by manipulation are called
genetically modified organisms.

Gene therapy It is a collection of methods that allows correction of a gene defect that has been
diagnosed in a child/embryo.

Transgenic animals Animals that have had their DNA manipulated to possess and an extra gene
are called transgenic animal.

Biopiracy It is the term used to refer to the use of bio resources by multinational companies and
other organization without proper authorization form the countries and people concerned
compensatory payment.

Unit x Ecology

Ecology It is a subject which studies the interactions among organisams and between the
organisms and it physical environment.

Eurythermal a few organisms which can tolerate and thrive in wide range of temperature
are known eurythermal.

Stenothermal a vast majority of organism are restricted to a narrow range of temperature

are known a stenothermal.

Euryhaline organisms which are tolerant to a wide range of salinities.

Stenohaline organisms which are restricted to a narrow range of salinity.

Homeostasis maintenance of constancy of its internal environment despite the variation

in external environmental conditions by the organism is known as homeostasis.

Thermoregulation It is the maintenance of internal body temperature by the organism.

Osmoregulation it is maintenance of osmotic pressure of organism with respect to

external environment.

Conformers these are the organisms in which osmotic concentration of body fluids
change with the external water osmotic concentration.
Adaptation it is morphological, physiological and behavioural character of the organism
that enables theorganism to survive and reproduce in its environment.

Alien’s rule mammals from colder climates generally have shorter ears and limbs to
minimize heat loss this is called alien’s rule.

Population ecology it is the branch of biology that links ecology to population genetics
and population evolution.

Population group of individuals of any species that live in well defined geographical
area, complete for a similar resources and interbreed is called population.

Population density it indicates the size of a population and it is the number of

individuals of a population found in a unit area or space at a given time.

Natality it refers to the number of births during a given period in the population that are
added to the initial density/\

Mortality It is the number of deaths in the population during a given period.

Immigration It is the number of individual of the same species that have come into the
habitat from elsewhere during the time period under consideration.

Emigration It is the number of individuals of the population who left the habitat and
gone elsewhere during the time period under consideration.

\Migration It is a two way movement of the whole population from and into an area.

Population growth It is the increase in size of the population after a period of time.

Population growth form the graphic pattern obtained when a population growth is
plotted against time is called population growth form.\

Competition It is process in which fitness or survival of one species is lower in the

prevence of other species./

Parasitism it is an interaction in which organisms of small size called parasite obtain

nourishment from larger organism called host and spends a part or whole of its life on
or inside the body of host.

Brood parasitism in this type of parasitism parasitic bird lays eggs in the nest of host and
most incubations the eggs of parasitic birds.

Commensalism It is an interaction between the individuals of two different species in

which beneficial while the other remains unaffected.

Mutualism or symbiosis it is obligatory, physicially close and mutually beneficial

relationship occurs between the interacting organisms.

Ectoparasite parasites that feed on the external surfaces of the host organism are called
Endoparasite parasites that live inside the host body at different sites are called
endoparasites. Diapause it is a dormant stage in the development of an organism.

Hibernation it is the stage of inactivity in organism during winter.

Aestivation it is the state of inactivity during hot and dry summer.

Interspecific competition it is an interaction contest between individuals of two different

species for obtaining the same resource.

Community it is grouping of population of different species occurring in the same area

that interact with one another through trophic and spatial relationships.

Scavengers those animals which feed upon the dead animals that have died naturally or
have been killed by some other animals.

Predation It means the act of capturing killing and eating.

Camouflage it is the capacity of organisms to blend with surroundings.

Mimicry when two species resembles each other closely and out of two species one is
mimic and one is model.

Acclimatization the gradual physiological adjustment to slowly changing new

environmental conditions is known as acclimatization.

Chapter no. 14 ecosystem

Ecosystem an ecosystem is a functional unit of nature where living organisms interact

among themselves and also with the surrounding physical environment.

Primary production it is defined as the amount of biomass or organic matter produced

per unit area over a time period by plants during photosynthesis.

Productivity the rate of biomass production is called productivity.

Cross primary productivity of an ecosystem is the rate of production of organic matter


Net primary productivity gross primary productivity minus respiration losses is the net
primary productivity.

Secondary productivity It is defined as the rate of formation of new organic matter by


Decomposition decomposers break down complex organic matter into inorganic

substances like carbon dioxide, water and nutrients and the process is called

Detritus dead plants remains such as leaves, bark, flowers and dead remains of animals
including matter constitute detritus.
Fragmentation Detritivores breakdown the detritus into smaller particles and this process
is known fragmentation.

Leaching water soluble inorganic nutrients go down into the soil horizon and get
precipitated unavailable salts. It is known as leaching.

Catabolism Bacterial and fungal enzymes degrade detritus into simpler inorganic
substances. This process known as catabolism.

Humification It leads to accumulation of a dark coloured amorphous substance called

humus that resistant to microbial action.

Mineralization the humus is further degraded by some microbes and release of inorganic
nutrient the process known as mineralization.

Producers the green plants in the ecosystem which can produce their own food are
known as producers.

Consumers all animals depend upon the plants for their food need and they are known as

Herbivores primary consumers who are dependent on plants for their food directly are
known as herbivores.

Primary carnivore the consumers that feed upon herbivores are known as primary

Saprotrophs the organisms which meet their energy requirement by degrading dead
organic matter are known as saprotrophs.

Food web the natural interactions of different food chain in ecosystem are known as food

Trophic level organisms occupy a specific place in the food chain that is known as
trophic level.

Standing crop each trophic level has a certain mass of living material at a particular time
is called as the standing crop.

Ecological pyramids graphical representation of trophic levels in a food chain in terms

of biomass, energy and number is known as ecological pyramids.
Climax community community that is nearly equal to equilibrium with the environment
is known as climax community.

Ecological succession gradual and fairly predictable change in the species composition of
a given area is known as ecological succession.

Sere the entire sequence of communities that successively change in a given area is
known as sere.

Hydrarch succession succession that takes place in wetter areas and the successional
series progress from hydric to mesic conditions.

Xerarch succession succession that takes place in dry areas and the series progress from
xeric to mesic condition.

Pioneer species the species that invade the bare area.

Standing state the amount of nutrients, such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium etc
present in the soil at any given time is referred to as the standing state.

Nutrient recycling the movement of nutrient element through the various components of
an ecosystem is called nutrient recycling.

Ecosystem services the products of ecosystem services are known as ecosystem services.

Chapter no 15 biodiversity and conservation

Biodiversity it is described as the combined diversity at all the levels of biological


Genetic diversity high diversity shown by a species at genetic level over its distributional

Species diversity the diversity at the species level.

Ecosystem diversity the diversity at ecosystem level such as rain forest, mangroves etc.

Extinction it is a natural phenomena occuring when one species is lost in decades time in
undisturbed ecosystem.

In situ conservation it is the process of protecting an endangered plant or animals species

in its natural habitat.

Protected areas these are the areas where biodiversity alongwith natural and cultural
resources is protected, maintained and managed through legal measures.

Biosphere reserves these are the protected areas of natural biomes with human beings as
its integral part having unique biodiversity.
Ex situ conservation it is the process of protecting an endangered species of plant or
animal by removing it from an unsafe or threatened habitat and pacing it or a part of it
under the care of human.

Seed banks or germplasm banks these are the laboratory methods where all possible
varieties of cultivated plants are maintained in different ways.

Tissue culture it is a technique used for plants that cannot be preserved in seedbanks.

Co-extinction when a species becomes extinct the plant and animal species associated
with it in an obligatory way also become extinct.

Endemism species confined to a particular region and not found anywhere else.

Chapter no 16 environmental issues

Pollution it is any undesirable change in physical, chemical or biological characteristics

of air, land water or soil.

Noise it is an undesirable high level of sound.

Algal bloom presence of large amount of nutrients in water causes excessive growth of
planktonic algae called an algal boom.

Biomagnification it refers to increase in concentration of the toxicants at successive

trophic level.

Eutrophication it is natural ageing of a lake by nutrient enrichment of its water.

Electronic waste irreparable computers and other electronic goods are known as
electronic wastes.

Integrated organic farming it id a cyclical, zero waste procedure where waste products
from one process are cycled in as nutrient for other process.

Ozone hole formation of a large area of thinned ozone layer is called ozone hole.

Montreal protocol recognizing the deleterious affects of ozone depletion an international

treaty is known as montreal protocol.

Deforestation it is the conversion of forested area to non forested area.

Reforestation it is the process of restoring a forest that once existed but was removed at
some point of time in the past.