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EXP.

NO: STUDY OF TRANSFORMER PROTECTION


USING MICRO CONTROLLER BASED 3
DATE: PHASE DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

AIM:-
To study the operation of micro controller based 3 phase differential relay using
transformer protection kit.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:-
1. Transformer protection kit
2. Rheostat 100ohm / 10A
3. Power chords
4. 15A patch chord

THEORY:-

Differential protection is the main scheme used for transformers. The principle of a
differential protection system is simple. Here the currents on each side of the protected
apparatus for each phase are compared in a differential circuit. Any difference current will
operate a relay.
On normal operation, only the difference between the current transformer
magnetizing currents passes through the relay.This is due to the fact that with no faults
within the protected apparatus, the currents entering and leaving are equal to i. If a fault
occurs between the two sets of current transformers, one or more of the currents (in a three-
phase system) on the left-hand side will suddenly increase, while that on the right-hand side
may decrease or increase with a direction reversal. In both instances, the total fault current
will flow through the relay, causing it to operate.
In units where the neutral ends are inaccessible, differential relays are not used,
but reverse power relays are employed instead.
A number of considerations should be dealt with in applying differential protection,
including:
Transformer ratio: The current transformers should have ratings to match the rated currents
of the transformer winding to which they are applied. Due to the 30°-phase change between
Y-connected and ∆-connected windings and the fact that zero sequence quantities on the Y
side do not appear on the terminals of the ∆ side, the current transformers should be
connected in Y for a ∆ winding and in ∆ for a Y winding. When current transformers
are connected in ∆, their secondary ratings must be reduced to 1/√3 times the secondary
rating of Y-connected transformers.
Allowance should be made for tap changing by providing restraining coils (bias).
The bias should exceed the effect of the maximum ratio deviation.
PROCEDURE:-
1. Connection should be given as per the circuit diagram.
2. Connect the EB supply terminal (R, Y, B, N) to the (R, Y, B, N) input terminals of
3 phase auto transformer.
3. Connect the (R, Y, B, N) output terminals of 3 phase auto transformer to the (R, Y,
B, N) input of transformer protection kit.
4. Connect the (R, Y, B, N) input of the module to the transformer (R, Y, B, N) 3
phase AC input terminal of transformer protection module.
5. Connect the transformer-1 secondary neutral terminals (black) together and
connect them to the N terminal output.
6. Connect the transformer-1 secondary red, yellow, blue colour terminals to the R,
Y, B terminals.
7. Connect the transformer-1 output terminals (R, Y, B) to the transformer-2 input
terminals (R, Y, B).
8. Connect the transformer-2 primary neutral terminal (black) together.
9. Connect the R, Y and B terminals to any one of red, yellow and blue colour
tapping of transformer-2 primary.
10. Connect the transformer-2 secondary neutral terminals (black) together and
connect them to the neutral (N) terminal.
11. Connect the R terminals to anyone red colour tapping of transformer-2 secondary.
12. Connect the Y terminal to anyone yellow colour tapping of transformer-2
secondary.
13. Connect the B terminal to anyone blue colour tapping of transformer-2
secondary.
14. Connect the 3 phase load R terminal of transformer protection module to one end
of rheostat.
15. Connect the other end of the rheostat to the 3 phase load N terminal of
transformer protection module
RESULT:-
Thus the operation of micro controller based 3 phase differential relay using
transformer protection kit was studied and verified successfully.

TABLE 1:

L-G FAULT:

S.No. SET BIAS SET TIME TRIP RELAY


(%) (Sec) BIASED STATUS

TABLE 2:

INTERTURN FAULT:

S.No. SET BIAS SET TIME TRIP RELAY


(%) (Sec) BIASED STATUS